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The ERSKINNES - Scotland - ( Historical Ancestry )

The Erskines

The Erskine family, which has produced a remarkable number of eminent men in every department of public life, derived their designation from the barony of Erskine in Renfrewshire, situated on the south bank of the Clyde. A Henry de Erskine, from whom the family trace their descent, was proprietor of this barony so early as the reign of Alexander II. A daughter of his great-grandson, Sir John de Erskine, was married to Sir Thomas Bruce, a brother of King Robert, who was taken prisoner and put to death by the English; another became the wife of Walter, High Steward of Scotland. The brother of these ladies was a faithful adherent of Robert Bruce, and as a reward for his patriotism and valour, was knighted under the royal banner on the field. He died in 1329. His son, Sir Robert de Erskine, held the great offices of Lord High Chamberlain, Justiciary north of the Forth, and Constable of the Castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dumbarton. He was six times ambassador to England, was also sent on an embassy to France, was Warden of the Marches, and heritable Sheriff of Stirlingshire. He took an active part in securing the succession of the House of Stewart to the throne, on the death of David Bruce. In return for this important service he received from Robert II. a grant of the estate of Alloa, which still remains in the possession of the family, in exchange for the hunting-ground of Strathgartney. Sir Thomas, the son of this powerful noble by his marriage to Janet Keith, great grand-daughter of Gratney, Earl of Mar, laid the foundation of the claim which the Erskines preferred to that dignity, and the vast estates which were originally included in the earldom. Though their claim was rejected by James I., the family continued to prosper; new honours and possessions were liberally conferred upon them by successive sovereigns, and they were elevated to the peerage in 1467. The second Lord Erskine fought on the side of King James III. against the rebel lords at Sauchieburn. Robert, third Lord Erskine, fell at the battle of Flodden with four other gentlemen, his kinsmen. The grandson of that lord, the Master of Erskine, was killed at Pinkie. For several generations the Erskines were entrusted with the honourable and responsible duty of keeping the heirs to the Crown during their minority. James IV., James V., Queen Mary, James VI., and his eldest son, Prince Henry, were in turn committed to the charge of the head of the Erskine family, who discharged this important trust with great fidelity. John, the fourth Lord Erskine, who had the keeping of James V. during his minority, was employed by him in after life in important public affairs, was present at the melancholy death of that monarch at Falkland, and after that event afforded for some time a refuge to his infant daughter, the unfortunate Mary, in Stirling Castle, of which he was hereditary governor. On the invasion of Scotland by the English, he removed her for greater security to the Priory of Inchmahome, an island in the Lake of Menteith, which was his own property. His eldest son, who fell at the battle of Pinkie during his fathers lifetime, was the ancestor, by an illegitimate son, of the Erskines of Shieldfield, near Dryburgh, from whom sprang the celebrated brothers Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine, the founders of the Secession Church.
JOHN, fifth Lord Erskine, though a Protestant, was held in such esteem by Queen Mary that she bestowed on him the long-coveted title of Earl of Mar, which had been withheld from his ancestor a hundred and thirty years earlier. He maintained a neutral position during the protracted struggle between the Lords of the Congregation and the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise; but when she was reduced to great straits, he gave her an asylum in the castle of Edinburgh, where she died in 1560. The young Queen Mary put herself under his protection when about to be delivered of her son, afterwards James VI. The infant prince was immediately committed to the care of the Earl, who conveyed him to the castle of Stirling, and in the following year he baffled all the attempts of Bothwell to obtain possession of the heir to the throne. When James was subsequently crowned, though only thirteen months old, the Parliament imposed upon the Earl of Mar the onerous and responsible duty of keeping and educating the infant sovereign, which he discharged with exemplary fidelity. James seems to have spent his youthful years very happily as well as securely in the household of the Earl, pursuing his studies, and enjoying his sports in the company of Mars eldest son. Mars sister was the mother, by James V., of Regent Moray, [She afterwards married Sir William Douglas of Loch Leven. In Sir Walter Scotts Abbot, Lady Douglas is represented as a harsh custodian of Queen Mary. She was in reality very friendly to that illustrious Princess, and was not resident in Loch Leven Castle when Mary was imprisoned there.] and the Earl was himself chosen Regent of Scotland in 1571, on the death of the Earl of Lennox; but he sank beneath the burden of anxiety and grief occasioned by the distracted state of the kingdom, and died in the following year. The family attained its highest lustre under the Regents son, JOHN, second Earl of Mar of the name of Erskine, the famous Jock o the Sclaits (slates), [It is supposed that this sobriquet was given by James to his class-fellow from his having been intrusted by George Buchanan with a slate, whereon to record the misdeeds of the royal pupil during the pedagogues absence.] a name given him by James VI., his playfellow and a pupil along with him and his cousins, sons of Erskine of Gogar, of the learned and severe pedagogue, George Buchanan, under the superintendence of the Countess of Mar. He was one of the nobles who took part in the Raid of Ruthven in 1582, and was, in consequence, deprived of his office of Governor of Stirling Castlewhich was conferred on the royal favourite Arranand was obliged to take refuge in Ireland. An unsuccessful attempt to regain his position in 1584 made it necessary for the Earl to retire into England; but in November of the following year, he and the other banished lords re-entered Scotland, and, at the head of eight thousand men, took possession of Stirling Castle and the person of the King, and expelled Arran from the Court.

From this time forward the Earl of Mar was one of the Kings most trusty counsellors and intimate friends, down to the end of his career. In July, 1595, he was formally entrusted by James with the custody and education of Prince Henry, by a warrant under the Kings own hand, being the fifth of the heirs to the throne who had been committed to the charge of an Erskine. He was sent ambassador to England in 1601, and by his dexterous management contributed not a little to facilitate the peaceable accession of James to the English throne. A quarrel took place between the Earl and Queen Anne respecting the custody of Prince Henry, but James firmly maintained the claim of his friend in opposition to the angry demand of his wife, who never forgave the Earl for resisting her wishes. Mar, in return, steadily supported the policy of the King in his quarrels with the Scottish clergy, and voted for the Five Articles of Perth, though he was well aware how obnoxious they were to the people of Scotland. In 1616 the Earl was appointed to the office of Lord High Treasurer, which he held till 1620, and became the most powerful man in the kingdom.

After the death of his first wife, Anne, daughter of David, Lord Drummond, the Earl fell ardently in love with Lady Mary Stewart, the daughter of the Duke of Lennox, the ill-fated royal favourite, and cousin of the King. As he was older than this French beauty, and had already a son and heir, she at first positively refused to marry him, remarking that Anne Drumrnonds bairn would be Earl of Mar, but that hers would be just Maister Erskine. Being of a hawtie spirit, says Lord Somerville, she disdained that the children begotten upon her should be any ways inferior, either as to honour or estate, to the children of the first marriage. She leaves nae means unessayed to advance their fortunes. [Memoirs of the Somervilles. Lord Somerville is mistaken in representing Lord Mar as an old man at this time. He was little more than thirty years of age.]

The Earl took her rejection of his suit so much to heart as to become seriously ill; but the King strove to comfort him, and, in his homely style of speech said, By my saul, Jock, ye sanna dee for ony lass in a the land. He was aware that the main cause of the ladys refusal to marry his friend was her knowledge of the fact that the Earls son by his first wife would inherit his titles as well as his estates, and he informed her that if she married Mar, and bore him a son, he should also be made a peer. The inducement thus held out by his Majesty removed Lady Marys scruples, and James was as good as his word. He created the Earl Lord Cardross, bestowing upon him at the same time the barony of that name, with the unusual privilege of authority to assign both the barony and the title to any of his sons whom he might choose. The Earl was the father of three peers, and the father-in-law of four powerful earls. Lady Mary Stewart bore him five sons and four daughters. The eldest of these, Sir James Erskine, married Mary Douglas, Countess of Buchan in her own right, and was created Earl of Buchan. The second son, Henry, received from his father the title and the barony of Cardross. The third son, Colonel Sir Alexander Erskine, lost his life, along with his brother-in-law, the Earl of Eladdington and other Covenanting leaders, when Dunglass Castle was blown up in 1640 by the explosion of the powder-magazine. He was a handsome and gallant soldier, originally in the French service, and is noted as the lover whose faithlessness is bewailed in the beautiful and pathetic song entitled, Lady Anne Bothwells Lament. Sir Charles Erskine, the fourth son, was ancestor of the Erskines of Alva, now represented by the Earl of Rosslyn. William Erskine, the youngest son, was cup-bearer to Charles II., and Master of the Charterhouse, London. The Earl of Mars youngest daughter married the eldest son of the Lord Chancellor, Thomas Hamilton, first Earl of Haddington Tam o the Cowgate. When King James heard of the intended marriage, knowing well the great ability, and the pawkiness of the two noblemen who were thus to be brought into close alliance, he exclaimed in unfeigned, and not altogether groundless, alarm, Lord, haud a grupp o me. If Tam o the Cowgates son marry Jock o the Sclaits daughter, what will become o me!

It is a curious confirmation of his Majestys apprehensions that, in 1624, the other nobles complained that the Earls of Mar and Melrose (the Lord-Chancellors first title), wielded all but absolute power in the State. The former, it was said, disposed of the Kings revenue, and the other ruled in the Council, and Court of Session, each according to his pleasure.

The Earl died at Stirling Castle, 14th December, 1634, at the age of seventy-seven, and was interred at Alloa. Scott of Scotstarvit says of his death, His chief delight was in hunting; and he procured by Act of Parliament that none should hunt within divers miles of the Kings house. Yet often that which is most pleasant to a man is his overthrow; for, walking in his own hall, a dog cast him off his feet and lamed his leg, of which he died: and, at his burial, a hare having run through the company, his special chamberlain, Alexander Stirling, fell off his horse and broke his neck.

It is said that there are some of the descendants of the Lord Treasurer who, on account of this casualty, are to this day chary of meeting an accidental hare.

From this period the decay of the family began, and steadily proceeded in its downward course till it reached its lowest position in 1715, when they were subjected, in consequence of the part which they took in the Great Civil War, to sequestrations and heavy fines.

JOHN, the eighth Earl of Mar of the name of Erskine, however, entered on life with every prospect of a prosperous career. He was invested with the Order of the Bath in 1610, was nominated one of the Extraordinary Lords of Session, sworn a privy councillor in 1615, and was, at the same time, appointed Governor of Stirling Castle. But, in 1638, he was deprived of the command of the castle, which Charles I. conferred on General Ruthven, afterwards Earl of Forth, whom he had recalled from the Swedish service at the time when he was resolved to suppress the Covenant by force. The same year the Earl was made to sell to the King the sheriff-ship of Stirling, and the bailiery of the Forth, for the sum of 8,000 sterling. He obtained a bond for the money in 1641, but it is doubtful whether any part of it was ever paid. Mar at first supported the Covenanters, but when their policy became apparent, he signed the Cumbernauld Bond, along with the Earl of Montrose and other nobles, to support the King. His property was, in consequence, sequestered by the Estates. In 1638 he sold the barony of Erskine, the most ancient possession of the family, to Sir John Hamilton of Orbiston, in order to clear off the heavy incumbrances on his other estates; and he is said to have lost in the Irish rebellion some lands which he had purchased in Ireland. He died in 1654. His eldest son

JOHN, the ninth. Earl, before he succeeded to the family titles and estates, commanded the Stirlingshire regiment in the army of the Covenanters, raised in 1644, for the purpose of resisting the threatened invasion of Scotland by Charles I. But in the following year, along with his father, he joined the Cumbernauld association, for the defence of the royal cause. This step, while it deeply offended the Covenanters, did not secure him protection from the Royalist forces; for, in 1645, the Irish kernes in the army of Montrose plundered the town of Alloa, and the estates of the Earl of Mar in the vicinity of that town. Notwithstanding this outrage, the Earl and his son gave a handsome entertainment to Montrose and his officers, and, by this exercise of hospitality, so highly incensed the Earl of Argyll, the leader of the Covenanters, that he threatened to burn the castle of Alloa. After the battle of Kilsyth (15th August, 1645) Lord Erskine joined the victorious Royalist army, and was present at their ruinous defeat at Philiphaugh on the 13th September following, but escaped from the battlefield, and was sent by Montrose on the forlorn attempt to raise recruits in Braemar. The Estates, in consequence, fined him 24,000 marks, and caused his houses of Erskine and Mar to be plundered. On succeeding his father, in 1654, the Earls whole estates were sequestrated by the orders of Cromwell, and he was so completely ruined that he lived till the Restoration in a small cottage, at the gate of what had been his own mansion, Alloa House. To add to his misfortunes and sufferings, he lost his eyesight. His estates were restored to him by Charles II. in 1660; but the family never recovered from the heavy losses to which they had been subjected during the Civil War. The unfortunate nobleman died in September, 1688, just in time to escape witnessing the ruin of that royal house for which he had suffered so much. His Countess, Lady Mary Maule, eldest daughter of the second Earl of Panmure, bore him eight sons and one daughter. Five of his sons died young. The second son was James Erskine of Grange, Lord Justice Clerk. The third was Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Erskine, who was killed at the battle of Almanza in 1707. The eldest

JOHN, eleventh Earl of the Erskine family, was the well-known leader of the Jacobite rebellion in 1715. He found the family estates much involved, and joined the Whig party then in power under the Duke of Queensberry, merely because it was his interest to do so. He received from them the command of a regiment of foot, and was invested with the Order of the Thistle. In 1704, when the Whigs went out of office, Mar paid court to the Tory party, their successors, and contrived to impress them with the belief that he was a trustworthy friend of the exiled family. When the Whigs came once more into power he gave them his support, and assisted in promoting the Union between England and Scotland. As a reward for his services he was appointed Secretary of State for Scotland, and was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers. But finding that he had lost the good opinion of his countrymen by supporting the Union, which was very unpopular in Scotland, he endeavoured to regain their favour by voting for the motion in the House of Lords for the dissolution of the Union, which was very nearly carried. On the dismissal of the Whig ministry in 1713, Mar, without scruple or shame, went over to their opponents, and was again appointed Secretary of State, and manager for Scotland. These repeated tergiversations rendered him notorious even among the loose-principled politicians of his own day, and gained him in his native country the nickname of Bobbing John.

On the death of Queen Anne, the Earl of Mar, as Secretary of State, signed the proclamation of George I., and in a letter to the new sovereign made earnest protestations of ardent loyalty and deep attachment, accompanied by a reference to his services to the country. He also procured a letter to be addressed to himself by the chiefs of the Jacobite clans, declaring that they had always been ready to follow his directions in serving the late queen, and that they were equally ready to concur with him in serving the new sovereign. George, however, was quite well aware of the double part which the Earl had acted, and on presenting himself to the King on his arrival at Greenwich he was left unnoticed, and eight days after he was dismissed from office.

Deeply mortified at this treatment, Mar resolved upon revenge, and entered into correspondence with the disaffected party in Scotland, with the view of exciting an insurrection against the reigning family. He attended a court levee on the 1st of August, 1715, and next morning he set out for Scotland to raise the standard of rebellion against the King to whom he just paid homage. Accompanied by Major-General Hamilton and Colonel Hay, the Earl, disguised as an artisan, sailed in a coal-barge from London to Newcastle. He hired a vessel there which conveyed him and his companions to the coast of Fife, and landed them at the small port of Elie. He spent a few days in that district among the Jacobite gentry, with whom he made arrangements to join him in the North. On the 17th of August he left Fife, and with forty horse proceeded to his estates in Aberdeenshire, sending out by the way invitations to a great hunting match in the forest of Braemar, on the 25th of that month. On the day appointed the leading Jacobite noblemen and chiefs assembled, attended by a few hundreds of their vassals, and after a glowing address from Mar, denouncing the usurping intruder who occupied the throne, and holding out large promises of assistance from France in both troops and money, they resolved to take up arms on behalf of the exiled Stewart family. Accordingly, on the 6th of September, the Jacobite standard was unfurled at Castletown, in Braemar.

The fiery cross was sent through the Highlands, summoning every man capable of bearing arms to repair with all speed to the camp of the Jacobite leader. Mars own tenants and vassals showed great reluctance to take part in the enterprise. There is a very instructive letter sent by him to the bailie of his lordship of Kildrummie, in which he complains bitterly that so few of his retainers had voluntarily repaired to his standard. lt is a pretty thing, he said, when all the Highlands of Scotland are now rising upon their King and countrys account, that my men should be only refractory, and he threatened that should they continue obstinate, their property should be pillaged and burned, and they themselves treated as enemies. The clansmen of the Highland chiefs, however, repaired with more alacrity to the standard on the braes of Mar; the Earl was soon at the head of an army of twelve thousand men, and almost the whole country to the north of the Tay was in the hands of the insurgents. Mar, however, was totally unfit to head such an enterprise. Though possessed of great activity and a plausible address, he was fickle, vacillating, infirm of purpose, crooked in mind and body, and entirely ignorant of the art of war. He wasted much precious time lingering in the Highlands, and when at length he made up his mind to descend into the Lowlands, he found that the Duke of Argyll had taken up a position at Stirling which blocked his march. The two armies encountered at Sheriffmuir, near Dunblane, on the 13th of November, 1715, and though the result was a drawn battle, the advantages of the contest remained with the Duke. The march of the insurgents into the low country was permanently arrested. Mar retreated to Perth; his army rapidly dwindled away; and though joined by the Chevalier in person, who created him a duke, he was at last fain to retreat to the North, after laying waste, in the most ruthless manner, the country through which the royal troops must march in pursuit of the retreating army. The unfortunate Prince, his incompetent general, and several others of the leaders embarked at Montrose (February 4, 1746) in a French ship, and sailed for the Continent, leaving their deluded and indignant followers to shift for themselves. The Earl of Mar and the Chevalier, with his attendants, landed at Waldam, near Gravelines, February 11th.

The Earl accompanied the Prince to Rome, and for some years continued to manage his affairs, the mock minister of a mock cabinet, in the French capital, and possessed Jamess unlimited confidence. He entered, however, into some negotiations with the Earl of Stair, ambassador at the French Court, through whom he obtained a pension of 2,000 from the British Government, and 1,500 a year was allowed to his wife and daughter out of his forfeited estate. Mar, while revealing the secrets of James to the British Government, still professed to be a staunch adherent of the exiled family. But he was accused both of embezzling the money the Jacobites had raised for the promotion of their cause, and of betraying his master, and in the end James withdrew his confidence from him, and dismissed him from his service; indeed, he had by his double-dealing forfeited the esteem and confidence of both parties. He died at Aix-la-Chapelle in May, 1732, regretted by no one.

