edmondsallan on Family Tree Circles
Journals and Posts
edmondsallan - Hello - I think it is time to take a look at another of our extended family who lived mainly in " Hokianga " a Nga Puhi leader & warrior . Kawiti was born, probably in the 1770s, in northern New Zealand. He was descended from Nukutawhiti, commander of the Nga-toki-mata-whao-rua canoe, which made its landing at Hokianga. He was the 11th generation from Rahiri, ancestor of Nga Puhi; Huna was his father and his mother, Te Tawai. They were of Ngati Hine, whose identity with their territory runs thus:
Tokerau is the mountain
Taumarere the river
Ngati Hine the hapu
Hineamaru the ancestress.
When Kawiti reached maturity, he was admitted into Te Whare Wananga mo nga Tohunga, at Taumarere, one of the ancestral villages of Ngati Hine. As he gained a reputation as a fighting warlord, Europeans gave him the nickname 'The Duke' (Te Ruki). Kawiti and his first wife, Kawa, had three sons: Taura, Wiremu Te Poro, and Maihi Paraone Te Kuhanga. His second wife was Te Tiwha, and they had a daughter, Tuahine. His villages were at Otuihu, Pumanawa, Waiomio, Taumarere, Orauta and Mangakahia; his carved whare, Ahuareka, stood in Waiomio, a short distance from where Te Rapunga meeting house now stands.
Kawiti was a notable warrior and detested being bottled up in a fort. He favoured rugged terrain as his battleground, and preferred to pursue an opponent and fight in hand-to-hand combat to the death. His fighting pa, therefore, were sited on hilly slopes at points which offered safe exit routes into thick bush. His pa were Otarawa, immediately below Te Pouaka-a-Hineamaru; Tikokauae at Motatau; Wahapu (Te Wahapu Inlet) at Ahikiwi; Ruapekapeka and Puketona.
At the battle of Moremonui, at Maunganui Bluff, in 1807 or 1808 Kawiti saw Nga Puhi fall before the assembled might of Ngati Whatua; Hongi Hika barely escaped with his life. In 1824 Te Whareumu of Nga Puhi came to Kawiti, chanting his ngakau, a special request for assistance to avenge the deaths of his relatives at Moremonui. He had presented Kawiti with a pig, and when Kawiti shared the pig among his people it was a sign to Te Whareumu of Ngati Hine support. The battle of Te Ika-a-ranga-nui, on the Kaiwaka River, followed in 1825, and on this occasion Ngati Whatua fell before the assembled might of Nga Puhi; the deaths of Taurawhero, Koriwhai and other Nga Puhi at Moremonui were avenged. Kawiti also earned the reputation of a peacemaker among his people. This was evident at Te Ika-a-ranga-nui when a serious disagreement occurred between Hongi and Kawiti. Kawiti, who had kinship ties with Ngati Whatua, realised that Hongi would annihilate that tribe, so just before the battle took place, he took a number of them as hostages to protect them. Hongi heard about Kawiti's hostages and went to Taumarere to demand their release; they were his 'possessions' by right of conquest. Hongi threatened to invade Ngati Hine territory, but Kawiti warned him off.
Hongi did not carry out his threat. Sentries, posted by Kawiti along the route to Whangaroa as a precaution, reported that no preparations for full-scale war were being made at Hongi's camp. This allowed Kawiti and Ngati Hine to embark at once on their mission of peace to return Ngati Whatua safely to Kaipara. Mate Kairangatira of Ngati Hine was left with Ngati Whatua to cement the peace pact made between the two tribes, and to warn Hongi of the consequences should he ever attack Ngati Whatua again.
Kawiti also intervened at the battle known as the Girls' War, at Kororareka (Russell) in 1830, and helped to speed up peace negotiations between Nga Puhi and the Kororareka people. Nga Puhi were seeking to avenge the loss of their chief Hengi. To avoid full-scale war between Nga Puhi and the people of Kororareka, Kawiti induced Kiwikiwi to surrender the lands of Kororareka, which were Kawiti's by right of conquest, to Nga Puhi as atonement for the loss of Hengi. I think we have researched a " big un " here . His mana & actions are huge among the ancestery of his people's Till we meet again _ Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan - Hello - Shortly after signing the treaty, Te Kawau made available land for a new settlement on the Waitemata Harbour. This decision was reached after a major meeting at Kohimarama, called by Te Kawau as leader of Ngati Whatua. Discussions were inconclusive until Te Kawau's tohunga, Titai, went into a trance and uttered the following prophecy:
What is this wind that softly blows
'Tis the warm wind from the north
That blew the nautilus shell ashore
I will go and fetch the carved post
And establish it in the Waitemata
Our desire will then be fulfilled!
