A MCKINNON Legacy, The beginning of the Slave trade
Most of my journals have been either interesting or one of pride. Not so in this journal. My mother's family can be easily traced into medieval England. In the time of the Tudor reign we discover the Hawkins family. As usual, when you get this far back in history you can be sure you are dealing with nobility. John Hawkins, the main character in this journal is a second cousin of Sir Francis Drake. In fact, history tells us they lived together for a time. William Hawkins, the father of John was a confidant of Henry VIII. John Hawkins is considered the originator of the negro slave trade in the world.Following is brief biography of William Hawkins from:
William married Joan Trelawny of the famed Cornish family and they had two children: William, born about 1519 and John, 1532.
He became Mayor of Plymouth in 1532. In 1544 he was Deputy Mayor and England was at war with France when, with others, he received a commission from Henry VIII to annoy the Kings enemies with 4, 6 or 8 barks sailing at their own cost. This commission marks the entry of the Hawkins family into the business of privateering. The privateers, or men-of-war as they were known at the time, inflicted great damage on French commerce at great profit to themselves. One of Williams ships took a Spanish vessel, whose cargo he asserted was French, falsely represented as Spanish. A French invasion seemed imminent and it was uncertain whether Spain would back France. It was therefore expedient to keep the Spanish Emperor happy and Hawkins was imprisoned until he should have made restitution to the owner of the captured ship. In fact it transpired that the owner was a Spaniard who, some years earlier, had become a naturalized Frenchman so William was in the right. In any event it was not discreditable for a public figure to go to prison in the 16th century and it did not lower him in the estimation of those who sent him there.
Next is s biography of John Hawkins from Wikipedia:
Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (Plymouth 1532 12 November 1595) was an English shipbuilder, naval administrator and commander, merchant, navigator, and slave trader. As treasurer (1577) and controller (1589) of the Royal Navy, he rebuilt older ships and helped design the faster ships that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588. He later devised the naval blockade to intercept Spanish treasure ships. One of the foremost seamen of 16th-century England, he was the chief architect of the Elizabethan navy. In the battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588, Hawkins served as a vice admiral and was knighted for his role.
William, John's father, was a confidant of Henry VIII of England and one of England's principal sea captains. Sir Francis Drake, John's second cousin, helped him in his second voyage.
The first Englishman recorded to have taken slaves from Africa was John Lok, a London trader who, in 1555, brought five slaves from Guinea. A second London trader taking slaves at that time was William Towerson whose fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1556 voyage to Africa and from Plymouth on his 1557 voyage. Despite the exploits of Lok and Towerson, John Hawkins of Plymouth is often considered to be the pioneer of the British slave trade, because he was the first to run the Triangular trade, making a profit at every stop.
John Hawkins formed a syndicate of wealthy merchants to invest in the slave trade. In 1555, he set sail with three ships for the Caribbean via Sierra Leone. They hijacked a Portuguese slave ship and traded the 301 slaves in the Caribbean. Despite having two ships seized by the Spanish authorities, he sold the slaves in Santo Domingo and thus made a profit for his London investors. His voyage caused the Spanish to ban all English ships from trading in their West Indies colonies. In 1563, John Hawkins brought the first slaves from Africa to both the Caribbean Isles and Lower Americas.
Second voyage (15641565)
Hawkins' second voyage was even more successful. In 1564, Queen Elizabeth I partnered with him by renting him the huge old 700-ton ship Jesus of Lubeck, on which he set forth on a more extensive voyage, along with three small ships. Hawkins sailed to Borburata, privateering along the way. By the time he reached Borburata, he had captured around 400 Africans. After Borburata, Hawkins sailed to Rio de la Hacha. The Spanish officials tried to prevent Hawkins from selling the slaves by imposing taxes. Captain Hawkins refused to pay the taxes and threatened to burn the towns. After selling his slaves, Captain Hawkins sailed to a French colony in Florida for a respite. Captain Hawkins returned to England in September 1566, his expedition a total success as his financiers made a 60% profit.