The HON. JAMES ERSKINE OF GRANGE, younger brother of the Earl of Mar, was a very remarkable character. His memory has been preserved mainly in consequence of his extraordinary abduction of his wife. He was admitted to the Bar in July, 1705, was appointed to a seat on the Bench in October, 1706no doubt through the influence of his brother the Earl, who was at that time Secretary of State for Scotland. In 1707 he was made a Lord of Justiciary, and in 1710 was appointed Lord Justice-Clerk. He had contracted a violent dislike to Sir Robert Walpole, and for the purpose of assisting the enemies of that minister in hunting him down, he offered himself a candidate for the Stirling Burghs. In order to exclude his vindictive enemy from the House of Commons, Walpole got an Act passed disqualifying judges of the Court of Session from holding a seat in Parliament., Grange was determined, however, not to be balked in his design, and he resigned his office, and was elected member for the Stirling district of burghs. Great expectations were entertained of the influence which he would exercise in the House. But his first appearance, says Dr. Carlyle, undeceived his sanguine friends, and silenced him for ever. He chose to make his maiden speech on the Witches Bill, as it was called; and being learned in daemonologia, with books on which subject his library was filled, he made a long canting speech that set the House in a titter of laughter, and convinced Sir Robert that he had no need of any extraordinary armour against this champion of the house of Mar.

Carlyle speaks contemptuously of Erskines learning and ability, and says he had been raised on the shoulders of his brother, the Earl of Mar, but had never distinguished himself. The minister of Inveresk, however, was too young to know him intimately, and he makes several erroneous statements respecting Granges career. He was usually a member of the General Assembly, and voted with what Carlyle calls the High-flying party. He had my father very frequently with him in the evenings, Carlyle continues, and kept him to very late hours. They were understood to pass much of their time in prayer, and in settling the high points of Calvinism, for their creed was that of Geneva. Lord Grange was not unentertaining in conversation, for he had a great many anecdotes, which he related agreeably, and was fair-complexioned, good-looking, and insinuating. After these meetings for private prayer, however, in which they passed several hours before supper, praying alternately, they did not part without wine, for my mother used to complain of their late hours, and suspected that the claret had flowed liberally. Notwithstanding this intimacy, there were periods of half a year at a time when there was no intercourse between them at all. My fathers conjecture was that at those times he was engaged in a course of debauchery at Edinburgh, and interrupted his religious exercises. For in those intervals he not only neglected my fathers company, but absented himself from church, and did not attend the Sacrament, which at other times he would not have neglected for the world.

Mr. Erskines wife, Lady Grange as she was called, was Rachel Chiesley, the daughter of Chiesley of Dalry, who shot President Lockhart, 31st March, 1689, in the Old Bank Close, Lawnmarket, Edinburgh, in consequence of a decision given by him in an arbitration, that Chiesley was bound to make his wife and family an allowance. There can be no doubt that there was madness in her family, and the lady was a confirmed drunkard. She had been very beautiful, but had a most violent temper, and, becoming jealous of her husband, she employed spies to watch him when he visited London, and is said to have often boasted of the family to which she belonged, hinting that she might one day follow her fathers example. Her husband declared that his life was hourly in danger from her outrageous conduct, and that she slept with deadly weapons under her pillow. According to Wodrow, she intercepted her husbands letters in the post-office, and would have palmed treason upon them, and took them to the Justice Clerk, as is said, and alleged that some phrases in some of her lords letters to Lord Dun, related to the Pretender, without the least shadow for the inference. Carlyle says her husband had taken every method to soothe her. As she loved command, he had made her factor upon his estate, and given her the whole management of his affairs. When absent he wrote her the most flattering letters, and did what was still more flattering: he was said, when present, to have imparted secrets to her which, if disclosed, might have reached his life. Still she was unquiet, and led him a miserable life. Though she had agreed, in 1730, to accept a separate maintenance, with which she would be satisfied, she still continued to persecute and annoy her husband in the most violent manner.

The outrageous conduct and alarming threats of this wretched woman at length caused Grange to take measures for her confinement in a remote and solitary spot in the Highlands. On the evening of 22nd January, 1732, Lady Grange, who was living in lodgings next door to her husbands house, was seized and gagged by a number of Highlandmen who had been secretly admitted into her residence. She was carried off by night journeys to Loch Hourn, on the west coast Highlands, and was thence transported to the small and lonely island of Hesker, where she remained five years. She was then conveyed to St. Kilda, where she was detained for seven years more, and ultimately to Harris, where she died in 1745. It was not till 1740 that some rumours got abroad respecting her abduction, and the wretched condition in which she was kept, but no effective measures were taken for her release. She affirmed that the men who carried her off wore Lovats liveryprobably meaning his tartanand that Lovat himself had an interview at Stirling with the person in charge of her captors to make arrangements for her journey. Though that consummate villain denied the charge in the most vehement terms, there can be little or no doubt that it was true. As to that story about Lord Grange, he said, it is a much less surprise to me, because they said ten times worse of me when that damned woman went from Edinburgh than they say now; for they said it was all my contrivance, and that it was my servants that took her away; but I defied them then, as I do now, and do declare to you upon honour that I do not know what has become of that woman, where she is, or who takes care of her; but if I had contrived, and assisted, and saved my Lord Grange from that devil who threatened every day to murder him and his children, I would not think shame of it before God or man.

The Laird of MLeod, to whom the island of St. Kilda belonged, was believed to have been Lovats accomplice in this lawless deed. What was most extraordinary, says Carlyle, was that, except in conversation for a few weeks only, this enormous act, committed in the midst of the metropolis of Scotland, by a person who had been Lord Justice-Clerk, was not taken the least notice of by any of her own family, or by the Kings Advocate, or Solicitor, or any of the guardians of the laws. Two of her sons were grown up to manhood; her eldest daughter was the wife of the Earl of Kintore; they acquiesced, in what they considered as a necessary act of justice, for the preservation of their fathers life. Nay, the second son was supposed to be one of the persons who came masked to the house, and carried her off in a chair to the place where she was set on horseback.

A curious paper, written partly by Lady Grange, partly by the minister of St. Kilda, found its way to Edinburgh, and fell into the hands of Mr. William Blackwood, the well-known publisher. It was purchased by John Francis, Earl of Mar, and, along with some letters from that lady, was presented to the Marquis of Bute. This interesting document, which is dated January 21st, 1746, gives a long and minute account of Lady Granges abduction, and of the treatment which she received from her captors and successive custodians, which bears the stamp of truth. It was published in the Scots Magazine for November, 1817, by a gentleman who had obtained a copy of the paper.

Grange left a diary, a portion of which was printed in 1834, under the title, Extracts from the Diary of a Member of the College of Justice.

The forfeited estates of the Jacobite Earl of Mar were purchased from the Government by Erskine of Grange. His two eldest sons died young. James, the third son, an Advocate, was appointed Knight-Marischal of Scotland in 1758. He married his cousin, Lady Frances Erskine, only daughter of the Jacobite Earl of Mar, and died in 1785, leaving two sons. The Mar titles were restored by Act of Parliament to the elder son, John Francis Erskine, in 1824. They are now possessed, along with the estates, by a descendant of his younger son, WALTER HENRY ERSKINE, Earl of Mar and Kellie.

Till we meet again - Regards- edmondallan

The DRUMMONDS - Scotland -( Historical Ancestry )

The Drummonds

THE founder of the Drummond family was long believed to have been a Hungarian gentleman, named MAURICE, who was said by Lord Strathallan, in his history of the family, to have piloted the vessel in which Edgar Atheling and his two sisters embarked for Hungary in 1066. They were driven, however, by a storm to land upon the north side of the Firth of Forth, near Queensferry, and took refuge at the Court of Malcolm Canmore, which was then held at Dunfermline. After the marriage of the Scottish king to the Princess Margaret, the Hungarian, as a reward for his skilful management of the vessel in the dangerous sea voyage, was rewarded by Malcolm with lands, offices, and a coat-of-arms; and called Drummond; and so it seems, says Lord Strathallan, this Hungarian gentleman got his name, either from the office as being captaine, director, or admiral to Prince Edgar and his companyfor Dromont or Dromend in divers nations was the name of a ship of a swift course, and the captaine thereof was called Droment or Dromereror otherwise the occasion of the name was from the tempest they endured at sea; for Drummond, his lordship thinks, might be made up of the Greek word for water, and meant a hill, signifying high hills of waters; or Drummond, from drum, which in our ancient language is a height. The myth was enlarged with additional and minute particulars by succeeding historians of the family. Mr. Malcolm exalts the Hungarian gentleman to the position of a royal prince of Hungary, and affirms that he was the son of George, a younger son of Andrew, King of Hungary. The late Mr. Henry Drummond, the banker, and M.P. for West Surrey, in his splendid work, entitled, Noble British Families, adopts and improves upon the statements of the previous writers, and gives the Hungarian prince a royal pedigree in Hungary for many generations anterior to his coming to Scotland in 1066. All three agree in stating that the first lands given to that Hungarian by Malcolm Canmore lay in Dumbartonshire, and included the parish of Drummond in Lennox.

Mr. Fraser, in his elaborate and most interesting work, entitled, The Red Book of Menteith, has proved, by conclusive evidence, that these statements respecting the origin of the Drummond family are purely apocryphal. The word Drummond, Drymen, or Drummin, is used as a local name in several counties of Scotland, and is derived from the Celtic word druim, a ridge or knoll. The first person who can be proved to have borne the name was one Malcolm of Drummond, who, along with his brother, named Gilbert, witnessed the charters of Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox, from 1225 to 1270. But this Malcolm was simply a chamberlain to the Earl. Mr. Drummond states that he was made hereditary thane or seneschal of Lennox, which is quite unsupported by evidence; and he asserts that Malcolms estates reached from the shores of the Gareloch, in Argyllshire, across the counties of Dumbarton and Stirling into Perthshire, which Mr. Fraser has shown to be an entire mistake. Instead of the Barony of Drymen, or Drummond, having been granted to a Prince Maurice by Malcolm Canmore in 1070, the lands belonged to the Crown previous to the year 1489, when for the first time they were let on lease to John, first Lord Drummond, and afterwards granted to him as feu-farm. The earliest charter to the family of any lands having a similar name was granted in 1362, by Robert Stewart of Scotland, Earl of Strathern, to Maurice of Drummond, of the dominical lands, or mains of Drommand and Tulychravin, in the earldom of Strathern. It is doubtful if he ever entered into possession of these lands; but it is clear that, whether he did so or not, they did not belong to the Drummond family previous to the grant of 1362, but were part of the estates of the Earl of Strathern, and that they are wholly distinct from the lands and lordship of Drummond afterwards acquired by John Drummond, who sat in Parliament 6th May, 1471, under the designation of Dominus de Stobhall, and, sixteen years later, was created a peer of Parliament by James III.

James IV., after his accession to the throne, granted a lease for five years, on 6th June, 1489, in favour of John, Lord Drummond, of the Crown lands of Drummond, in the shire of Stirling. On the expiry of the lease, the King made a perpetual grant of the lands to him by a charter under the Great Seal, dated 31st January, 1495, bearing that the grant was made for the good and faithful services rendered by Lord Drummond, and for the love and favour which the King had for him. After the death of James IV., Lord Drummond exerted all his influence to promote the marriage between his grandson, the Earl of Angus, and the widowed Queen Margaret. This marriage begot such jealousy, says Lord Strathallan, in the rulers of the State, that the Earl of Angus was cited to appear before the Council, and Sir William Cummin of Inneralochy, Knight, Lyon King-at-Armes, appeared to deliver the charge; in doing whereof he seemed to the Lord Drummond to have approached the Earl with more boldness than discretion, for which he gave the Lyon a box on the ear; whereof he complained to John, Duke of Albany, then newly made Governor to King James V.; and the Governor, to give ane example of his justice at his first entry to his new office, caused imprison the Lord Drummonds person in the Castle of Blackness, and forfault his estate to the Crown for his rashness. But the Duke, considering, after information, what a fyne man the lord was, and how strongly allyed with most of the great families of the nation, was well pleased that the Queen-mother and Three Estates of Parliament should interceed for him, as he was soone restored to his libertie and fortune. It would have been well for Lord Drummond if he had remembered, on this occasion, the motto of his family, Gang warily, and his own maxim, in his paper of Constituted Advice, In all our doings discretion is to be observed, otherwise nothing can be done aright.

On the 5th of January, 1535, King James V. entered into an obligation to infeft DAVID, second Lord Drummond, in all the lands which had belonged to his great-grandfather, John, the first lord, and which were in the Kings hands by reason of escheat and forfeiture, through the accusation brought against John, Lord Drummond, for the treasonable and violent putting of hands on the Kings officer then called Lyon King-of-Arms. Certain specified lands, however, were exceptedviz., Innerpeffrey, Foirdow, Aucterarder, Dalquhenzie and Glencoyth, with the patronage of the provostry and chaplaincy of Innerpeffrey, which were to be given by the King to John Drummond of Innerpeffrey, and to the Kings sister, Margaret, Lady Gordon, his spouse. It was stipulated in the obligation that David, Lord Drummond, was to marry Margaret Stewart, daughter of Margaret, Lady Gordon. The instrument of infeftment, dated 1st and 2nd November, 1542, affords the most positive proof of the distinction between the old and new possessions of Drummond in Stirlingshire and Drommane in Strathern, and the two were for the first time, by a charter dated 25th October, 1542, united, erected, and incorporated into a free barony, to be called in all tymes to cum the Barony of Drummen. It is evident, then, that whatever lands in the Lennox the earlier members of the house of Drummond might have held, such certainly did not comprehend the lands bearing their own name. The lands of Drummond were sold by the Earl of Perth, in 1631, to William, Earl of Strathern and Menteith. The eighth and last Earl entailed them upon James, Marquis of Montrose, and they have ever since formed part of the Montrose estates.

The lands of Roseneath, in Dumbartonshire, were also said by Mr. Henry Drummond to have been granted by Malcolm Canmure to the alleged Hungarian prince, but these lands were in reality acquired by the Drummonds in 1372, by a grant from Mary, Countess of Menteith, and were soon restored. The bars wavy, the armorial bearings of the Drummonds, were alleged to have been taken from the tempestuous waves of the sea, when Maurice the Hungarian piloted the vessel which carried Edgar Atheling and his sisters. The late Mr. John Riddell affirms that this supposed origin of the Drummond arms is too absurd and fabulous to claim a moments attention. Mr. Fraser has shown that the bars wavy were the proper arms of the Menteith earldom, and that the Drummonds, as feudal vassals of the Earls of Menteith, according to a very common practice in other earldoms, adopted similar arms.

It thus appears that the founder of the Drummond family was not a Hungarian prince, or even gentleman, but Malcolm Beg, chamberlain to the Earl of Lennox. When the War of Independence broke out the Drummonds embraced the patriotic side. JOHN OF DRUMMOND was taken prisoner at the battle of Dunbar, and was imprisoned in the castle of Wisbeach; but he was set at liberty in August, 1297, on Sir Edmund Hastings, proprietor of part of Menteith in right of his wife, Lady Isabella Comyn, offering himself as security, and on the condition that he would accompany King Edward to France. His eldest son, SIR MALCOLM DRUMMOND, was a zealous supporter of the claims of Robert Bruce to the Scottish throne, and like his father fell into the hands of the English, having been taken prisoner by Sir John Segrave. On hearing this good news, King Edward, on the 20th of August, 1301, offered oblations at the shrine of St. Mungo, in the cathedral of Glasgow. After the independence of the country was secured by the crowning victory of Bannockburn, MALCOLM was rewarded for his services by King Robert Bruce with lands in Perth-shire. Sir Robert Douglas, the eminent genealogist, conjectures that the caltrops, or four-spiked pieces of iron, with the motto Gang warily, in the armorial bearings of the Drummonds, were bestowed as an acknowledgment of Sir Malcolms active efforts in the use of these formidable weapons at the battle of Bannockburn. His grandson, JOHN DRUMMOND, married the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Montefex, [It has hitherto been supposed that the estates of Stobhall and Cargill, on the Tay, which still belong to the family, came into the possession of the Drummonds by marriage with this heiress, but they were in reality bestowed by David II. on Queen Margaret, and were given by her to Malcolm of Drummond, her nephew.] the first of the numerous fortunate marriages made by the Drummonds. Maurice, another grandson, married the heiress of Concraig and of the Stewardship of Strathearn. A second son, SIR MALCOLM, whom Wyntoun terms a manfull knycht, baith wise and wary, fought at the battle of Otterburn in 1388, in which his brother-in-law, James, second Earl of Douglas and Mar, was killed, and succeeded him in the latter earldom, in right of his wife, Lady Isabel Douglas, only daughter of William, first Earl of Douglas. He seems to have had some share in the capture at that battle of Ralph Percy, brother of the famous Hotspur, as he received from Robert III. a pension of 20, in satisfaction of the third part of Percys ransom, which exceeded 600. He died of his hard captivity which he endured at the hands of a band of ruffians by whom he was seized and imprisoned. His widow, the heiress of the ancient family of Mar, was forcibly married by Alexander Stewart, a natural son of the Wolf of Badenoch. [See EARLDOM OF MAR.]

SIR WALTER DRUMMOND, who was knighted by James II., was the ancestor of the Drummonds of Blair Drummond, Gairdrum, Newton, and other branches of the main stock. SIR JOHN DRUMMOND, the head of the family in the reign of James IV., held the great office of Justiciar of Scotland, was Constable of the castle of Stirling, took a prominent part in public affairs, and was created a peer 29th January, 1487-8, by the title of LORD DRUMMOND. Although this honour, as we have seen, was conferred upon him by James III., Lord Drummond joined the party of the disaffected nobles, who took up arms against their sovereign, with the Prince at their head, and was rewarded for his services after the death of the King at Sauchieburn by a lease, subsequently converted into a grant, of the Crown lands of Drummond in the county of Stirling.