This prophecy was taken as an indication that if the centre of government could be established on the Waitemata Harbour the survival of Ngati Whatua would be ensured. Te Rewiti, Te Kawau's nephew, was sent to the Bay of Islands to invite the new lieutenant governor, William Hobson, and negotiations led to the sale of 3,000 acres of land for the site of Auckland. By the deed, signed on 20 October 1840, Te Kawau and three other leaders received £50 and a quantity of blankets, clothing and goods. As patron of the colony's new capital Te Kawau undoubtedly enhanced his mana. As the settlement of Auckland expanded he was drawn into its affairs, becoming a close friend of William Martin, the colony's first chief justice.
In 1844 he forced the government to make concessions to Maori in penal matters. When one of his tribe, Te Mania, was rescued from the court where he had been sentenced to imprisonment for petty theft, Te Kawau showed that the government's military force was inadequate to coerce him. A compromise was reached whereby any Maori convicted of theft would pay fourfold compensation for stolen goods as an alternative to imprisonment. The Native Exemption Ordinance was in keeping with Maori values but it also reflected the degree to which Maori leaders were politically dominant. In Auckland Te Kawau maintained the peace on terms acceptable to his tribe. In the 1840s Te Kawau was also becoming more involved with the Anglican missionaries. His first contact was with Samuel Marsden, New South Wales chaplain, whom he had met on Marsden's 1820 visit; he had offered him spars and accompanied him for several days on a tour of Manukau Harbour and the land to the north, reaching a village of Te Taou, Ruarangi Haereere, south of Kaipara. Marsden had been much impressed by Te Kawau's imposing bearing and tall frame, and by his concern for his kin: Te Kawau appealed to Marsden to pray to the Christian god for the recovery of his brother, badly wounded by a spear. Before Te Kawau's conversion to Christianity could be completed, however, Maori custom had to be reconciled with missionary values. He was married to Kirepiro of Te Taou and had several other wives; his reluctance to give up any of them probably delayed his adoption of Christianity. He was finally baptised by Bishop G. A. Selwyn at the chapel near Orakei pa. The ceremony was preceded by a gathering of his people, who decided that he should take the baptismal name of Apihai, after the biblical Abishai, who was a great warrior. In 1852 Te Kawau was made assessor for settling disputes between Maori in the Auckland district; the government subsequently awarded him a pension of £50 a year. By then his initial willingness to sell land had given way to caution. From at least the early 1850s he spoke out publicly against land sales, and in 1853 asked Governor George Grey to help ensure Ngati Whatua ownership of Orakei, but further land was lost from the Orakei block. The song that Te Kawau composed to farewell Grey may be taken as referring to his fear of losing the Orakei land.
The clouds in yonder horizon
Across the sea, are playing with
the winds, whilst I am here
Yearning and weeping for my son -
Ah! he's more than a son to me;
he's my heart's blood.
In 1868 Te Kawau obtained from the Native Land Court a certificate of title to 700 acres at Orakei, the last Ngati Whatua land in the area.
Te Kawau died at Ongarahu, Kaipara, in mid November 1869. He was survived by his son, Te Hira Te Kawau; and by his daughter, Hera Whakamana, from whom are descended many Ngati Whatua people. Te Kawau is buried at Kaipara.
Till we meet again _ Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan - Hello - I searched and searched for his date of birth . I think I'll estimate it .( 1798 ??? ) However it could be very wrong !!!
Apihai Te Kawau was born towards the end of the eighteenth century. His father was Tarahawaiki and his mother was Mokorua, who was descended from the Waiohua people. Te Kawau's grandfather was Tupe-riri, principal leader of Te Taou hapu of Ngati Whatua who overran the Auckland isthmus around 1740, defeating the Waiohua who became the Nga Oho and Te Uringutu hapu of Ngati Whatua. Thus Te Kawau, the inheritor of several chiefly lines of Ngati Whatua and known as 'the man of many cousins', had connections which enabled him to become a unifying and leading person in Ngati Whatua on the Tamaki isthmus.
In his youth Te Kawau probably fought against Nga Puhi; Moremonui, a Ngati Whatua victory in 1807 or 1808, near Maunganui Bluff, was the major battle of the time. Later he was one of the leaders of the war expedition which became known as Te Amiowhenua or 'the encircling of the land'. In 1821 this expedition left Oneonenui, southern Kaipara, for the lower Waikato, where it was joined by Ngati Maniapoto and others led by Peehi Tukorehu. It passed through Rotorua to launch an attack against Heretaunga (Hawke's Bay), and reached Te Apiti (the Manawatu Gorge) before turning east into Wairarapa. There the war party fought Ngati Hikarahui, capturing Hakikino pa, near present day Masterton. It is said that the raiders killed and ate all the people they came across in these districts and that Te Kawau slept each night with a basket of human flesh for a pillow. At Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour) the war party attacked and captured the fortified pa of Ngati Ira on the island of Tapu-te-ranga, in what is now Island Bay. Tapu-te-ranga was a staging post for voyages across Cook Strait; one report claims that the war party crossed to the South Island. Moving north again, the expedition attacked Muaupoko and the Wanganui district, before the remaining section, under Te Kawau, became involved in the wars in Taranaki between their ally Tukorehu and some Te Ati Awa hapu. Other Te Ati Awa helped the war party to escape to Pukerangiora, the main Te Ati Awa pa. The siege that followed was raised by the Waikato chief Te Wherowhero, after the battle of Mangatiti. The war party added 800 men to Te Wherowhero's army, which returned to Waikato in May 1822 to fight Hongi Hika's Nga Puhi invasion at Matakitaki and at Mangauika pa, battles that were disasters for Waikato. In June 1822 Te Kawau returned to Tamaki and Kaipara, having covered 1,000 miles in one of the longest war expeditions ever undertaken.
