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dateline New Zealand MAORI HISTRY 1858 - 1951

Journal by ngairedith

taken from the site The MAORI
- Dates marking post colonial Maori history


1858
The Native Schools Act 1858 was passed. This act provided subsidies for Maori education in the missionary schools.

Early mission schools taught in the Maori language, but after 1847 were required to teach in English in order to benefit from state subsidies. The Native Schools Act was only effective for seven years, as the New Zealand Wars forced the closing of schools in 1865. This brought with it the abandonment of the mission schools.

In early New Zealand, Maori was the dominant language. Early settlers and missionaries needed to speak Maori in order to live, trade and work. After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, and as more and more settlers arrived, it gradually became no longer necessary for Europeans to learn Maori.

The situation changed, it was now the Maori who needed to learn English.



1867
The Native Schools Act 1867. Under this extension of the 1858 Act, the government offered state village schools to Maori communities who so wished. In return, if the Maori community provided a suitable site, they would receive a school, teacher, and books.

The use of the Maori language in schools was actively discouraged, in order to encourage assimilation by the Maori into European culture as rapidly as possible. At first many Maori welcomed the fact that schools were being taught in English. Children speaking Maori in the home and English at school, quickly became bilingual.

By 1896 the Maori population had declined to approximately 42.000, and it was confidently assumed that the Maori race would assimilate into the European culture, and simply disappear. As a result, by 1960, only 26% of Maori spoke Maori as their first language. Thanks to the campaigning efforts of Sir Apirana NGATA, the Maori language became a University subject in 1951.

Later, the third Labour Government established teacher-training schemes for native Maori speakers.


From 1976, courses in Maori language were included in the curriculum of 5 Universities and 8 training school colleges.

In 1981 the first "kohanga reo" (language nest) pre-school Maori language immersion programme was established, led by Maori women. The aim was to make every Mori child bilingual by the age of 5 years old.

By 1994 there were 809 "kohanga reo" schools established. In 1985 the Waitangi Tribunal declared the Maori language to be a "taonga" (treasure), to be protected under the terms of the Treaty of Waitangi.

In 1987 the Maori Language Act declared M&#257;ori as an official language of New Zealand. The Maori Language Commission was also established, having for responsibility to promote Maori as a living language.

The Broadcasting Act 1989 declared promoting Maori language and culture to be a function of the Broadcasting Commission.

Radio and Television stations have been established, by Maori, for Maori, and in the Maori language. Each year, a National Maori Language Week takes place.


1900 The Maori Councils Act, creating public health programs. Three Maori leaders were prominent in bringing about improvements in the Maori health area : Apirana Ngata (organising secretary of the Maori Councils), Maui POMARE, a doctor who became the first Maori Health Officer in 1900, and Peter BUCK (Te Rangihiroa), also a doctor, who became assistant to Maui Pomare. These three Maori leaders brought about significant improvements in Maori health and life. All three became knighted.
They were educated at Te Aute College.

The Reverend Samuel WILLIAMS established Te Aute College in 1854, opening with 12 pupils. Samuel Williams was a missionary's son, and was only 18 months old when his family emigrated to New Zealand, in 1823.

Te Aute College was a church boarding school for Maori. Later, students from Te Aute College, of whom Peter Buck, Maui Pomare and Apirana Ngata formed the Young Maori Party in 1902. The aims of the Young Maori Party were to seek co-operation and assimilation with the "pakeha" (European).



1907
Tohunga Suppression Act - at the instigation of Maui Pomare. Pomare also helped establish two Royal Commissions dealing with Maori land grievances.


1920
Peter Buck (Te Rangihiroa) nominated first Director of Maori Hygiene. Many reforms in the area of Maori health achieved.


1928
Apirana Ngata becomes Native Minister. Legislation passed to assist Maori farming.


1928
The national school syllabus becomes the same for both Maori and non-Maori children.


1929
State credit provided for Maori farmers.


1935
The Native Housing Act passed. Funded by the Labour Government in 1937.


1935
The Labour Government increases spending on education. Secondary education becomes free for all. The school leaving age is raised to 15 years.


1938
The Social Security Act relieves the burden of those in difficulty. Family benefit assistance added shortly afterwards. Health Services improved.


1951
The Maori Womens' Welfare League is formed, aiming at involving local communities in welfare. The problem of adequate housing for Maori begins to be treated. The construction of homes increases, until by 1951 3.051 homes had been constructed, representing 16% of Maori houses.

The majority of the Maori workforce was unskilled in the 1950s. As a consequence, economic hardship was more acute among the Maori than the European. Only 6% of Maori held qualified positions in the workforce. It was only in the latter part of the 1960s that training programs and hostel accommodation in the cities became instituted on a large-scale basis. At the same time the educational system finally promoted Maori customs, history, and the Maori language in all schools.


TOHUNGA :

... A Maori priest, wizard, a man of knowledge. There are a number of different types of tohunga:

* tohunga ahurewa, an expert builder;
* tohunga ahurewa, a priest or religious expert;
* tohunga whakairo, a wood carver.

One image of tohunga is that of a sorcerer, which was a force in Maori religion. Maui Pomare sponsored a Tohunga Suppression Bill in 1907, which became law until it was repealed in 1962.

Source : New Zealand Encyclopedia, 4th Edition - Bateman

Surnames: BATEMAN BUCK NGATA POMARE
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by ngairedith Profile | Research | Contact | Subscribe | Block this user
on 2011-07-15 23:04:15

PECK of TAITA

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Comments

by keewee on 2011-08-10 23:55:50

A good read , thanks.

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