The Drummonds were not only a brave and energetic race, but they were conspicuous for their handsome persons and gallant bearing. Good looks ran in their blood, and the ladies of the family were famous for their personal beauty, which no doubt led to the great marriages made by them, generation after generation, with the Douglases, Gordons, Grahams, Crawfords, Kers, and other powerful families, which greatly increased the influence and possessions of their house. Margaret, daughter of Malcolm, Lord Drummond, and widow of Sir John Logie, became the second wife of David II., who seems to have been familiar with her during her husbands lifetime. The Drummonds gave a second queen to Scotland in the person of Annabella, the saintly wife of Robert IlI., and mother of the unfortunate David, Duke of Rothesay, and of James I., whose depth of sagacity and firmness of mind contributed not a little to the good government of the kingdom. They had nearly given another royal consort to share the throne of James IV., who was devotedly attached to Margaret, eldest daughter of the first Lord Drummond, a lady of great beauty. [The entries in the Lord High Treasurers accounts respecting the frequent rich presents lavished on a certain Lady Margaret, which have been adduced as proofs of the relation in which Lady Margaret Drummond stood to James, have been proved to refer to Lady Margaret Stewart, the Kings aunt. James, indeed, was a mere boy when those sums were paid; his connection with Margaret Drummond did not commence until the summer of 1496.] But that kings purpose to marry her was frustrated by her death, in consequence of poison administered by some of the nobles, who were envious of the honour which was a third time about to be conferred on her family. Her two younger sisters, who accidentally partook of the poisoned dish, shared her fate. The historian of the Drummonds states that James was affianced to Lady Margaret, and meant to make her his queen without consulting his council. He was opposed by those nobles who wished him to wed Margaret Tudor. His clergy likewise protested against his marriage as within the prohibited degrees. Before the King could receive the dispensation, his wife (the Lady Margaret) was poisoned at breakfast at Drummond Castle, with her two sisters. Suspicion fell on the Kennedysa rival house, a member of which, Lady Janet Kennedy, daughter of John, Lord Kennedy, had borne a son to the King. A slightly different account is given in Morreris Dictionary, on the authority of a manuscript history of the family of Drummond, composed in 1689. It is there stated that Lady Margaret, daughter of the first Lord Drummond, 'was so much beloved by James IV. that he wished to marry her, but as they were connected by blood, and a dispensation from the Pope was required, the impatient monarch concluded a private marriage, from which clandestine union sprang a daughter, who became the wife of the Earl of Huntly. The dispensation having arrived, the King determined to celebrate his nuptials publicly; but the jealousy of some of the nobles against the house of Drummond suggested to them the cruel project of taking off Margaret by poison, in order that her family might not enjoy the glory of giving two queens to Scotland. The three young ladies thus foully done to death were buried in a vault, covered with three blue marble stones, in the choir of the cathedral of Dunblane.

John, first Lord Drummond, died in 1519, upwards of eighty years of age. His eldest son predeceased him, and William, Master of Drummond, his second son, was unfortunately implicated in a tragic affair which brought him to the scaffold. There was a feud of long standing between the Drummonds and the Murrays, and in 1490 the Master of Drummond, having learned that a party of Murrays were levying teinds on his fathers estates for George Murray, Abbot of Inchaffray, hastened to oppose them at the head of a large body of followers, accompanied by Campbell of Dunstaffnage. The Murrays took refuge in the church of Monievaird, and the Master and his party were retiring, when a shot from the church killed one of the Dunstaffnage men. The Highlanders, in revenge for this murder, set fire to the church, and nineteen of the Murrays were burnt to death. James determined to punish the ringleaders in this shocking outrage with death, and the Master of Drummond was apprehended, tried, convicted, and executed, in spite of the earnest entreaties of his mother and sister in his behalf.

He left a son, who predeceased his grandfather, and in consequence the first Lord Drummond was succeeded by his great-grandson DAVID, who became second Lord Drummond. He was a zealous adherent of Queen Mary. His second son, James, Lord Maderty, was ancestor of the Viscounts Strathallan. He married Margaret, daughter of Alexander, Duke of Albany, and grand - daughter of James II. His elder son, PATRICK, third Lord Drummond, embraced the Protestant religion. The great beauty, ability, and virtues of his daughter, the Countess of Roxburgh, were celebrated in glowing strains by the poet Daniel, and she was held in such high estimation by James VI. that he made choice of her to be the governess of his daughters. The Drummonds were a courtly family, and throughout their whole career were conspicuous for their attachment to the throne. They fought gallantly on the royal side, under Montrose, in the Great Civil War, and suffered severely for their loyalty. More fortunate, however, than most of the Royalist nobles, they were liberally rewarded at the Restoration for their fidelity to the Crown.

JAMES, fourth Lord Drummond, was created EARL OF PERTH in 1605. His brother, the second Earl, was a staunch Royalist, and was fined 5,000 by Cromwell for his adherence to the cause of Charles I. His grandson JAMES, fourth Earl, after holding the offices of Lord Justice-General and of an Extraordinary Lord of Session, was in 1684 appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland. He was a special favourite of James VII., whose good will he and his younger brother had gained by renouncing the Protestant religion, and embracing the tenets of Romanism. With a certain audacious baseness, says Lord Macaulay, which characterised Scottish public men in that bad age, the brothers declared that the papers found in the strong box of Charles II. had converted them both to the true faith, and they began to confess and to hear mass. How little conscience had to do with Perths change of religion he amply proved by taking to wife a few weeks later, in direct defiance of the laws of the Church which he had just joined, a lady who was his cousin-german, without waiting for a dispensation. When the good Pope learned this he said, with scorn and indignation which well became him, that this was a strange sort of conversion.

Apostasy from the Episcopal Church to Romanism, and especially apostasy such as this, was a sure passport to the confidence and liberality of James, and Perth speedily became the chief Scottish favourite of that weak and tyrannical monarch. He obtained a gift of the forfeited estates of Lord Melville, and was entrusted with the whole management of affairs in Scotland. He readily lent himself to carry out the arbitrary and unconstitutional schemes of his master, and took a prominent part in the cruel persecution of the Covenanters. Burnet ascribes to him the invention of a little steel thumbscrew, which inflicted such intolerable pain that it wrung confessions out of men on whom his Majestys favourite boot had been tried in vain. Perths younger brother was created EARL OF MELFORT in 1686, received a grant of a portion of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Argyll, and was appointed Secretary of State for Scotland. The unprincipled conduct of these two chief ministers of affairs rendered them very obnoxious to the people, and especially to the citizens of Edinburgh. A cargo of images, beads, crosses, and censers was sent from the Continent to Lord Perth, in direct violation of the law which forbade the importation of such articles. A Roman Catholic chapel was fitted up in the Chancellors house, in which mass was regularly performed. A riot in consequence took place. The iron bars which protected the windows were wrenched off and the inmates were pelted with mud. The troops were called out to quell the disturbance, the mob assailed them with stones; in return, the troops were ordered to fire, and several citizens were killed. Two or three of the ringleaders of the riot were hanged, amid expressions of strong sympathy for the sufferers, and of abhorrence of the Chancellor, on whom the whole blame was laid.

Perth and his brother were poor creatures both, and seem to have been destitute even of the physical courage of their house. When the Revolution took place and his royal master fled to France, the Chancellor, whose nerves were weak and his spirit abject, took refuge at Castle Drummond, his country seat, near Crieff, under the escort of a strong guard, and there experienced an agony as bitter as that into which the merciless tyrant had often thrown better men. He confessed that the strong terrors of death were upon him, and vainly tried to find consolation in the rites of his new Church. Believing that he was not safe even among his own domestics and tenantry, he quitted Drummond Castle in disguise, and, crossing by unfrequented paths the Ochil Hills, then deep in snow, he succeeded in getting on board a collier vessel which lay off Kirkcaldy. But his flight was discovered. It was rumoured that he had carried off with him a large amount of gold, and a skiff, commanded by an old buccaneer, pursued and overtook the flying vessel near the Bass, at the mouth of the Firth. The Chancellor was dragged from the hold where he had concealed himself disguised in womans clothes, was hurried on shore begging for life with unmanly cries, like his brother chancellor, Jeffries, and was consigned to the common jail of Kirkcaldy. He was afterwards transferred, amidst the execrations and screams of hatred of a crowd of spectators, to the castle of Stirling, where he was kept a close prisoner for four years. On regaining his liberty, in 1693, the ex-Chancellor went to Rome, where he resided for two years. King James then sent for him to St. Germains, appointed him First Lord of the Bedchamber, Chamberlain to the Queen, and governor to their son, the titular Prince of Wales, who, on his fathers death, raised the Earl to the rank of Dukea title which was, of course, not recognised by the British Government. He was deeply engaged in all the intrigues and plots of the mimic court of the exiled monarch until his death in 1716.

His eldest son, JAMES, Lord Drummond, accompanied King James in his expedition to Ireland, took a prominent part in the rebellion of 1715, and was, in consequence, attainted by the British Parliament. But two years before this unsuccessful attempt to restore the Stewart family to the throne, he executed a disposition of his estates in favour of his son, which was sustained by the Court of Session, and affirmed by the House of Lords. Destiny, however, had set her hand on the ill-fated house, and its doom was only postponed, not averted. The heir of the family, JAMES, third titulal Duke of Perth, true to the principles of his family, joined Prince Charles Stewart in the rebellion of 1745, at the head of his tenantry, and shared in all the perils and privations of that unfortunate adventurer. He was a young man of an amiable disposition and dauntless courage, but his abilities were very moderate, his constitution was weak, and he was quite inexperienced both in politics and in war. In spite of a very delicate constitution, says Douglas, he underwent the greatest fatigues, and was the first on every occasion of duty where his head or his hands could be of use. He commanded the right wing of the Highlanders at the battle of Prestonpans, directed the siege of Carlisle, and of the castle of Stirling, and was at the head of the left wing at the final conflict of Culloden. After that disastrous battle, though tracked and pursued by the English troops, he made his escape to Moidart, and embarked in a French vessel lying off that coast. But his constitution was quite worn out by the privations he had undergone, and he died on his passage to France, 11th May, 1746, at the age of thirty-three. His brother and heir, Lord John Drummond, a colonel in the French service, commanded the left wing of the Highlanders at the battle of Falkirk. On the suppression of the rebellion, he made his escape to France, served with distinction in Flanders under Marshal Saxe, and attained the rank of major-general shortly before his death, in 1747. Previous to his death, the Duke of Perth had been attainted by the British Parliament, and his estates were forfeited to the Crown. His two uncles successively assumed the title of Duke of Perth, and on the death of Lord Edward Drummond, the younger of the two, at Paris, in 1760, the main line of the family became extinct.

The succession fell to the descendants of the Earl of Melfort, younger brother of the Chancellor, and Secretary of State for Scotland under James VII. He too, as we have seen, became a pervert to the Romish Church, and in his zeal for his new faith obtained from the King the exclusion of his family by his first wife from the right to inherit his estates and titles, because their mothers relations had frustrated his attempts to convert them to Romanism. At the Revolution he fled to France, and was attainted by Act of Parliament in 1695. He was created Duke de Melfort in 1701, and for a number of years had the chief administration of the affairs of the exiled monarch. He died in 1714. His second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie, lived to be above ninety years of age, and in her latter years supported herself by keeping a faro-table. His descendants remained in their adopted country, and identified themselves with its faith, its interests, and its manners. Most of them embraced the military profession and attained high rank in the French, German, and Polish services. Some of them entered the Church, and one was elevated to the rank of cardinal. GEORGE, Sixth Duke of Melfort, renounced the Romish faith, conformed to the Protestant Church, entered the British army, and became a captain in the 98th Highlanders. Having petitioned the Queen for the restoration of the Scottish attainted honours, he proved his descent, in 1848, before the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords, was restored in blood by an Act of Parliament in 1853, and was reinstated in the earldom of Perth and the other Scottish honours of his illustrious house.

Meanwhile, the Drummond estates, which had been forfeited to the Crown in 1746, remained for nearly forty years under the charge of Commissioners. In 1784, however, they were conferred by George III., under the authority of an Act of Parliament, on a Captain JAMES DRUMMOND, who claimed to be heir male of Lord John Drummond, brother of the duke who fought at Culloden. The fortunate recipient of these fine estates was, in addition, created a British peer by the title of Baron Perth. At his death, in the year 1800, his landed property descended to his daughter, Clementina Drummond, who married the twelfth Lord Willoughby de Eresby. At her death the Drummond estates devolved upon her eldest daughter, Lady Aviland.

Repeated but unsuccessful efforts have been made by the Earl of Perth to obtain the restitution of the hereditary possessions of the family. He pleaded that he is now the nearest lawful heir male of James, third Duke of Perth, and that he is the first of his house who could sue for the family inheritance, as his predecessors were all French subjects and Papists, and incapable of taking up any heritable estate in Scotland. He also alleged that when the forfeited possessions of the Drummond family were restored, they ought legally to have been conferred on the nearest heir in the direct line of the entail of 1713. An adverse decision, however, was given both by the Court of Session and the House of Lords, mainly on the ground that the attainder vested the estates absolutely in the Crown, that they might, therefore, be conferred at will by the sovereign or Parliament, and that their gift to Captain Drummond cannot be reduced.

The interests at stake in this suit were very valuable. Though Drymen, the original seat of the Drummond family, and their other Dumbartonshire property, passed into the hands of the Grahams centuries ago, and the whole of their Stirlingshire estates, along with Auchterarder and other ancient possessions of the family in Perth-shire, have also passed away from them, there yet remain the antique castle of Drummond with its quaint and beautiful gardens, Stobhall and Cargill, which four hundred years ago were bestowed upon Malcolm Drummond by Queen Margaret, his aunt, and the Trossachs, Loch Katrine, and Glenartney, immortalised by Sir Walter Scott, yielding in all nearly 30,000 a year.

There can be no doubt that both on political and social grounds, it would have been better that these fine estates should have devolved on a resident proprietor, the representative of their ancient owners, than that they should be held by a non-resident family already possessed of vast estates in another part of the island, strangers to the country and to the tenantry, and who never see or are seen by them, except during a few weeks in autumn.

As showing the grandeur of the Drummond family, Mr. Henry Drummond says that they have furnished Dukes of Roxburgh, Perth, and Melfort; a Marquis of Forth; Earls of Mar, Perth, and Ker; Viscounts Strathallan ; Barons Drummond, Inchaffray, Madderty, Cromlix, and Stobhall; Knights of the Garter, St. Louis, Golden Fleece, and Thistle; Ambassadors, Queens of Scotland, Duchesses of Albany and Athole; Countesses of Monteith, Montrose, Eglinton, Mar, Rothes, Tullibardine, Dunfermline, Roxburgh, Winton, Sutherland, Balcarres, Crawford, Arran, Errol, Marischal, Kinnoul, Hyndford, Effingham; Macquary in France, and Castle Blanche in Spain; Baronesses Fleming, Elphinstone, Livingstone, Willoughby, Hervey, Oliphant, Rollo, and Kinclaven.

To this long list of distinguished names, says Mr. Fraser, the author might have added Margaret Drummond, sometime Logie, the second queen of King David Bruce.

Mr. Henry Drummond might also have mentioned the various minor branches of the family, such as the Drummonds of Carnock; of Hawthornden, to whom William Drummond, the celebrated poet, belonged; of Logie Almond, who produced the distinguished scholar and antiquary, Sir William Drummond; the Drummonds of Blair Drummond, whose heiress married Henry Home, the celebrated Lord Kames, lawyer, judge, and philosopher; and others.

The present Earl of Perth, who was born in 1807, had an only son, Malcolm, Viscount Forth, who died in 1861, in very melancholy circumstances. He left a son, George Essex Montifex, born in 1856. It is stated in Debretts Peerage that in 1874 the young lord married a daughter of the late Mr. Harrison, lead merchant, of London. According to the Quebec Mercury the youth, who was only eighteen years of age, immediately after his marriage, which displeased his family, emigrated with his wife to the United States. He landed at New York without means, and engaged himself as a shipping clerk to a firm in that town. He somehow lost his situation, however, and left New York and settled at Brookhaven, a fishing village on the south shore of Long Island. He lived there for several years in a picturesque old farmhouse, supporting himself and his wife very comfortably by fishing and shooting. In appearance, dress, manners, and language, he differed little from the fishermen of the, village, who knew him only as George. Last year he quitted Brookhaven, and bringing his wife and one childa sonto New York, he became a porter to a dry goods firm. When he was a shipping clerk he was visited by Lord Walter Campbell, who unsuccessfully tried to persuade the runaway to return home. He has now, however, gone back to his native country, and it is understood that a reconciliation has been effected between him and the old Earl, his grandfather.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

The JOHNSTONES of Annandale - Scotland ( Historical Ancestry )

The Johnstones of Annandale

THE Johnstones were at one time among the most powerful, as they are one of the most ancient, of the Border septs. The rough-footed clan, as they were termed, with the winged spur as their appropriate emblem, and the words Aye ready for their motto, were originally settled in East Lothian, but for at least four hundred years they have held extensive possessions on the Western Marches, where they kept vigilant watch and ward against the English freebooters, carrying on at the same time sanguinary feuds with their powerful neighbours and rivals, the Crichtons of Sanquhar and the Maxwells of Nithsdale. Their designation is territorial, and was derived from the barony and lands of Johnstone in Annandale, which have been in their possession from a very remote period. The first of the family on record was Sir John de Johnstone, one of the Scottish barons who swore fidelity to Edward I. of England, in 1296. His great-grandson, also a Sir John de Johnstone, was conspicuous for his valour in the defence of his country in the reigns of David II. and Robert II. In 1370 he defeated an English invading army, and two years later was appointed one of the guardians of the Western Marches. His son, who bore the same name, got 300 of the 40,000 francs sent by the King of France, in 1385, to be divided among the Scottish nobles to induce them to carry on hostilities against their common enemies, the English. His son, Sir Adam Johnstone, was one of the commanders of the Scottish army at the battle of Sark, in 1448, in which they gained a signal victory over the English invadersan exploit commemorated in glowing terms by Wyntoun in his Chronicle. Sir Adam also took a prominent part on the royal side in the desperate struggle between James II. and the Douglases, and was very instrumental in the suppression of the rebellion of that great house against the Crown. He was rewarded by the King with a grant of the lands of Pettinane, in Lanarkshire, and the Johnstones have ever since borne along with their ancestral arms the heart and crown of Douglas, as a memorial of the important service rendered to the royal cause by their ancestor at that critical period. Sir Adams eldest son was the progenitor of the Annandale or main branch of the family, while Matthew, his second son, who married a daughter of the Earl of Angus, chief of the Red Douglases, was the ancestor of the Westerhall branch.

The chief seat of the Johnstones in those days of rugging and riving was Lochwood, in the parish of Johnstone, the position of which, in the midst of bogs and morasses, made it a fortalice of great strength, and led to the remark of James VI., in allusion to the purpose which it served as a stronghold of freebooters, that the man who built it must have been a thief at heart. Lochwood, however, was not the only fastness in which the Johnstones stored their booty. A few miles from Moffat there is a remarkable hollow, surrounded by hills on every side except at one narrow point, where a small stream issues from it. It looks, says Pate in Peril, in Redgauntlet, as if four hills were laying their heads together to shut out any daylight from the dark hollow space between them. A deep, black, blackguard-looking abyss of a hole it is, and goes straight down from the roadside as perpendicular as it can do to be a heathery brae. At the bottom there is a small bit of a brook that you would think could hardly find its way out from the hills that are so closely jammed round it. This inaccessible hollow bore the name of the Marquiss Beef-stand, or Beef-tub, because the Annandale loons used to put their stolen cattle in there.