Having helped the Waikato forces at Matakitaki, Te Kawau feared attack by Nga Puhi, who were also seeking revenge for the Moremonui battle in which two of Hongi Hika's brothers had been killed. Te Kawau now moved his hapu to Pukewhau on the Waipa River; other Ngati Whatua went north to Mahurangi Harbour. Despite these moves there was fighting over the next two years, warfare against Nga Puhi culminating in 1825 in the battle of Te Ika-a-ranga-nui. Te Kawau left Okahu to join his people at this battle, at the conjunction of the Kaiwaka River and the Waimako Stream, inland from Mangawhai, but arrived too late for what was a severe Ngati Whatua defeat. After Te Ika-a-ranga-nui the hapu of Ngati Whatua on the Tamaki isthmus scattered, leaving the isthmus depopulated. Only after Hongi's death in 1828 were Ngati Whatua able to return to Tamaki, where they resumed their cultivations at Mangere, Onehunga and Horotiu, and their land at Orakei. At Manukau Harbour, on 20 March 1840, Te Kawau signed a copy of the Treaty of Waitangi. Ngati Whatua were seeking British protection against their Nga Puhi enemies. Their Maori protector in the 1830s had been Potatau Te Wherowhero, and it may have been partly due to their long alliance with him that, although refusing to sign, he did not reject the treaty out of hand.
I am not so sure I like this " fella " as he appears to have attacked our " Relatives " way back . Mind YOU , some of our relatives were inclined to go hunting for a fight . We will have to watch that
" Fighting Gene "in our mokapunas." MAKE SURE IT " is kept under control or we will have some regrets if not some already - . Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan - Hello - We are still resting in Thames and discussing
" TE HORETA " and the Ngati Whanaunga in this area . If you have just clicked the button for desk top action , you are welcome to join us .Help yourself to the food & drink !!
Ngati Maru tradition states that Te Horeta and Te Hinaki were guests of Hongi at the Bay of Islands on their return to New Zealand. It is said that Hongi placed a bucket of milk before them as a test, and when they refused to take this strange food, took their rejection as an omen for his projected attacks on Maru-tuahu. He lined up his muskets, naming one for each of the battles in which Nga Puhi had been defeated by Ngati Paoa, Ngati Maru and Ngati Whanaunga. Te Hinaki and Te Horeta were thus warned that they were about to pay for the battle of Wai-whariki. When Hongi Hika led the massed Bay of Islands tribes against Mau-inaina and Te Totara, the pa of Ngati Paoa and Ngati Maru at present day Panmure and Thames, the local tribes, including Ngati Whanaunga, withdrew into Waikato. No record remains of Te Horeta's role in these two major battles. It is known that he was in Waikato for the marriage of Te Wherowhero to Ngawaero, probably in late 1821. It may have been in these wars that he earned the sobriquet Te Taniwha. On one occasion he dived from a high bank into a river, and, avoiding the spears of his foes, climbed from the water into the bow of an enemy canoe and drove off the defenders. Te Horeta's people, watching from the pa, thought the feat to be that of a taniwha. ( I wonder ?????? )
Records are silent concerning Te Horeta's activities in the later 1820s. There is some evidence that at this time his people took refuge from marauding war parties at Haowhenua, on Little Barrier Island. From 1830 his principal residence appears to have been Kauaeranga. He was visited there by various missionaries. In January 1834, in his speech of welcome to William Yate, Te Horeta asked his people the rhetorical question: 'what have the missionaries come for'? His answer, as recorded by Yate, was that 'they have come to break our clubs and establish peace here'.
In the late 1830s Te Horeta was patron to William Webster, an American who established himself as a trader at Herekino Bay, Coromandel Harbour, with other stations at Waiomio and Kauaeranga. Webster, known as Wepiha to local Maori, married a Ngati Whanaunga woman. I have a file on this " Webster " Further on when I am into the Pakeha ancestry , we might put him on the machine . To the growing number of European timber workers and traders in the area the Ngati Whanaunga leader was known as 'old Hooknose'. Te Horeta welcomed the visit of Major Thomas Bunbury in April--May 1840, and on 4 May 1840 signed the copy of the Treaty of Waitangi taken by Bunbury to Coromandel Harbour.
Probably in the mid 1840s Ngati Whanaunga began gum-digging in the Colville area. While this provided an alternative economic activity for Te Horeta's people, it also renewed an old dispute between Ngati Whanaunga and Ngati Mahanga over land at Ahirau and Otautu. When Ngati Whanaunga diggers established houses at Otautu, Te Waka of Te Uringahu and Ngati Mahanga went there with a war party and set fire to them. Ngati Whanaunga then pulled down a boundary marker of Te Waka, west of the Tauwhare range. Te Waka then went to Mekemeke and in an act of ritualised warfare fired his guns into the ground. After further acts of provocation on both sides peace initiatives were begun, with Te Horeta eventually agreeing to retain Ahirau, and Te Waka, Otautu and Tauwhare. It was in Te Horeta's territories that gold was first discovered in New Zealand, in 1852, in the Kapanga River, near Coromandel Harbour. Intense interest followed the discovery, and a meeting was arranged by the government in November 1852 to negotiate access with the Maori owners of the land. Te Horeta and other influential Maori leaders met with the lieutenant governor of New Ulster, Colonel R. H. Wynyard, Bishop G. A. Selwyn and Chief Justice William Martin. By this time Te Horeta was 'bowed and enfeebled by age', being probably in his 90s. He willingly consented to his land being mined by the transient Pakeha, whom he compared to wandering albatross 'seeking food merely'.
Te Horeta Te Taniwha died at Coromandel Harbour on 21 November 1853. He had been baptised by the Anglican missionary Thomas Lanfear some four to six weeks before his death. Te Horeta had a second wife, Tuhi of Ngati Naunau, and he was succeeded by their son, Kitahi Te Taniwha. On his deathbed he dictated a letter to a European friend in Auckland, asking him to guard the interests of both Europeans and Maori so that they could dwell together in peace. - well I think we have rested enough & talked about " Te Horeta " a Ngati Whanaunga
chief and his life . What say we head to Auckland - Orakei - nz. While we are travelling , I'll have a word with " Old faithfull " to find something for us to look at from the rather thick file on Auckland .nz. Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan -Hello - I thought on the way home and heading toward Northland - NZ again , we might stop on the beach at ' Tapu ' or Thames - Coromandel ", have a rest - a bite to eat and gaze up the " Waitemata " at the islands . They are quite historical. I did research this area .
Here is a sample . " Te Horeta Ngati Whanaunga leader ".
Te Horeta, also known as Te Taniwha, was a leader of Ngati Whanaunga, one of the Maru-tuahu confederation of Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel Peninsula tribes. The names of his parents are not recorded. He may have been born about 1757, for he told Captain James Cook he was aged about 12 when the two met on Cook's visit to Mercury Bay in November 1769. In later years Te Horeta recalled his wonder at seeing these new people. Once others of his people had returned safely from the Endeavour , he overcame his fears and ventured on board with other children. He remembered Cook's kindness to him and his companions, and Cook's puzzlement, having asked the men to draw a chart of the coast on the deck, at the concept of reaching the Maori underworld via Te Reinga. Cook also gave the people a double handful of potatoes. This Te Horeta believed to be the decisive introduction of the potato into the Coromandel area. The potatoes were kept for seed, and within three years Ngati Whanaunga were able to hold a feast incorporating the new food. Te Horeta may have encountered Cook again when the Endeavour visited the Thames estuary two weeks later.
Te Horeta was probably involved in the many wars in which Ngati Whanaunga and the Maru-tuahu tribes participated in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. By about 1790 he had a daughter, Te Tahuri, who was of marriageable age. The name of Te Tahuri's mother is not known, but she had connections with Waikato and Ngati Whatua. Through these ties Te Horeta was drawn into a series of battles, in one of which Te Tahuri and her husband were killed. He was probably also involved in the wars of Ngati Paoa against Te Kawerau, a tribe of the Auckland isthmus. In the mid 1790s, after the murder of a Ngati Whanaunga leader, Ngati Paoa, Ngati Maru and Ngati Whanaunga embarked on a campaign against Nga Puhi of the Bay of Islands. The Maru-tuahu tribes twice invaded the Bay of Islands, first attacking the people of Te Rawhiti, and then inflicting a heavy defeat on Nga Puhi in their heartland at Puketona, in a battle known as Wai-whariki. Some years later, about 1819, Korokoro of Te Rawhiti, allied with Te Haupa of Ngati Paoa, led a war party against the Coromandel tribes to avenge these defeats. They attacked various Ngati Maru pa as well as those in the Colville area, in the north-west of the Coromandel Peninsula, and Te Horeta's people at Waiau further south. Korokoro's party had returned to the Bay of Islands by January 1820.
In March 1820 Te Horeta appears to have joined the expedition of Te Morenga of Taiamai, Bay of Islands, on its return from Tauranga. On 25 May 1820, with Te Morenga, he visited the British naval storeship Dromedary , which was anchored near Waikare, in the Bay of Islands. He may have played some part in convincing Captain Thomas Downie of the Dromedary 's companion ship Coromandel to seek the desired cargo of kauri spars in his area, for on 7 June 1820 he returned home on the Coromandel with Te Morenga and the missionary Samuel Marsden. On his arrival he found that Te Haupa had attacked Te Puhi of Ngati Maru, whose village at Taruru was not far from a settlement of Te Horeta. Marsden visited both villages and described Te Puhi and Te Horeta as 'very tall, fine, handsome men'. Te Horeta assisted Downie to obtain his cargo by directing him to the finest and most accessible stands of kauri, and the Coromandel then moved on to Te Horeta's main settlement at Waiau, which was afterwards known as Coromandel Harbour. When Marsden expressed his desire to visit Waikato Te Horeta sent a messenger to inform Waikato leaders; Marsden was persuaded to abandon this journey, however, because of the bad weather and rough terrain. After the missionary's return from his visit to Tauranga with Te Morenga he carried out his promise to make peace between Te Puhi and Te Hinaki of Ngati Paoa. Marsden brought the two leaders together, but it was Te Horeta and Te Morenga who mediated between them. Te Horeta also helped to mediate between the local ariki and a subordinate leader accused of theft.
When the Dromedary entered Coromandel Harbour on 23 August Te Horeta, accompanied by all his people, performed a waiata of welcome on the deck. Ngati Whanaunga were encouraged by the protection offered by the ships' presence to emerge from the inland valleys, to which they had fled from Nga Puhi attacks, and they played generous hosts to their visitors. On the departure of the Coromandel in December, Te Horeta, together with Te Hinaki and two other leaders, took the opportunity to visit Sydney, New South Wales. He was still there when Hongi Hika and Waikato arrived in May 1821 on their way home from London, England. Te Horeta had intended to visit Europe, but Hongi and Waikato dissuaded him from going because of the length of the voyage and the severity of the climate. Marsden intervened, obtaining passages to New Zealand for Te Horeta and his companions on the Westmoreland , but Te Horeta objected to this unless he was landed at Thames, fearing being killed at the Bay of Islands because of the unresolved conflict between Ngati Whanaunga and Nga Puhi. Marsden subsequently arranged him a passage on the Active , but it is not clear when Te Horeta and Te Hinaki returned to New Zealand. They were still in Sydney when the Westmoreland arrived at the Bay of Islands with Hongi and Waikato on board on 11 July 1821.
The more I research I doon many NZ maori tribes , the more suprised I get at the number of them that either went overseas or were trying to go overseas .The rumour that they were in general a " uneducated race of people " I believe is not able to be justified . Some , of high ranking were deliberately sent over seas to Learn all about the Pakeha & his outside world . Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan
edmondsallan - Hello - Here is Wahawaha's whakapapa. It is as follows
HAU -------------- UEROA
KAHUUGUNU ----------------- RONGOMAI- WAHINE
KAHUKURANUI -------------TAUHEIKURI = TAMATAI PUNOA
RAKAIPAAKA TAUWHIWHI MAHAKI
HINEPUA ------ TAWAKE
TE HAPAMANA TE WHARO
Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan -Hello - their was more to this maori chief than I thought ,and when I left " old faithful " searching while continuing on with the " Young One " she found more . OK Lets push the pedal to the metal -
Rapata encouraged education and in 1871 a permanent school was established at Waiomatatini. James Booth, the resident magistrate, noted that there was no absenteeism at the Waiomatatini school, as the school committee, with Rapata as chairman, fined parents heavily if their children stayed away without cause. Rapata encouraged young Maori to learn English, which he regretted never having learnt.
Rapata had a meeting house built at Waiomatatini and called it Porourangi. Carvings were made for it by Tamati Ngakaho; it was completed and dedicated in 1888. Later it was re-sited on higher ground to protect it from floods. The house still stands and some of the original carving has survived. Rapata was also a sheepfarmer and co-operated with the government in the eradication of animal diseases. A campaign against eczema had wiped out his flocks in 1879, but the government paid compensation, and by 1894 he had 2,400 sheep. He was also active as a seller and lessor of land, and as a government land purchase officer. In 1876 he addressed a meeting of 2,000 Maori at Waiomatatini, advising them to put their land through the Native Land Court and make it available for sale or lease. Land was let extensively by Ngati Porou to satisfy settler demand while retaining ownership for the future; some major leases ran out as early as 1911 and were not renewed. In 1880 a dispute over a block of land developed between Te Aitanga-a-Mate and Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare hapu of Ngati Porou. The disagreement almost resulted in a gun battle, but Rapata persuaded the disputants to take the case to the Native Land Court. Native Land Court sittings in Waiapu were noted for their good order and for the presentation to the court of decisions arrived at by earlier tribal discussion. Te Kooti, who was formally pardoned in 1883, attempted to visit Poverty Bay in 1889. There was considerable opposition from both settlers and East Coast Maori, many of whom were related to victims of the raids by Te Kooti. On 21 February Rapata arrived at Gisborne with a contingent of Ngati Porou. He and Thomas Porter (now a colonel) were appointed by the premier, Harry Atkinson, to lead an expedition to Opotiki to stop Te Kooti from entering the East Coast or the Urewera. Te Kooti was confronted at Waiotahi by Inspector Joseph Goodall and was disputing his arrest when Ngati Porou arrived. He then submitted to arrest and told his people to be quiet. Rapata was not present at the arrest; it seems that he was unwell, and had remained at Opotiki.
Rapata died at Gisborne on 1 July 1897. He was buried with military honours on the rock fortress of Pupaka in the Waiomatatini Valley. His last words to his people were to be loyal to the Queen, steadfast to the church and friendly to Europeans, and to maintain their unity as a tribe. I also have his whakapapa . I'll do that next . Till we meet again - Regards - edmonds
edmondsallan - Hello - Warfare broke out again on the East Coast on 10 July 1868, when Te Kooti and his followers landed after escaping from the Chatham Islands. They were pursued inland unsuccessfully by Maori and Pakeha volunteers and Armed Constabulary, led by Lieutenant Colonel G. S. Whitmore. Rapata and 200 Ngati Porou were again brought down to Wairoa and set out for Puketapu, led by Major Charles Lambert. On learning that Te Kooti had left, Lambert led his force back to Wairoa. Rapata wished to advance after Te Kooti, who was reported to be preparing to attack Poverty Bay. The report was correct; on the night of 9--10 November 1868 Te Kooti attacked and killed some 54 people, more than 20 of them Maori. He held the district for a week and then retired with booty and captives to Makaretu, which he fortified. There Rapata and other members of Ngati Porou, and government troops, attacked him. Te Kooti and his followers were driven from the pa and retreated to the fortress of Ngatapa, inland from Turanga. The first assault on Ngatapa, on 5 December 1868, was led by Rapata, Hotene Porourangi and Lieutenant G. A. Preece; they succeeded in gaining the outer defence works. Rapata and a few troops fought all night, but had to retreat in the morning because they were not supported by Porourangi's Ngati Porou or by Ngati Kahungunu. Rapata was awarded the New Zealand Cross for gallantry in this action and raised to the rank of major. Preece and Rapata retreated towards Gisborne and met Whitmore, who was advancing against Te Kooti with a force of Te Arawa and Wanganui Armed Constabulary. Rapata refused to accompany him; with Whitmore's agreement, he announced his intention of returning to Waiapu to recruit new Ngati Porou troops. He also threatened to attack Ngati Kahungunu, who had failed to support him at Ngatapa.
Whitmore, with too few troops to attack Ngatapa, went to Makaretu and waited for Rapata's return. After an illness Rapata arrived on 31 December. With Captain T. W. Porter and a contingent of Te Arawa he cut Ngatapa off from its water supply. An assault on the pa on 4 January captured the outworks and the pa was abandoned during the night. In the pursuit several hundred prisoners were taken; 120 male prisoners were shot and thrown over a cliff. Rapata, throughout his military career, executed only male prisoners taken in arms; by the standards of the time he showed restraint. Te Kooti escaped into the Urewera, and, finding new followers, raided Whakatane and Mohaka.
Whitmore decided that the Urewera would have to be invaded, to put an end to its use as a sanctuary and a supply and recruitment area by Te Kooti and the remaining Hauhau leaders. The district, for example, was known to harbour Kereopa, who was held responsible for the killing of the missionary C. S. Völkner in 1865. Whitmore planned to invade the Urewera with three converging columns. Rapata and Ngati Porou were attached to Lieutenant Colonel J. L. Herrick's column, which was to go to Waikaremoana and capture refugees driven south by the other columns. The columns led by Whitmore and Lieutenant Colonel John St John destroyed the villages and crops of the Tuhoe people and met in the valley of Ruatahuna. On 6 May 1869 Whitmore took the Tuhoe pa of Te Harema; for the first time the Urewera had been successfully invaded. As winter closed in, Whitmore led his troops out of the mountains and Te Kooti went to Taupo and the King Country in a last attempt to build around himself a great Maori alliance.
After failing in this goal and after losing against Te Arawa, Te Kooti returned to the Urewera. Rapata made four expeditions in pursuit of him. The first was a joint operation with Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui, leader of the Wanganui Native Contingent, which began in February 1870. Rapata took the Tuhoe stronghold of Torea-a-tai on the mountain of Maungapohatu, which had never fallen before. On 23 March Te Keepa and then Rapata stormed the pa of Te Kooti at Maraetahi, high up in the Waioeka Gorge, ending his last attempt to hold a fortified position and freeing Te Whakatohea prisoners taken in raids near Opotiki. Te Keepa made peace with the Hauhau leader Eru Tamaikowha, and returned to Wanganui in April. Rapata searched the hills around Opotiki for hidden ammunition supplies and returned to Waiapu. Tuhoe continued to surrender throughout 1870; Te Waru Tamatea surrendered late that year. Te Kooti had ceased to be a military threat; he and his followers lived as fugitives.
In January 1871 Rapata and Porter returned to the pursuit, in partnership with Captain Gilbert Mair and Te Arawa troops; the campaign against Te Kooti was now left to Maori troops. They were no longer paid, and compensated themselves by plundering Tuhoe. In July Mair and Te Arawa found Te Kooti's camp at Waipaoa but Te Kooti had escaped. Ngati Porou took up his trail and at dawn on 1 September surrounded his camp at Te Hapua (also known as Ruahapu), near Te Whaiti. Te Kooti broke through the bark wall at the back of his sleeping hut, and shouting 'save yourselves, it's Ngati Porou', plunged into the bush. He escaped with one of his wives and five followers, and took refuge in the King Country. Later in 1871 Rapata carried out a final pacification of the Urewera, where he had built several pa, suggesting a permanent Ngati Porou presence. He told Eru Tamaikowha, who acted as an intermediary, that he only wished to capture rebels and murderers and that refugees and fugitive hapu could return home. Tuhoe were now tired of war and destruction; they helped to capture Kereopa, so that the war would end. After this Rapata had Tuhoe assemble at Ruatahuna and in a farewell speech told them to end their association with the Hauhau, and that the government was now at peace with them. He withdrew his garrison from Maungapohatu and returned to the East Coast in December, after ensuring that Tuhoe had food supplies and seed for new crops.
Rapata had become a leading man in Ngati Porou through his prowess as a soldier. In battle he never took cover and always pursued retreating enemies. He had fought on the side of the government, but in doing so had taken revenge on his childhood captors, Rongowhakaata, and had safeguarded the land of Ngati Porou from confiscation. Although Rapata fought in alliance with the government and rejected ideas of Maori nationalism, he always acted as a tribal leader. When he took prisoners, he wished to show clemency to local people who had fought against him under their tribal leaders, and to execute only those who had come from other districts. Like other loyalist leaders, he used government assistance to strengthen his tribe and to attack traditional enemies.Rapata did not feel sufficiently rewarded for his services in war. He said he was promised much which he had not received. It is probable that he was referring to the acquisition of Poverty Bay land, confiscated from Rongowhakaata. In 1873 Ngati Porou received a cash settlement of their land claims in Poverty Bay.I n the 1870's Rapata was an opponent of the Repudiation movement on the East Coast. This movement, which included former Hauhau, originated in Hawke's Bay. In alliance with Pakeha opponents of the dominant settler landowners, it attempted to regain Maori land by litigation. In the 1876 election for the Eastern Maori seat Rapata opposed Karaitiana Takamoana, a Ngati Kahungunu leader of the Repudiation movement, and attempted to rig the vote in favour of the East Coast candidate, Hotene Porourangi, but was unsuccessful. Ngati Porou leaders then tried to get a new election held, claiming that flooding of the Waiapu River had prevented hundreds of their people from voting, but Karaitiana Takamoana eventually took his seat in Parliament.
In 1878 Rapata was awarded a sword of honour by Queen Victoria for his services in the wars. He was appointed officer in charge of the militia in the Ngati Porou district, with a salary of £200 a year, and under the Native Circuit Courts Act 1858 was made an assessor to assist in law enforcement. When these salaries were stopped in 1884, as a result of government economies, he objected bitterly. Later, he received a pension of £100 a year, and in 1887 was appointed to the Legislative Council. He continued to encourage Ngati Porou to co-operate with the government, and to adapt to the changed situation in order to control its impact. Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan
edmondsallan -Hello - This ngati porou warrior chief ancestry and his deeds is well known in the area. Rapata, a leading lay member of the Anglican diocese of Waiapu, was attending a church opening at Popoti in June 1865 when the Reverend Mohi Turei brought news that Hauhau had arrived in the Waiapu Valley and were at Pukemaire. Rapata led 40 men, mostly of Te Aowera hapu, against them. Although the Hauhau won the battles of Mangaone and Tikitiki, Rapata distinguished himself by killing a Hauhau chief in single combat at Tikitiki. After Henare Nihoniho was killed at Mangaone, Rapata became the leader of Te Aowera. The Hauhau held the advantage in these early encounters, in numbers, arms and ammunition. Loyalist Ngati Porou appealed to Donald McLean, the provincial superintendent and agent for the general government; war material was sent, and James Fraser with 100 Hawke's Bay volunteers landed at the mouth of the Waiapu River to relieve Te Hatepe, the pa of Mokena Kohere. Without government assistance Ngati Porou territory might have become a Hauhau stronghold.