Third voyage (15671569)
His third voyage began in 1567. Hawkins obtained many more slaves, and also augmented his cargo by capturing the Portuguese slave ship Madre de Deus (Mother of God) and its human cargo. He took about 400 slaves across the Atlantic on the third trip. At San Juan de Ula (in modern Vera Cruz) he was chanced upon by a strong Spanish force that was bringing, by a royal edict issued on 16 June 1567 by king Philip II of Spain, an investigative commission consisting of Licenciado Gaspar de Jarava, Licenciado Alonso Muoz, and Doctor Luis Carrillo to find out about the insistent rumours alleging some sort of move towards Mexican independence from the Spanish Crown by the Spanish Viceroy of Mexico Gaston de Peralta, 3rd Marquis of Falces, and his half-brothers Martin Cortes I "El Mestizo", Martin Corts y Ziga (also known as Martin Corts II and Martn Corts, 2nd Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca) and Luis Corts y Hermosillo. De Jarava and Muoz were from the Council of the Indies, while Carrillo was an official at the Court. The General Commander of the Fleet was the newly appointed governor of Cuba Pedro Menndez de Avils (founder of the City of San Agustin, Florida), assisted by the capable seafarer Sancho Pardo Donlebn, who was later to be a powerful adversary of both Hawkins and Drake.
In the ensuing Battle of San Juan de Ula only two of the English ships escaped destruction, and Hawkins' voyage home was a miserable one. That of Hawkins' gunner, Job Hartop was equally so and took many years.
Although his first three voyages were semi-piratical enterprises, Queen Elizabeth I was in need of money and saw pirates as fighting her battles at their own cost and risk.
Hawkins would write about the details of his third voyage in An Alliance to Raid for Slaves. Specifically he comments on how trading and raiding were closely related in the English slave trade, and how European success in the slave trade directly depended on African allies who were willing to cooperate. He also comments on the level of violence he and his men used and encouraged in order to secure his captives. The title makes clear the basis of his methodology.
As part of the English government's web of counter-espionage, Hawkins pretended to be part of the Ridolfi plot to betray Queen Elizabeth in 1571. By gaining the confidence of Spain's ambassador to England, he learned the details of the conspiracy, and notified the government so to arrest the plotters. He offered his services to the Spanish, in order to obtain the release of prisoners of war, and to discover plans for the proposed Spanish invasion of England.
His help in foiling the plot was rewarded, and in 1571 Hawkins entered Parliament as MP for Plymouth. He became Treasurer of the Royal Navy on 1 January 1578, following the death of his predecessor Benjamin Gonson (who was also his father-in-law, Hawkins having married Katherine Gonson in 1567).
Hawkins' financial reforms of the Navy upset many who had vested interests, and in 1582 his rival Sir William Wynter accused him of administrative malfeasance, instigating a royal commission on fraud against him. The commission, under William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Francis Walsingham, and Drake, concluded that there was no undue corruption, and that the Queen's Navy was in first-rate condition.
Hawkins was determined that his navy, as well as having the best fleet of ships in the world, would also have the best quality of seamen, and so petitioned and won a pay increase for sailors, arguing that a smaller number of well-motivated and better-paid men would be more effective than a larger group of uninterested men.
Hawkins made important improvements in ship construction and rigging; he is less well known for his inventiveness as a shipwright, but it was his idea to add to the caulker's work by the finishing touch of sheathing the underside of his ships with a skin of nailed elm planks sealed with a combination of pitch and hair smeared over the bottom timbers, as a protection against the worms which would attack a ship in tropical seas. Hawkins also introduced detachable topmasts that could be hoisted and used in good weather and stowed in heavy seas. Masts were stepped further forward, and sails were cut flatter. His ships were "race-built", being longer and with forecastle and aftcastle (or poop) greatly reduced in size.
The Spanish Armada
The arms of Sir John Hawkins
John Hawkins' innovative measures made the new English ships fast and highly manoeuvrable. In 1588 they were tested against the Spanish Armada. Hawkins was the Rear Admiral, one of three main commanders of the English fleet against the Armada, alongside Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. Hawkins flagship was Victory. It is possible that Hawkins organised the fire-ship attacks at Calais. For his role in the great sea battle, Hawkins was knighted.
After the defeat of the Armada, Hawkins urged the seizure of Philip II's colonial treasure, in order to stop Spain re-arming. In 1589, Hawkins sailed with former apprentice Francis Drake in a massive military operation (the DrakeNorris Expedition) with one of its goals being to try to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet. The voyage failed, but the idea led many other English pirates to make similar attempts.
In 1590 Drake and Hawkins founded a charity for the relief of sick and elderly mariners. This was followed by a hospital in 1592 and another in 1594, the Sir John Hawkins Hospital. The charity continues today.
Potatoes, tobacco and sharks
Potatoes were first imported to the British Isles (probably to Ireland) in either 1563 or 1565 (sources differ) by Hawkins.
Some scholars suggest that it was John Hawkins who introduced tobacco into Britain. Some accounts say this was in 1569, others in 1564. The latter is more likely, since he mentions "Ltobaccoj" (meaning tobacco) in his journals of the second voyage.
The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the word shark appears to have been introduced by Hawkins' sailors, who brought one back and exhibited it in London in 1569. It has recently been suggested that the derivation is from xoc, the word for "fish" in a Mayan language spoken in Yucatn.
In 1595 he accompanied his second cousin Sir Francis Drake, on a treasure-hunting voyage to the West Indies, involving two unsuccessful attacks on San Juan in Puerto Rico. During the voyage they both fell sick. Hawkins died at sea off Puerto Rico. Drake succumbed to disease, most likely dysentery, on January 27, and was buried at sea somewhere off the coast of Porto Belo. Hawkins was succeeded by his son Sir Richard Hawkins.
Hawkins came to the public's attention again in June 2006, almost four and a half centuries after his death, when his descendant Andrew Hawkins publicly apologized for his ancestor's actions in the slave trade
Genealogy of the Hawkins family:
Birth 1357 in Faversham, Kent, England
Death 1393 in England
Issue of Osbert and ?:
Sir Andrew Hawkins
Sir Andrew HAWKINS
Birth 1421 in Faversham, Kent, England
Death 1453 in Morchard, Devon, England
Joan DE NASH
Birth 1429 in Launceston, Cornwall, England
Death 1454 in Nash Court, Kent, England
Issue of Andrew and Joan:
Sir John Hawkins
Sir John HAWKINS
Birth 1450 in Travistock, Devon, England
Death 1508 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Birth 1465 in Lauceston, Cornwall, England
Death 1554 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Issue of John and Joan:
William A. Hawkins Captain
Captain William A HAWKINS
Birth 1480 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Death 1554 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Joan Towne TRELAWNEY
Birth 1494 in Launceton, Cornwall, England
Death 10 Jul 1589 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Issue of William and Joan:
John Hawkins Sir/Admiral
Sir William Amadas Hawkins
Admiral Sir John HAWKINS
Birth 1520 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Death 21 Nov 1595 in at sea, off the coast of Puerto Rico
Dame Katherine GONSON
Birth 1534 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Death July 1591 in Kent, England
Issue of John and Katherine:
Birth 1555 in Shareshill, Shropshire, England
Death 1650 in Shareshill, Shropshire, England
Birth 1565 in Plymouth, Devon, England
Death 17 Aug 1634 in Petrockstowe, Devon, England
Issue of Thomas and Joane:
Joanna HAWKINS (The Immigrant)
Birth abt 1581 in Tredington, Worcestershire, England
Death 1632 in Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts, United States
Birth 1551 in Broadway, Somerset, England
Death 28 Dec 1632 in Broadway, Somerset, England
Issue of Joanna and John:
Birth 20 November 1605 in England
Death 20 Aug 1683 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Mary HULL (The Immigrant)
Birth 27 Jul 1618 in Crewkerne, Somerset, England
Death 20 Aug 1684 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Issue of Humphrey and Mary:
Birth 1618 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Death 22 Dec 1677 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Birth 1614 in England
Death 14 Sep 1677 in Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut (The Immigrant)
Issue of Abigail and John:
George Moore Lt.
Lt. George MOORE
Birth 1632 in Windsor Connecticutt
Death 30 NOV 1710 in Isle Of Wight, Virginia, USA
Birth 1635 in Isle Wight, Virginia, USA
Death 30 NOV 1710 in Isle Wight, Virginia, USA
Issue of George and Jane:
Ann Barcroft Moore
Birth 1653 in Isle, Virginia, United States
Death 1673 in Isle, Virginia, United States
Thomas CARTER Jr.
Birth 1649 in Isle, Virginia, United States
Death 1710 in Isle, Virginia, United States
Issue of Magdalen and Thomas:
Birth 1674 in Isle Wight, Virginia, USA
Death 1736 in Isle Wight, Virginia, USA
Issue of George and Elizabeth:
Birth 1719 in Bradford, McKean, Pennsylvania, USA
Death 29 Sep 1799 in Chester, Pennsylvania, USA
Married to Abraham MARSHALL
Birth 4 Mar 1713 in West Bradford, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Death 1750 in Pennsylvania, United States
Issue of Rachel and Abraham:
Birth May 6 1732 in West Bradford, Chester, Pennsylvania, USA
Death Oct 28 1797 in West Bradford, Chester, Pennsylvania
Birth 16 Dec 1732 in West Marlborough, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Death 29 Oct 1797 in West Bradford, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Issue of Elizabeth and Joel:
Abraham Baily Dr.
Birth 28 Mar 1770 in Kennett, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Death 15 Apr 1799 in Kennett, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Birth 10 Sep 1773 in Kennett, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
Death 24 Feb 1853 in Centreville, New Castle, DE, USA
Issue of Jacob and Elizabeth:
Birth Mar 22 1795 in Chester County, Pennsylvania, USA
Death Sep 11 1846 in Champaign, Ohio, United States
Birth Jul 7 1786 in Wilmington, Ohio, USA
Death Oct 17 1844 in Champaign, Ohio, United States
Issue of Elizabeth and Ezra:
Marshall B Lamborn
Rebecca Pearce Lamborn
Elizabeth Ann Lamborn
Rebecca Pearce LAMBORN
Birth Jan 18 1822 in New Castle, Lawrence, Pennsylvania, United States
Death 13 Jul 1903 in Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado, United States
David Hale EDWARDS
Birth Sep 13 1815 in Marietta, Ohio, USA
Death jun 19 1888 in Belle Plaine, Benton, Iowa, United States
Issue of Rebecca and David:
Mary Elizabeth Edwards
Fidelia Adelaide Edwards
Ezra L Edwards
David Hale Edwards
Margaretta "Rhettie" Edwards
Hamilton Bell Edwards
Mary Evalyn Edwards
Mary Evalyn EDWARDS
Birth Nov 1 1858 in Iowa
Death 05 Jan 1950 in Lebanon, Oregon, USA
Theodore Fred PRILL
Birth Jul 10 1850 in Dayton Ohio, USA
Death Jan 1 1941 in Casper, Wyoming, USA
Issue of Mary and Theodore:
Lewis Merton Prill
Margaretta Lula Prill
Charles Otis Prill
Mamie Veda Prill
Fred Laverne Prill
Mamie Veda PRILL
Birth Jan 26 1901 in Belle Plaine, Iowa, USA
Death Jun 12 1998 in Corvallis, Oregon, USA
Married to Clarence Roy MCKINNON
Birth Jul 30 1889 in Coffee Pot, Oregon, USA
Death Nov 25 1959 in Carlton Yamhill Oregon USA
Issue of Mamie and Clarence:
Mava Lurhea McKinnon
Felice Grace McKinnon
Robert Prill McKinnon
Dale Lynn McKinnon