[The Beef-stand was the scene of a remarkable adventure to a Jacobite gentleman while on the road to Carlisle to stand his trial for his share in the rebellion of 1745. He made his escape from his guards at this spot in the manner which Sir Walter Scott makes Maxwell of Summertrees, who bore the sobriquet of Pate in Peril, describe in graphic terms as an adventure of his own :

I found myself on foot, he said, on a misty morning with my hand, just for fear of going astray, linked into a handcuff, as they call it, with poor Harry Redgauntlets fastened into the other; and there we were trudging along with about a score more that had thrust their horns ower deep in the bog, just like ourselves, and a sergeants guard of redcoats, with two file of dragoons, to keep all quiet and give us heart to the road...

Just when we came on the edge of this Beef-stand of the Johnstones, I slipped out my hand from the handcuff, cried to Harry, "Follow me," whisked under the belly of the dragoon horse, flung my plaid round me with the speed of lightning, threw myself on my side, for there was no keeping my feet, and down the brae hurled I, over heather, and fern, and blackberries, like a barrel down Chalmers Close in Auld Reekie. I never could help laughing when I think how the scoundrel redcoats must have been bum-bazed; for the mist being, as I said, thick, they had little notion, I take it, that they were on the verge of such a dilemma. I was half-way downfor rowling is faster wark than rinningere they could get at their arms; and then it was flash, flash, flash, rap, rap, rap, from the edge of the road; but my head was too jumbled to think anything either of that or of the hard knocks I got among the stones. I kept my senses together, whilk has been thought wonderful by all that ever saw the place; and I helped myself with my hands as gallantly as I could, and to the bottom I came. There I lay for half a moment; but the thought of a gallows is worth all the salts and scent-bottles in the world for, bringing a man to himself. Up I sprung like a four-year-old colt. All the hills were spinning round me like so many great big humming-tops. But there was no time to think of that neither, more especially as the mist had risen a little with the firing. I could see the villains like sae many craws on the edge of the brae; and I reckon that they saw me, for some of the loons were beginning to crawl down the hill, but liker auld wives in their red cloaks, coming frae a field-preaching, than such a souple lad as I. Accordingly they soon began to stop and load their pieces. "Goodeen to you, gentlemen," thought I, "if that is to be the gate of it. If you have any farther word with me you maun come as far as Carriefraw-gauns." And so off I set, and never buck went faster ower the braes than I did; and I never stopped till I had put three waters, reasonably deep, as the season was rainy, half-a-dozen mountains, and a few thousand acres of the warst moss and ling in Scotland betwixt me and my friends the redcoats.

Sir Walter Scott says he saw in his youth the gentleman to whom the adventure actually happened.]

The Johnstones, unlike the Armstrongs, Elliots, and Grahams, sought the beeves that made their broth only in Cumberland and Northumberland, though they would probably have had no scruples in making a prey of any outlying cattle belonging to the Maxwells, with whom they had a hereditary feud. Lord Maxwell, the head of this great family, was in the sixteenth century the most powerful man in the south-west of Scotland. But the Johnstones, though inferior in numbers and power, were able, through their valour, and the strong position which they held in the mountainous district of Annandale, to maintain their ground against their formidable rivals. In 1585 Lord Maxwell opposed the profligate government of the worthless royal favourite, James Stewart, Earl of Arran, and was in consequence declared a rebel. According to the common, but most objectionable practice of that period, the Court gave a commission to Johnstone, his enemy, to proceed against him with fire and sword, and to apprehend him; and two bands of hired soldiers, commanded by Captains Cranstoun and Lammie, were despatched to Johnstones assistance. They were intercepted, however, on Crawford Moor, by Robert Maxwell, of Castlemilk, and after a sharp conflict the mercenary forces were defeated. Lammie and most of his company were killed, and Cranstoun was taken prisoner. [In relating this incident Sir Walter Scott says, "It is devoutly to be wished that this Lammie may have been the miscreant who, in the day of Queen Marys distress, when she surrendered to the nobles at Carberry Hill, "his ensign being of white taffety, had painted on it the cruel murder of King Henry, and laid down before her Majesty at what time she presented herself as prisoner to the Lords." It was very probably so, as he was then, and continued to be till his death, a hired soldier of the Government. Nine months after the incident in question, the following entry appears in the Lord Treasurers books, under March 18, 1567-8: "To Captain Andro Lambie, for his expenses passand of Glasgow to Edinburgh to uplift certain men of weir, and to make ane Handsenyie of white taffety, 25" [Scots]. He was then acting for the Regent Moray. It seems probable that, having spoiled his ensign by the picture of the kings murder, he was now gratified with a new one at the expense of his employer. See Domestic Annals of Scotland, i. p. 156, note, and Border Minstrelsy, ii. p. 134, note.] Maxwell followed up his success by setting fire to Johnstones castle of Lochwood, remarking with savage glee that he would give Lady Johnstone light enough by which to set her hood. Unfortunately, besides the haul house, bedding, and plenisching, Johnstones charter-chest, containing the whole muniments of the family, and many other valuable papers, perished in the flames.

In a subsequent conflict between the two hostile clans, Johnstone himself was defeated and taken prisoner. He was a person of a very proud spirit, and took his defeat so much to heart that after his liberation he is said to have died of grief, in the beginning of the year 1586.

The feud between the Johnstones and the Maxwells became more and more deadly, and led to the battle of Dryfe Sands, the murder of the chief of the Johnstones, and the death on the scaffold of John, ninth Lord Maxwell. [See THE MAXWELLS.]

JAMES JOHNST0NE, the chief of the Johnstone clan, was created by Charles I., Lord Johnstone of Lochwood, in 1633. Ten years later he was made Earl of Hartfell. He was a staunch Royalist, joined Montrose after the battle of Kilsyth, August, 1645, was taken prisoner at the battle of Philiphaugh, and was tried at St. Andrews and condemned to death; but his life was spared through the intercession of the Marquis of Argyll. The only son of Lord Hartfell obtained the Earldom of Annandale in addition to his hereditary dignities.

The lordship of Annandale was one of the oldest and most honourable titles in the south of Scotland. It was bestowed by David I. on Robert de Brus, ancestor of the illustrious restorer of Scottish independence, who was himself the seventh Lord of Annandale. After the battle of Bannockburn, the lordship of Annandale was conferred by King Robert on his nephew, the valiant Randolph, Earl of Moray. It formed part of the dowry of his daughter, the famous Black Agnes of Scottish history, and was carried by her to the Dunbars, Earls of March. On the attainder and banishment of these fickle and versatile barons, their Annandale dignities and estates were bestowed, in 1409, on the Earl of Douglas. After remaining for about fifty years in the possession of the Douglases, Annandale was forfeited, along with their other estates, on the attainder of James, ninth and last Earl of the original branch of that doughty house. The title of Earl of Annandale, after lying dormant for a hundred and sixty-nine years, was revived in 1624, in favour of Sir James Murray, Viscount of Annand and Lord Murray of Lochmaben, a descendant of Sir William Murray of Cockpool and Isabel, sister of Earl Randolph. The title, however, became extinct on the death of the second Earl in 1658. Three years later it was once more revived by Charles II., who created the Earl of Hartfell, the chief of the Johnstones, Earl of Annandale, Viscount Annand, and Lord Johnstone of Lochwood, Lochmaben, Moffatdale, and Evandale. He died in 1672, and was succeeded by his only son

WILLIAM, second Earl of Annandale and third Earl of Hartfell. He held successively the offices of an Extraordinary Lord of Session, one of the Lords of the Treasury, President of the Scottish Parliament, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and was three times Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly. He was created Marquis of Annandale in 1701, and was appointed, in 1705, one of the principal Secretaries of State, but was dismissed from that office in the following year in consequence of his opposition to the Union. The Earl had three sons by his first wife and two by his second, who all died unmarried. His eldest daughter, Lady Henrietta, married, in 1699, Charles Hope, created Earl of Hopetoun in 1703.

JAMES, second Marquis of Annandale, died at Naples in 1730, having enjoyed the family dignities and estates only nine years. His half brother GEORGE, third and last Marquis, was a man nervously timid and reserved, distrustful of himself and of his ability to transact business with other people, but not quite incapable at first of managing his affairs, though excitable and liable to be drawn into fits of passion by causes not susceptible of being anticipated. In 1745 he was placed under the charge of the celebrated philosopher and historian, David Hume, but after a twelvemonths trial he was constrained to abandon the irksome and uncongenial task. An inquest held under the authority of the Court of Chancery, 5th March, 1748, found that the Marquis had been a lunatic since 12th December, 1744. On his death, in 1792, the family titles became dormant, and the estates devolved upon his grandnephew James, third Earl of Hopetoun. The accumulated rents of his estates, amounting at his death to 415,000, were the subject of long litigation both in England and Scotland. The Annandale cases contributed greatly to settle in Britain the important principle that the movable or personal estate of a deceased person must be distributed according to the law of the country where he had his domicile at the time of his death. The Earl of Hopetoun had no male issue, and his eldest daughter Anne married Admiral Sir William Hope Johnstone, whose eldest son, JOHN JAMES HOPE JOHNSTONE, inherited the Annandale estates, and claimed the titles of his maternal ancestor.

Mr. Hope Johnstone was one of the most respected and influential country gentlemen of his day, and there was a strong desire among all classes and parties that he should be successful in his suit. When the case was first considered, in the year 1834, Lord Brougham, who was then Lord Chancellor, was very favourable to the claim, and delivered an elaborate opinion in its support. An opposition, however, was started, which was countenanced by Lord Campbell, and the claim lay over for ten years. In 1844 an adverse decision was given by Lord Lyndhurst. The question turned upon the construction of the words, heirs male in the patent of the Earldom of Annandale in 1661, which are capable of being construed to mean heirs male general, or heirs male of the body, according to circumstances. Upwards of thirty years afterwards, it was discovered that, unknown to their lordships, or the law officers of the Crown, or to Mr. Hope Johnstone, a transaction had taken place nearly two hundred years before, which made an important change in the destination of the peerage. It is a recognised principle in the law of Scotland that a Scottish peer, previous to the Act of Union, provided he obtained the sanction of the Crown, might alter the limitation of his honours, in precisely the same manner as he might alter the destination of his estates. He resigned his honours just as he resigned his land for a re-grant from the Crown, and if the re-grant were made in favour of a different series of heirs from those who would have been entitled to succeed under the original grant, the dignities passed with the old precedence into the new line of succession. The resignation bars the previous heirs, and the re-grant which follows upon it vests the old peerage in the new series of heirs. Now a resignation of this kind of his titles and estates was made by the second Earl of Hartfell, on the 10th of June, 1657, and was followed by a re-grant bearing date 13th February, 1661. But the bond of resignation was not known to be in existence, and was not discovered until 1876. It was brought to light by Mr. William Fraser, of the Register House, the eminent authority on peerage law, in a manner which reads like an incident in a romance. About the middle of the last century Mr. Ronald Crawfurd and his successor in business, Mr. John Tait, grandfather of the late Archbishop of Canterbury, were the law agents in Edinburgh of the third Marquis of Annandale, and of his tutor in law and heir of his estates, the Earl of Hopetoun. The Annandale muniments were of course deposited with Messrs. Crawfurd and Tait; and though these gentlemen ceased to be the Annandale agents on the succession of Lady Anne Johnstone Hope in 1816, it appears that a considerable number of important documents belonging to the family remained in the possession of the firm, and of their present representatives, Messrs. Tait and Crichton. This fact was unknown to them, as well as to the possessors of the Annandale estates and their present law agents. Mr. Fraser, however, became aware from investigations made by him on other questions, that Messrs. Tait and Crichton were in possession of a large collection of ancient documents of various kinds, and as their firm had at one time been agents for the Annandale estates, it seemed highly probable that among these documents there would be some papers which might throw light on the Annandale peerage case. Mr. Fraser readily received permission from these gentlemen to make an examination of their old papers.

He found that these were contained in thirty-four leather bags, and large canvas sacks, which had lain for many years in the chambers of the present firm and their predecessors. In one of these leather bags Mr. Fraser discovered a document entitled Bond of Talzie and Resignation, by James, second Earl of Hartfell and Lord Johnstone, of his honours, titles, and dignities of Earl of Hartfell, and Lord Johnstone of Lochwood, Moffatdale, and Evandale; and also of his whole lands, Baronies, and Lordships, Regalities, Offices, and Patronages, &c., which on examination proved to be of vital importance in determining the destination of the honours and heritages. It appears that in 1657, when the resignation was made, the Earl had been twelve years married, and had four daughters but no son. He had no brothers, or uncles, or near male kinsmen, but he had two sisters, Lady Janet, wife of Sir William Murray of Stanhope, and Lady Mary, wife of Sir George Graham of Netherby, ancestor of the late distinguished statesman, Sir James Graham. As his peerages were at this time limited to heirs male general, they must at his death have passed to very remote collateral heirs. His object, therefore, was to make new arrangements for the descent of his titles and estates, in order to bring in his daughters and sisters and their descendants. For this purpose he executed the deed of resignation, in 1657, during the time of the Commonwealth. In the ordinary course a re-grant of the titles and estates would have followed immediately, but, probably owing to the peculiar position of public affairs when there was no king in Israel, nothing further was done to carry the Earls desire into effect until after the Restoration. As Lord Hartfell and his father had suffered fines and imprisonment in the royal cause, and the former had even been condemned to death, and narrowly escaped execution, for his devoted loyalty, Charles II. very readily granted the boon solicited by his devoted follower, and a re-grant was made to him of his titles and estates on the 13th February, 1661.

Meanwhile, however, the earldom of Annandale, which had been held by the Murrays of Annandale, had become extinct by the death of the last Earl of that family; and the King being earnestly desirous, as the patent says, of conferring some mark of his favour upon the Earl of Hartfell, and of his accumulating honours upon honours, as a reward for his faith, love, services, and losses, and that his heirs may be encouraged to follow in his steps, granted to him and his heirs the titles, honours, and dignity of Earl of Annandale, in addition to that of Earl of Hartfell and Lord Johnstone. After this incident four sons were born to the Earl, the eldest survivor of whom inherited these renewed titles, and was in addition created Marquis of Annandale. That dignity, along with the other family honours, fell into abeyance, on the death of his fourth son, GEORGE, third Marquis of Annandale, 1792. The alteration made by the re-grant in regard to the titles and estates of the family was to the effect that, instead of being limited to heirs male in general, they were to descend to the heirs male of the second Earl of Hartfell, whom failing, to his two sisters and their heirs, male and female. Armed with this important document, Mr. J. Hope Johnstone, the heir male of a female heir, and possessor of the estates, presented a petition to the House of Lords requesting their lordships to reconsider his claim to the family honours, and to reverse their decision on the case in the year 1844; and pleading that according to the principles of the law and practice of the courts of Scotland, this course is quite competent when a new document is produced which is material to the issue, the existence of which was previously unknown to the petitioner, owing to no neglect or want of diligence on his part.

Mr. Hope Johnstone died in 1877 at a good old age, but the suit was continued by his grandson, who succeeded him in the family estates. His claim appeared quite good as far as the double earldom and the viscounty and barony are concerned, but it was more doubtful as regards the marquisate, which was created in 1701 in favour of William, second Earl of Annandale and third Earl of Hartfell. The limitation is to that Earl and his heirs male whomsoever, and if these words had stood alone, the claimant, as representing a female heir, would not have been entitled to succeed to this dignity; but they are qualified by the addition of the words succeeding him in his lands and estates in all time coming. It would appear, therefore, that the marquisate is limited to those heirs who in all time coming shall succeed to the family estates, and Mr. Hope Johnstone contends that in accordance with the mode in which the succession to the peerages of Dupplin, Seafield, Rosebery, Lothian, and Rothes has been regulated, he, as a male heir in possession of the Annandale estates, is entitled also to the dignity and titles which, as the patent shows, were intended to be united to the estates in all time coming.

An objection however was taken to the deed of resignation, that it was made when Oliver Cromwell governed the kingdom as Protector, and this plea was sustained by the law lords. Lord Blackburn said, I doubt whether the Government of Cromwell and his Court would have taken any more notice of a Scottish peerage than one of our courts of law would take of such a title as that of the "Knight of Kerry"an honourable title, but one which has no legal validity.

Lord Gordon concurred with Lord Blackburn, but said, At the same time I should perhaps express more difficulty than he has done in reference to the effect of the resignation.

The result was that the House of Lords decided that they saw no reason for departing from the judgment which they had pronounced in 1844.

It seems very strange that the Lords should have decided that the resignation had no legal validity, when Charles II. treated it as valid by making a re-grant of the titles and estates in the year 1661. Thomas Carlyle expressed himself emphatically in favour of the validity of the document, and his opinion has been endorsed by the general verdict of the public.

The Annandale titles are claimed also by SIR FREDERICK JOHNSTONE, of Westerhall, the representative of a junior branch of the family, descended from MATTHEW JOHNSTONE, younger son of Sir Adam Johnstone. JAMES JOHNSTONE, knight, the seventh in descent from himan apostate Presbyterianhas obtained an unenviable notoriety as the cruel and brutal persecutor of the Covenanters. One of that body who was dying was sheltered by a pious widow of the name of Hislop, who lived near Westerhall, and died under her roof. This fact came to Johnstones knowledge, and he immediately pulled down the widows house, carried off her property, and dragged her eldest son, Andrew, who was a mere stripling, before Graham of Claverhouse in order that he might be Condemned to death. For once that cruel persecutor was in a clement mood, the prayers of John Brown, whom he had recently put to death, having, it is reported, left a strong impression on his obdurate heart. He seems to have felt pity for the poor lad, and recommended that his case should be delayed. Johnstone, however, insisted that the sentence of death should be executed at once, and Claverhouse at last yielded, saying to Westerhall, This mans blood shall be on you; I am free of it. He then ordered the captain of a company of Highlanders who were with his troop to shoot the prisoner, but he peremptorily refused, declaring that he would light Claverhouse and all his dragoons first. Graham then commanded three of his own dragoons to execute the sentence. When they were ready to fire they desired Hislop to draw his bonnet over his eyes. No, replied the youth; I can look my death-bringers in the face without fear. I have done nothing of which I need be ashamed! Then, holding up his Bible, he charged them to answer for what they were about to do at the Great Day, when they should be judged by that book. As he uttered these words the dragoons fired and shot him dead, and he was buried where he fell. The Covenanting chronicler who has recorded this incident adds, with evident satisfaction, that Westerhall died about the Revolution (1699) in great torture of body and horror and anguish of conscience, insomuch that his cries were heard at a great distance from the house, as a warning to all such apostates.

When the cause of James VII., under whose reign and special directions the Covenanters were so cruelly tortured and put to death, became hopeless, Westerhall, as might have been expected, lost no time in abandoning the fallen monarch, and joined the party of the Prince of Orange. Probably as a reward for his timely defection from the cause of the exiled monarch, JOHN JOHNSTONE, the eldest son of the trimming persecutor, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, in 1700. His nephew married the Dowager Marchioness of Annandale, daughter and heiress of John Vanden-Bempde, of Harkness Hall, Yorkshire, and is the ancestor of Sir Harcourt Vanden-Bempde Johnstone, Lord Derwent. The Johnstones of Alva are descended from John Johnstone, a younger son of the third baronet, a distinguished officer who commanded the artillery at the battle of Plassey, and made himself conspicuous by the strong interest which he took in the affairs of the East India Company.

