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Earl of Warwick - THOMAS BEAUCHAMP - 1314 ( Historical Ancestry )

Thomas Beauchamp,
Earl of Warwick
Earl of Warwick
Born: 14th February 1314
Died: 13th November 1369 at Calais, France

This eminent person, the son of Guy, Earl of Warwick, by Alice, sister and heiress of Robert, Lord Tony of Flamsted (Herts), passed an active life in the service of his country; having been, from an early period, constantly entrusted with high and confidential employments. His father dying in 1315, when the subject of this memoir was in his infancy, the custody and tuition of his person were first committed to the King Edward II's favourite, Hugh Le Despenser; but, upon the accession of Edward III, Warwick Castle and his other extensive possessions were granted to Roger, Lord Mortimer, afterwards Earl of March, until he should attain his majority. Before that event, however, he was armed by the King; and, as a special favour, admitted to the livery of his lands. The Earl of March having, in 1337, received a grant of the benefit of his marriage, bestowed on him, his eldest daughter, the Lady Katherine Mortimer, having first obtained a Papal dispensation on account of the consanguinity of the parties in the third and fourth degrees. In 1342, Thomas was in the retinue of Henry, Earl of Lancaster on the march of the army into Scotland for the establishment of John Balliol as King; and, in the following year, was constituted Marshal of England; having, about the same time, the distinguished honour of being numbered, together with his younger brother, John, Lord Beauchamp, amongst the founders of this Most Noble Order of the Garter. In 1346, he attended the King on his military expedition into France; and it is recorded of him that, upon landing at La Hogue, he gave immediate proof of his valour by attacking, with only one esquire and six archers, a body of one hundred Normans. After slaying sixty of them, he made way for the disembarkation of the English host. Earl Thomas was one of the chief commanders who, under Edward, Prince of Wales, led the van at the Battle of Crcy. In 1347, he was at the Siege of Calais with a considerable retinue. At the Battle of Poitiers, in 1356, he added greatly to his fame and acquired other advantages. For he obtained 8,000 as the ransom for William De Melleun, Archbishop of Seinz, whom he had made prisoner in that memorable conflict. His heroic spirit induced him, during the truce with France, in 1362, to seek renown in the crusade against the Lithuanians, to which he devoted three years. At his return, Thomas brought, with him, the son of their sovereign, whom he caused to be baptized in London and, as his sponsor, gave him his own Christian name. In 1366, the Earl was despatched by the King into Flanders upon special service; and, in the same year, had a renewal of the grant of the office of Marshal.

King Edward, having in consequence of an infraction of the treaty with France, in 1368, sent into that Kingdom, John, Duke of Lancaster and Humphrey De Bohun, Earl of Hereford, with an army, which lay encamped near Calais. However, from a scarcity of provisions, many died of famine and pestilence. The Earl of Warwick, hearing that the French army had manifested a disposition to give battle, hastened, at the head of a chosen band, to the coast of the enemy, who, thus surprised, fled with precipitation. Upon disembarking, he expressed himself indignant at the delay which had occurred in the attack, saying, "I will go on and fight before the English bread we have eaten be digested;" and thereupon entered and wasted the Isle of Caux. But, on his return towards Calais, he died on the 13th November 1369. Apparently having fallen sick with the pestilence, though rumours later emerged concerning his poisoning by Humphrey De Bohun. Thomas left "not behind him his equal in warlike qualities and fidelity to the King and Kingdom." His body was conveyed to England and interred in the Collegiate Church of St. Mary in Warwick, where a splendid tomb, with the effigies of himself and his countess, is still extant to their memory. Previous to his departure upon his last and fatal expedition, he made his will, dated at Chelsea, 6th September 1369.

By Katherine, his countess, he had seven sons and nine daughters. The sons were: Guy, who predeceased him, leaving three daughters; Thomas, who succeeded him as Earl of Warwick; Reyburn, who died without male issue; William, Baron of Bergavenny; Roger, who died without issue; John; and Jerome. The two last probably died young, as they are not mentioned in any of the entails.

source:"Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter" (1861).