Having beaten the Hauhau from Te Hatepe, Fraser and Mokena stormed their position at nearby Pakairomiromi, and Rapata won a small battle at Te Horo. Rapata then went to relieve Te Mawhai, the pa built by Henare Potae at Tokomaru Bay. They drove off the Hauhau and took the neighbouring pa of Tautini and Pukepapa. After these victories Rapata shot Hauhau captives who belonged to Te Aowera. Having skirmished towards Tolaga Bay and killed 12 Hauhau in an engagement at Tahutahu-po, Rapata and his men returned to the Waiapu Valley. They joined Fraser's troops and 50 Forest Rangers in an attack on the Hauhau fortifications on Pukemaire hill. Although the attack was beaten off, the Hauhau abandoned the pa and retired to Hungahunga-toroa, further north. They surrendered there after Rapata and Major R. N. Biggs scaled the cliff above the pa and fired down into it. At the request of Mokena, Hauhau of Ngati Porou were spared and called from the pa, hapu by hapu. They were later made to swear an oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria. Most Hauhau from other tribes, captured fighting in Ngati Porou territory, escaped into the bush, but those that remained were executed. The surrender at Hungahunga-toroa eliminated the Hauhau in Waiapu, and thereafter Ngati Porou as a whole supported the government. But Hauhau continued to control Poverty Bay; in October 1865 Rapata and Mokena led 300 Ngati Porou south. Fighting on the East Coast now became intertribal. With other government troops Ngati Porou besieged the Hauhau at Waerenga-a-hika. A mass charge by Hauhau carrying white fighting flags was defeated, and after a cannon was brought into action, the pa surrendered. Prisoners from Rongowhakaata and Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki were deported by the government to the Chatham Islands. It was after this battle that Te Kooti was arrested.
Fighting continued further south. On 4 January 1866 Rapata and 150 Ngati Porou landed at Wairoa to assist pro-government Ngati Kahungunu leaders Kopu Parapara and Ihaka Whaanga. The Hauhau retreated inland to Lake Waikaremoana and while pursuing them Ngati Kahungunu were ambushed at Te Kopane. Defeat and military disaster seemed imminent but Rapata fired the bush and the flames drove the Hauhau from their positions. Many prisoners were taken in the pursuit; Rapata wished to spare local Ngati Kahungunu and only execute those of Ngati Porou, Tuhoe and Rongowhakaata. This was not acceptable to Ngati Kahungunu and all the prisoners were shot. By the winter of 1866 the East Coast was largely pacified, although the Hauhau leaders Te Waru Tamatea and Eru Tamaikowha were undefeated and the Urewera was beyond the control of government forces. As you can read , their is a lot of movement and fighting going on .How did they manage to survive ? Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan
edmondsallan - Hello - I thought while we were talking about the East Coast, Gisborne , we should touch on a sample of ancestry I have on file of Ngati Porou leader, soldier, farmer, politician, assessor.
Rapata Wahawaha, of Te Aowera hapu of Ngati Porou, was born at either Te Puia or Akuaku, in the Waiapu district. His father was Hipora Koroua and his mother Te Hapamana Te Whao. His most distinguished ancestor was Pakira, a prominent warrior in the wars that led to the emergence of Ngati Porou. By his own account Wahawaha was a child when Christianity was introduced; if this refers to the East Coast district, it suggests he was born about 1820. The second Nga Puhi invasion is also associated with his birth; this too suggests that his birth took place about 1820. He is known to have been a child when he was captured in 1828 in a land dispute between Ngati Porou and Rongowhakaata. Wahawaha became the slave of Rapata Whakapuhia, from whom his first name derives. Later the name was sometimes pronounced Ropata, because that is how it sounded when spoken by the Scots Donald McLean. Rapata was pleased with the new pronunciation, as it did not recall his childhood slavery. His release from captivity was secured by Tama-i-whakanehua-i-te-rangi, and by 1839, when he married, Rapata was back in Ngati Porou territory. In later life he took revenge on Rongowhakaata.
Rapata married Harata Te Ihi at Turanga (Gisborne) in 1849. Little else is recorded of the life of Rapata until the wars of the 1860s, when Ngati Porou were divided by mounting tensions. Delegates from the East Coast attended a meeting at Pawhakairo in Hawke's Bay with Tamihana Te Rauparaha to discuss the movement for a Maori king; and in 1862 the flags of the King movement were raised at Waiomatatini by Tamatatai, a Waiapu man who had been to Waikato. In reply, Mokena Kohere raised the Queen's flag at Rangitukia. With the onset of war in 1863 some Ngati Porou joined the King's forces. In March 1864 a large Ngati Porou war party was prevented from entering Waikato by Te Arawa, but some East Coast warriors succeeded in reaching Waikato through Tauranga. Warfare came to the East Coast with the arrival in 1865 of the Pai Marire emissaries Kereopa Te Rau and Patara Raukatauri. They made many converts among Rongowhakaata and Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki, and virtually took over Poverty Bay. Meanwhile, further north, fighting broke out within Ngati Porou. Some hapu sympathised with Pai Marire, some were divided, and others opposed the new religion. Each faction concentrated its forces in opposing pa, many of them newly built. Their certainly is a lot going on with this Great " NGATI POROU " Leader . Till we meet again -Regards -edmondsallan