SIR WILLIAM JOHNSTONE, the fifth baronet, inherited an estate yielding only a small rental, though of large extent, but he became one of the richest commoners in Great Britain. He acquired an immense fortune in America, purchased the burgh of Weymouth, which at that time returned four members to the House of Commons, and sat in seven successive Parliaments. He married the niece and heiress of General Pulteney, and of the Earl of Bath, the celebrated leader of the Opposition against Sir Robert Walpole. His only child, who married Sir James Murray in 1794, inherited the Pulteney estates and was created Countess of Bath. Sir William Johnstone survived till 1805. His baronetcy, the Westerhall estate, the borough of Weymouth (in these days a source both of wealth and of political influence), and the extensive territory which he had acquired in America, were all inherited by his nephew, SIR JOHN LOWTHER JOHNSTONE, grandfather of the eighth and present baronet, SIR FREDERICK JOHN WILLIAM JOHNSTONE. He and his twin brother were born after the death of their father, who was killed by the fall of his horse in the hunting-field, 7th May, 1841.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

The Marchmont " HUMES " Scotland - 1431 ( Historical Ancestry )

The Marchmont Humes

THE Marchmont Humes are cadets of the great family of the Homes, who once held paramount authority on the Eastern Borders. A junior branch of the house settled at Wedderburn in 1413, and the grandson of the first Baron of Wedderburn was the immediate ancestor of the Marchmont Humes.

The estates which afterwards formed the patrimony of this family anciently belonged to the St. Clairs, and as far back as the fifteenth century fell into the possession of two co-heiresses. In these auld times o rugging and riving through the hale country, as Edie Ochiltree said, when nae man wanted property if he had strength to take it, or had it langer than he had power to keep it, the abduction of a wealthy heiress was an event as common in Scotland as it was in Ireland at the close of last century. The young ladies in question were courted by as many lovers as was the renowned Tibby Fowler, who had twa-and-forty wooing at her, suing at her. But an uncle who was anxious to keep them unmarried, in order that he might inherit their large estates, carried them off from Polwarth, the family seat, and immured them in his own castle in East Lothian. The ladies, however, had singled out from the crowd of suitors the stalwart sons of their powerful neighbour, David Home of Wedderburn, and had lent a favourable ear to their addresses. In spite of the jealous precautions of their uncle, they contrived by means of a female beggar to transmit information to their lovers of the place of their confinement, and they were soon gratified by the appearance of the two youths, accompanied by a band of stout Merse men, before the gates of the castle. In spite of the remonstrances and resistance of the uncle, the ladies were forcibly released, and carried off in triumph to Polwarth, where their nuptials were immediately celebrated. The marriage festivities terminated with a merry dance round a thorn-tree which grew in the centre of the village green. In commemoration of this event, it became the practice for marriage parties in Polwarth to dance round this thorn; and the custom, which continued for well-nigh four hundred years, was only given up about fifty years ago, on the fall of the original tree, which was blown down in a fierce gale of wind. There is a well-known tune called Polwarth on the Green, to which several songs have been successively adapted. The first stanza of one of these productions of the Scottish muse thus refers to this old custom :

At Polwarth on the green,
If youll meet me the morn,
When lasses do convene
To dance around the thorn.

PATRICK, the younger of the two Homes, married the elder of the St. Clair ladies, and became the founder of the MARCHMONT HUME family.

[It has not been discovered at what time or for what reason the difference in the spelling of the family namewhich is pronounced Humeoriginated. David Hume, the philosopher and historian, in a letter to Alexander Home of Westfield, of date 12th April, 1758, says: The practice of spelling Hume is by far the most ancient and most general till about the Restoration, when it became common to spell Home, contrary to the pronunciation. Our name is frequently mentioned in Rymers Fadera, and always spelt Hume. I find a subscription of Lord Hume in the Memoirs of the Sydney family, where it is spelt as I do at present. These are a few of the numberless authorities on this head.

John Home, the author of the tragedy of Douglas, on the other hand, resolutely maintained that Home was the original and proper spelling, and the historian and he had many good-humoured discussions on the subject. On one occasion David proposed that they should cast lots to decide the matter. It is all very well for you, Mr. Philosopher, to make such a proposal, was Johns rejoinder; for if you lose you will obtain your own proper name; but if you win I lose mine. In the last note which David Hume sent to Dr. Blair, inviting him to dinner, he thus began it:

Mr. John Home, alias Hume, alias The Home, alias the late Lord Conservator, alias the late Minister of the Gospel at Athelstaneford, has calculated matters so as to arrive infallibly with his friend in St. Davids Street on Wednesday evening, &c.

It is well known that John Home had a strong dislike to port wine, and in playful allusion to this feeling, as well as to their dispute about the proper spelling of their name, David added the following codicil to his will, on 6th August, 1776, nineteen days before his death: I leave to my friend, Mr. John Home of Kilduff, ten dozen of my old claret at his choice, and one single bottle of that other liquor called port. I also leave to him six dozens of port, provided that he attests under his hand, signed John Hume, that he has himself alone finished that bottle at two sittings. By this concession he will at once surmount the only two differences that ever were between us concerning temporal matters.]

He was evidently a man of energy and activity, and in 1499 obtained the important office of Comptroller of Scotland, which he held till 1502, when he received the honour of knighthood. His descendants inherited his intellectual abilities as well as his estates, and had the sagacity and good fortune to be always on the winning side in the successive struggles for supremacy between Popery and Protestantism, and between the King and the people. While the heads of the main linethe Earls of Homewere Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, and Jacobites, the Marchmont Humes were Protestants, Presbyterians, and Hanoverians. The former, from the Great Civil War downwards, have produced no man of great intellectual power or commanding influence in the country; but the latter were prominent in all the great contests for civil and religious liberty, and rose to the highest offices of the State. The broad acres of the Homes, which at one time stretched from the Tweed on the south to the German Ocean on the north, have passed away almost entirely from the house; while the Humes, brizzing yont as their kinsmen receded, gradually extended their borders and augmented their domains till Greenlawwhich Cospatrick, the great Earl of March, bestowed on his nephew and son-in-law, the first Home, from which he took the colour of his shieldand even Home Castle, the cradle and patrimonial stronghold of the house, and the subject of many a Border story, passed into the possession of this prosperous junior branch of the family.

The great-grandson of the founder of the family, Patrick Hume of Polwarth, took a leading part in promoting the Reformation in Scotland, and was a member of the association which was formed in 1560 to protect the Protestant ministers. Sir Patricks eldest son, fifth Baron of Polwarth, who bore his Christian name, was appointed by James VI., in 1591, Master of the Household, one of the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber, and Warden of the Eastern Marches. He wrote some pieces of poetry which appear to have been popular in the Court of King James. Sir Patrick Hume, his son, seems to have been a favourite both of King James and Charles I., for the former gave him a pension of 100 a year, and the latter created him a baronet in 1625. He died in 1648. His younger brother, Alexander, was the author of a volume of Hymns and Sacred Songs, noted for their pious spirit rather than for their poetical merit.

The power and rank of the family culminated under Sir Patricks son, SIR PATRICK HUME, the second Baronet and first Earl of Marchmont. This distinguished statesman and staunch Covenanter was born in 1641. He entered public life in 1665 as member for the county of Berwick, and joined the small but faithful band of patriots who, under the Duke of Hamilton, offered a strenuous and constitutional resistance to the wretched administration of the notorious Duke of Lauderdale. In 1674 he accompanied Hamilton and other leading Scotsmen to London, for the purpose of laying the grievances of the country before the King, who in reply to their petition for redress said, I perceive that Lauderdale has been guilty of many bad things against the people of Scotland, but I cannot find he has acted anything contrary to my interest. In the following year Sir Patrick was imprisoned in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh by the Privy Council, on account of his appeal to the Court of Session for protection against the arbitrary and illegal assessment levied for the support of the troops in garrison. This imprisonment, which lasted two years, so far from repressing, only seems to have lent fresh ardour to his patriotic zeal. He was again imprisoned in 1679, and on his release by order of the King, he became a participator in the councils of Russell, Sydney, and other leading Whigs, who were anxious to exclude the Duke of York from the succession to the throne. On the judicial murder of these eminent patriots, and the arrest of his venerable friend Baillie of Jerviswood, Sir Patrick, knowing that he was a marked man, and that the Government was bent on his destruction, quitted his mansion of Redbraes Castle, and while he was supposed to have gone on a distant journey, took up his residence in the family burial vault underneath the parish church of Polwarth. This ancient edifice stands in a lonely sequestered spot, on a knoll surrounded with old trees and a brawling burn at its foot, with no dwelling near it. The place of his retreat was known only to his wife, his eldest daughter, and a carpenter named James Winter. The only light which Sir Patrick enjoyed in this dismal abode was by a slit in the wall, through which no one could see anything within. As long as daylight lasted he spent his time in reading Buchanans Latin version of the Psalms, which he thus imprinted so deeply on his memory that forty years after, when he was above fourscore years of age, he could repeat any one of them at bidding without omitting a word.

The duty of conveying food to Sir Patrick devolved upon his eldest daughter, Grizel, a young lady of nineteen. She at that time had a terror for a churchyard, says her daughter, Lady Murray, especially in the dark? as is not uncommon at her age by idle nursery stories; but her filial affection so far overcame the fears natural to her sex and youth, that she walked night after night through the woods of her fathers policy and amid the tombstones of the churchyard, at darkest midnight, afraid of nothing but the danger that the place of her fathers concealment might be discovered. The barking of the ministers dog, as she passed the manse on her nightly visits to the sepulchral vault, put her in great fear of discovery. But this difficulty was overcome by the ingenuity of her mother, who by raising a report that a mad dog had been seen roaming through the country, prevailed upon the clergyman to destroy the fierce mastiff which annoyed her daughter. It was not always easy to secrete the victuals which Grizel conveyed to her father without exciting the suspicions of the domestics, and the remarks of the younger children. Sir Patrick was partial to the national dish of a sheeps head, and one day at dinner Grizel took an opportunity, when her brothers and sisters were busy at their kail, to convey the greater part of one from the plate to her lap, with the intention of carrying it that night to her father. When her brother Sandy, afterwards second Earl of Marchmont, raised his eyes and saw that the dish was empty, he exclaimed, Mother, will ye look at Grizzy! While we have been supping our broth she has eaten up the whole sheeps head! When Sir Patrick was told this amusing incident that night he laughed heartily, and requested that in future Sandy might have a share of the highly prized viands.

Another of the services which this heroic young lady performed for her father at this period of her life was conveying a letter from Sir Patrick to his friend Robert Baillie of Jerviswood, then imprisoned on a charge of treason in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh. Baillie, who was as eminent for his abilities and learning as for his fidelity to his religious principles, had shared in the councils of the English patriots, and it was of the utmost importance that intelligence should be communicated to him respecting the state of affairs since his imprisonment. Miss Grizel readily undertook this difficult and dangerous task, and managed it with great dexterity and perfect success. The son of Mr. Baillie, a youth about her own age, had at this time been recalled from Holland, where he was educated, to attend his fathers trial. In a cell in the famous old Tolbooth these two young persons met for the first time, and an attachment then commenced which was destined to lead to their union in happier days, when the Revolution had expelled the tyrant and his infamous tools from the country. Shortly after this interview the Ministers of State, who, as Bishop Burnet says, were most earnestly set on Mr. Baillies destruction, arraigned the venerable patriot, though he was in a dying condition, before the High Court of Justiciary. In flagrant violation both of law and justice, he was found guilty, on the morning of December 24th, 1684, and, lest he should anticipate the sentence by a natural death, he was executed on the afternoon of the same day, with all the revolting barbarities of the penalties attached to treason.

Meanwhile, on the approach of winter, Lady Hume and Jamie Winter, the carpenter, had been contriving a place of concealment for Sir Patrick more comfortable, and less injurious to health, than the damp and dark burial vault. In one of the rooms on the ground-floor, beneath a bed, Grizel and the faithful retainer dug a hole in the earth, using their fingers alone to prevent noise, and under cover of night carrying out the earth in a sheet to the garden, and scattering it in places where it was least likely to be noticed. The severity of this task is evident, from the fact that when it was finished the nails were quite worn off the young ladys fingers. In the hole thus excavated Winter placed a box large enough to contain some bedclothes, and to afford a place of refuge for the hunted patriot, the boards above it being bored with holes for the admission of air. Sir Patrick lived for some time in this room, of which his daughter kept the key, but an irruption of water into the excavation compelled him to seek another asylum; and the search after him having become keener after the judicial murder of his friend Baillie, he decided on making an attempt to escape from the country in disguise. A few hours after he had quitted Redbraes a party of soldiers came to the house in search of him. He had set out on horseback during the night, accompanied by a trustworthy servant named John Allan, who was to conduct him part of his way to London. In travelling towards the Tweed, Sir Patrick and his guide accidentally separated in the darkness, and the former was not aware that he had quitted the proper road till he reached the banks of the river. This mistake proved his safety, for Allan was overtaken by the very soldiers who had been sent in pursuit of his master. In the assumed character of a surgeon, Sir Patrick reached London in safety, and thence made his way by France to Holland, where a number of other patriots, Scots and English, had found refuge.

Sir Patrick had a wife and ten children, all young, residing at Redbraes at this time, and they, too, were subjected to harsh treatment by the Government. The eldest son, Patrick, a mere youth, was apprehended and put in prison, and on the 26th of December, 1684, he presented a petition to the Privy Council, setting forth the piteous condition of the family, now deprived of their father and threatened with the loss of their estate. He was but a poor afflicted young boy, he said, who could do no harm to the State; he, moreover, cherished loyal principles and a hatred of plots. All he craved was liberty, that he might see to some livelihood for himself, and be in some condition to help and serve his disconsolate mother and the rest of his fathers ten starving children. The boon was granted grudgingly by the Ministers, who were no doubt mortified at Sir Patricks escape, and before the young man was set at liberty he was obliged to obtain security for his good behaviour to the extent of two thousand pounds sterling. Young Patrick was subsequently enrolled in the bodyguards of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III., and served with distinction in the campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough. But his promising career was eventually cut short: he, by many years, preceded his father to the grave.

In the following year (1685) Sir Patrick Hume accompanied the Earl of Argyll in the disastrous expedition which cost that unfortunate nobleman his head. The ruin of the enterprise, which from the outset was evidently doomed to failure, was mainly brought about by the mutual jealousies and contentions of the leaders. More fortunate than his chief and Sir John Cochrane, the other second in command, Sir Patrick, after lying in concealment for some weeks in Ayrshire, a second time made his escape to the Continent, in a vessel which conveyed him from the west coast, first to Ireland and then to Bordeaux, whence he proceeded to Geneva, and finally to Holland. At Bordeaux he gave himself out for a surgeon, as he had done during his former exile, and as he always carried lancets, and could let blood, he had no difficulty in passing for a medical man. He travelled on foot across France to Holland, where he was joined by his wife and children. Under the designation of Dr. Wallace, Sir Patrick settled in Utrecht, where he spent three years and a half in great privation, as his estate had been confiscated, and his income was both small and precarious. His poverty prevented him from keeping a servant, and he was frequently compelled to pawn his plate to provide for the necessities of his family. One of Sir Patricks younger children, named Juliana, had been left behind in Scotland, on account of ill-health, and her eldest sister Grizel was sent back to bring her over to Holland. She was entrusted at the same time with the management of some business of her fathers, and was commissioned to collect what she could of the money that was due to him. All this she performed with her usual discretion and success.

The ship in which she took a passage to Holland for herself and her sister encountered a severe storm on the voyage, the terrors of which were aggravated by the barbarity of a brutal captain. The two girls were landed at Brill, whence they set out the same night for Rotterdam in company with a Scottish gentleman whom they accidentally met on landing. The night was cold and wet, and Juliana, who was hardly able to walk, soon lost her shoes in the mud. Grizel had to take the ailing child on her back and carried her all the way to Rotterdam, while the gentlemana sympathising fellow exile-carried their baggage.

During Sir Patricks residence in Holland, the greater part of the domestic drudgery devolved upon his devoted and self-denying daughter, who was often obliged to sit up two nights in the week to complete her work. According to the simple and affecting narrative of her daughter, Lady Murray of Stanhope, She went to the market, went to the mill to have their corn ground, which it seems is the way with good managers there; dressed the linen, cleaned the house, made ready the dinner, mended the childrens stockings and other clothes, made what she could for them; and, in short, did everything. Her sister Christian, who was a year or two younger, diverted her father, mother, and the rest, who were fond of music. Out of their small income they bought a harpsichord for little money. My aunt played and sang well, and had a great deal of life and humour, but no turn for business. Though my mother had the same qualification, and liked it as well as she did, she was forced to drudge; and many jokes used to pass between the sisters about their different occupations. Every morning before six my mother lighted her fathers fire in his study, then waked him, and got what he usually took as soon as he got upwarm small-beer with a spoonful of bitters in it; then took up the children, and brought them all to his room, when he taught them everything that was fit for their age: some Latin, others French, Dutch, geography, writing, English, &c., and my grandmother taught them what was necessary on her part. Thus he employed and diverted himself all the time he was there, not being able to afford putting them to school; and my mother, when she had a moment, took a lesson with the rest in French and Dutch, and also diverted herself with music. I have now a book of songs of her writing when she was there, many of them interrupted, half writ, some broke off in the midst of a sentence. She had no less a turn for mirth and society than any of the family, when she could come at it without neglecting what she thought was necessary.

Sir Patricks eldest son and young Mr. Baillie were at this time serving together in the Guards of the Prince of Orange, and Grizels constant attention, continues Lady Murray, was to have her brother appear right in his linen and dress. They wore little point cravats and cuffs, which many a night she sat up to have in as good order for him as any in the place; and one of their greatest expenses was in dressing him as he ought to be. As their house was always full of the unfortunate banished people like themselves, they seldom went to dinner without three, or four, or five of them to share with them. And it used to excite their surprise that notwithstanding this generous hospitality, their limited resources were almost always sufficient to supply their wants. In after years, when invested with the rank of an Earls daughter, and the wife of a wealthy gentleman, Grizel used to declare that their years of privation and drudgery were the most delightful of her whole life. Some of their difficulties and straits, though sufficiently annoying, only served to afford amusement to the exiled family. Andrew, then a boy, afterwards a judge of the Court of Session, was one day sent down to the cellar for a glass of alabast beer, the only liquor with which Sir Patrick could entertain his friends. On his return with the beer, his father said, Andrew, what is that in your other hand? It was the spigot of the barrel, which the boy had forgotten to replace. He hastened back to the cellar with all speed, but found that meanwhile the whole stock of beer had run out. This incident occasioned much mirth and laughter, though at the same time they did not know where they would get more. It was the custom at Utrecht to gather money for the poor from house to house, the collector announcing his presence by ringing a hand-bell. One night the sound of the bell was heard at Sir Patricks door, when there was no money in the house but a single okey, the smallest coin then used in Holland. They were so much ashamed to offer such a donation that none of the family would go with the money, till Sir Patrick himself at last undertook the duty, philosophically remarking, We can give no more than all we have.