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

MARY ANN GRAY - Somerset - England -1845

Mary Ann GRAY (AFN: BLJF-S5)
Sex: F Family

Birth: 12 Oct 1845
, Corston, Somerset, England
Christening: 23 Nov 1845
, Corston, Somerset, England
Death: 20 Jul 1928
, Hawera, Taranaki, New Zealand
Burial: 21 Jul 1928
, Hawera, Taranaki, New Zealand
Father: John GREY (AFN: HSC1-W3) Family
Mother: Sarah SALMON (AFN: HSC2-8X)

Spouse: John Jr. EDWARDS (AFN: BLJF-R0) Family
Marriage: 27 Feb 1868
Old St. Paul's T, Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Till we meet again -Regards - edmondsallan

2 comment(s), latest 5 years, 1 month ago

GEOFFREY ASHE - ( Historical Ancestry )

Geoffrey Ashe is an internationally known historian, author and lecturer who writes extensively in the areas of British history and mythology. In his career, he has written more than 20 books and has contributed numerous articles to scholarly publications. He has held visiting professorships at seven American universities and has been involved with television projects related to King Arthur and British mythology in the capacity of advisor, interviewee and commentator.

He was the co-founder and secretary of the Camelot Research Committee, the group responsible for the 1966-70 excavation of Cadbury Castle, a strong candidate for the site of King Arthur's Camelot. Mr. Ashe enjoys wide public recognition and acceptance of his works and is arguably the pre-eminent popularizer of the history and legends of King Arthur in the world, today.

We met with Geoffrey Ashe for the first time in Glastonbury, Somerset, in early April, 1995. Our meeting took place in the sitting room of the George and Pilgrims Hotel, a medieval hostelry which had been constructed to accommodate pilgrims to the famous abbey, there. We spent a fascinating day talking about King Arthur and touring some of the Arthurian sites in and around Glastonbury.

Mr. Ashe had been a favorite of ours, for years. We had read a number of his books and were impressed with what he said and the way he said it. He presented his material in an engaging, conversational way. His writing made the legends and the locales come alive in a way that the more "scholarly" books don't. In recent years, there have been many new theories about the "true identity" of King Arthur and, quite frankly, some of them are pretty off-the-wall. Ashe's ideas, on the other hand, are derived from a careful evaluation of existing historical material combined with a willingness to think unconventionally, when conventional thinking leads to a dead end. Unravelling the mystery of King Arthur at a distance of 1,500 years is uncertain and difficult work, at best, and one should not be too dogmatic about the conclusions one reaches. To us and to many others who have read his books, though, Geoffrey Ashe provides a solution to the problem that makes alot of sense.
source:Interview with Geoffrey Ashe

A Quest for Arthur
Part one in a series of articles by Geoffrey Ashe, providing the foundation for a proper understanding of the legend of King Arthur.

Magical Glastonbury
There are certain special places, where you get a feeling that is different from any other place you've ever been. Glastonbury is one of those places. Ashe explains what it is about this town that makes us feel that way.

Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan

JOHN HAMPDEN - London -England - 1594 ( Historical Ancestry )

source:John Hampden MP John Hampden, one of the most distinguished of the patriots of England, was the head and representative of an ancient and opulent family which had received the lands of Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire from the reign of Edward the Confessor. They boasted to have transmitted its wealth, honours and influence, unimpaired and increasing, in direct male succession, down to this the most illustrious name of the house. He was the eldest son of William Hampden of Great Hampden and of his wife, Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchinbrooke in Huntingdonshire, and aunt of the Protector, Cromwell. John Hampden was born in London in 1594 and, at the age of three years, came, by the death of his father, into possession of the family estates which, besides the ancient seat and extensive domain in Buckinghamshire, comprehended large possessions in Essex, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. He was brought up at the free grammar-school of Thame in Oxfordshire, entered as a commoner at Magdalen College, Oxford in 1609 and was admitted student of the Inner Temple in 1613, where he made considerable progress in the knowledge of common law. His classical attainments also seem to have been respectable, since he was associated, oddly enough, with Laud, then Master of St. John's, in writing the Oxford gratulatory poems on the marriage of the Elector Palatine and the Princess Elizabeth. From this union sprang Prince Rupert who led the Royalist troops when Hampden received his death-wound. In 1619 he married, at Pyrton in Oxfordshire, his first wife, Elizabeth Symeon, only daughter of Edward Symeon. Inheriting a noble property, he devoted himself principally to the business and amusements of a country life, without suffering his literary habits to fall into desuetude. Lord Clarendon says that he "retired from a life of great pleasure and license, to extraordinary sobriety and strictness, and yet retained his usual cheerfulness and affability." His first entrance into public life was in January 1621, when he took his seat in the Parliament then convened, for Grampound in Cornwall, at that time a borough of wealth and importance. He also sat in the Parliament 1624 and was active and diligent in his attendance, and intimately connected himself with Selden, Pym, St. John and other leaders of the popular party. Though he seldom spoke, his capacity for business was known and respected, as appears from the employments in committees and conferences imposed on him by the House.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

URIEN RHEGED- Wales - 530 -- 590

Urien Rheged, King of North Rheged
(Welsh-Urien, Latin-Urbgenius, English-Orian)

source:The most famous of the Kings of the North, and possibly one of the earliest Christian Kings. One of the sons of Cynfarch Oer (the Dismal), Urien appears to have united a Kingdom that was originally either divided between, or shared with his brothers, Llew and Arawn. These latter appear to have held sway north of the Solway Firth, possibly moving into King Gwendoleu's old Kingdom and also conquering King Senyllt's Galloway, where still stands Din-Rheged (Dunragit). Urien's power-base was at Caer-Ligualid (Carlisle), though he also had a palace at Llwyfenydd on the River Lyvennet, and probably at Caer-Brogwm (Brougham) and Pen Rhionydd (possibly near Stranraer) too. The heart of his kingdom was modern Cumbria, which even today is named after the British Cymri, though his Kingdom, at one time, appears to have stretched as far north as Murief (Moray). Tradition asserts that his court played host to the High-King Arthur whenever he was travelling through the North, and Urien is thought to have married Arthur's half-sister, the enigmatic Morgan Le Fay. The King of Rheged, however, must have been something of a toy-boy, even if Morgan was the High-King's neice as some sources insist. A geneaological based birth date of AD 490 for the king is historically unacceptable. It is possible, even probable, that Urien's wife was a different lady, Modron ferch Afallach, though this name has unfortunate immortal overtones.

There is some controversy as to whether or not Urien Rheged should be identified with King Urien of Gore. Goodrich thinks that Gore was an area of Ynys Manaw (Isle of Man) that the King of North Rheged conquered though her reasoning is flawed. Bruce makes a good case for it being the whole island of Man based on Chretien's geography and description. The name may derive from the French or Welsh words for Glass, indicating an underworld connection. The identification with Gwyr (Gower) in South Wales is probably derived from the fact that Urien's son, Pasgen, later settled there. Urien was a great patron of the arts, particularly the works of his personal bard, the famous Taliesin.

Throughout his time as King, Urien's relations with his fellow British monarchs were erratic. He made many raids on rival kingdoms as far north as Manau Gododdin and once captured King Selyf Sarffgadau (Battle-Serpent) of Powys in battle. However, towards the end of a long reign, Urien led a coalition of British Kings against the expanding Saxons. His allies included Kings Riderch Hael (the Generous) of Strathclyde, Gwallawc Marchawc Trin (the Battle Horseman) of Elmet and, probably, Morcant Bulc of Bryneich. Many battles were fought including Gwen Ystrad and the Cells of Berwyn. This latter, probably fought at the Roman Fort of Brememium (High Rochester) may have later been turned into High-King Arthur's supposed 11th Battle, of Breguoin. After the defeat of the Yorkist Kings, Peredyr Arueu Dur (Steel Arms) and Gwrgi, by the Bernicians in 580, Urien was quick to claim the strategic region around Catraeth, before the Saxons of Bernicia and Deira were able to secure the area and unite their two peoples. This struggle may have culminated in the Battle of Argoed Llwyfein (Leeming Lane, Yorks). It was at this battle that King Theodoric Flamddwyn (the Firebrand) of Bernicia was killed by Urien's son. The British probably held both the old Roman fort of Catraeth itself and the hillfort site at Richmond.

By around 590, the Bernicians under Hussa were almost totally defeated. Pushed back to the sea's edge, the British besieged them on Ynys Metcaut (Lindisfarne) for three days, while Irish allies, under King Fiachna of Ulster, ousted the Saxons from Din-Guardi (Bamburgh). However, before Urien could seize victory and finally rid Britain of the Saxon scourge, he himself was treacherously assassinated at Aber Lleu (Ross Low). His assassin, a nocturnal foreigner by the name of Llofan Llaf Difo (Severing-Hand), cut-off Urien's head at the instigation of the King's own ally, Morcant. The latter was, apparently, jealous of Urien's victories, and thought that he should lead the push to rid his own kingdom of the Saxon menace. His plan, of course, completely backfired and the Saxons soon re-asserted their stranglehold on the North.

Till we meet again - regards - edmondsallan

GERALD of WALES - 1146

Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis, as he is sometimes known) was a well-known churchman of the twelfth century and the author of seventeen books. He was born in either 1145 or 1146 of three-quarters Norman and one-quarter Welsh extraction, in Manorbier, Pembrokeshire, South Wales. He was the great-grandson of Rhys ap Tewdwr, the Prince of South Wales (on his mother's side), and the son of William de Barri, a Norman knight. He was self-described as strikingly handsome and quite tall. He possessed boundless energy, strong personal skills and a firm belief in his own ability and importance.

One of his uncles, David FitzGerald was made Bishop of St. David's in 1148, an event which provided young Gerald with his life's goal. His ultimate desire was to be consecrated as Bishop of St. David's, without having to acknowledge the supremacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and then to have the Pope elevate his bishopric into the Archbishopric of St. David's. Although, in his long life, he was never able to satisfy this ambition, it was not for want of effort, as he focused all his considerable energies toward it from the late 1170's through the early days of the reign of King John.

In the course of things, he was offered, but refused to accept, four other bishoprics in Ireland and Wales, and, thus had to content himself with the lesser post of Archdeacon of Brecon, which he described by saying,

"In this most temperate area I myself have been appointed to a post of some importance, to use the jargon with which we are all so familiar, but it affords me no great promise of wealth and certainly no expectation of ever playing my part in the tragic pomps and ceremonies of this world.

Because of his Norman blood and connection with Welsh royalty, Gerald was well acquainted with those in power, and had many opportunities to serve at the highest levels of twelfth century society. No doubt, it was in connection with that service that he was at Glastonbury in 1191 to witness the uncovering of a grave, said to be that of King Arthur. Gerald refers to Arthur as being a famous, local ruler but never even hints that he might have been a king of the intercontinental proportions suggested by Geoffrey of Monmouth's SOURCE:History of the Kings of Britain.

Gerald wrote two accounts of this great Arthurian event, "Liber de
Principis instructione" c.1193, and "Speculum Ecclesiae," c.1216.

Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan

Travelling the GENE ALOGY TRAIL

I thought the journal written about genealogy was excellent

The maoris use to take a very brilliant young child and place him with a master who taught hm all he had been taught about the ancestry and other important affairs of his tribe . when he died The pupil took over and another gifted child was selected to do the same all over again
The same happened in the Isle of White- Uk . they also selected a gifted person to remember all ancestry which was passed onto them by another master who had been taught the same way I believe she was last one of these specially selected people died not long ago - She was
( 92 ) ill for only two days and they say her mind was clear to the end
My viking ancestors sailed to the Isle of White and aftrer a period of time sailed to the wales coast to a place called " Bangor "They finally after some years fought heir way to the Wales border at Monmouthshire
and england . one of our married ancestery couples - Walked over the main street to England and found work Yes folks - till this day the border between the two countries is in the middle of the main street
That married Couple in 1411 had ( 6 ) children - ( 4 ) in England with their names spelt the English way and the two younger ones spelt the welch way when they returned to wales . A bit tricky to follow -The English spelling is what is used today . of interest our Persian - BC / Hungarian / Switzerland / German / Danish / Norwegian
/ Welch / English name has been changed ( 8 ) times. I enjoyed every minute following that ancestral trail . When I started We did not have computers . I agree with our member when she says . And now we have computers-a piece of cake

Till we meet again -Regards - edmondsallan

1 comment(s), latest 5 years, 2 months ago

BERNARD BROCAS - Berkshire - England - 1330 - ( Historical Ancestry )

Bernard Brocas
Born: 1330, probably at Clewer, Berkshire
Died: 1395, probably at Clewer, Berkshire

Bernard Brocas, Master of the Horse to King Edward Ill, was the third son of Sir John Brocas of Clewer, adjoining Windsor (Berks), and was born about 1330.

Brocas was a great friend and companion of the Black Prince. His father having been a knight in the service of Edward III, the two probably grew up together. During the French Wars, Bernard was present, with the Prince, at the Battle of Poitiers and, almost certainly, at Crcy and Najara too. After the Peace of Bretigny, Bernard, along with other members of his family, were employed in the settlement of Aquitaine, where he held the office of constable. Upon the premature death of the prince, in 1376, he was especially invited to his funeral.

Sir Bernard was also a friend of William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. His first acquaintance with the Brocas family seems to have been through his position as architect of the rebuilding of Windsor Castle, in the earlier operations of which Bernard's father - and probably Bernard himself - had been employed. Of the three knights present, by invitation, at Wykeham's episcopal enthronement at Winchester, Brocas was one. In the year 1377, Wykeham's first act, after emerging from the difficulties in which he had been placed by his political struggle with the all powerful John of Gaunt, was to make Brocas "chief surveyor and sovereign warden of our parks..throughout our bishopric." Soon after this, he became the chief trustee of the Brocas estates.

In the same year, immediately after the death of King Edward IlI & the accession of his grandson, Richard II, Brocas was appointed Captain of Calais; an appointment which, he held only for a short time, though he was now constantly employed in various diplomatic and military services. He also sat for Hampshire in ten parliaments and for Wiltshire in an eleventh, closely connected, as it would seem, with Wykeham in his political line of conduct from 1367 to 1395. On, or soon after, King Richard's marriage to Anne of Bohemia, he became the Queen's Chamberlain and he is said to have also been Chamberlain to the Count of Hainault.

In his domestic life, Sir Bernard married thrice. Firstly, in 1354, to Agnes, daughter and heiress of Sir Mauger Vavasour of Denton (Yorks). The following year, his uncle and namesake, the Rector of Guildford (Surrey) - wishing to secure a future for his brother's youngest and, therefore, landless son - bestowed upon him the estate which was to form the chief Brocas property: Beaurepaire, in Sherborne St. John near Basingstoke (Hants). Here, he built a fine moated house, long ago been pulled down, but it does not appear to have been an over happy home. For it seems that, while Bernard was fighting for his country abroad, his wife, Agnes, returned to her Yorkshire estates and entered into a liaison with her neighbour, Henry De Langfield. The circumstances are not precisely clear. The generous suggest that false reports of Sir Bernard's death led to the lady actually marrying De Langfield. She certainly had a son, called Bernard, of whom the Yokshireman was supposedly the father. This must have been something of a shock to poor Sir Bernard upon his eventual return home. The two were divorced in 1360, at which time, he was charitable enough to let Agnes retain the most valuable estates in her dowry.

Encouraged by his friend, the Black Prince, Bernard now made a play for the latter's cousin, Princess Joan of Kent, the young widow of Sir Thomas Holland. In the event, the Prince decided the prize was too great and married the lady himself. However, Brocas soon turned his attentions to the wealthy heiress, Mary Des Roches, widow of Sir John De Borhunt and daughter of Sir John Des Roches, a collateral descent of Peter, the Bishop of Winchester of that name. By 1361, the two were wed and Bernard received, from her, several estates, chief amongst them being Roche Court, near Fareham (Hants). Through this second marriage also, he became Master of the Royal Buckhounds, an hereditary office based on the manor of Weldon, in the Rockingham Forest (Northants), and retained by his descendants for three centuries. After the death of Sir Bernard's father, in 1365, the two probably lived mostly at their manor of Clewer Brocas in order to be near the King at Windsor. This time, the union does appear to have been a happy one until Mary died, probably in April, 1380. Two years later, Bernard remarried to Katherine, widow of Sir Hugh Tyrrell, but he did not forget his second wife and, in 1384, gave lands to Southwark Priory (near Fareham) in her memory and also founded a chantry chapel in Clewer parish church. The position of chaplain was soon taken on by the hermit of nearby Losfield (St. Leonard's Hill). Sir Bernard had been a patron of his Chapel of St. Leonard since 1355 when he petitioned the Pope for an indulgence to be granted to visiting pilgrims.

Brocas died in 1395 and was buried in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. That his handsome monument stands so close to the Royal tombs is a mark of the estimation in which he was held by his Royal master. The inscription on the tomb, in Latin, runs thus: "Here lies Bernard Brocas, knight, sometime Chamberlain to Anne, Queen of England. May God have mercy upon his Soul." The recumbent figure is, apparently, of a later date.

An old story is told of how the verger of the abbey used to point him out "the old lord who cut off the King of Morocco's head," notably to Sir Roger De Coverley who was deeply impressed. This remark was occasioned by the family crest, representing what is heraldically called a Moor's head, orientally crowned. This crest is found on the seals of Sir Bernard Brocas, along with the lion rampant of the Brocas arms, as early as 1361. He was the first to use it and it was borne by his descendants ever since, though its origin is not known. It was, of course, granted by King Edward Ill, and probably did represent some similar feat of war or chivalry.

source: from Leslie Stephens & Sidney Lee's "Dictionary of National

PETER DES ROCHES - Bishop of Winchester- ( Historical Ancestrry )

Peter Des Roches
(died 1238)
Bishop of Winchester
Died: 9th June 1238

Peter Des Roches was born of a knightly family in Poitou, of which province he became archdeacon and treasurer. He was consecrated Bishop of Winchester at Rome in the Autumn of 1205: "one of the first and most powerful of those foreign Churchmen" whose oppressions and exactions were afterwards among the chief causes of the rising under Simon de Montfort. Throughout, and in spite of, all the insults and oppressions heaped on the Church by King John, Bishop Peter of Winchester, together with two other prelates, Grey of Norwich and Philip of Durham, continued the firm partizans and unscrupulous executors of all the King's measures. They figure accordingly in the satirical songs of the time. In one of which the Bishop of Winchester, the royal treasurer, is thus referred to:
"Wintoniensis armiger
Praesidet ad scaccarium;
Ad computandum impiger,
Piger ad evangelium;
Regis revolvens rotulum.
Sic lucrum Lucam superat,
Marco, marcam praeponderat,
Et librae librum subjecit."

During all the contest with Innocent Ill and, afterwards, with the Barons, Des Roches remained constant to the King. In 1214, after John's submission to the Pope, and whilst the barons were preparing for the struggle which ended in the grant of the Great Charter (Magna Carta), he was made Grand Justiciary of England - not without much remonstrance and ill-will on the part of the native nobles.

After John's death, Des Roches continued in power and succeeded William, Earl Marshal, as guardian of the young king, Henry III. The exercise of the royal authority, however, was in the hands of the famous Justiciary, Hubert de Burgh, with whom the Bishop of Winchester was involved in a perpetual feud. Accordingly, in 1226, the warlike Bishop found it necessary to withdraw, for a time, from the kingdom; and, together with William Brewer, Bishop of Exeter, led a body of crusaders from England to the Holy Land. Her, according to Matthew Paris, Des Roches did effectual service as well by his sword as by his counsels. He was present during the visit of the Emperor Frederick II (September 1228 -May 1229) who consulted the English Bishops before concluding the Treaty with Sultan Kameel, by which the latter agreed to surrender the Holy City. Their subsequent testimony was of some importance in the great contest between the Pope and the Emperor.

Upon his return after five years' absence, Bishop Peter was received with especial favour by the King. The troubles which, during the following years (1232-34) fell upon Hubert de Burgh and his partizans, were excited by the Bishop of Winchester who, in his turn provoked the indignation and almost a rising of the people by his patronage of foreigners. This was one of the great evils under which the country angered throughout this period. Des Roches invited over vast numbers of his countrymen (Poitevins). The chief Offices of State were conferred on them and the Royal revenues were employed to enrich them. At length, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund of Abingdon, insisted on their dismissal. To which the King only submitted after threats of excommunication. Peter Des Roches died at his castle of Farnham in June 1238 and was interred in his own cathedral, though in what part is not certainly known.

The death of Bishop Des Roches was the signal for great troubles at Winchester. Henry III insisted that William of Valence, uncle of the Queen, should be elected; but the monks, declining him as a "man of blood," chose William De Raley, the Bishop of Norwich, instead.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

English made easy -

source:English made easy
Having chosen English as the preferred language in the EEC (now officially the European Union, or EU), the European Parliament has commissioned a feasibility study in ways of improving efficiency in communications between Government departments.

European officials have often pointed out that English spelling is unnecessary difficult; for example: cough, plough, rough, through and thorough. What is clearly needed is a phased programme of changes to iron out these anomalies. The programme would, of course, be administered by a committee staff at top level by participating nations.

In the first year, for example, the committee would suggest using 's' instead of the soft 'c'. Sertainly, sivil servants in all sities would resieve this news with joy. Then the hard 'c' could be replaced by 'k' sinse both letters are pronounsed alike. Not only would this klear up konfusion in the minds of klerikal workers, but typewriters kould be made with one less letter.

There would be growing enthusiasm when in the sekond year, it was anounsed that the troublesome 'ph' would henseforth be written 'f'. This would make words like 'fotograf' twenty persent shorter in print.

In the third year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. Governments would enkourage the removal of double letters which have always been a deterent to akurate speling.

We would al agre that the horible mes of silent 'e's in the languag is disgrasful. Therefor we kould drop thes and kontinu to read and writ as though nothing had hapend. By this tim it would be four years sins the skem began and peopl would be reseptive to steps sutsh as replasing 'th' by 'z'. Perhaps zen ze funktion of 'w' kould be taken on by 'v', vitsh is, after al, half a 'w'. Shortly after zis, ze unesesary 'o' kould be dropd from words kontaining 'ou'. Similar arguments vud of kors be aplid to ozer kombinations of leters.

Kontinuing zis proses yer after yer, ve vud eventuli hav a reli sensibl riten styl. After tventi yers zer vud be no mor trubls, difikultis and evrivun vud fin it ezi tu understand ech ozer. Ze drems of the uvermnt vud finali hav kum tru.

Till we meet again -Regards- edmondsallan

1 comment(s), latest 5 years, 2 months ago