In 1688, when the Prince of Orange undertook the deliverance of Britain from the tyranny of the Stewarts, Sir Patrick accompanied the expedition, and shared in all its difficulties, and ultimately in its rewards. High honours proportioned to his services and sufferings and character were showered upon him. His attainder was reversed and his estates were restored. He took his seat as member for Berwickshire in the Convention Parliament, which met at Edinburgh in 1689. He was soon afterwards sworn a Privy Councillor, and in 1690 was elevated to the peerage by the title of Lord Polwarth. In 1692 he was nominated Sheriff of Berwickshire; in the following year he was made one of the extraordinary Lords of Session, and in 1696 was appointed to the chief Scottish State office, that of Lord Chancellor. In 1697 he was created Earl of Marchmont, Viscount Blasonberry, and Baron Polwarth, and was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury and Admiralty, and subsequently filled the office of Lord High Commissioner both to the Parliament of 1698 and to the General Assembly in 1702. Shortly after the accession of Queen Anne he was deprived of his offices of Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, and Sheriff of Berwickshire; but notwithstanding this slight he took a prominent part in promoting the union between Scotland and England, and after a long life spent in the service of his country, he died in 1724, in the eighty-third year of his age, full of years and honours. Mackay, in his Memoirs, describes the Earl as a clever gentleman of clear parts, but always a lover of set long speeches, zealous for the Presbyterian government and its divine right.

The Earl of Marchmont was undoubtedly possessed of eminent abilities and extensive attainments, and was held in esteem by his contemporaries. But Lord Macaulay, who cherished a strong prejudice against the Earl, represents him as a man incapable alike of leading and of following, conceited, captious, and wrong-headed, an endless talker, a sluggard in action against the enemy, and active only against his own allies. It may be, felicitously rejoins Mr. Campbell Swinton, that Sir Patrick Hume was fond of hearing himself talk. But if it was so, those best acquainted with the social qualities of the noble historian will concur with me in thinking that the fault is not one which he at least should regard as unpardonable. And I cannot comprehend how Lord Macaulay can reconcile his own description of the statesmanlike sagacity of his favourite idol, William of Orange, with the picture he draws of the man who, both before and after that princes accession to the English throne, was among his most trusted counsellors and his most highly honoured friends.

The diary of George Home of Kimmerghame, whose father was the Earl of Marchmonts first cousin, gives a very pleasing view of the character of the Earl and the feeling which his kinsmen cherished towards him. The foreground of the picture, says Mr. Swinton, is always occupied by the Lord of Marchmont. Without the presence of "the Chancellor" neither a business meeting nor a convivial party seems to have been considered complete. His sayings are chronicled with a Boswell-like fidelityas when we are told that "after dinner my Lord fell in commendation of tobacco, and said he was told it was observed that no man that smoked regularly fell into a consumption, or was troubled with the gout." When he journeys to London in his family coacha journey, by the way, which occupies him twelve dayshe is waited on as far as Belford by his friends, including Kames, Coldenknowes, and his loving cousin of Kimmerghame. His return from the south as his Majestys Commissioner resembles nothing but a royal progress. And in the exercise of his viceregal authority we find him dubbing knights, and ruling with firmness and dignity an assembly as turbulent as a modern American Congress. Yet in the midst of all this he is a kind friend, a hospitable host, an active country gentleman, a welcome guest at bridals and christenings; deeply interested in everything that occurs in Berwickshire, and consulted regarding the marriage, and revising the marriage settlements, of his every female cousin in the fourth or fifth degree. [Men of the Merse. By Archibald Campbell Swinton of Kimmerghame. A delightful little volume, which it is earnestly hoped the accomplished author will be induced to enlarge.]

His noble-minded daughter, Grizel, came over to England in 1688, in the train of the Princess of Orange. After the settlement of the crown on William and Mary, the latter, who wished to retain Sir Patricks daughter near her person, offered her the situation of one of her maids of honour. But, like the Shunammite of old, Grizel preferred to dwell among her own people; and about two years after the Revolution she married her faithful lover, Mr. George Baillie, who had now regained his paternal estates, and spent with him forty-eight years of wedded life, in the enjoyment of an amount of happiness proportioned to the remarkable virtues and endowments of both husband and wife.

Mr. Baillie filled with great honour several important offices under Government, and was distinguished equally for his eminent abilities and his high-toned integrity. Rachel, the younger daughter of this excellent couple, inherited the family estates, and was the common ancestress of the elder branch of the Earls of Haddington and of the Baillies of Jerviswood, who have now succeeded to the Haddington titles and estates. The elder daughter, Grizel, who became the wife of Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope, wrote a most interesting memoir of her mother, Lady Grizel, whose appearance she thus describes: Her actions show what her mind was, and her outward appearance was no less singular. She was middle-sized, clean in her person, very handsome, with a life and sweetness in her eyes very uncommon, and great delicacy in all her features; her hair was chestnut, and to the last she had the finest complexion with the clearest red in her cheeks and lips that could be seen in one of fifteen, which, added to her natural constitution, might be owing to the great moderation she observed in her diet throughout her whole life. Lady Murray speaks of her mothers poetical compositions, and several of her songs or ballads were printed in Ramsays Tea-Table Miscellany. The best known of these is the beautiful and affecting but unequal pastoral song, Were na my heart licht, I wad die, which is associated with a most pathetic incident in the life of Robert Burns. This admirable woman died in 1746, in the eighty first year of her age, having survived her husband about eight years.

The two eldest sons of the first Earl of Marchmont predeceased him, and he was succeeded in his titles and estates by his third son, ALEXANDER, who, like his father, held a number of important public offices. He was a Lord of Session, under the title of Lord Cessnock, a Commissioner of the Exchequer and a Privy Councillor, and represented the British Government at the Courts both of Denmark and Prussia. By his marriage with the heiress of Cessnock, in Ayrshire, he acquired that estate [The sale of this Ayrshire estate in 1768, provided the funds by means of which Hume Castle and the adjoining lands became the property of the Marchmont family.] and the title under which he was raised, before he was thirty years of age, to a seat on the Bench. On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1715, he raised four hundred men in Berwickshire, to assist in its suppression, and marched with three battalions to join the Duke of Argyll at Stirling, before the battle of Sheriffmuir. In 1721 he was appointed first ambassador to the celebrated congress at Cambray, and made his public entry into that city in a style of great splendour and magnificence. But his opposition to Sir Robert Walpole led to his dismissal from the office of Lord Clerk-Register in 1733. Earl Alexander died in 1740, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. He had four sons and four daughters, but his two eldest sons died young. He was succeeded in his titles and estates by the elder of his two surviving sons, born in 1708. They were twins, and were celebrated for their extraordinary personal resemblance to one another. Alexander Hume Campbell, who bore the name which his father assumed on his marriage, was an eminent member of the English Bar, and represented his native county of Berwickshire in the British Parliament. For some years previous to his death, in 1760, he held the office of Lord Clerk-Register of Scotland.

HUGH, the third and last Earl of Marchmont, born in 1708, was remarkable for his learning, his wit, and his eloquence. At the general election of 1734 he entered the House of Commons as member for Berwick, and made himself so formidable to the Government as one of the leaders of the Opposition, that Sir Robert Walpole, then Prime Minister, declared that there were few things he more ardently desired than to see that young man at the head of his family, which would have had the effect of removing him from Parliament altogether, as the earldom of Marchmont was only a Scottish title, which did not entitle its possessor to a seat in the House of Lords. According to Horace Walpole, Sir Robert used to say to his sons, When I have answered Sir John Barnard and Lord Polwarth, I think I have concluded the debate.

Earl Stanhope, speaking of the severe blow which the removal of this accomplished debater from the House of Commons, by the death of his father, in 1740, dealt to the Opposition, says, Polwarth was a young man of distinguished abilities, of rising influence in the Commons, of greatperhaps too greatparty warmth; an opinion in which the famous Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, did not concur. 'I have heard some say, she writes, that Lord Polwarth and his brother are too warm; but I own I love those that are so, and never saw much good in those that are not. Earl Hugh was held in high esteem by his contemporaries, and was the intimate friend of Pope, St. John, Peterborough, Arbuthnot, and the other members of the brilliant Twickenham circle. Lord Cobham placed his bust in the Temple of Worthies at Stow. Pope makes frequent and affectionate mention of him in his poems, and introduces his name into the well-known inscription on his grotto at Twickenham:-

There the brightest flame was shot through Marchmonts soul.

The Earl was one of the executors of the poet, and also of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, who left him a legacy of 2,500. Dr. Samuel Johnson, who had an interview with his lordship for the purpose of obtaining some information about Pope for his Lives of the Poets, was so delighted with the Earl, in spite of his Scottish nationality, that he said to Boswell, Sir, I would rather have given twenty pounds than not have come.

Lord Marchmont sat for thirty-four years in the House of Lords as one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland, and took an active part in the business of the House, in which his abilities, experience, and learning gave him great weight He died in 1794 at the age of eighty-six. The Earl was twice married, and had one son by each of his wives. PATRICK, the first born, died young. The younger, who was named ALEXANDER, married in 1772 Annabel, Baroness Lucas, the heiress of the great family of the Greys, Dukes of Kent, and was created in 1776 a British .peer by the title of Baron Hume of Berwick. He unfortunately died without issue in his fathers lifetime. But the untimely death of this promising young nobleman did not heal a family feud which had originated in a contested election for the county of Berwick in 1780. The rival candidates were Sir John Paterson of Eccles, the Earls nephew and nominee, and young Hugh Scott of Harden, the Earls grandson by his eldest daughter, Lady Diana Scott. Lord Polwarth and his father took opposite sides in the contest, which was carried on with great keenness, and terminated in the return of Mr. Scott. The old peer, who had inherited a good deal of the obstinate disposition as well as the talents of the first Earl, never forgave his grandson for what he termed an act of rebellion, and he in consequence disinherited him and settled his extensive estates on the heirs of his sister, Lady Anne Purves, who had married Sir William Purves of Purves Hall, a descendant of Sir William Purves who was Solicitor-General for Scotland in the reign of Charles II. The present worthy Baronet of Marchmont, who has assumed the name of Hume-Campbell, is the great-grandson of Lady Anne Purves.

Till qwe meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

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Info on Irish & Scottish Clans

The Dal gCais were the great clan of Thomond, or North Munster, an area more especially associated with County Clare (excluding the Burren and Corcomroe on the northwest corner) and adjacent parts of Tipperary and Limerick. They were the axe-wielding footsoldiers who formed the core of the army that defeated the Vikings in 1014, one of the most significant dates in Gaelic history. The chief families of this tribe were above all the OBriens, but also OAhernes.

The Aherne Family
Barrett crestBarrett is a well known Irish clan which includes various septs including MacPadine, MacWattin, MacEvilly (Mac an Mhileadha), and MacAndrew. There are two Barrett clans in Ireland which are believed to be completely unrelated. The most common are the Munster Barretts of Co. Cork who are Norman in origin. The other is the Barrett clan of Connacht, most numerous in the Mayo-Galway mountain region. This clan is Gaelic in origin although they came to Ireland with the Norman invasion at the end of the twelfth century. They were hired mercinaries from Wales. To this day the Barretts and the Barrys of Connacht are known as "the Welshmen of Tirawley". The similarity of the names of the two Barrett clans is purely coincedental. The Barretts of Cork derived their name from the Norman-French "Barratt" while the Barretts of Connacht derived their name from the gaelic name "Bairad" which means quarrelsome or warlike . In fact, many daughters and sons of the clan, living in Connacht, are still called Bairad (or mac Bairad, as the case may be). In any case, both Barrett clans were fully assimilated into Irish culture and married into many old Irish families, they are said to have become "more irish than the Irish themselves". You will find many Barretts/Bairads in Irish history serving the Irish nation such as Col. John Barrett who raised a regiment of infantry for King James' army in Ireland, afterwards he and his clan suffered a wrath of genocide and land confiscations dealt by the Williamite armies in 1691. There was Rocard Bairad "The poet of Erris", a prominent United Irishman; to name a few.
Barry crestThe first bearer of the surname to arrive in Ireland was Robert de Barri one of the original band of Norman Knights who landed at Bannow in Co. Wexford in May 1169 and the brother of Giraldus Combrensis historian of the invasion. The name comes from the earlier association of the family with the island of Barry seven miles southwest of Cardiff in Wales. From the start the family were prominent in the settlement of east Cork and were soon absorbed into the native culture forming sub septs on Gaelic lines the most important being Barry Mor, Barry Og and Barry Roe. The names of two of these are perpetuated in the names of the Cork baronies of Barrymore and Barryroe and many other Cork place names are linked to the family: Kilbarry, Rathbarry and Buttevant (from the family motto Boutez en avant) to mention only three. The surname is now numerous in Ireland but still inextricably associated with Co.Cork.
BoyleBoyle or O'Boyle is now one of the fifty most common surnames in Ireland. In Irish the name is O'Baoghill thought to be connected to the Irish geall meaning pledge. In the Middle Ages the family were powerful, sharing control of the entire northwest of the island with the O'Donnells and the O'Dohertys and the strongest association of the family is still with Co. Donelgal where Boyl is the third most numerous name in the country. The majority of those bearing the name are of Gaelic origin but many Irish Boyles have separate Norman origins. In Ulster a significant number are descended from the Scottish Norman family of de Boyville whose name comes from the town Beauville in Normandy. The most famous Irish family of the surname were the Boyles, Earls of Cork and Shannon, descended from Richard Boyle who arrived in Ireland from Kent in 1588.

Family Boyle
Brady crestThe surname derives from the Irish MacBradnigh coming possibly from bradach meaning 'thieving' or 'dishonest'. The name remains very numerous in Co. Cavan their original homeland with large numbers also to be found in the adjoining country of Monaghan. Their power was centered on an area a few miles east of Cavan, from where they held jurisdiction over a large territory within the old Gaelic kingdom of Breifne. There have been many notable poets, clergyman and soldiers of the name including Thomas Brady (1752-1827), a field marshal in the Austrian army, the satirical Gaelic poet Rev . Philip MacBrady, as well as three MacBrady, Bishops of Kilmore and one MacBrady Bishop of Ardagh. The pre-Reformation Cavan Crozier originally belonging to one of these MacBradys is now to be found in the National Museum in Dublin.

MacBrady is very common in Cavan today with large numbers also in the adjoining Co. Monaghan. There are also a number of Brady families in East Clare but these originated from the "O'Grady" family who changed their name to the more English sounding Brady at the time of Henry VIII.

In the 18th century three MacBradys distinguished themselves as Gaelic poets. They were Fiachra MacBrady , Rev. Philip MacBrady (d. 1719) and Phelim Brady, usually referred to as "bold Phelim Brady the bard of Armagh".

Gilbert MacBrady was Bishop of Ardagh from 1396 to 1400 and there were three MacBrady bishops of Kilmore in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Andrew MacBrady in 1454 as bishop of Kilmore provided a cathedral church for the diocese. The pre-reformation Cavan crozier belonging to one of the MacBradys is now in the National Museum in Dublin.

Thomas Brady (1752-1827), son of a Cootehill farmer, became a field marshal in the Austrian army.

William Maziare Brady (1825-1894) was the author of "Episcopal Succession in England, Scotland, and Ireland".

Anthony Nicholas Brady (1843-1913) was an Irish-American who made a fortune in railroads and electric lighting companies in Albany and Brooklyn. His empire included the Municipal Gas Co. of Albany and New York Edison Co. and other power companies in Brooklyn, Memphis and Chicago. He was on the board of directors of Westinghouse Electric, American Tobacco, U.S. Rubber and 30 other corporations. On his death in 1913 he left an estate of 100 million dollars.

His son Nicholas married Genevieve Garvan, sister of the famous detective Francis P. Garvan. The couple devoted much of their time and money to the Catholic Church. They were friends and sponsors of Francis J. Spellman who became Archbishop of New York and Cardinal. Mrs. Brady received the title "Dame of Malta" in 1927 and became known as the Duchess Brady.

Clan Donald connection: Only those from Islay & Kintyre and must originally been O'Brolachain. About 37% of all Brady's are Scots. Brady's not of Clan Donald may be from Dundee, Dunblane, Berwick or Edinburgh.

The Brady Heritage Assocation
Brennan crestThis is one of the most frequent surnames in Ireland. It derives from the two Irish originals O'Braonain and Mac Branain . The Mac Brandin were chiefs of a large territory in the east of the present Co.Roscommon and the majority of the Brennans of north Connacht, counties Mayo, Sligo and Roscommon descend from them. O'Braonain originated in at least four distinct areas: Kilkenny, East Galway, Westmeath and Kerry. Of these the most powerful were the O'Braonain of Kilkenny, chiefs of Idough in the north of the country. After they lost their land to the English, many of them became notorious as leaders of the outlaw bands. A separate family, the O'Branain, are the ancestors of many Brennans of counties Fermanagh and Monaghan where the name was also anglicised as Brannan and Branny.
The Brennan Clan came into existence over a thousand years ago when Braonan, the son of Cearbhall, Viking King of Dublin, settled in the area of north Kilkenny, then known as Idough. Until the coming of the Normans in the 12th century the Brennans were the most powerful clan in the area, having defeated all local opposition.

In the 17th century the Brennan lands were granted to Christopher Wandesforde and the Brennans lost all legal rights to their land.

Since then Brennans have left Ireland and settled every corner of the world. In 1990 the first Clan Gathering was in Castlecomer where hundreds of the descendants of those Brennans came back to the land their forefathers.

The Brennans of Idough
BrowneThis is one of the most common surnames in the British Isles and is among the forty commonest in Ireland. It can be derived as a nickname, from the Old English Brun referring to hair, complexion or clothes or from the Norman name Le Brun similarly meaning 'the brown'. In the three southern provinces of Munster, Leinster and Connacht where the name is usually spelt with the final 'e', it is almost invariably of Norman or English origin and was borne by some of the most important of Norman-Irish and Anglo-Irish families, notably the Earls of Kenmare in Kerry and Lord Oranmore and Browne and the Earls of Altamont in Connacht. In Ulster where it is more often plain 'Brown' the surname can be Anglicization of the Scots Gaelic Mac a'Bhruithin ('son of the judge') or Mac Gille Dhuinn ('son of the brown boy').
BrowneThis is one of the most common surnames in the British Isles and is among the forty commonest in Ireland. It can be derived as a nickname, from the Old English Brun referring to hair, complexion or clothes or from the Norman name Le Brun similarly meaning 'the brown'. In the three southern provinces of Munster, Leinster and Connacht where the name is usually spelt with the final 'e', it is almost invariably of Norman or English origin and was borne by some of the most important of Norman-Irish and Anglo-Irish families, notably the Earls of Kenmare in Kerry and Lord Oranmore and Browne and the Earls of Altamont in Connacht. In Ulster where it is more often plain 'Brown' the surname can be Anglicization of the Scots Gaelic Mac a'Bhruithin ('son of the judge') or Mac Gille Dhuinn ('son of the brown boy').
BrowneThis is one of the most common surnames in the British Isles and is among the forty commonest in Ireland. It can be derived as a nickname, from the Old English Brun referring to hair, complexion or clothes or from the Norman name Le Brun similarly meaning 'the brown'. In the three southern provinces of Munster, Leinster and Connacht where the name is usually spelt with the final 'e', it is almost invariably of Norman or English origin and was borne by some of the most important of Norman-Irish and Anglo-Irish families, notably the Earls of Kenmare in Kerry and Lord Oranmore and Browne and the Earls of Altamont in Connacht. In Ulster where it is more often plain 'Brown' the surname can be Anglicization of the Scots Gaelic Mac a'Bhruithin ('son of the judge') or Mac Gille Dhuinn ('son of the brown boy').
BurkeBurke, along with its variants Bourke and de Burgh, is the most common Irish name of Norman origin; over 20,000 Irish people bear the surname The first person of the name to arrive on Ireland was William Fitzadelm de Burgo, a Norman knight from Burgh in Suffock who took part in the invasion of 1171 and succeeded Strongbow as Chief Governor. He received the earldom of Ulster, and was granted territory in Connacht. His descendants adopted Gaelic law and customs more completely the any of the other Norman invaders and quickly became one of the most important families in the country. According to legend the arms of the family originated during the Crusades when King Richard dipped his finger in the blood of a Saracen slain by one of the de Burghs drew a cross on the Saracen's golden shield and presented it to the victor.
BurkeBurke, along with its variants Bourke and de Burgh, is the most common Irish name of Norman origin; over 20,000 Irish people bear the surname The first person of the name to arrive on Ireland was William Fitzadelm de Burgo, a Norman knight from Burgh in Suffock who took part in the invasion of 1171 and succeeded Strongbow as Chief Governor. He received the earldom of Ulster, and was granted territory in Connacht. His descendants adopted Gaelic law and customs more completely the any of the other Norman invaders and quickly became one of the most important families in the country. According to legend the arms of the family originated during the Crusades when King Richard dipped his finger in the blood of a Saracen slain by one of the de Burghs drew a cross on the Saracen's golden shield and presented it to the victor.
ButlerThe surname Butler is Norman in origin, and once meant 'wine steward'. The name was then extended to denote the chief servant of a household and amongst the nobility a high ranking officer concerned only nominally with the supply of wine. In Ireland the most prominent Butler family is descended from Theobald Fitzwalter who was created Chief Butler of Ireland by Henry II. His descendants became the Earls and later the Dukes of Ormond. Up to the end of the seventeenth century the Butlers were one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman dynasties sharing effective control of Ireland with their great rivals the Fitzgeralds.

The Butler Society
ByrneByrn or O'Byrne together with its variants Be(i)rne and Byrnes is one of the ten most frequent surnames in Ireland today. In the original Irish the name is O'Broin from the personal name Bran meaning Raven. It is traced back to King Bran of Leinster who ruled in the eleventh century. As a result of the Norman invasion the O'Byrnes were driven from their original homeland in Co. Kildare into the south Co.Wicklow in the early thirteenth century. There they grew in importance over the years retaining control of the territory until the early seventeenth despite repeated attempts by the English authorities to dislodge them. Even today the vast majority of the Irish who bear the name originate in Wicklow or the surrounding counties.
Till we meet again - Regards- edmondsallan

WILLIAM ELPHINSTON- Glasgow - Scotland - 1431 -( Historical Ancestry )

William Elphinstone
source: the university of Aberdeen

ELPHINSTON, WILLIAM, a celebrated Scottish prelate, and founder of the university of Aberdeen, was born in the city of Glasgow in the year 1431. His father, William Elphinston, was a younger brother of the noble family of Elphinston, who took up his residence in Glasgow during the reign of James I., and was the first of its citizens who became eminent and acquired a fortune as a general merchant. His mother was Margaret Douglas, a daughter of the laird of Drumlanrick. His earliest youth was marked by a decided turn for the exercises of devotion, and he seems to have been by his parents, at a very early period of his life, devoted to the church, which was in these days the only road to preferment. In the seventh year of his age he was sent to the grammar school, and having gone through the prescribed course, afterwards studied philosophy in the university of his native city, then newly founded by bishop Turnbull, and obtained the degree of Artium magister in the twenty-fifth year of his age. He then entered into holy orders, and was appointed priest of the church of St Michaels, situated in St Enochs gate, now the Trongate, where he officiated for the space of four years. Being strongly attached to the study both of the civil and canon law, he was advised by his uncle, Lawrence Elphinston, to repair to the continent, where these branches of knowledge were taught in perfection. Accordingly, in the twenty-ninth year of his age, he went over to France, where he applied himself to the study of law for the space of three years, at the end of which he was called to fill a professional chair in the university of Paris, and afterwards at Orleans, in both of which places he taught the science of law with the highest applause. Having in this manner spent nine years abroad, he was, at the request of his friends, especially of Andrew Muirhead, his principal patron, (who, from being rector of Cadzow, had been promoted to the bishopric of Glasgow,) persuaded to return to his native country, where he was made parson of Glasgow, and official or commissary of the diocese. As a mark of respect, too, the university of Glasgow elected him lord rector the same year. On the death of bishop Muirhead, which took place only two years after his return, he was nominated by Schevez, bishop of St Andrews, official of Lothian; an office which he discharged so much to the satisfaction of all concerned, that James III., sent for him to parliament, and appointed him one of the lords of his privy council. It may be noticed here, as a curious fact, that at this period men of various degrees sat and deliberated and voted in parliament without any other authority than being summoned by his majesty as wise and good men, whose advice might be useful in the management of public affairs. So little, indeed, was the privilege of sitting and voting in parliament then understood, or desired, that neither the warrant of their fellow subjects, nor the call of the king, was sufficient to secure their attendance, and penalties for non-attendance had before that period been exacted. Elphinston was now in the way of preferment; and being a man both of talents and address, was ready to profit by every opportunity. Some differences having arisen between the French and Scottish courts, the latter, alarmed for the stability of the ancient alliance of the two countries, thought fit to send out an embassy for its preservation. This embassy consisted of the earl of Buchan, lord chamberlain Livingston, bishop of Dunkeld, and Elphinston, the subject of this memoir, who so managed matters as to have the success of the embassy wholly attributed to him. As the reward of such an important service, he was, on his return in 1479, made archdeacon of Argyle and as this was not considered as at all adequate to his merits, the bishopric of Ross was shortly after added. The election of the chapter of Ross being speedily confirmed by the kings letters patent under the great seal, Elphinston took his seat in parliament, under the title of electus et confirmatus, in the year 1482. It does not appear, however, that he was ever any thing more than bishop elect of Ross; and in the following year, 1483, Robert Blackadder, bishop of Aberdeen, being promoted to the see of Glasgow, Elphinston was removed to that of Aberdeen. He was next year nominated, along with Colin earl of Argyle, John lord Drummond, lord Oliphant, Robert lord Lyle, Archibald Whitelaw, archdeacon of Loudon, and Duncan Dundas, lord lyon king at arms, to meet with commissioners from Richard III., of England, for settling all disputes between the two countries. The commissioners met at Nottingham on the 7th of September, 1484, and, after many conferences, concluded a peace betwixt the two nations for the space of three years, commencing at sunrise September 29th, 1484, and to end at sunset on the 29th of September, 1487. Anxious to secure himself from the enmity of James at any future period, Richard, in addition to this treaty, proposed to marry his niece, Anne de la Pool, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, to the eldest son of king James. This proposal met with the hearty approbation of James; and bishop Elphinston with several noblemen were despatched back again to Nottingham to conclude the affair. Circumstances, however, rendered all the articles that had been agreed upon to no purpose, and on the fatal field of Bosworth Richard shortly after closed his guilty career. The truce concluded with Richard for three years does not appear to have been very strictly observed, and on the accession of Henry VII., bishop Elphinston with Sir John Ramsay and others, went again into England, where they met with commissioners on the part of that country, and on the 3d of July, 1486, more than a year of the former truce being still to run, concluded a peace, or rather a cessation of arms, which was to continue till the 3d of July, 1489. Several disputed points were by this treaty referred to the Scottish parliament, which it was agreed should assemble in the month of January following. A meeting of the two kings, it was also stipulated, should take place in the following summer, when they would, face to face, talk over all that related to their personal interests, and those of their realms. Owing to the confusion that speedily ensued, this meeting never took place. Bishop Elphinston, in the debates betwixt the king and his nobles, adhered steadfastly to the king, and exerted himself to the utmost to reconcile them, though without effect. Finding the nobles nowise disposed to listen to what he considered reason, the bishop made another journey to England, to solicit in behalf of his master the assistance of Henry. In this also he was unsuccessful; yet James was so well pleased with his conduct, that on his return, he constituted him lord high chancellor of Scotland, the principal state office in the country. This the bishop held till the death of the king, which happened a little more than three months after. On that event, the bishop retired to his diocese, and applied himself to the faithful discharge of his episcopal functions. He was particularly careful to reform such abuses as he found to exist among his clergy, and for their benefit composed a book of canons, taken from the canons of the primitive church. He was, however, called to attend the parliament held at Edinburgh, in the month of October, 1488, where he was present at the crowning of the young prince James, then in his sixteenth year. Scarcely any but the conspirators against the late king attended this parliament, and aware that the bishop might refuse to concur with them in the measures they meant to pursue, they contrived to send him on a mission to Germany, to the emperor Maximilian, to demand in marriage for, the young king, his daughter Margaret. Before he could reach Vienna, the lady in question had been promised to the heir apparent of the king of Spain. Though he failed in the object for which he had been specially sent out, his journey was not unprofitable to his country; for, taking Holland in his way home, he concluded a treaty of peace and amity with the States, who had, to the great loss of Scotland, long been its enemies. The benefits of this treaty were so generally felt, that it was acknowledged by all to have been a much more important service than the accomplishment of the marriage, though all the expected advantages had followed it. On his return from this embassy in 1492, bishop Elphinston was made lord privy seal, in place of bishop Hepburn, removed. The same year, he was again appointed a commissioner, along with several others, for renewing the truce with England, which was done at Edinburgh, in the month of June, the truce being settled to last till the end of April, 1501.

Tranquillity being now restored, bishop Elphinston turned his attention to the state of learning and of morals among his countrymen. For the improvement of the latter, he compiled the lives of Scottish Saints, which he ordered to be read on solemn occasions among his clergy; and for the improvement of the former, he applied to pope Alexander VI. to grant him a bull for erecting a university in Aberdeen. This request pope Alexander, from the reputation of the bishop, readily complied with, and sent him a bull to that effect in the year 1494. The college, however, was not founded till the year 1506, when it was dedicated to St Mary; but the king, at the request of the bishop, having taken upon himself and his successors the protection of it, and contributed to its endowment, St Mary was compelled to give place to his more efficient patronage, and it has ever since been called Kings college. By the bull of erection this university was endowed with privileges as ample as any in Europe, and it was chiefly formed upon the excellent models of Paris and Bononia. The persons originally endowed, were a doctor of theology (principal), a doctor of the canon law, a doctor of the civil law, a doctor of physic, a professor of humanity to teach grammar, a sub-principal to teach philosophy, a chanter, a sacrist, six students of theology, three students of the laws, thirteen students of philosophy, an organist, and five singing boys, who were students of humanity. By the united efforts of the king and the bishop, ample provision was made for the subsistence of both teachers and taught, and to this day a regular education can be obtained at less expense in Aberdeen, than any where else in the united kingdoms of Great Britain. The bishop of Aberdeen for the time, was constituted chancellor of the university; but upon the abolition of that office at the reformation, the patronage became vested in the crown. Of this college the celebrated Hector Boece was the first principal. He was recalled from Paris, where he had a professional chair, for the express purpose of filling the office, which had a yearly salary of forty merks attached to ittwo pounds three shillings and fourpence sterling. While the worthy bishop was thus laying a foundation for supplying the church and the state with a regular series of learned men, he was not inattentive to other duties belonging to his office. His magnificent cathedral, founded by bishop Kinnimonth in the year 1357, but not completed till the year 1447, he was at great pains and considerable expense to adorn. The great steeple, he furnished with bells, which were supposed to have peculiar efficacy in driving off evil spirits. He was also careful to add to the gold, the silver, and the jewels, with which the cathedral was liberally furnished, and particularly to the rich wardrobe for the officiating clergy. He also added largely to the library. While he was attending to the spiritual wants of his diocese, the worthy bishop was not forgetful of its temporal comforts; and especially, for the accommodation of the good town of Aberdeen, was at the expense of erecting an excellent stone bridge over the Dee, a structure which continued to be a public benefit for many ages.

In consequence of his profuse expenditure, James IV. had totally exhausted his treasury, when, by the advice of the subject of this memoir, he had recourse to the revival of an old law that was supposed to have become obsolete. Among the tenures of land used in Scotland, there was one by which the landlord held his estate on the terms, that if he died and left his son and heir under age, his tutelage belonged to the king or some other lord superior, who uplifted all the rents of the estate till the heir reached the years of majority, while he bestowed upon his ward only what he thought necessary. By the same species of holding, if the possessor sold more than the half of his estate without consent of his superior, the whole reverted to the superior. There were also lands held with clauses called irritant, of which some examples we believe may be found still, by which, if two terms of feu duty run unpaid into the third, the land reverts to the superior. From the troubled state of the country during the two former reigns, these laws had not been enforced; so that now, when inquiry began to be made, they had a wide operation, and many were under the necessity of compounding for their estates. Had the bishop been aware of the use the king was to make of the very seasonable supply, he would most probably have been the last man to have suggested it.

James now permitted himself to be cajoled by the French court, and especially by the French queen, who, aware of the romantic turn of his mind, addressed letters to him as her knight, expressing her hope, that as she had suffered much rebuke in France for defending his honour, so he would recompense her again with some of his kingly support in her necessity; that is to say, that he would raise her an army, and come three feet of space on English ground for her sake. Pitscottie adds, that she sent him also fourteen thousand French crowns to pay his expenses, a circumstance that detracts in a considerable degree from the wildness of the enterprise, and brings the whole nearly to the level of a foolish bargain. James, thus prompted, called a parliament, where, contrary to the declared opinion of all the wiser members, the promises of La Motto the French ambassador, the subserviency of the clergy, who either enjoyed or expected Gallic pensions, and the eagerness of James, caused war to be determined on against England, and a day to be appointed for assembling the army. The army was raised accordingly, and James, crossing the borders, stormed the castles of Norham, Wark, and Ford, wasting without mercy all the adjoining country. In a short time, one of his female prisoners, the lady Heron of Ford, ensnared him in an amour, in consequence of which he neglected the care of his army, and suffered the troops to lie idle in a country that could not yield them subsistence for any length of time. His army, of course, soon began to disperse. The nobles, indeed, remained with their relations and immediate retainers; but even these were highly dissatisfied, and were anxious to return home, taking Berwick by the way, which they contended would yield them a richer reward for their labour than all the villages on the border. James, however, obstinate and intractable, would listen to no advice, and on the 9th day of September, 1513, came to an action with the English, under the earl of Surrey, who, by a skilful countermarch had placed himself between James and his own country. James, whether from ignorance or wilfulness, allowed his enemies quietly to take every advantage, and when they had done so, set fire to his tents, and descended from a strong position on the ridge of Flodden into the plain to meet them. The consequences were such as the temerity of his conduct merited; he was totally routed, being cut off himself, with almost the whole of the Scottish nobility, together with the archbishop of St Andrews, and many of the dignified clergy. The news of this most disastrous battle so deeply affected the gentle spirit of bishop Elphinston, that he never was seen to smile afterwards. He, however, attended in parliament to give his advice in the deplorable state to which the nation was reduced. The queen had been by the late king named as regent so long as she remained unmarried, and this, though contrary to the practice of the country, which had never hitherto admitted of a female exercising regal authority, was, from the scarcity of men qualified either by rank or talents for filling the situation, acquiesced in, especially by those who wished for peace, which they supposed, and justly, as the event proved, she might have some influence in procuring. It was but a few months, however, till she was married, and the question then came to be discussed anew, and with still greater violence.
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Such a man as Elphinston was not to be spared to his country in this desperate crisis; for as he was on his journey to Edinburgh to attend a meeting of parliament, he was taken ill by the way, and died on the 25th of October, 1514; being in the eighty-third year of his age. He was, according to his own directions, buried in the collegiate church of Aberdeen.

Bishop Elphinston is one of those ornaments of the Catholic church, who sometimes appear in spite of the errors of that faith, He seems to have been a really good and amiable man. He wrote, as has been already remarked, the Lives of Scottish Saints, which are now lost. He composed also a history of Scotland, from the earliest period of her history, down to his own time; which is still preserved in the Bodleian library at Oxford. It is said to consist of eleven books, occupying three hundred and eighty-four pages in folio, written in a small hand, and full of contractions, and to be nearly the same as Fordun, so that we should suppose it scarcely worthy of the trouble it would take to read it. Of all our Scottish bishops, however, no one has been by our historians more highly commended than bishop Elphinston. He has been celebrated as a great statesman, a learned and pious churchman, and one who gained the reverence and the love of all men. He certainly left behind him many noble instances of his piety and public spirit; and it is highly to his honour, that, notwithstanding his liberality in building and endowing his college, providing materials for a bridge over the Dee, the large alms that he gave daily to the poor and religious of all sorts, besides the help that he afforded to his own kindred, he used solely the rents of his own bishopric, having never held any place in commendam, as the general practice then was, and he left behind him at his death, ten thousand pounds in gold and silver, which he bequeathed to the college, and to the finishing and repairing of his bridge over the Dee. As he was thus conspicuous, continues his biographer, for piety and charity, so he was no less so for his having composed several elaborate treatises that were destroyed at the reformation. This panegyrist goes on to say, "that there never was a man known to be a greater integrity of life and manners, it being observed of him, that after he entered into holy orders, he was never known to do or say an unseemly thing. But the respect and veneration that he was held in, may appear from what is related to have happened at the time of his burial, by the historians who lived near his time, for they write, that the day his corpse was brought forth to be interred, the pastoral staff, which was all of silver, and carried by Alexander Lauder a priest, broke in two pieces, one part thereof falling into the grave where the corpse was to be laid, and a voice was heard to cry, Tecum, GULIELME, Mitra sepelienda With thee the mitre and glory thereof is buried."

Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan

PIERRE CABAZIE - Toulouse- France - 1641 ( Historical Ancestry )

CABAZI, PIERRE, court officer, jail-keeper, acting kings attorney and judge, clerk in the court registry, and notary; b. c. 1641 in the region of Toulouse, son of Pierre Cabazi, royal notary, and Delphine Desbordes; buried 14 July 1715 at Montreal.

Cabazis long judicial career began on 23 Jan. 1673, when by virtue of a commission from Dollier de Casson he became serjeant-at-law (court officer) of the bailiffs court of Montreal for the cte Saint-Martin. The following year, on 25 September, when Bnigne Basset* had been suspended for four months, the Conseil Souverain appointed Cabazi acting notary. But while continuing to draw up documents as a court officer, he practised the profession of notary without interruption from 1674 to 1693, receiving 172 acts. He was moreover a clerk in the registry of the bailiffs court from 1674 to 1678 and from 1680 to 1691, and also acted as jail-keeper around 1683. In 1693, when royal justice was set up in Montreal, Cabazi left the seigneurs court; from 17 Nov. 1693 till his death he was a royal court officer; he also served as acting kings attorney from 1696 to 1701, and as acting lieutenant-general in 1698, 1700, 1702, 1703, and 1705. On 23 July 1669, at Quebec, he had married Jeanne Guiberge, who was about 13 years of age.
source:Andr Vachon

Till we meet again - Regardds - edmondsallan

LOUIS BABEL - Switzerland - 1826 - ( Historical Ancestry )

BABEL, LOUIS (named at birth Louis-Franois), priest, Oblate of Mary Immaculate, missionary, linguist, geographer, and explorer; b. 23 June 1826 in Veyrier, Switzerland, son of Joseph Babel, a postilion, and Franoise Jovet; d. 1 March 1912 in Pointe-Bleue, Que.

After attending school in Fribourg and Mlan, Switzerland, Louis Babel entered the noviciate of Notre-Dame-de-lOsier in France on 4 May 1847. He made his final vows on 8 May 1848 and then undertook theological studies, first in Marseilles, and from 1849 to 1851 in Maryvale, near Birmingham, England. He was sent to Canada in 1851 and was ordained to the priesthood in Bytown (Ottawa) by Bishop Joseph-Bruno Guigues* on 27 July 1851.

At Father Babels request, his superiors assigned him to the mission among the Montagnais. Stationed initially at Grande-Baie in the Saguenay region of Lower Canada, he was sent in 1853 to Les Escoumins. There he met Father Charles Arnaud, who was to be his companion in evangelism for almost 60 years. Because of his robust health, zeal, and facility with languages, Babel was ideally suited for the arduous work awaiting him in these regions. Every year the two missionaries would cover more than 1,560 miles on foot or by canoe to reach their flock, which included both whites and Indians scattered along the north shore of the St Lawrence from the mouth of the Saguenay to Tte--la-Baleine. In the opinion of Abb Roger Boily, who replaced them in 1862, Babel and Arnaud had done a remarkable job. On arriving in Les Escoumins, I found a population well disposed to continue putting into practice the good lessons taught by the reverend Oblate fathers . . . , he noted. How, indeed, could one not become attached to such worthy missionaries? Their virtues, their piety, and especially their zeal could not fail to draw even the most rebellious hearts.

It was a hard blow for Babel when in the summer of 1862 his superiors sent him from Les Escoumins to Notre-Dame-du-Dsert (Maniwaki), rather than to Betsiamites, the new centre of the Montagnais mission. The transfer was made because of his administrative talents. Although he no longer had to brave the perils of the sea, he had to learn a new native language, Algonkin, and become familiar with all the trades, including those of bursar, builder, and farmer.

Babel stayed among the Algonkin only four years, however. In 1866 he rejoined Arnaud at Betsiamites, where he remained until 1911. In addition to working among the Montagnais, he played a major role in the Oblates missionary efforts. For many years Bishop Charles-Franois Baillargeon* of Quebec and the Oblates had dreamed of reaching the Naskapi in the interior of Labrador, and, if possible, the Inuit. Arnaud had already made several attempts, but without success. In 1866 Babel was assigned the task of setting up a mission among the Naskapi at Baie des Esquimaux (Hamilton Inlet), some 1,250 miles from Quebec. This arm of the sea extends inland about 50 miles, and the Hudsons Bay Company had a post in the interior at Rigolet. Babel left Quebec on 30 April 1866 for Mingan, where he was to board the companys steamship. However, the ship did not show up and on 18 July he set out for the bay with two men by an overland route. They encountered many obstacles. There is nothing but mountains, swamps, and lakes jumbled together, he wrote, and the travellers were constantly attacked by swarms of mosquitoes. They finally reached Winokapau, an HBC post more than 500 miles from Mingan, where they planned to replenish their supplies. But the post was deserted and Babels two companions refused to go on. He had no choice but to return to Mingan. Arriving on 29 August he gave this account: The journey that I have just finished was made under the most unfavourable conditions; 1. I had only one capable man, the other was a scrofulous youth of 16 or 17 . . . ; 2. Neither of them knowing the way, and having only a hastily drawn Indian map to go by, we lost considerable time around a number of lakes, in order to find the entrance to the portages; 3. My tent and many of my effects, as well as my canoe, were too heavy; 4. . . . in 43 days of walking, we had 27 rainy days; 5. The total want of supplies for half of the return journey.

In spite of these difficulties, Babel was not discouraged. Strengthened by his experience, he undertook to go to Baie des Esquimaux the following year. On 9 July 1867 he left Mingan, this time aboard the HBC steamship. When he got to Rigolet he met some Inuit, but found that they were all Protestants full of prejudice against Roman Catholic priests. He pushed farther inland to North West River, about 90 miles from Rigolet. Here, after two weeks, he baptized 15 adults and 7 children. He then headed west towards Lac Petitsikapau, where there were many Naskapi. He spent three days there, baptized a few children, and set out once more, along with two men, in the direction of Mingan. He covered more than 500 miles in 33 days of dreadful weather, with companions who were on the verge of leaving him at any moment, long portages (sometimes in more than a foot of snow), and insufficient supplies. He got back on 19 October.

In 1868 Babel went to Baie des Esquimaux for what would be the last time. On his next two journeys, in 1869 and 1870, he was unable to travel so far. Every year thereafter until 1889 he visited the missions along the north shore of the St Lawrence. From 1890, because of his age, he would undertake no more long expeditions.

His attempts to preach the gospel to the Naskapi and Inuit made Babel, indirectly, the first scientific explorer of northeastern Quebec. A tireless chronicler, a meticulous observer, and a well-informed scientist, he was the first to report iron ore in what was to become New Quebec. His descriptions of lakes, rivers, rapids, and portages, his meticulous observations on the nature of the soil and the forest, and his constant reporting on climatic and meteorological conditions make his travel journals of particular scientific value. During his 1868 journey, for instance, he used the Rochon telescope, also called the telescope for measuring distances, to give brief descriptions of the places he visited, and he provided copious and detailed data about the size of the lakes, the direction in which the rivers flowed, the length of the portages, and the direction and velocity of the winds, taking care to add the time at which he made these observations. In 1873 the Quebec Department of Crown Lands published a large map based on his data, the first one to describe the interior of Labrador. It would prove a reliable and valuable scientific guide for both missionaries and explorers. Babels contribution to the knowledge of native languages also deserves mention. He was the author of a French-Montagnais dictionary, which is still in manuscript form, and wrote notes which were to be used in preparing a Montagnais grammar.

Babel is remembered as a great missionary because of his total dedication to the evangelization and welfare of the aboriginal peoples, and as a model religious because of his self-sacrifice, courage, detachment, and promptness in carrying out the difficult tasks assigned to him. Unlike Father Arnaud, who was known for his gentleness, Babel was stern, uncommunicative, and rough-mannered. These traits created many problems for him in his relations with colleagues and church members, and earned him the nickname given him by the Montagnais, Ka Kushkueltitak, he who meditates.

Father Babel would never see his native village of Veyrier again. After 60 years of missionary work, mainly among the Montagnais, he ended his days in Pointe-Bleue. In 1948 his remains, as well as those of Arnaud, were brought to Betsiamites. A monument was erected to his memory in Schefferville in 1970, and his name was given to a township in the Saguenay region and a mountain in the region of Lac Pltipi.

source:Romuald Boucher

The following manuscripts by Father Louis Babel are preserved in the Arch. Deschtelets, Oblats de Marie-Immacule (Ottawa): HEB 1113.L88C, no.4 (instructions sur les grandes vrits loccasion des missions); HEB 1113.L88S, no.1 (sermons donns Musquapo lpoque de la mission de tous les Indiens de la Cte-Nord); HR 1026.M75R, no.11 (notes utiles pour servir composer une grammaire montagnaise); no.16 (dictionnaire franais-montagnais); and HR 1029.M75R, nos.10, 12, 14, 25 (sermons et instructions en montagnais). Also available there, at HEB 1113.L88 (fonds Babel), are copies of several of Babels published reports and letters, along with copies of numerous journal articles concerning him. Babels account of his travels, a copy of which is also available at the Arch. Deschtelets, has been published by Huguette Tremblay as Journal des voyages de Louis Babel, 18661868 (Montral, 1977).

2000 University of Toronto/Universit Laval

JOHN BABBITT - New Brunswick- Canada - 1874( Historical Ancestry )

BABBITT, JOHN, jeweller, watchmaker, and scientist; b. 15 Oct. 1845 at Fredericton, N.B., son of Samuel Wellington Babbitt and Frances Maria Nealon; m. 9 June 1874 Margaret Turnbull (d. 1882), and they had two children; d. 10 Dec. 1889 at Fredericton.

In 1865 John Babbitt entered into partnership in Fredericton with the silversmith and jeweller, Alexander MacPherson. In 1868 he set up in business independently as a jeweller and watchmaker. He remained a craftsman all his life, but was at the same time keenly interested in scientific advances which were then being made. Babbitt seems to have had several sources of information concerning Alexander Graham Bell*s invention, the telephone. He is believed to have seen an example of Bells telephone at the Philadelphia Centennial International Exhibition in 1876, as well as a description in the Scientific American. Another source was three letters written between September and November 1877 to Babbitts friend, Professor Loring Woart Bailey* of the University of New Brunswick, by his brother, William Whitman Bailey, professor of botany at Brown University in Providence, R.I.; these described a telephone constructed at his familys estate with the help of Bells friend John Pierce, whose improvements Bell had adopted. Having gathered this information, Babbitt and Loring Bailey late in 1877 or early in 1878 made the first telephone in Fredericton, perhaps the first in the province. It was a magnetic telephone, the transmitters and receivers being wooden cylinders with vibrating plates of thin metal, and the magnets consisting of two iron bars around which wire was wound. This first telephone connected John Babbitts house with that of his brother, George Nealon, and then with Professor Baileys. It thus extended 200 yards. Babbitt later made telephone connections between various points in the city.

In 1879, when streets and places of business were lighted by gas and most houses by kerosene lamps and candles, Dr Loring Bailey imported from London, England, a 30- or 40-cell battery with which he and Babbitt produced the first electric light in Fredericton, and perhaps in the Maritimes. When such a light was placed in the portico of the university it was thrown by a parabolic reflector on the spire of Christ Church Cathedral and then on the Methodist church spire at Marysville three miles away, an event which produced a commotion among the inhabitants of both places. With some knowledge of Thomas Alva Edisons recent invention, particularly from a description in a scientific review, Babbitt also made what is believed to have been the first phonograph in New Brunswick.

Babbitt, it is clear, was strongly inclined to the study of mechanical laws, and indeed to many branches of physical science in both a theoretical and a practical way. He sometimes assisted in experimental work at the University of New Brunswick and Provincial Normal School, and in about 1880, together with Professor Bailey, he exhibited to a Saint John audience, for the first time, a heliostat, a large induction coil, and a phonograph.

source: Alfred G. Bailey 2000 University of Toronto/Universit Laval

Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan

GABRIEL ACQUIN - Canada - 1811 -( Historical Ancestry )

ACQUIN (Atwin, Decoine, Dequine, Equin, Echkewen), GABRIEL (Kobleah, Gobliel) (known as Chief or Sachem Gabe; also Noel Gabriel and Noel Gable; perhaps Newel Gabriel and Newell Gov-leet), Maliseet hunter, guide, interpreter, showman, and founder of the St Marys Indian Reserve, N.B.; b. c. 1811, probably the child baptized in 1811 as Gabriel, son of Gabriel and Marie, in Kingsclear, N.B.; m. Marie (Mary; also known as Delaide (Delaire) Francis); theirs was probably the marriage that took place on 7 Aug. 1839 in Fredericton between Noel Gabriel and Marie Marthe; d. 2 Oct. 1901 in Devon (Fredericton).

Gabriel Acquins family was one of many displaced by the rapid influx of loyalists into what would become New Brunswick and by the fraudulent purchase of Aucpaque (Savage Island), site of the main Maliseet village about seven miles above Fredericton, by judge Isaac Allen in 1794. The family seems to have moved about in the area between Kingsclear and the Bay of Fundy and may have also lived seasonally at Indian camps opposite Fredericton. Gabes own hunting territory was reportedly between the Salmon and Gaspereau rivers, although he guided sports throughout most of the Saint John waters and those of the Miramichi and the Restigouche.

Gabe does not seem to have used the name Acquin or its many variations before the baptism in 1845 of his son Stephen. He is possibly the Newel Gabriel who appears on bear-bounty lists in various counties in the 1830s and later, and he may have been the Newell Gov-leet who was Maliseet wampum keeper at the Wabanaki Confederacy meeting at Old Town, Maine, in 1838. The conclusion that Noel Gabriel was subsequently Gabe Acquin rests on three documents: the 1841 baptismal record of Noel Gabriels son Francis and the censuses of 1861 and 1881, which show an appropriately aged Francis as a member of Gabe Acquins household.

Although Gabe was not the first Indian to camp at St Marys, he was apparently the first to settle there permanently, having been invited to do so by the executors of a loyalist estate in 1847. Eschewing the more traditional, migratory life of his people, he eventually cleared and fenced 14 acres and planted potatoes; for ten years he and his family lived on site in a wigwam before building a frame-house. In time other Maliseet families settled around them. Even though Gabe had been invited to live on the land, it was sold several times, unbeknown to him. The last sale of two and a half acres on the riverfront to the crown in 1867 guaranteed, in effect, only this small patch to the Maliseets. In 1883 Gabe applied to the federal government for possession of all the land on which he and his people had originally settled, but he received no reply. Because of overcrowding on the two and a half acres, more lands nearby would be bought for the St Marys band several decades after Gabes death, and today they live on these lands now known as the St Marys Indian Reserve.

It is as a hunter, guide, and interpreter that Gabe is best known. From his earliest youth, according to Captain Richard Lewes Dashwood, he accompanied British officers stationed at Fredericton on hunting trips. His skills in calling and hunting moose, caribou, wild fowl, and other game became legendary. Indeed, he is reputed to have killed as many as 25 caribou and 5 moose a year, and boasted himself of having once killed 60 red deer in two weeks. He became a regular supplier of game for the garrison, and a favourite at both the officers quarters and Government House. Since Gabe does not seem to have had any formal schooling, it is certain that his fluency in English came as a result of these contacts.

Among the many notables whom Gabe guided early in his career were the young Henry Allan Braithwaite, subsequently a famous hunter, trapper, and the first non-native guide in the province, and Lieutenant William Smythe Maynard Wolfe, who painted water-colours of hunting trips with Gabe and other native guides in 1853 and 1854. He also guided and befriended two lieutenant governors John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton* and Arthur Hamilton Gordon*. The latter published a book about his trips with Gabe, which includes a section of Maliseet stories told or interpreted by Gabe. At least one of Gordons trips with Gabe (to the Tobique River) was recorded on film by the premier photographer of New Brunswick, George Thomas Taylor*.

A turning-point in Gabes life occurred in 1860 when the 18-year-old Prince of Wales visited Fredericton. Passing by Government House in his canoe, Gabe was hailed by the prince, who asked for a ride. Against the remonstrances of equerries and household, Gabe paddled the future king across the river and into the mouth of the Nashwaak River before returning. Gabe was subsequently invited to England, first in 1883 as one of Canadas entries in the International Fisheries Exhibition in London. With his canoe and wigwam and wearing an outfit beaded by his wife, an extraordinarily talented craftswoman, he set up camp on the ponds of South Kensington, renewed old friendships with royalty and officers he had known, and became, in the words of William Austin Squires, the greatest social lion of the day. Gabe is reputed to have gone to England again in the 1880s though this claim is undocumented. He was 82 when he took his last trip there, in 189394 with Paul Boytons Worlds Water Show.

After the closure of the colonial establishment in Fredericton in 1869 Gabe continued guiding distinguished people into the ninth decade of his life. During the same period he was featured at sportsmens shows in Boston, New York, and Chicago. In 1900 he made a will leaving his house and property to his daughter Catherine. He died the following year at 90 years of age, his funeral attended by dignitaries of all sorts, including Lieutenant Governor Abner Reid McClelan. He seems to have had four sons and three daughters, and his descendants now live on most New Brunswick Maliseet reserves.

Gabes fame today is only partly due to his talents and his reputation as reliable, honest, and witty. It has much more to do with the circumstances of his life and his extraordinary response to them. For his people colonialism had brought about the rapid destruction of hunting territories and ushered in a period of extreme poverty, disease, and despair. The shift to guiding and a more settled life by many natives was thus a forced adaptation to grim new realities. Gabe was only one of many who made this shift, but he did more than adapt. His was a classic case of the colonized striving to imitate the colonizer in language, manners, and preferences, often to excess. By his excesses in abandoning traditional values of conservation, he contributed also to the demise of the ancient Maliseet way of life.

Gabe rode the crest of two powerful 19th-century trends romanticism, which sought to exalt native people, and colonialism, which sought to civilize and assimilate them. Both took on new urgency at the height of Indian rebellions in the west in the 1880s, the height also of Gabes popularity. It was no accident that white society, not native society, gave him the title of chief or sachem, and no accident that white society idolized him. That so much was consequently written about him is, in itself, a key to his fame, and also a reminder of an odd legacy of Gabes that while he did participate in the destruction of a way of life, he did at least ensure that some record of it would survive.

source :Andrea Bear Nicholas

2000 University of Toronto/Universit Laval

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsllan