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ADHEMAR JEAN BAPTISTE- Montreal - Canada - 1689 - ( Historical Ancestry

ADHMAR, JEAN-BAPTISTE, clerk of court, court officer, royal notary; baptized 16 March 1689 in Montreal, son of Antoine Adhmar* de Saint-Martin and Michelle Cusson; d. 19 Dec. 1754 in Montreal.

The son and grandson of royal notaries his maternal grandfather Jean Cusson* had practised this profession Jean-Baptiste Adhmar succeeded his father as clerk of court and royal notary. On 15 May 1714 Intendant Michel Bgon granted him a commission as royal notary in the jurisdiction of Montreal. The following year, on 20 May, in Montreal, he married Catherine, the daughter of the notary Michel Lepailleur* de Lafert.

Soon, however, his reputation was tarnished, and in 1722 Intendant Bgon stated that Adhmar was a bad lot. The notary had left town after having squandered the funds deposited with the registry of the jurisdiction of Montreal. The intendant added that Adhmar would not retain his situation if he returned. The following year Adhmar was back and had resumed practising his profession, having, it seems, reached an arrangement with the authorities. He also kept his office as clerk of court.

On 28 March 1729 the Conseil Suprieur ordered a character investigation of the notary Adhmar, formerly in practice, prior to his succeeding his father-in-law as court officer of that council in Montreal; on 17 April 1730 he was officially received. Meanwhile Adhmar had been acting since the previous year as deputy for the kings attorney in the royal jurisdiction of Montreal, and in 1731 he added to his other offices that of assessor for this court in various trials. But in 1737 he had to declare himself incompetent to judge in a lawsuit, and in 1740 a trial had to be started over again, at his cost. In 1734 Adhmar had asked the authorities for permission to retain his fathers minute-book; the following year the king called upon him to deposit it with the registry of the provost court of Quebec, in conformity with the ordinance of 1717 and the recommendations of the attorney general Louis-Guillaume Verrier.

Because he practised in Montreal, the centre of the fur trade, Jean-Baptiste Adhmar profited greatly by drawing up many enlistment contracts for the west. Like his father, Adhmar had an active career; it was cut off by his death on 19 Dec. 1754.

On 7 Jan. 1733 in Montreal, Adhmar had remarried; his second wife was Catherine Moreau. We know of only three children by this marriage, born between 1734 and 1740, and of none by his earlier marriage.

Michel Paquin

source: 2000 University of Toronto/Universit Laval
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Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

ROBERT ADDISON - Canada - 1754 - ( Historical Ancestry

ADDISON, ROBERT, Church of England clergyman; b. 6 June 1754 in Heversham, England, son of John Addison and Ellinor Parkinson; m. 24 Oct. 1780 Mary Atkinson in Cambridge, England, and they had four children, two of whom reached adulthood; m. secondly, probably after July 1807, Rebecca (Plummer?); d. 6 Oct. 1829 in Niagara (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Upper Canada.

Robert Addison attended Trinity College, Cambridge, where he received his ba in 1781 and his ma in 1785. He was ordained deacon in the Church of England on 11 March 1781 and served for a time as curate at Upwell. During the 1780s he was also employed as a tutor for students aspiring to university. By the late 1780s, however, his wife had developed some form of mental illness. Even without that disadvantage, his prospects in the church were not encouraging. At the end of the decade, therefore, possibly following his wifes death, he applied to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel for a position as missionary. He was appointed to Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Upper Canada. Addison spent the winter of 1791 at Quebec and arrived at his post in July 1792.

He had great expectations for life in Upper Canada. By the time he died some of them had been realized, but nothing was accomplished easily. When he arrived, Newark, although it was the colonial capital and a forwarding centre for the Laurentian fur trade, was no more than a small village. The adjacent agricultural land was sparsely populated and, at least until the 1820s, most of the people were Presbyterians or Congregationalists. In 1792 Addison was only the third Anglican missionary to be permanently settled in Upper Canada the others were John Stuart* and John Langhorn* and the only clergyman of any denomination in the Niagara region. He remained the sole Anglican clergyman west of Ernestown (Bath) until George Okill Stuart* arrived at York (Toronto) in 1801. Not only did Addison have primary responsibility for the whole of the Niagara peninsula but also, from the beginning, he was expected to minister to the Six Nations settlement on the banks of the Grand River. Until 1818, when he turned over this duty to Ralph Leeming*, Addison made two visits to the settlement each year. He never learned the Mohawk language relying instead upon Joseph Brant [Thayendanegea*] and John Norton as translators but was as successful among them as could be expected.

Addison was a good preacher and, if not zealous, was at least assiduous in the performance of his duties. He was popular among his parishioners and was always able to report sizeable congregations. If people responded to him well enough on that level, however, there were other ways in which they were not so satisfactory. For example, it was 1809 before his congregation had built a church for him at Niagara, as Newark was then called. There was some consolation perhaps in the knowledge that when it was finally completed St Marks was the finest church in the colony. But surely that made it all the more difficult for Addison to bear its fate: St Marks was seized and eventually burned by American invaders in 1813. It was not restored until 1821 and stood without episcopal consecration until 1828, when Bishop Charles James Stewart* performed the ceremony.

Similarly, parochial response to Addison was something less than adequate on the matter of his remuneration. When they petitioned the SPG for a missionary in 1790, the citizens of Newark promised a glebe and a house and 100 a year for seven years. Addison made repeated attempts to obtain the money but in the end saw little of it. Prices were high in the isolated community and he suffered some deprivations, especially in the early years. In fact, in 1794 his financial difficulties induced him to seek permission from the SPG to relocate in Nova Scotia. But nothing came of the idea and toward the end of the decade Addisons position improved considerably. His salary from the SPG was augmented after 1796 by an annual allowance from the government. He also received a stipend as chaplain to the House of Assembly, a position he continued to hold even after the seat of government was transferred to York. Finally, he served as a military chaplain whenever the stationing of a regiment in the area provided an opportunity.

Taken all together, Addisons financial resources were adequate for his immediate needs. But there was still a difficulty most of his income would end with his death. Addison was 45 years old at the turn of the century and, at a time when longevity was for the very few, the possibility of leaving his family practically destitute was a source of considerable anxiety. That is probably why throughout his life in Upper Canada he was involved in financial ventures designed to build up an estate.

The most important of these secular activities was land speculation. Beginning in the mid 1790s, Addison displayed a keen interest in acquiring whatever land was available from the government. The records show that by the end of the War of 1812 he had received 27 grants scattered through seven townships in the Niagara area. He also purchased land for example, 18,000 acres in Norwich Township and Dereham Township (Southwest Oxford Township) in 1800, and 13,000 acres in Nichol Township in 1826. By the late 1820s his total holdings were well in excess of 31,000 acres, making him one of the largest landholders in the colony. When the government attempted to collect high taxes on undeveloped land under legislation passed in 1824, Addison was ready to protect his investment. His name appeared at the head of a petition which opposed the legislation and which was presented to the house. He also joined with William Warren Baldwin*, Thomas Clark, and William Dickson* in appearing before a committee of the assembly to argue forcibly against it.

If Addisons land speculation was successful, another of his enterprises was not. In 1798 he obtained from the government a lease on a salt spring in Louth Township, although apparently no formal contract was signed. Having no intention of producing salt himself, he spent some money improving the facility and in 1802 sublet it to one Solomon Moore. Problems developed in 1807, when the executor for the estate of Angus Macdonell* (Collachie), the saltworks former operator, demanded compensation from Addison for improvements Macdonell had made. Three years later Moore submitted to the Executive Council a petition in which he asked that the spring be given to him and, presumably to strengthen his case, accused Addison of misrepresentation and extortion. In both instances the council proceeded in a brusque and peremptory manner against Addison. The dispute over compensation was eventually after three years decided in his favour, but in the contest with Moore, Addison protested his innocence in vain. He appeared personally before the council and presented testimony by Robert Nichol and Thomas Dickson denying the truth of Moores allegations. The council, however, chose to believe Moore, and Addison was told that he had no claim on the spring. As it turned out, the spring was not granted to Moore; in fact, it never went into operation again. Addison made one more attempt to regain the property, but it came to nothing, and the accusations Moore had made against him were not cleared up.

Addisons expectations in the salt spring affair were unrealistic. It was nave to think that he could maintain a hold on such a potentially valuable resource without a much more vigorous personal involvement than he was able to give. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the council was remarkable. Addison was, after all, a clergyman of the established church whose conduct had never been publicly criticized by military, civil, or religious authorities. Yet the council seemed prepared to believe the worst of him and, in the end, its treatment of him was unsympathetic, even hostile.

The probable reason is that during 1806 and 1807 Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore* came to see Addison as a dangerous radical. Gore was sure that there was an intimate connection between Addison and those critics of the administration led by judge Robert Thorpe*, William Weekes*, and Joseph Willcocks*. In the winter of 18067 Gore started to move against the anti-government faction and in the course of an investigation uncovered what he thought was evidence of Addisons complicity. Although the lieutenant governor was convinced, it seems highly unlikely that the connection ever existed.

The problem had all begun in the summer of 1806 when Brant attacked William Claus, head of the Indian Department in Upper Canada, in a speech given before an Indian council at Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake) which was attended by Thorpe, Weekes, and Addison. The latters presence at the meeting was taken as evidence of his sympathy with the attack and with the views of the political opposition. But Addison had other, more plausible, reasons for attending. The council was held at Niagara, Addison had had a long association with Brant, and he was, after all, the established churchs missionary to many of the Indians who were there. It seems likely that if he had had any subversive interest, it would have been that of a land speculator looking longingly at the Indians territories.

There is no evidence linking Addison with the course pursued by Thorpe and his associates through the summer and early autumn of 1806. But in November he, along with Samuel Thompson, a merchant at Niagara, agreed to act as financial guarantors for Willcocks as sheriff of the Home District. By that time Willcocks was openly critical of the government and was, in fact, deeply involved in Thorpes campaign for election to the assembly. In early 1807 Gore collected testimony from several witnesses bearing upon Willcockss radicalism and transmitted it to London. References to Addisons agreement to guarantee Willcocks were included. Gore seems to have decided that Addisons connection with Willcocks was evidence of political sympathy. But that was simply guilt by association. An agreement which provided financial surety for a man whom Addison had known for years and which concerned only actions taken in his capacity as a government official is scarcely evidence of revolutionary intent. In fact, Addison had a very different evaluation of Willcocks. In a letter to Thorpes wife, written in the summer of 1807, Addison expressed doubt over Willcockss chance of success as a newspaper publisher and politician. Like all Irishmen, he said, Willcocks had no capacity for restraint. What he had to struggle against in his nature was all the jealousy of power and all the malignity of rank Opposition. Those are not the words of a political sympathizer.

Addison did write on at least two occasions to the former surveyor general, Charles Burton Wyatt*, who left Upper Canada in 1807 to seek redress in Britain after he had been dismissed by Gore. But there is no evidence that Addisons letters expressed any radical sympathies and, in any case, Wyatt was not a central figure in the Thorpe group. Wyatt did regard himself as a friend of Addison and when he returned to England he went to considerable trouble to try to arrange a military chaplaincy for him at Niagara. But Addison did not return the friendship. In 1807 he described Wyatt as a man driven by the devil; later, he did not even bother to thank him for his efforts.

It seems clear, therefore, that Addison was not a silent partner of Thorpe, Weekes, and Willcocks during and after the summer of 1806. There remains a possibility, however, that he may have been more friendly with them earlier. If so, his friendship would have come as an outgrowth of his association with the group of Scottish merchants centred in Niagara. Dickson, Nichol, Clark, Robert Hamilton*, and their colleagues were Addisons parishioners, friends, and business associates. It has been shown recently that until 1806 the main feature of the political life of the Niagara peninsula was a conflict between these large-scale Laurentian traders on the one hand and government officials and representatives and small merchants on the other. Addison probably shared the political outlook of the Scottish merchants and, to the extent that he perceived the Thorpe group as critical of the existing government, he may have seen them as potential allies. By 1807, however, the strident radicalism of Thorpe and Willcocks was beginning to force a realignment of political groups in the Niagara area. The large merchants moved to a position of support for the lieutenant governor and his councils. Addison may have done the same.

In any event, Addison was politically suspect to Gore for years after 1806. In fact it was probably not until he demonstrated his loyalty in the War of 1812 that the earlier suspicions were forgotten. Addisons parish was in the most vulnerable part of Upper Canada, but he remained at his post throughout the war. He was present to officiate at the military funeral of Sir Isaac Brock*, he stood by helplessly while the Americans burned the town, his church included, and he told the SPG that he had been plundered made prisoner of war, & harrassed till he was dangerously ill. Before the conflict was over Addison had witnessed almost all the sad scenes of Distress which a Country subject to the Ravages of War can suffer. As it came to a close, the part he had played began to receive public recognition. In 1814 the assembly unanimously voted him 100 in consideration of his work with the wounded soldiers of Fort George and the unfortunate inhabitants of the Niagara area. A year later he was chosen to distribute throughout the region money raised by the Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada for the relief of those who had suffered wartime damages.

Addison was probably the best-educated man in Upper Canada during his lifetime. When he came to the colony he brought with him a magnificent personal library of 17th- and 18th-century books. But he did not use them, at least not systematically. There was nothing in the new colonial environment to stimulate him and that, combined with a tendency to indolence, he admitted, resulted in only desultory reading and the lack of excellence in anything. Nevertheless, he was able to contribute something to the educational history of the province. In 1815 he joined with John Strachan* in a report to the lieutenant governor proposing an organizational plan for public education in the colony. Part of it was accepted and formed the basis of the Common Schools Act of 1816. Strachan was so impressed by Addisons scholarly attainments as to confess that Addison was the only man in Upper Canada under whom he would be willing to serve in the university he hoped to see established. When the charter for Kings College was issued in 1827, the office of president was vested in the archdeacon of York. But Strachan was willing to offer Addison the position of principal in the new institution. Addison had a momentary reverie in which he saw himself as the senior scholar enjoying the respect of young students. Quickly, however, he returned to reality: he was too old, he told Strachan, and his health was so poor that he would not live to see the university opened.

By the late 1820s Addison had been in Upper Canada nearly 40 years and had lived closer to the centre of colonial affairs than most men. His dedication to his church and his people was supplemented by considerable activity indicating acceptance and respectability. He sat on the Board for the General Superintendence of Education and was closely associated with the grammar school at Niagara; he was grand chaplain of the masonic lodge at Niagara, a member of Niagaras public library board, and had been, at least once, chairman of the districts Court of Quarter Sessions. Over the years he was instrumental in the building of churches at Grimsby, Chippawa, Queenston, Fort Erie, and St Catharines. By 1828 his health had failed to the point where he was unable to perform his duties as chaplain to the assembly. He never recovered, dying quietly in Niagara on 6 Oct. 1829. The sermon at his funeral was preached by Strachan.

SOURCE:H. E. Turner

Till we meet again -Regards - edmondsallan

JOSEPH ADAMS- Hudson Bay - Canada - 1700 ( Historical Ancestry )

ADAMS (Adems; after 1727 he used the spelling Adames), JOSEPH, Hudsons Bay Company employee; b. c. 1700; d. 1737.

One of several children born to William, a labourer, and Katherine Adams, Joseph was baptized 4 May 1700 in Woodford parish, Essex. On 1 June 1705, he was fitted out by the parish and bound to serve the HBC until he was 24. Assuming that he was baptized shortly after birth, it would appear that Adams was sent to Albany at the tender age of five years. There he was educated by the chief factors and learned the Cree language; he was fitted out with new clothes each year according to the terms of his indenture. Adams soon proved to be a good apprentice and a trustworthy servant. There was considerable correspondence between London and Albany concerning his age and the expiry date of his indenture. In 1714 Anthony Beale, HBC governor, estimated that Adams was 18 years old; either Adams was big for his age or Beale hoped that by deliberately over-estimating Adams age the time of his indenture would be lessened. Finally in 1722, upon the recommendation of Thomas McCliesh*, who succeeded Henry Kelsey as governor for the HBC overseas, Adams was entertained at 16 per annum retroactive to 11 Sept. 1721 because for the 172122 season he had wintered as trader on the East Main. For reasons of health he spent the 172324 season in England.

Adams acted as deputy to Joseph Myatt from 172728 until Myatts death on 9 June 1730, whereupon Adams took over command. With William Bevan he did a survey of Moose River in July 1728 and located the site of the original Moose Factory The London committee had intended that Adams supervise the establishment of a factory at Moose in 173031, but Myatts death necessitated Adams staying at Albany. He sent Thomas Render and John Jewer to build the post, although he had reservations about their capabilities. In October 1731 his reservations proved accurate and he had to visit Moose because the men refused to work under Render.

Adams was supposed to be recalled in 1735 and again in 1736, and was to be replaced by Thomas McCliesh, but on both occasions McCliesh upon arrival in the bay was sore afflicted with ailments and had to return to England. The winter of 173536 was a particularly busy one for Adams; in January 1736 he heard that Moose factory had been destroyed by fire on 26 Dec. 1735, and later he wrote to the committee: we have strained ourselves to the utmost to assist them.

During his long tenure as governor, Adams carried out considerable rebuilding of Albany Factory to make it more defensible. He failed to decrease the consumption of brandy by company servants, a trend that had started in the 1720s and continued throughout the 1730s. The London committee felt that the loss of five Albany servants by drowning and the destruction of Moose resulted from excessive drinking. A sharp reduction in the Albany fur returns was caused by the establishment of Moose Factory, by the competition of Pierre Gaultier* de La Vrendryes posts, and also by the anonymous coureurs de bois who seemed to have established temporary posts on both the Moose and Albany rivers.

Adams died on 29 Sept. 1737, shortly after his return to England with his three-year-old half-breed daughter, Mary. His will, which was proved on 12 Jan. 1738, listed bequests to his sister Mary and to his executors, Captains George Spurrell* and Christopher Middleton*; the greater part of his estate was left in trust for the benefit of his infant daughter.

G. E. Thorman

source:Albany journals between 1713 and 1737 HBRS, XXV (Davies and Johnson).

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

COMPARISON TIMES - Southern Hemisphere - / Northen Hemisphere

Some one may be interested in this . And it has been brought to your notice with good intentions and that is to assist all on this great website


Auckland _ NZ we are ( 2 ) hours ahead the same day -- Australia

Auckland NZ " " ( 16 hrs ) ahead in the next day to- America
& Canada ( usually )

Auckland - NZ - " " ( 11 hours ahead of London - British Isles -

General Prime times on the Net in other countries in their times are generally the same time of the day /night - different world time zone -does not include -Saturdays - Sundays - Holidays ( they can be any time)

New Zealand ( time ) Southern Hemisphere ( same prime times generally in all countries )


Morning ( 9 am to 11 am ) Same

Afternoon ( 2 pm to 4 pm ) Same -

Evening ( 6 pm to 10 pm ) Same -
-----------------------------------------
Australia - in world time frame New zealand usa uk

Morning 11 am -- 1pm ( same 24 hrs )

Afternoon 4 pm - 6 pm " "

Evening 8 pm - 12 pm " "

------------------------------------------------------
America / Canada in World time

Morning 5 pm - 7 pm ( Day behind )

Afternoon 10 pm - 12 am ( " " )

Evening 2 am - 6am ( " " )

--------------------------------------------------------------------
London/ uk

Morning - 10 pm - 12 pm ( behind )

Afternoon 3 am - 5 am ( behind )

Evening - 7 pm - 11pm ( behind )
---------------------------------------------------------------------
New Zealands prime times from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemispher especially from USA / Canada shows we are having tea and watching the 6 pm News in their morning prime operating times

their afternoon prime times the aussies and us Kiwis are about to make super Cleaning the teeth - usual gargle before hitting the sack

the evening prime times from Both USA / Canada , Aussies & kiwis are snoring their heads off . I do most of my work in the morning starting at 7 am ) prepared by my " old Faithfull ' during the night and in general another run after tea

Of interest this website of ours in general has open space to be used over 24 hours 0f over 12 hours if you don't believe it add it up . I find these figures very interesting -

The front page also seems to turn over 1.5 to 1.75 flow time in 24 hours some times faster sometimes slower

The Removal of the points sytem by scott is a vast improvenment and kill the old aged argument of chasing points once and for all and no one will be able to say that again - great !

The new blocking system is also a huge improvement - Of interest > my " old faithful " and i on the other computer did an exercise with it to test what it can do = The results are startling
It is a very powerful web tool to have in all members Hands and yet to be fair that is the way it must apply . their is no other way - an excellent tool in every way . when my work mate and I were going through the tests we found you could keep block on any one , remove all the work they had put on the website . In actual factor , Though no one would want to .( i hope ) the whole website could be crashed down and if it came up again someone can put down again and again .It may be to powerful and may need twigging a bit to only cut out certain journals - not every bit of some ones total work or do as previously mentioned . at Present an excellent tool I hope it can be adjusted

Ok enough of the gab its time for me to have a bit to eat and a grandad nap . Honourable son is looking at houses at the moment I am playing - Stint at the moment - part of learning about life - I reckon I done me dash today - One last thing for Janilye . Don't forget to put a few bob on the Aussie playing Sth Africa - The boy o and I will be watching it - could be a late start on Sunday - regards

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

1 comment(s), latest 3 years, 1 month ago

JACQUES BABIE - France - Canada - 1633 ( Historical Ancestry )

BABIE (in later generations spelled Bby, and in Michigan historical collections Baubee), JACQUES, soldier, farmer, and fur-trader, founder of the distinguished Canadian family of this name, son of Jean Bavis and Isabeau Robin of the parish of Monteton, diocese of Agen; b. France c. 1633 (1639 according to the census of 1681); d. 28 July 1688 at Champlain.

Jacques Babie came to Canada in 1665 as a sergeant in the Carignan-Salires regiment, sent by Louis XIV and Colbert to fight the Iroquois. After peace had been signed at the end of 1666 between the Iroquois and Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy, commander-in-chief of Louis XIVs forces in North America, Babie obtained his discharge from the army and settled in Champlain on the St. Lawrence near Trois-Rivires, in a fertile region known as the cradle of explorers and fur-traders.

He was attracted to fur-trading and farming and engaged in both. As early as 1668, and for many years thereafter, he traded with the Indians of the upper Saint-Maurice and upper Ottawa rivers, and was among the government-accredited merchants who participated in the great fur mart held annually at Montreal. In 1669, he bought two tracts of land in Champlain and farmed them. By the year 1681 he had acquired two more tracts of land in the same locality as well as another at Gentilly across the St. Lawrence. In 1670, he married Jeanne Dandonneau, daughter of Pierre Dandonneau*, dit Lajeunesse, Sieur Du Sabl, one of the substantial citizens of Trois-Rivires, who had settled in Champlain about 1660. Jacques Babie died in 1688, at the age of about 55, in Champlain, leaving a comfortable fortune. Very avid for profits, and a hard-headed businessman, he had numerous differences which frequently brought him before the Conseil Souverain.

The youngest of his 11 children, Raymond Babie, who followed in his fathers footsteps as a fur-trader, was the father of Jacques Baby*, dit Dupron, and Franois Baby*. Both distinguished themselves in the early years of British rule.

Marine Leland

AJTR, Greffe de Guillaume de La Rue, 1 juin 1670. APQ, Documents divers, I, Lettres de Jacques Babie et de son pouse, Jeanne Dandonneau, Antoine Adhmar. Additional ms material in Detroit Public Library, Burton Hist. Coll.; Ontario Hist. Soc.; Public Archives of Ontario; University of Michigan, William L. Clements Library; Universit de Montral, Coll. Bby. Recensement de 1681. Jug. et dlib., II, III, V, VI, passim. P.-B. Casgrain, Jacques Babie, BRH, X (1904), 32932; Mmorial des familles Casgrain, Bby et Perrault (Qubec, 1898).

source : 2000 University of Toronto/Universit Laval

The LAUDERDALE MAITLANDS - Scotland - Historical Ancestry

The Lauderdale Maitlands
FEW of the great old houses of Scotland have, throughout the long period of six centuries, produced such a brilliant succession of statesmen, warriors, poets, and lawyers, as have adorned the family of the Lauderdale Maitlands.

They were of Norman origin, and one of the followers of William the Conqueror, when he came into England, bore the designation of Matulent, afterwards changed to Maitland. The first of the family on record in Scotland was a THOMAS DE MATULENT, an Anglo-Norman baron, who flourished in the reign of William the Lion, and died in 1228. SIR RICHARD DE MAUTLENT, his grandson, was one of the most powerful barons in Scotland in his time; he possessed the barony of Thirlestane, and other estates in Berwickshire, which still remain in the possession of the family, and was a most liberal benefactor to the Abbey of Dryburgh, having bestowed on it several valuable lands for the welfare of his soul, and that of his wife, and the souls of his predecessors and successors. This Richard was a renowned warrior, and was in all probability the hero of the interesting ballad of Auld Maitland, which appears to have been written in the reign of David II., in commemoration of the gallantry displayed by Sir Richard, in his extreme old age, in the defence of his castle of Thirlestane against the English invaders at the commencement of the War of Independence :

They laid their sowies * to the wall
Wi mony a heavy peal;
But he threw owre to them agen
Baith pitch and tar barrel.

* A military engine framed of wood, covered with hides, and mounted on wheels, which served as a cover to defend those who wrought the battering-ram from the stones and arrows of the garrison.

With springalds,* stanes and gads of airn **
Among them fast he threw,
Till many of the Englishmen
About the wall he slew.

* Large crossbows wrought by machinery, and capable of throwing stones, beams, and large darts.
** Sharpened bars of iron.

Full fifteen days that braid host lay
Sieging auld Maitland keen;
Syne they hae left him hail and feir
Within his strength of stane.

Gawain Douglas places the veteran knight, with his auld beard grey, among the popular heroes of romance, in his allegorical Palace of Honour; and in another ancient poem, in praise of the family seat of Lethington, it is stated that the exploits of auld Sir Richard with the grey beard, and of his three sons, were sung in many a far countrie, albeit in rural rhyme. He seems, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, to have been distinguished for devotion as well as valour, and was a liberal benefactor to the Abbey of Dryburgh. He had three sons, but only one survived him.

The successors of this renowned warrior kept watch and ward on the Border against southern invasions, and perilled, and frequently lost, their lives in the service of their sovereign on many a bloody field. They intermarried with the Dunbars, Keiths, Setons, Flemings, Cranstouns, and other great families, and throughout maintained a foremost position among the Scottish barons. Sir Richards eldest son, SIR ROBERT, was killed at the Battle of Durham in 1346, along with his younger brother and his brother-in-law, Sir Robert Keith, Grand Marischal of Scotland. Another of the heads of the family, WILLIAM MAITLAND, fell at Flodden, along with his sovereign, who held him in high esteem. He was the father, by his wife, a daughter of Lord Seton, of SIR RICHARD MAITLAND of Lethington, the celebrated collector of the early poetry of Scotland, now deposited in the Pepysian Library in Magdalen College, Cambridge, which but for him would in all probability have perished. Sir Richards own poem, entitled, Maitlands Complaint against the Thieves of Liddesdaill, gives a graphic description of the depredations of the Border freebooters, who had harried all Ettrick Forest and Lauderdale, driven away horses, black cattle, sheep, and poultry, packed up and carried off everything portable

They leave not spindle, spoon, nor spit,
Bed, bolsters, blankets, sark, nor sheet,

searched both clothes and meal-chests, leaving nothing behind them but bare walls. From the burning indignation which he displays, and the hope which he expresses that he would see some of these plunderers hanging on a tree, it is evident that Sir Richard himself had suffered from the inroads of these Liddesdale marauders.

[At the time that Sir Richard wrote these verses, the Regent Moray made a sudden march to the Border (Oct. 1567), at the head of a strong body of troops, and apprehended at Hawick and its vicinity thirty-four freebooters, some of whom he hanged, others he drowned, and five he liberated upon caution. An Act of the Privy Council, passed 6th November in the same year, declared that the thieves of Liddesdale and other parts of the Scottish Border have been in the habit, for some time past, of taking sundry persons prisoners and releasing them on the payment of a ransom. It was also averred that many persons are in the habit of paying black mail to these thieves in order to obtain security from their depredations, permittand them to reif, harry, and oppress their neighbours in their sicht without contradiction or stop. The Council forbade these practices in future under severe penalties.]

The Maitland Club, which was established in Glasgow after the model of the Bannatyne Club, derived its name from Sir Richard, and published his own poems, along with his Cronicle and Historie of the House and Sirname of Seaton. He was employed in various public affairs by James V., and also by the Regent Arran and Mary of Guise. Though he had the misfortune to lose his sight in 1560, when he was in his sixty-fourth year, his blindness did not incapacitate him from business. He held successively the offices of a Lord of Session and of Lord Privy Seal. He resigned his seat on the bench in 1584, having been more than seventy years in the public service. The close of his life was saddened by the death of two of his sons, William, the Secretary, and Thomas, a youth of great promise, who died in Italy. Sir Richard died, full of years and honours, in 1586, in the ninetieth year of his age. His wife, to whom he had been united for sixty years, died on his funeral day. On the retirement of the veteran judge from the bench, King James sent a letter to the Court of Session, in which he states that Sir Richard hes deulie and faithfully servit our grandshir, gude sir, gude dame, mother, and ourself, being oftentymes employit in public charges, quhereof he deutifullie and honestlie acquit himself, and being ane of your ordinar number this mony yeiris has diligentlie, with all sincerity and integrity, servit therein, and now being of werry great age, and aitho in spirit and judgment able anon to serve as appertenes, by the great age, and being unwell, is sa debilitat that he is not able to make sic continual residens as he wald give, and being movit in conscience that by his absence for lack of number, justice may be retardit and parties frustrat, has willingly demittit his office, &c. The veteran judge obtained the unusual privilege of nominating his successor.

Maitlands poems are characterised by shrewdness and good sense rather than by warmth of fancy or brilliancy of imagination. They are valuable also on account of the light which they cast upon the manners and customs of the Scottish people at that period.

WILLIAM MAITLAND, the eldest son of Sir Richard, was the celebrated Secretary Lethington of Queen Marys reign, who was deeply implicated in the intrigues and crimes of that troublous period. He was an accomplished scholar, and his intellectual cultivation, says Froude, was unusual in any age, and an example in his own. He was a man of powerful, sagacious, versatile intellect, fertile in resources and dexterous in their application, but fickle, unscrupulous, and unprincipled. His name was a byword for subtlety and strength, and his character appears to have been regarded as a mystery by his contemporaries, who both felt and dreaded his great influence. He was born about the year 1525, and was educated at the University of St. Andrews. He afterwards studied civil law on the Continent, according to the custom of his day, and even at that early age he was noted for the assiduity with which he devoted himself to the study of politics. On his return to Scotland he embraced the doctrines of the Reformed Church, but he soon made it evident that he gave only a half-hearted adherence to the cause. At a meeting in the house of Erskine of Dun, for the purpose of discussing the question whether the Protestants should attend mass, he defended the practice on the ground of expediency, in opposition to John Knox, who denounced it as contrary to principle. In 1558, Maitland entered into the service of the Queen Regent, and was appointed by her Secretary of State. But in consequence of her violent proceedings against the Reformers, he deserted her cause in the following year, and joined the Lords of the Congregation, who welcomed him with open arms. Calderwood says, William Maitline of Lethington, younger Secretarie to the Queen, perceiving himself to be suspected as one that favoured the Congregation, and to stand in danger of his life if he sould remain at Leith, becaus he spaired not to utter his mind in controversies of religion, conveyed himself out of Leith a little before All Hallow Eve, and rendered himself to Mr. Kirkaldie, Laird of Grange. He assured the Lords there was nothing but craft and falsehood in the queene. He was commissioned by the Lords in 1560 to plead their cause with Elizabeth, and to entreat her aid, which he did with such effect that she dispatched a fleet to the Firth of Forth to prevent further assistance being sent from France to the Regent He was most in credit for his wit, said Cecil, and almost alone sustained the whole burden of Government. His credit and capacity was worth any six others.

Maitland took a leading part in negotiating the Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth and the Lords of the Congregation, by which a body of English troops was despatched to their assistance. He was chosen harangue-maker, or Speaker, of the Parliament which, in 1560, abolished the jurisdiction of the Pope in Scotland, and adopted the Confession of Faith as the national creed. On the return of Queen Mary from France, Lethington ingratiated himself into her favour, was confirmed in his office of Secretary, and was repeatedly intrusted by her with important missions to the English Court. In 1561 he was appointed an Extraordinary Lord, and in 1566 an Ordinary Lord of Session. He strongly opposed the ratification of the Book of Discipline by the Queen, and when this was proposed he asked, with a sneer, How many of those who had subscribed it would be subject to it? All the godly, was the reply. Will the Duke (Chatelherault)? said Maitland. If he will not, said Lord Ochiltree, I wish he were scraped out, not only out of that book, but also out of our number and companie, for to what purpose shall travail be taken to set the Church in order, if it be not kept, or to what end shall men subscribe, if they never mean to perform? Maitland answered, Many subscribed them in fide parentum, as the bairns are baptised. The astute Secretary knew the men to whom he referred, and was well aware that they opposed the ratification of the Book of Discipline mainly on account of the proposal which it contained, that the patrimony of the Romish Church, which they intended to appropriate to their own use, should be devoted to the maintenance of the ministry, the education of the young, and the support of the poor. Maitland himself sympathised with the policy of the order to which he belonged. He scoffed at the scheme as a devout imagination, and declared that if the ministers got their will, the Queen would not have enough to buy herself a pair of new shoes.

The Secretary was one of the most zealous, as he was certainly the ablest, of the Queens advisers, and strove to promote her wishes and interests in opposition both to Roman Catholics and Protestants. He accompanied Mary in her expedition to the North (August, 1562) against the formidable Earl of Huntly and the Gordons, and was present at the battle of Corrichie, where that powerful noble was defeated and killed. On this occasion Maitland exhorted every man to call upon God, to remember his duty, and not to fear the multitude. He even composed a prayer, which has been preserved, supplicating divine support and protection for the royal forces in the day of battle. He was not less zealous in his efforts to aid the Queen in her contest with the great Scottish Reformer. When Knox was summoned, in 1563, before the Council to answer a charge made against him for inviting a meeting of the leading Reformers at the trial of two men for interrupting the religious services in St. Giless church, the Secretary conducted the case, and exerted all his ingenuity and influence, but without effect, to induce the Council to return a verdict of guilty. In the following year he held a long debate with the Reformer respecting his mode of prayer for the Queen, and the duty of obedience to her authority. It is admitted that Maitland had the worst of the argument in this memorable disputation, but he undoubtedly acquitted himself with great acuteness and ingenuity, and almost, like Belial, made the worse appear the better reason.

At this juncture, however, Maitland joined the conspiracy against Rizzio, partly finding himself prejudged by this Savoyard in the affairs of his office as secretary, and partly for the favour he then carried to the Earl of Moray, then an exile. He was in consequence deprived of his office as Secretary and banished the Court. In no long time, however, he succeeded in obtaining the Queens pardon and restoration to his office, and was for some time her trusted friend. The knowledge which he possessed of her private feelings induced him to propose that she should obtain a divorce from her worthless husband. The plot for the murder of Darnley probably had its origin in his busy intriguing brain. It is certain that he signed the bond, or covenant, for the perpetration of that foul deed. He took part also in procuring the signatures of a number of the leading nobles, and of eight bishops, to the infamous document declaring their belief in Bothwells innocence of the murder, and recommending him as a proper husband for the Queen. He continued in her service until her surrender to the insurgent nobles at Carberry Hill, but after that incident he openly joined them and took part in all their councils and proceedings. He was present at the battle of Langside, which finally ruined Marys cause in Scotland. In September, 1568, he was one of the commissioners appointed to accompany the Regent Moray to the conference on the Queens case at York. Spottiswood says the Regent was unwilling to take him, but was afraid to leave him in Scotland; and Calderwood declares that Secretary Lethington was very reluctant to go, but he was induced to do so by fair promises of lands and money, for it was not expedient to leave behind them a factious man that inclined secretly to the Queen. It is alleged that during the conference he was in constant communication with Marys commissioners and the Duke of Norfolk, and that it was he who first suggested the project of a marriage between that nobleman and the Scottish Queen, which brought the Duke to the scaffold, and increased the severity of Marys imprisonment.

On Lethingtons return to Scotland, his alienation from the Regent became more marked. He was suspected, not without reason, to be deeply implicated in all the plots in favour of the Queen, both in Scotland and England, and at length Moray caused him to be summarily arrested at a meeting of the Council in Stirling (September 3rd, 1569) on the charge of having been an accomplice in the murder of Darnley. But his friend Kirkaldy of Grange, by a stratagem, released him from confinement, and gave him an asylum in the Castle of Edinburgh. After the murder of Regent Moray, Lethington was the life and soul of the Queens party, and all who favoured her cause had constant recourse to him for counsel. He was denounced as a rebel, along with his two brothers, and was deprived of his office of Secretary by the Regent Lennox, who sent a body of troops to ravage his own and his fathers estates; and thinking himself not safe in the wilds of Athole, where he had sought refuge, he resolved to join Kirkaldy in Edinburgh Castle. He reached Leith on the 10th of April, 1571. As he was unable to bear the jolting of a carriage, he was carried up to the castle by six workmen on a litter, Mr. Robert Maitland (Dean of Aberdeen and a Lord of Session) holding up his head. His influence over the chivalrous Kirkaldy of Grange was so great that even after the Hamiltons, Gordons, and the other nobles of the Queens party had submitted to the Regent, and her cause had become desperate, he still resolutely held out the castle for her interest, in the hope of receiving succour from France. John Knox, who had a great regard for Kirkaldy, sent David Lindsay with a message to him only a week before his death, earnestly entreating him to abandon the cause of one who was a bitter enemy of the gospel, and warning him that if he refused his ruin was inevitable; but Maitland sent him away with a scoffing and contemptuous reply. Tell Mr. Knox, he said, that he is but a dryting prophet. When the garrison were at length compelled to surrender to the English auxiliaries in 1573, Lethington and the governor of the castle were, by Elizabeths orders, basely delivered up to Morton, who put Grange to death. Lethington anticipated this fate by dying in prison. Some suppose, said Sir James Melville, that he took a drink and died, as the auld Romans were wont to do. But the probability is that he died a natural death. His constitution was so completely broken down by continued labour and anxiety that during the siege of the castle he was unable to bear the noise of the guns, and had to be placed in a dungeon under ground.

With all his faults and crimes, Maitland was one of the ablest and most far-seeing Scottish statesmen of his day. His ruling passion was the union of the two kingdoms, and it is probable that his consciousness that the end which he had in view was disinterested and patriotic may have blinded him to the true character of the means which he employed. Calderwood says of him, This man was of a rare wit, but set upon wrong courses, which were contrived and followed out with falsehood. He could conform himself to the times, and therefore was compared by one who was not ignorant of his courses [George Buchanan] to the chameleon. He trafficked with all parties. Spottiswood says, A man he was of deep wit, great experience, and one whose counsels were held in that time for oracles; but variable and inconstant, turning and changing from one faction to another as he thought it to make for his standing. This did greatly diminish his reputation, and failed him at last. His character is thus described by Principal Robertson: Maitland had early applied to public business admirable natural qualities, improved by an acquaintance with the liberal arts; and at a time of life when his countrymen of the same quality were following the chase or serving as adventurers in the armies of France, he was admitted into all the secrets of the Cabinet, and put upon a level with persons of the most consummate experience in the management of affairs. He possessed in an eminent degree that intrepid spirit which delights in pursuing bold designs, and was no less master of that political dexterity which is necessary for carrying them on with success; but these qualities were deeply tinctured with the neighbouring vices: his address degenerated sometimes into cunning; his acuteness bordered upon excess; his invention, ever fertile, suggested to him on some occasions chimerical systems of policy too refined for the genius of his age or country; and his enterprising spirit engaged him in projects vast and splendid, but beyond his utmost power to execute. All the contemporary writers, to whatever faction they belong, mention him with an admiration which nothing could have excited but the greatest superiority of penetration and abilities.

Secretary Maitland married Mary, daughter of Lord Fleming, one of the Queens Manes, who bore him an only son, James. He went over to the Roman Catholic body, and withdrew to the Continent, where he died without issue. He sold his estate of Lethington to his uncle

JOHN MAITLAND, younger brother of the Secretary, and Prior of Coldingham, an accomplished lawyer and statesman, who was successively Lord Privy Seal, Secretary of State, Vice-Chancellor, and Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. He was born in 1545, and was carefully trained in the knowledge of the law, both at home and on the Continent. On his return he obtained the Abbey of Kelso in commendam, which he shortly afterwards exchanged for the Priory of Coldingham. On the resignation of his father, in 1567, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal by Regent Moray, and a few months later he was nominated a Lord of Session. Like his brother, he was at first inclined towards the Lords of the Congregation, but after the assassination of the Regent he joined the Queens party, and was in consequence deprived both of his office and his benefice, and was obliged, like the Secretary, to take refuge in the castle of Edinburgh. On the surrender of that fortress he was placed in confinement, from which he was not released till the fall of Morton in 1581, when he was set at liberty by an order of the Privy Council. His abilities and his character commended him to the attention of the young King, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and appointed him to the office of Secretary of State, which had been so long held by his brother. In 1586 he was nominated Vice-Chancellor of the kingdom, and in the following year, on the downfall of the infamous royal favourite, Captain Stewart, sometime Earl of Arran, Maitland was raised to the office of Lord High Chancellor. From the time of his admission to the court down to near the close of his career he was virtually the minister for Scotland, and the King seems to have placed implicit reliance in his judgment and fidelity. It was to his credit that he incurred the bitter enmity both of Stewart, Earl of Arran, and of Francis Stewart, the notorious Earl of Bothwell, who repeatedly sought his life. He accompanied James in his voyage to Norway in 1589 to bring home his bride, and at Copenhagen, where the royal party spent the winter, he became intimately acquainted with Tycho Brahe, the celebrated Danish astronomer, to whom he addressed some complimentary verses. On his return home, in May, 1590, he was created a peer at the coronation of the Queen, by the title of LORD MAITLAND OF THIRLESTANE. Finding that his retention of two such important offices as Privy Seal and Chancellor had excited the envy of the courtiers, he resigned the former in 1591. His influence with the King was, however, in no degree diminished, and in the following year he persuaded James to pass the important statute by which the jurisdiction and discipline of the Church were finally legalised and confirmed. He shared in the unpopularity, and indeed odium, which the King incurred in consequence of the general suspicion that he was previously aware of Huntlys design to assassinate the bonnie Earl of Moray, and he never regained the position which he had previously held in public esteem. (See THE CAMPBELLS OF ARGYLL.)

Jamess queen had long entertained a grudge against Maitland on the ground of his supposed opposition to her marriage, and a dispute with her respecting the regality of Musselburgh and the lands connected with it led to his retirement from court for a whole year. In order to conciliate her Majesty, the Chancellor took her part in a contention respecting the keeping of the young Prince Henry, whom she wished to remove from the charge of the Earl of Mar (Jock o the Sclaits ), who had been the playfellow of the King. As soon as the scheme came to the knowledge of James, he broke out into a transport of anger, and reprehended the Chancellor bitterly for his interference in a matter with which he had nothing to do. Deeply mortified by these reproaches, Maitland retired to his seat at Thirlestane, near Lauder, where he was seized with a fatal illness, and after lingering for two months, he died October 3rd, 1595. James deeply regretted his outburst of passion, and wrote an affectionate letter to his old and faithful servant on his deathbed, and composed an epitaph to his memory. Spottiswood says of Lord Maitland, He was a man of rare parts and of a deep wit, learned, full of courage, and most faithful to his king and master. No man did ever carry himself in his place more wisely, nor sustain it more courageously against his enemies. The Chancellor wrote a satire against Slanderous Tongues, from which he seems to have suffered severely, and an Admonition to the Earl of Mar, which have been printed, along with his fathers poems, by the Maitland Club. Several Latin epigrams from his pen are inserted in the Delitize Poetarum Scotorum.

JOHN MAITLAND, only son of the Chancellor, was created VISCOUNT LAUDERDALE in 1616, and EARL OF LAUDERDALE, VISCOUNT MAlTLAND, and LORD THIRLESTANE AND BOLTOUN, in 1624. He held the offices of President of the Council, a Lord of Session, and President of the Parliament in 1644. He embraced the side of the Parliament in the Great Civil War. Crawford says that the first Earl of Lauderdale was a nobleman of great honour and probity, and managed his affairs with so much discretion that he made considerable additions to his fortune.

The Earls reputation for honour and integrity stood so high, that when the charters and other writs forming the title-deeds of the family had been defaced by their concealment underground during the Civil Wars, an inventory prepared by him was, by order of Parliament, authenticated by the Clerk-Registrar, and ordered to be thereafter received as supplying the place of the original records. Lady Isabel Seton, his wife, daughter of the Earl of Dunfermline, bore Earl John seven sons and eight daughters. His eldest son

JOHN MAITLAND, second Earl, and only Duke of Lauderdale, born in 1616, the cruel persecutor of the Covenanters and the supporter of Charles II. in his most tyrannical and unconstitutional projects, has left a name which is held in abhorrence by his countrymen even at the present day. He received an excellent education, and attained great proficiency in the knowledge of the classics. He was carefully, trained in Presbyterian principles. He entered public life as a zealous supporter of the Covenant. He took a prominent part in all measures of the Presbyterians in resisting the innovations of Charles I. and Laud, and in negotiating with the leaders of the English Parliament He had a seat as one of the Scottish representatives in the Westminster Assembly of Divines, was deeply concerned in the policy of the Presbyterian party throughout the Great Civil War, and was one of the four commissioners sent from Scotland to negotiate with the King at Uxbridge. When Charles took refuge in the Scottish camp, Lauderdale earnestly entreated him to accept of the terms offered him by the Scots, and when these were rejected, the Earl was accused of having been prominent in recommending the surrender of Charles to the English Parliament. In 1647 he was one of the commissioners sent to persuade his Majesty to sign the Covenant. After the execution of the King, Lauderdale went over to Holland and remained there till 1650, when he accompanied Charles II. to Scotland, and seems to have ingratiated himself remarkably with that easy-going though shrewd prince. He took an active part in the ill-concerted and unfortunate efforts to replace him on the throne of his ancestors; joined the badly managed expedition for that purpose into England, in 1651, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester. He was kept a close prisoner in the Tower and other places of confinement for nine years, and was not released until the arrival of Monk in London, in 1660, immediately before the Restoration.

A traditionary story is told of him at this time which indicates that in his youth he was of a much more genial and generous disposition than he is reputed to have become in his later days. One of his tenantsthe farmer of Tollis Hill, in Lauderdaleis said to have fallen into arrears with his rent, owing to the failure of his crops and disease among his sheep and cattle. His wife, an active, pushing dame, waited upon Lord Lauderdale at Thirlestane Castle, and pleaded earnestly, and, as it appeared, successfully, for a remission of arrears and forbearance until better times. Her suit was granted by the Earl, according to a not very probable account, on condition that she should bring to Thirlestane Castle a snowball in June. Be this as it may, affairs prospered from that time onward with the farmer and his thrifty and industrious spouse, and they were enabled to lay by, for that period, a good deal of money. Days of distress and peril came upon the Earl, and the gudeman of Tollis Hill and his wife, hearing of his imprisonment and privations, resolved to do what they could to relieve the necessities of their landlord. The gudewife determined that she would herself go up to London for that purpose. She baked a pease-meal bannock, and enclosed in it a considerable sum of money; she also concealed a good many gold pieces in the tresses of her luxuriant hair, which was of a rich golden colour. Accompanied by one of the farm servants, she accomplished her laborious and dangerous journey in safety, and succeeded, by means of the golden key, in obtaining access to the Earl. She then, in his presence, broke asunder the bannock and disclosed its concealed treasure, and loosening the tresses of her luxuriant hair, poured out the gold coins hidden there. Thus, to the great astonishment and delight of the Earl, his grateful tenant afforded him the means of relieving his necessities and ministering to his comfort. The courageous dame succeeded in returning safely to her farm, which, according to tradition, she and her gudeman were allowed to possess rent free to the end of their lives.

On regaining his liberty when Monk caused a new Parliament to be summoned, Lord Lauderdale lost no time in repairing to the Hague, to wait upon Charles, whom he accompanied to England. He was appointed Secretary of State for Scotland. A contemporary writer states that Chancellor Hyde endeavoured to make Lauderdale Chancellor for Scotland, under pretence of rewarding his sufferings, but really to remove him from a constant attendance at Court. But Lauderdale, foreseeing that he who was possessed of his Majestys ear would govern all, thought fit to reside in London, and so that employment was bestowed on Glencairn.

When the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland was proposed, Lauderdale strongly resented it, and earnestly advised the King to maintain the Presbyterian system; but, as he told Burnet, Charles spoke to him to let that go, for it was not a religion for a gentleman. After a lengthened discussion of the subject in the Council, it was resolved that the Presbyterian Church should be abolished. Lauderdale at once fell in with the views of the prelatical party as warmly, says Guthrie, as Middleton himself had done. This astonished Glencairn, who knew Lauderdale to be a violent Presbyterian by profession. A remarkable and very characteristic conversation took place on this subject between these two noblemen. Glencairn said, he was not for lordly prelates such as were in Scotland before the Reformation, but for a limited, sober, and moderate episcopacy. My lord, replied Lauderdale, since you are for bishops, and must have them, bishops you shall have, and higher than ever they were in Scotland, and that you will find. The Chancellor, in no long time, found to his cost the truth of this statement. Woes me! he said, we have advanced these men to be bishops and they will trample on us all. Lauderdale was opposed to the establishment of the High Court of Commission for the summary trial and punishment of all recusants, clergy and laity, which was invested with almost absolute powers, and exercised them with merciless severity; but when its constitution was pressed by the bishops, and acceded to by the King, he readily acquiesced. Bishop Burnet says, I took the liberty to expostulate very freely with Lauderdale. I thought he was acting the Earl of Traquairs part, giving way to all the follies of the bishops, on design to ruin them. He upon that ran into a great deal of freedom with me; told me many passages of Sharps past life. He was persuaded he would ruin all; but he said he was resolved to give him line, for he had not credit enough to stop him, nor would he oppose anything that he proposed, unless it were very extravagant He saw that the Earl of Glencairn and he would be in a perpetual war, and it was indifferent to him how matters would go between them.

On the disgrace and dismissal of Middleton, in 1662, Lauderdales influence was greatly increased; and when Rothes was deprived of all his offices except that of Chancellor, in 1667, Lauderdale was nominated President of the Council, First Commissioner of the Treasury, Extraordinary Lord of Session, Lord of the Bedchamber, and Governor of Edinburgh Castle. The whole power and patronage of Scotland were placed in his hands, and, supported by the dominant Anglican party, his influence was paramount at Court. In 1669 he was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament, and he held the same office in four succeeding sessions, and also in the Convention of Estates in 1678. He was created Duke of Lauderdale and Marquis of March in May, 1672, and a month before this he was installed a Knight of the Garter. In 1674 the King created him a peer of England by the title of Earl of Guildford and Baron Petersham, and he was also sworn a member of the Privy Council of England. His administration of Scotland was a disgrace to humanity. It was while he was at the head of affairs that the infamous Act against Conventicles was passed by the Estates, in 1670, punishing with death and confiscation of goods all who should preach or pray at a conventicle. It was he who brought the Highland host upon the western counties; and when told of the devastation which they had wrought he merely remarked, Better that the West bear nothing but windle-straws and sand-laverocks (dog-grass and sand-larks) than that it should bear rebels to the King. Unsparing use was made of the sword, the halter, and the boot, in his efforts to crush the Covenanters; and so intolerable became his administration that at length a deputation, consisting of fourteen peers and fifty gentlemen, with the Duke of Hamilton at their head, repaired to London and laid their grievances before the King. But the only redress they obtained was to be told by Charles, I perceive that Lauderdale has been guilty of many bad things against the people of Scotland, but I cannot find he has acted anything contrary to my interest

Lauderdales influence in the management of English affairs was equally pernicious, though in a different way. He was a member of the infamous Cabal ministry, and as Lord Macaulay remarks, Loud and coarse both in mirth and anger, under the outward show of boisterous frankness he was perhaps the most dishonest man in the whole Cabal. After the downfall of that notorious conclave Lauderdale still remained sole minister for Scotland, and carried out with relentless severity the savage measures of Charles and his councillors. His habitual debauchery exercised a most deteriorating influence on his character, and his second wife, Lady Dysart [She was the daughter of Will Murray, son of the parish minister of Dysart, who held the post of whipping-boy to Charles I., an office which doomed him to undergo all the corporal punishment which the prince deserved. Murray rose to be page, then gentleman of the bedchamber and the trusted confidant of his royal master, whose secrets he was generally believed to have betrayed to his enemies. Charles, who was not aware of his real character, created him Earl of Dysart and Baron Huntingtower. He left no sons, and his elder daughter, who inherited his titles and estates, married Sir Lionel Tollemache, the representative of an ancient and wealthy Suffolk family, to whom she bore a large family of sons and daughters. After Sir Lionels death, in i668, her connection with the Duke of Lauderdale was of such a character that his wife was obliged to separate from him, and six weeks after her death he married the Countess. The Dysart peerage is still in existence, and its holders have repeatedly been before the public in not very creditable circumstances.] a woman of great beauty, spirit, and accomplishments, but cruel, rapacious, and extravagantacquired a complete ascendancy over him. The great offices of State were monopolised by her creatures, and vast sums were extorted from the Presbyterians to supply her profusion, and satisfy her ravenous greed of money. Lauderdales arbitrary and rapacious conduct, combined with his sale of public offices and tampering with the courts of law, excited a strong opposition against him, both in Parliament and in the country, but the support of the King maintained him in his post His Grace, however, lost the favour of the Duke of York when he came down to Scotland, in 1681, and he was deprived of all his offices except that of Extraordinary Lord of Session, which had been granted to him for life. He passed the remaining years of his life in obscurity and disgrace, neglected and ill used even by his wife. He closed his flagitious career August 24, 1684, leaving by his first wife an only daughter, who married the second Marquis of Tweeddale. Fountainhall says Lauderdale was the learnedest and most powerful minister of State in his age; discontent and age (corpulency also, it is said) were the chief ingredients of his death, if his duchess and physicians were free of it; for she abused him most grossly, and had gotten all from him she could expect, and was glad to be quit of him. The Duke was undoubtedly a man of great natural ability and extensive learning. Bishop Burnet, who knew him intimately, says he was very learned not only in Latin, in which he was a master, but in Greek and Hebrew. He had read a great deal of divinity, and almost all the historians ancient and modern. He had with these an extraordinary memory and a copious but unpolished expression. He was a man, as the Duke of Buckingham once called him to me, of a blundering understanding. He was haughty beyond expression; abject to those he saw he must stoop to, but imperious to all others. He had a violence of passion that carried him often to fits like madness, in which he had no temper. If he took a thing wrong, it was a vain thing to study to convince him; that would rather provoke him to swear he would never be of another mind. He was to be let alone, and perhaps he would have forgot what he said and come about of his own accord. He was the coldest friend and the violentest enemy I ever knew. He at first despised wealth, but he delivered himself up afterwards to luxury and sensuality, and by that means he ran into a vast expense and stuck at nothing that was necessary to support it. In his long imprisonment he had great impressions of religion on his mind, but he wore these out so entirely that scarce any trace of them was left. His great experience in affairs, his ready compliance with everything that he thought would please the King, and his bold offering of the most desperate counsels, gained him such an interest in the King that no attempt against him nor complaint of him could ever shake it till a decay of strength and understanding forced him to let go his hold. Lauderdale frequently spoke with coarse ribaldry of the days when he was a Covenanter and a rebel; but his opinions continued unchanged, and he retained to the day of his death his preference for the Presbyterian system. His personal appearance was extremely unprepossessing, and his portrait by Lely fully bears out Burnets description of him. He made a very ill appearance. He was very big, his hair red, hanging oddly about him. His tongue was too big for his mouth, which made him bedew all that he talked to, and his whole manner was rough and boisterous, and very unfit for a court.

As Lauderdale left no male issue, his dukedom and marquisate, and his English honours, became extinct at his death, but a great part of his landed property and hereditary titles descended to his brother

CHARLES, third Earl of Lauderdale, a Lord of Session, under the title of Lord Hatton or Halton, taken from an estate in Midlothian, which he obtained by marriage with the heiress of the ancient family of the Lauders. He held various important offices under Charles II., and was as unprincipled, overbearing, and insolent as his kinsman, though possessed of far inferior abilities. Along with the Duke, Archbishop Sharp, and Rothes, the Chancellor, Hatton swore on the trial of Mitchell, who was accused of firing a pistol at the Archbishop, that no promise was made to him that his life should be spared if he confessed the crime. But the records of the Privy Council, which are still in existence, prove that the promise was really made in the most explicit terms, and consequently that these councillors were guilty of perjury. The discovery of certain letters from the Duke and Hatton to Lord Kincardine, requesting him to ask the King to make good the promise given to Mitchell, helped to bring about the ruin both of Lauderdale and his brother. Hatton was prosecuted for perjury, but the trial was stopped by the adjournment of Parliament, and was not revived. He was, however, deprived of all his offices, and the Lord Advocate was ordered to proceed against him for malversation, in connection with his office of Master of the Mint. He was found liable to the King of 72,000, but his Majesty reduced the amount to 20,000, and ordered 16,000 of the sum to be paid to the Chancellor and 4,000 to Claverhouse for his services against the Covenanters. Hatton died in 1691, and was succeeded by his eldest son

RICHARD, fourth Earl of Lauderdale. Though he was the son-in-law of the Earl of Argyll, he became a Roman Catholic, and at the Restoration of 1688 adhered to the cause of James VII. Having repaired to France, and joined the court of the exiled monarch at St Germains, he was outlawed by the High Court of Justiciary in 1694. It is stated in a manuscript history of the family that his going to France was a noble expedient for the preservation of his family, and worthy of such a man. He had no children of his own, and knew that the estates of Lauderdale would descend to his brother, Sir John Maitland, who was then in possession of the estate of Hatton; that by living in a retired way abroad, and not entering to the estate of Lauderdale, the same would not be affected with his debts; that at his death Sir John would unite the Lauderdale and Hatton estates in his own person, and might thereby be enabled to put the family on a good footing. Earl Richard seems to have been a person of moderate and prudent views, and expressed his disapproval of the violent measures proposed by James and his courtiers. He was, in consequence, forbidden the mimic court at St Germains; his wife, who was a Protestant, was ordered to return to her own country, and his pension was reduced to a hundred pistoles a year. He solaced himself under this ungrateful treatment by preparing a translation of Virgil, which was published in two volumes in 1737. Dryden confesses in a general way his obligation to a manuscript copy of this translation, but on its publication it was discovered that Glorious John had borrowed a good many passages from it without acknowledgment. The Earl was also a collector of books, and possessed one of the choicest libraries of his time. John Evelyn says, The Duke of Lauderdales library is yet entire, choicely bound, and to be sold by a friend of mine, to whom it is pawned; but it comes far short of his relations, the Lord Maitlands, which was certainly the noblest, most substantial, and accomplished library that ever passed under the spear, and it heartily grieved me to behold its limbs, like those of the chaste Hippolytus, separated and torn from that so well-chosen and compacted a body. The Earl died at Paris in 1695, and was succeeded by his brother

JOHN, fifth Earl, who concurred heartily in the Revoluton, and was appointed a judge in the Court of Session, with the title of Lord Ravelrigan office which he held for twenty-one years. On succeeding his brother as Earl of Lauderdale, he took the oaths of allegiance and his seat in Parliament, and gave his strenuous support to the Union with England. The eldest of his three sons predeceased him, and at his death, in 1710, his second son

CHARLES, became sixth Earl. He was appointed General of the Mint, and at the general election he was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers. He served as a volunteer, under the Duke of Argyll, in 1715, and fought with great gallantry at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. He had by his countess, a daughter of the Earl of Findlater and Seafield, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, a family of nine sons and five daughters. Two of the former attained high rank in the army. Charles, the second son, married the heiress of Towie, and assumed the name of Barclay. The celebrated Russian General, Prince Barclay de Tolly, who died in 1818, was a descendant of Charles Barclay. The sixth son, the Hon. Frederick, a rear-admiral, was the founder of the family of Rankeillour, which produced the well-known Maitland McGill Crichton, the able and zealous advocate of the principles of the Free Church. Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland, the grandson of Admiral Maitland, was a distinguished naval officer, whose eminent services in the war with France, and especially in the expedition to Egypt in 1801, received high and well-merited commendation. It was to him that the Emperor Napoleon surrendered on board the Bellerophon, in 1815. He was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, and was appointed Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies. He died at sea, on board the Wellesley, his flagship, in 1839.

Major Maitland, who has just made good his claim to the Lauderdale titles and estates, is descended from the fourth son of Earl Charles.

JAMES, seventh Earl, served for twenty-four years in the army, and held the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was chosen one of the Scottish representative peers, and under the Act of 1747, abolishing heritable jurisdictions, he received 1,000 as compensation for the regality of Thirlstane and baillery of Lauderdale, instead of 8,000, which he claimed. His second son was the able but imperious Lieutenant-General Thomas Maitland (commonly known as King Tom), Governor and Commander-in-Chief at Ceylon. The Earl obtained a large fortune by his marriage to the only child and heiress of Sir Thomas Lombe, a wealthy London alderman. He died in 1789.

His eldest surviving son, JAMES, eighth Earl, born in 1759, was a distinguished politician and writer on political economy. He was educated at the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and completed his training at Paris. He was admitted a member of the Faculty of Advocates in 1780. In the same year he entered the House of Commons as member for a Cornish borough. He attached himself to the Whig party under Fox, and took a prominent part in the opposition to Lord Norths administration. He was appointed by the House of Commons one of the managers of the impeachment of Warren Hastings. After succeeding to the family titles and estates, he was chosen one of the representative peers of Scotland. He was on a visit to Paris on account of his health, along with Dr. Moore, the father of Sir John Moore, in 1792, when the attack on the Tuileries and the imprisonment of Louis XVI. took place, but he promptly quitted the French capital after the massacres of September 3rd and the departure of the British ambassador. The shocking scenes which he witnessed there, however, do not appear to have moderated his democratic opinions. In the House of Lords the Earl distinguished himself by his violent opposition to the war with France, the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, the Sedition Bills, and other measures of the Government. He gloried in the designation of Citizen Maitland, and on one occasion said to the Duchess of Gordon that he hoped the time would come when he would be known only by that designation. Her unscrupulous Grace replied that she hoped to see him hanged first. The Earl of Lauderdale was regarded as the leader of the Scottish Whigs, and when the Ministry of All the Talents was formed in 1806, he was created a peer of the United Kingdom, was sworn a Privy Councillor, was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, and was entrusted with the whole ministerial patronage of that kingdom. On the 2nd of August he was sent as Ambassador Extraordinary to Paris, with full powers to conclude a peace with France, but the negotiations proved abortive. His lordship went out of office on the change of Ministry in 1807, but he continued for many years to take an active part in public affairs, in conjunction with the leaders of the Opposition. He deserted his party, however, on the trial of Queen Caroline, and during the remainder of his long public career he co-operated zealously with the Tories. He died in 1839, in the eightieth year of his age.

Lord Lauderdale was undoubtedly a man of great ability and extensive acquirements, and, but for his violent temper and want of judgment, might have attained high rank as a statesman. Sir Walter Scott, who disliked him both on public and private grounds, speaks in strong terms of Lauderdales violent temper, irritated by long disappointed ambition and ancient feud with all his brother nobles. The Earl does not appear to have been a much greater favourite with the Whig party even when he was a prominent member of it. After his desertion of the Whigs he became the leader of the Scottish Tory nobles, and managed the election of the sixteen representative peers in the House of Lords. Lord Cockburn ascribes the election of twelve of their number hostile to the Reform Bill of 1831 as due to the skilful manoeuvring of that cunning old recreant, Lauderdale; and, in a letter to Kennedy of Dunure, written about the same time, he says, Lauderdale has been in Edinburgh, and I always like him to be against my side, for I never knew him right. Lord Lauderdale was the author of numerous treatises: three on financial subjectsThoughts on Finance, An Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth, Thoughts on the Alarming State of the Currency, and the Means of Redressing the Pecuniary Grievances of Ireland; Hints to the Manufacturers of Great Britain on the consequences of the Irish Union; An Inquiry into the Practical Merits of the System of Government in India under the Board of Control; Letters on the Corn Laws, &c., &c. He left a family of four sons and four daughters; but all his sons died unmarried. The two eldest held in succession the family tides and estates.

JAMES, ninth Earl of Lauderdale, was born in 1784 and died in 1860, when his brother, Admiral SIR ANTHONY MAITLAND, became tenth Earl. He was a brave and skilful officer, distinguished himself greatly during the war with France, and commanded one of the vessels in Lord Exmouths expedition against Algiers in 1816. In reward of his services he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1820, and a Military Knight Commander of the Bath in 1852. At his death, in 1863, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, the British peerage became extinct, but the Scottish honours devolved on

Rear-Admiral SIR THOMAS MAITLAND, grandson of the seventh Earl, who had served with distinction on the coast of Spain and in India and China. He was an honest and straightforward bluff sailor, who looked, and talked, and bore himself like a thorough seaman. He took a prominent part in the discussions in the House of Lords on naval affairs, in which he displayed all the raciness and quaint humour of an old salt. A frequent spectator of the appearances of the worthy old veteran in the Upper House describes him as hardened, weather-beaten, and worn by service, his face marked by deep furrows which looked as if they had been ploughed by Atlantic or Pacific gales; his thin grey locks tossed and dishevelled, as if these same gales were still playing among them. He used to stand strongly and stoutly, keeping his sea-legs firmly planted and well apart, as if the floor of the House were heaving and rolling. In that attitude he delivered himself in short nautical barks, as if he were hailing the man at the wheel; and though he did not actually hitch up his trousers, no one would have been much surprised if he had done so. He looked every inch a sailor, and no fair-weather one either. He was, moreover, a really good officer; and Mr. Childers, when he was at the head of the Admiralty, always set considerable store by his Lordships opinions. At all events, the old sailor gave a variety to the somewhat monotonously conventional uniformity and polish of the Upper House, and whether you agreed with him or not, you could not help taking kindly to his racy talk which brought with it so pleasant a whiff of the sea breeze.

The gallant old Admiral passed away in 1878, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. His only son predeceased him, and he was succeeded by his cousin

THOMAS, twelfth Earl, great-grandson of the Hon. Charles Maitland, second son of Charles, sixth Earl of Lauderdale. This nobleman was killed in 1884 by a stroke of lightning. He was unmarried, and the family titles and honoursEarl, Viscount, and Baron of Lauderdale, Baron Maitland of Thirlstane, Baron Thirlstane and Boltoun, and Baronet of Scotland and Nova Scotia, and Hereditary Standard-bearer of Scotlandalong with the estates, which are in the counties of Berwick, Haddington, and Roxburgh were claimed by Major Frederick Maitland and by Sir James Ramsay Gibson-Maitland, of Clifton Hall, Baronet. Both claimants are descended from Charles Maitland, sixth Earl of Lauderdale, but the progenitor of Sir James was the Hon. Sir Alexander, fifth son, while Major Maitland is the great-grandson of the Hon. Richard Maitland, fourth son of the sixth Earl. This statement was admitted by Sir James R. G. Maltland to be correct, but he asserted that Richard Maitland died unmarried, 13th July, 1772, and that if Patrick Maitland, from whom Major Maitland claims to be descended, was the son of the said Richard Maitland, he was not born in wedlock, and was consequently illegitimate. He further contended that for a considerable time prior to his death Richard Maitland was domiciled in British North America, in no part of which did the law of legitimation by subsequent marriage prevail. He therefore pleaded that the succession as to the lands and estates of the earldom of Lauderdale had devolved upon him as the nearest lawful heir, called to succeed thereto under the destinations in the deeds of entail.

Major Maitland, on the other hand, denied that his ancestor, the Hon. Richard Maitland, died unmarried, and averred that, at New York, on the 11th of July, 1772, he married Mary Macadam, of New York, the clergyman officiating at the ceremony of marriage being the Rev. John Ogilvy, D.D., assistant minister of Trinity Church, New York. He alleged that he is the eldest son of the deceased Frederick E. Maitland, a general in the Indian army, who was the eldest son of Patrick Maitland, some time in the Royal Navy, thereafter banker in Calcutta, who was the second son of the Hon. Richard Maitland. (The eldest, an admiral, died without issue.) He admitted that Patrick Maitland, his grandfather, was born before the marriage of his parents, but he averred that his great-grandfather, Richard Maitland, was born in Scotland on the 10th of February, 1724, that his domicile of origin was therefore Scottish, that he entered the army while in minority, and was in active service until the date of his death, that he never lost his domicile of origin, and that by his marriage his son Patrick Maitland was by the law of Scotland legitimated.

After a very full and careful consideration of the pretensions of the two claimants, the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords, on the 22nd of July, 1885, unanimously decided in favour of Major Maitland, who thereupon became thirteenth Earl of Lauderdale in the peerage of Scotland.

According to the Doomsday Book, the family estates consist of 2,468 acres in Berwickshire, of 75 in East Lothian, and 756 in Roxburghshire, with an aggregate rental of 17,319 11s.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

The RAMSAYS - OF Scotland - Ancestral History

The Ramsays

THERE are certain qualities, both physical and mental, which for ages have run in the blood of distinguished families, and have obtained for them corresponding designations. The gallant Grahams, gay Gordons, handsome Hays, light Lindsays, haughty Hamiltons, have, generation after generation, exhibited the qualities which these epithets imply. One noble Scottish family have, from the earliest times, been noted for their covetous greed of the lands of their neighbours; another for their cruelty; a third for their irascible temper; a fourth for their braggart boasting. The Ramsays have, from the earliest period down to the present day, been noted for their courage and military skill, and that stubborn hardihood which may be broken but will not bend. They took a prominent part in the protracted struggle for the liberty and independence of their country against our auld enemies of England, and laid down their lives for Scotlands cause on many a bloody field. In later times, the fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth Earls attained high rank in the British army, while the younger members of their families acquired great distinction in Continental and Colonial warfare. In allusion to their services both at home and abroad, Sir Walter Scott, who had a high regard for this old heroic family, makes King James, in the Fortunes of Nigel, speak of the auld martial stock of the house of Dalwolsey, than whom better men never did, and better never will draw sword for king and country. Heard ye never of Sir William Ramsay, of Dalwolsey, of whom John Fordoun saith, He was bellicosissimus, nobilissimus ? We are grieved we cannot have the presence of the noble chief of that house at the marriage ceremony; but when there is honour to be won abroad; the Lord Dalwolsey is seldom to be found at home. "Sic fuit, est, et erjt."

The Ramsays, like the Bruces, Hamiltons, Lindsays, Maxwells, Setons, Keiths, Stewarts, and other great Scottish families, settled in Scotland during the reign of David I. They are said to be of German origin, which is not improbable; but the founder of the Scottish branch of the house appears to have come into Scotland from Huntingdonshire, of which David was Earl before he ascended the throne, and where Ramsay is a local designation. The first person of distinction who bore the name in Scotland was the SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY whose noble and warlike character is eulogised by Fordoun. He was the friend of Robert Bruce, by whose side he fought throughout the War of Independence, and was one of the nobles who subscribed the celebrated memorial to the Pope, in 1320, vindicating the rights and liberties of their country. SIR ALEXANDER RAMSAY, the son of this baron, was one of the noblest and bravest of Scottish patriots. In the dark days of David II., the unworthy son of Robert Bruce, Sir Alexander acquired such distinction by his gallant exploits in defence of his country that, according to Fordoun, to serve in his band was considered a branch of military education requisite for all young gentlemen who meant to excel in arms. At the head of a body of knights and soldiers, whom his fame as a daring and skilful warrior had drawn around him, he sallied from the crags and caves of Hawthornden, near Edinburgh, where he found shelter, intercepted the convoys of the enemy, captured their provisions, cut off their stragglers, and seriously hindered their operations. He was one of the leaders of the force which, in 1335, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Flemish auxiliaries under the command of the Count Namur, on the Boroughmuir of Edinburgh. He relieved the garrison of Dunbar, commanded by the famous Countess of Dunbar and March, daughter of Randolph, Earl of Moray, when besieged by the Earl of Salisbury, in 1338, and reduced to the greatest extremities, and compelled the English army to raise the siege. He even penetrated into Northumberland, which he wasted with fire and sword; and, on his homeward march, defeated a powerful body of the enemy near Wark Castle, and killed or captured them almost to a man. In a night attack, in 1342, he stormed the strong fortress of Roxburgh, situated near the confluence of the Teviot and the Tweed. The situation of this famous stronghold on the Borders rendered the possession of it during the continued warfare between England and Scotland of great importance to both of the contending parties. It was, therefore, usually the first place of attack on the breaking out of hostilities, was the scene of several daring exploits during the War of Independence, and frequently changed masters. Sir Alexander Ramsay was rewarded for the important service which he had rendered by its capture, by the appointment of governor of the castle, and was also nominated by the King (David II.), Sheriff of Teviotdale, a post which had been previously held by Sir William Douglas, the Knight of Liddesdale. Deeply offended at this act, Douglas vowed vengeance against the new sheriff, who had been his friend and companion in arms, and suddenly pounced upon him while he was holding his court in the church of Hawick. Ramsay, having no suspicion of injury from his old comrade, invited Douglas to take his place beside him. But the ferocious Baron, drawing his sword, attacked and wounded his unsuspecting victim, and throwing him bleeding across a horse, carried him off to the remote and solitary castle of Hermitage, amidst the morasses of Liddesdale, where he cast him into a dungeon and left him to perish of hunger. Sir Alexander is said by Fordoun to have prolonged his existence for seventeen days by the grains of corn which fell through the crevices in the floor from a granary above his prison. Nearly four centuries and a half after the foul murder of this gallant patriot, a mason employed in building a wall beside the castle, laid open a vault about eight feet square, in which, amid a heap of chaff, there were found some human bones, along with the remains of a saddle, a large bridle-bit, and an ancient sword. These relics were conjectured, with great probability, to have belonged to the gallant but unfortunate Ramsay, whose cruel death excited great and general indignation and sorrow among all classes of his contemporaries. He had done a great deal, said Fordoun, for the King and for the countrys freedom; he had felled the foe everywhere around; greatly checked their attacks; won many a victory; done much good, and, so far as men can judge, would have done much more had he lived longer. In brave deeds of arms and in bodily strength he surpassed all others of his day. And Wyntoun, after mentioning the sad fate which befel this brave and popular leader, adds

He was the greatest menyd [lamented] man
That any could have thought on than,
Of his state or of more by far,
All menyt him baith better and waur,
The rich and puir him menyde baith,
For of his dede [death] was meikie skaith [damage].

SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY, the son of this lamented patriot, inherited not a few of his fathers virtues, and, in one of his raids across the Border, he defeated and took prisoner Sir Thomas Grey, of Chillingham, governor of Norham Castle, an ancestor of Earl Grey and the Earl of Tankerville. SIR ALEXANDER RAMSAY, his great-grandson, defended his castle of Dalhousie so stoutly against a powerful English army, commanded by Henry IV. in person, that he compelled the enemy to abandon the siege. This gallant representative of the Ramsays was killed at the disastrous battle of Homildon, in 1402. His son, also named ALEXANDER (which seems to have been a favourite name in the family), was one of the barons who were sent to England in 1423, to escort James I. to Scotland on his return from his long captivity, and was knighted at the coronation of that monarch the following year. Sir Alexander Ramsay was one of the principal leaders of the Scottish forces which defeated an English army at Piperden, in 1435. The Ramsays of Cockpen and Whitehill descended from his second son Robert. Other three Alexanders followed in succession, the third of whom fell at Flodden fighting gallantly under the banner of his sovereign.

The fine estate of Foulden, in Berwickshire, which had been nearly three hundred years in the family, passed away from them at the death of GEORGE RAMSAY, who seems to have been deficient in the family characteristic of firm adherence to the cause which they espoused; for, though he signed the Bond of Association in 1567 for the defence of the infant sovereign, James VI., on the escape of Queen Mary from Lochleven Castle, he joined her party, and pledged himself at Hamilton, in 1568, to support her cause. His grandson, SIR GEORGE RAMSAY, was raised to the peerage by James VI., in 1618, with the title of LORD RAMSAY OF MELROSE, but, disliking this designation, he obtained permission from the King in the following year to change his title to LORD RAMSAY OF DALHOUSIE. His younger brother, John, was the person who was mainly instrumental in rescuing King James from the Earl of Gowrie and his brother, in the mysterious affair called the Gowrie Conspiracy (A. D. 1600). Both the brothers, indeed, fell by his hand. For this signal service he was created VISCOUNT HADDINGTON and LORD RAMSAY OF BARNS, in the peerage of Scotland. In 1620 he was made an English peer by the titles of EARL OF HOLDERNESSE and VISCOUNT OF KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES, with the special addition of honour, that upon the 5th of August annuallythe day appointed to be observed in giving thanks to God for the Kings preservation he and his male heirs for ever should bear the sword of state before the King, in remembrance of his deliverance. On the death of the Earl, in 1625, without surviving issue, his titles became extinct.

WILLIAM, second Lord Ramsay, was elevated to the rank of EARL OF DALHOUSIE, by Charles I., in 1633. He was a staunch Royalist, and was, in consequence, heavily fined by Cromwell in 1654. His grandson, GEORGE RAMSAY, of Carriden, third son of the second Earl, was a gallant soldier, and served with great distinction in Holland and Flanders. After the battle of Valcour, he was made brigadier-general, and was appointed colonel of the Scottish regiment of Guards. For his eminent services at the battle of Landen, in 1693, he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and, in 1702, he was created lieutenant-general, and appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland. He died in 1705. Mackay, in his Memoirs, describes him as a gentleman of a great deal of fire, very brave, and a thorough soldier.

Of the third and fourth Earls, both of whom enjoyed the titles and estates for a very short time, there is nothing worthy of special notice to relate; but WILLIAM, the fifth Earl, was a man of mark and influence. He had the sagacity to perceive the great good that would flow from the union of Scotland with England, and, in spite of popular clamour, he steadily supported that measure throughout. In the war of the Spanish Succession he was colonel of the Scots Guards, with the rank of brigadier-general in the forces sent by the British Government, in 1710, to the assistance of the Archduke Charles of Austria, in his contest for the Spanish Crown against Philip, grandson of Louis XIV. On the death of Earl William unmarried, in October of the same year, the family titles and estates descended to WILLIAM RAMSAY, grandson of the first Earl, who, like most both of his predecessors and successors, was a gallant soldier. He died in 1739, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, having had the misfortune to outlive his eldest son George, Lord Ramsay, whose marriage to Jean, daughter of the Hon. Henry Maule, the heiress of the ancient family of Maule, brought extensive estates into the family. She bore him seven sons, of whom four died young. Two of them were poisoned by eating the berries of the ivy. Lord Ramsays eldest son, CHARLES, succeeded his grandfather as seventh Earl, in 1759. He attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army, and died unmarried in 1764. His brother GEORGE, the eighth Earl, was twice elected one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland, and held the office of Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Scottish Church for six years in succession (1777 - 1783). On the death of his uncle, William, Earl of Panmure, in 1782, the extensive estates of that nobleman devolved upon him in life rent with remainder to his second son, WILLIAM RAMSAY. True to the hereditary instinct of the family, his third, fourth, and seventh sons entered the army, in which the two former attained the rank of lieutenant-general, and the last was a captain. The sixth son was in the naval service of the East India Company, and four of the grandsons of the eighth Earl entered the Indian army.

His eldest son, GEORGE RAMSAY, succeeded him in the family titles and estates. Earl George was the school and college companion of Sir Walter Scott, who held him in high and affectionate esteem. On meeting with the Earl in the evening of life, after a long separation, Sir Walter mentions him as still being, and always having been, the same manly and generous character, that all about him loved as the Lordie Ramsay of the Yard (the playground of the Edinburgh High School). The Earl served with great distinction in the West Indies, Holland, and Egypt, and in the Spanish Peninsula, where he commanded the Second Division of the British army; and at the battle of Waterloo. He attained the full rank of general, was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, was one of the general officers who received the thanks of Parliament, and was created a British peer by the title of BARON DALHOUSIE OF DALHOUSIE CASTLE. In 1816 he was appointed to the government of Nova Scotia; and, in 1819, he succeeded the Duke of Richmond as Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the forces in North America. He was Captain-General of the Royal Company of Archers, or Queens Body Guard in Scotland. The Earl died in 1838, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, universally regretted.

There is an interesting notice of this excellent nobleman in Sir Walter Scotts Diary, under the date of January, 1828Drove to Dalhousie, where the gallant Earl, who has done so much to distinguish the British name in every quarter of the globe, is repairing the castle of his ancestors, which of yore stood a siege against John of Gaunt. I was his companion at school, where he was as much beloved by his playmates as he has been respected by his companions in arms and the people over whom he has been deputed to exercise the authority of his sovereign. He was always steady, wise, and generous. The old castle of Dalhousieseu potius, Dalwolseywas mangled by a fellow called, I believe, Douglas, who destroyed, as far as in him lay, its military and baronial character, and roofed it after the fashion of a poors-house. Burn is now restoring and repairing it in the old taste, and, I think, creditably to his own feeling. God bless the roof-tree.

Earl George married, in 1805, Christian, the only child of Charles Broun, of Coalstoun, in East Lothian, the representative of a family which had flourished in Scotland since the twelfth century. With this lady the Earl received a good estate and an heirloom besides, with which the welfare of the family was in old times supposed to be closely connected. This palladium was an enchanted pear, which came to the Brouns of Coalstoun through the marriage of the head of the family early in the sixteenth century to Jean Hay, daughter of the third Lord Yester, ancestor of the Marquis of Tweeddale. According to tradition, this pear had been invested with some invaluable properties by the famous wizard, Hugo de Gifford, of Yester, whose appearance is so vividly described in Sir Walter Scotts poem of Marmion. One of his daughters, it is said, was about to be married, and as the bridal party was proceeding to the church he halted beneath a pear-tree, and plucking one of the pears gave it to the bride, telling her that as long as that gift was kept good fortune would never desert her or her descendants. This precious pear was given by the third Lord Yester to his daughter on her marriage to George Broun of Coalstoun, and at the same time he informed his son-in-law that, good as the lass might be, her tocher (dowry) was still better, for while she could only be of use in her own day and generation, the pear, so long as it continued in the family, would cause it to flourish till the end of time. This pear was accordingly preserved with great care in a silver case by the fortunate recipient and his descendants. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, however, it is said that the wife of one of the lairds, on becoming pregnant, felt a longing for the forbidden fruit and took a bite of it. According to another version of the story, it was a maiden lady of the family who out of curiosity chose to try her teeth upon the pear, and in consequence of the injury thus done to the palladium of the house, two of the best farms on the estate had soon afterwards to be sold. Another and more probable account of the incident in question, which is related by Crawford in his Peerage, is that Lady Elizabeth Mackenzie, daughter of George, first Earl of Cromarty, on the night after her marriage to Sir George Broun, when she slept at Coalstoun, dreamt that she had eaten the pear. Her father-in-law regarded this dream as a bad omen, and expressed great fear that the new-married lady would be instrumental in the destruction of the house of Coalstoun. Her husband and she died in 1718, leaving an only daughter, who inherited the estate, and married George Brown, of Eastfield, while the baronetcy descended to George Broun, of Thornydyke, male heir of the family. The pear has for generations been as hard as a stone, and is still in perfect preservation. It has been justly remarked that, apart from the superstition attached to it, this curious heirloom is certainly a most remarkable vegetable curiosity, having existed for upwards of five centuries. The heiress of the Coalstoun pear, who died in 1839, bore Earl George three sons. The eldest died unmarried in 1832, at the age of twenty-six, the second in 1817, in his tenth year.
JAMES ANDREW BROUN, the youngest son, was the illustrious statesman who for eight years wielded the destinies of our Indian empire, and who, to the great sorrow of all classes of the community and all political parties, passed away in the prime of life. He was born in 1812, and after receiving his preliminary education at Harrow, he entered Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1833, gaining an honorary fourth class in classics. At the general election in 1834, which followed the accession of Sir Robert Peel to office, Lord Ramsay (his courtesy title) contested the representation of Edinburgh, along with Mr. Learmouth; against Mr. Abercromby and Sir John Campbell. The great body of the electors were strongly attached to the Liberal cause, and the populace were not inclined to show much respect or forbearance to the supporters of the party who (as it was commonly though erroneously asserted at the time) had by a Court intrigue ejected the Whig Ministry from office. But the frankness and courage of the young nobleman, the straightforwardness with which he avowed, and the marked ability with which he defended his political creed, gained him golden opinions from all classes and parties in the city; and though he was defeated by a great majority, he polled a much larger number of votes than had been obtained by any previous Conservative candidate. At the close of the contest he remarked with a good-humour which even his opponents applaudedin allusion to the name of one of the family estatesthat they were daft to refuse the Laird o Cockpen.

In 1837, however, Lord Ramsay was returned to the House of Commons as member for the county of Haddington, but he did not retain his seat long enough to take any prominent part in the debates or business of the House, for on the death of his father in the following year he was elevated to the House of Lords as tenth Earl of Dalhousie. He speedily became noted there for his excellent business habits, which attracted the attention of the Duke of Wellington, and obtained for him in 1843, in Sir Robert Peels second Administration, the office of Vice-President of the Board of Trade in succession to Mr. Gladstone. Two years later he was promoted to the post of President of the Board of Trade, which he retained until the overthrow of Sir Robert Peels Ministry shortly after the repeal of the Corn Laws, and the return of the Whigs to office in 1846. In his position at the Board of Trade Lord Dalhousie displayed remarkable energy and industry in acquiring a thorough knowledge of the commercial affairs of the country, and his skill in the science of engineering made him take especial interest in the construction of the numerous railways which at that period began to intersect the country like network.

In 1847, on the recall of Lord Hardinge, the office of Governor-General of our East Indian dominions was offered to Lord Dalhousie by Lord John Russell, and was readily accepted by him. He was the youngest man ever appointed to that onerous and responsible position, and it was certainly no easy task to undertake the government of a population of two hundred and forty millions, composed of distinct, and in some instances at least, of unfriendly races, differing from each other in blood, language, and religion. But Lord Dalhousie possessed in an eminent degree the courage, moral and physical, of his race, and resolved, as he remarked at the time, in a proverbial expression, to set a stout heart to a stey brae (steep bank). In entering upon the duties of his office, he was encouraged by his knowledge of the fact that he enjoyed the confidence both of the Cabinet and the Court of Directors, the former having selected him on account of his known business talents and energy, while the latter cordially approved of his appointment because they believed that the Earl would carry out their schemes of annexation and aggrandisement. Before his predecessor quitted India he made a reduction of 50,000 men in the strength of the army there, and expressed his conviction that for seven years not another hostile shot would be fired within the limits of the British Indian empire. Only a few months, however, after Lord Dalhousie had assumed the reins of Government, the second Sikh war broke out, the siege of Mooltan was undertaken, and the bloody battles of Chilianwalla and Goojerat were fought Very conflicting opinions have been entertained and loudly expressed respecting the justice and expediency of the Governor-Generals policy, but there is no difference of opinion as to the energy and success with which his plans were carried out. The result was the final and complete overthrow of the Sikhs, and the annexation of the Punjaub, and of Berar, Pegu, and Nagpore, and the rich province of Oude, to the British empire.

But peace hath her victories, more glorious far than those of war, and it is a relief to turn from the contemplation of the sanguinary conflicts fought in India during Lord Dalhousies vice-royalty to the civil and social improvements which he effected. Under his auspices an extensive line of railway was opened; Calcutta was placed by means of the electric telegraph in immediate correspondence with Bombay, Madras, and Lahore; canals were formed; education was greatly extended among the natives; infanticide and religious persecution were restrained, if not entirely extinguished; and various important reforms introduced into the legal and civil departments of the administration.

Meanwhile the health of Lord Dalhousie had suffered from his exciting and exhausting labours, as well as from the climate, and he was obliged to return to England in 1856, having held the reins of empire upwards of eight years. He had been made a Knight of the Thistle in 1848; in 1849 he had been elevated to the rank of marquis, and had received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament and of the East India Company for the ability and zeal which he had displayed in the critical contest with the Sikhs. His lordships enfeebled health prevented him from taking that place in the Government of the country for which his talents and experience eminently fitted him. But in 1852, on the death of the Duke of Wellington, he received from the Earl of Derby the Wardenship of the Cinque Ports. He had held since 1845 the office of Lord-Clerk Register and Keeper of the Signet in Scotland.

The Marquis died in 1860, in the forty-eighth year of his age. His wife, the eldest daughter of the Marquis of Tweeddale, predeceased him. He left two daughters, the eldest of whom is the wife of the Hon. Robert Bourke, third son of the fifth Earl of Mayo; the younger married Sir James Ferguson, Bart., Governor of Bombay. The estate of Coalstoun and the personal property of the Marquis passed to his daughters. The marquisate became extinct, but the earldom and barony of Dalhousie, along with the hereditary estates of the Ramsays, descended to FOX MAULE, second Lord Panmure, the cousin of the Marquis. At his death, in 1874, they came into possession of his cousin, GEORGE RAMSAY, a naval officer, grandson of the eighth Earl, born in 1805, and are now enjoyed by his son, JOHN WILLIAM RAMSAY, thirteenth Earl of Dalhousie, who succeeded to them in 1880.

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

Passenger list for s/s STAVANGERFORD - 1947

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s/s STAVANGERFORD FRA OSLO 13. JUNE 1947

Thorbjrn Thorsen - kaptein
Thorstein Helmen - overtyrmann
Nils Fiskerstrand - maskinmester
Arne Blix - regnskapsforer
Halvard Sommerfelt - l/ege
Per Helleseter - overstuert

Passasjerliste Liste:

Frste Klasse

Andersen, Bjarne.....................Lysaker
Andersen, Elisabeth.....................-+-...
Andersen, Peter..........................-+-...
Andersen, Ronald.......................-+-...
Andersen, Thomas......................-+-...
Andersen, Karen.....................Kambo pr. Moss
Adolfsen, Syvert......................Borhaug, Lista
Andresen, Arne M...................Oslo

Bue, Carl.................................Reed Point, Mont.
Bue, Ingeborg.....................................-+-............
Bergh, Arne.............................Brooklyn
Ben, Marit.............................Eidanger
Be, Svanhild..........................Oslo
Bloch-Hoel, Hans....................Holmenkollen
Batchelor, Albert Geo..............London
Batchelor, Florence.....................-+-....
Batzer, Elrid.............................Park Ridge, Chicago
Blilie, Antonette........................St. Paul B
ergesen, Herman....................Rocine, Visc.

Dybdahl, Mathilde....................San Francisco
Dehli, Aagot.............................Askim

Eeg, Arne................................Heggeli, V. Aker
Eriksen, Bergliot......................Oslo
Evensen,Sylvia........................Vollen i Asker
Edwards,Gunda......................Grand Forks, N.D.

Freeman, Ragna......................New York
Friele, Elsa..............................Bergen

Gundersen, Isak......................Froy, N.Y.
Gundersen, Hanna........................-+-.....
Golten, Sigurd.........................Brooklyn
Golten, Aagot...............................-+-....
Golten, Sylvia...............................-+-....
Golten, Vivian..............................-+-....
Gunnersgrd, Marit.................Askim
Gjvik, Anne..........................Astoria, Oreg.

Hoven, Ottar...........................Skreia
Haupt, Thorborg......................Bekkalagshgda
Hannanger, Ruth.......................Lista
Hannanger, Emma.....................-+-..
Hermansen, Fredrik.................Drammen
Halvorsen, Randi......................Long Island, N.Y.
Hansen, Selma K.....................Narvik
Holmen, Elise H.......................Oslo
Haraldsen,Olaus......................Jasper, Minn.
Helstad,Gerd..........................Oslo

Jensen, Ellinor..........................Fjre
Jensen, Knut R.........................Bory
Jensen, Anne B..........................-+-...
Jensen, Esther..........................Oslo
Jensen, Finn..............................-+-...
Jensen, Kjell.............................-+-...
Johansen, Lilly Marie................-+-...
Johnsen, Annie........................Heggeli, V. Aker
Jansen, Gustav........................Skeime, Lista
Jacobsen, Sverre A.................Rjukan
Jacobsen, Irene..........................-+-....
Johnsrud, Ragne......................Notodden
Johnsen, ivind.......................Oslo
Johannesen, Jennia E...............Staten Island
Jensen, Johanina R..................Kbenhavn
Johnson, Helen Margit.............Scotia 2, N.Y.

Kittelsen-Lhren, Emma..........Oslo
Kindem, Ingeborg.....................-+-..
Kjekstad, Johannes..................Ryken
Kamrud, Marit.........................lnes, Valdres
Kvisvik, Sigurd Osvald.............Kristiansund N.
Kvisvik, Petra Inga........................-+-............
Katz, Srol................................
Kbenhavn Katz,Minna..................................-+-.......
Katz,Josef....................................-+-.......

Lorch-Eidem, Paul..................Oslo
Lorch-Eidem, Elina..................-+-..
Lvold, Nils............................Arendal
Larsen, Olav...........................Brooklyn
Larsen, Leif A.........................Oslo
Larsen. Julie............................Askim
Lessner, Erik...........................Oslo
Lund, Kirsten M......................Farsund

Mortensen, Finn......................V.Aker
Musaus, Nanna.......................Brooklyn
Morris, Gerda M....................Honolulu
Molland, Ellinor......................Os'o
Moi, Dagny............................Sandefjord
Mathiesen, Elsie.....................Brooklyn

Nss, Gerd............................Oslo
Northrop, John K....................Los Angeles
Northrop, Inez.............................-+-........
Nissen, Sigbjrn......................St, Albans, LI.
Norheim, Terese.....................Oslo
Nielson, Bjarne L....................Vard
Nelson, Karen.........................Slagen

Overton, Carlton.....................New York
Overton, Virginia.........................-+-.......
Omlie, Brynhild.......................Reckiall, Oreg.
Olsen, Tobias..........................Brooklyn
Olsen, Lovise T.......................Fredrikstad
Oftedahl, Gulline.....................Mt. Clair, N.Y.
Oseng, Harald.........................Hornnes
Ohme, Olai.............................Colton, S.D.

Prestegaard, Hjrdis...............Oslo
Prestegaard, Toriel..................-+-..
Prestegaard, Paul....................-+-..

Reiersen, Magda.....................Arendal
Rinvik, Roald..........................Oslo
Rosenberg, Frantz...................Lillehammer
Rosenberg, Astrid........................-+-.......
Roland, Ivar............................Bverbru
Reed, Bernhard R...................Breim. Nordfjord
Riis, Dag.................................V. Aker

Sem, Mathias..........................Oslo
Sem, Solveig............................-+-..
Sundseth, Edward...................Bersaw, Alta
Sundseth, Kathrine......................-+-.........
Starkey, Rosalie......................Richmond, Virg
Solbjrg, Gunvor....................lesund
Skjerven, Ida..........................Hafslo, Sogn
Sunde, Solveig........................Arendal
Schnelle, Fanny.......................Bergen
Solem, Emil H.........................Seattle
Saether, Adolf M...................Tnsberg
Schaffersen, Aagot..................Holmenaollen

Toverud, Kirsten Utheim.........Oslo
Terjesen, Dorthea....................Fjre
Tnnessen, Birgitte..................Spangereid

Vik-Larsen, Margit..................Stavanger
von Krogh, Dorthea.................Oslo

Wold, Margit Waage...............lesund
Wilberg, Berthe M...................Gjvik

Aas, Elisabeth..........................V. Aker
Aaker, Margit..........................Oslo

KABIN KLASSE

Andersen, Axel........................Los Angeles
Andersen, Jenny.............................-+-.......
Anderson, Walborg.................Devils Lake, N.D.
Andersen, Thorvald.................Staten Island
Amboe, Esther........................Oslo
Andersen, Karl Fridijof...........Canada
Andersen, Erika.........................-+-...
Andersen, Gumborg M............. Moland
Araldsen, Gunhild....................Sinsen, Oslo
Araldsen, Arald..............................-+-.....
Araldsen, Gerd...............................-+-....
Andersen, Kristian...................Seattle
Andersen, Anthon....................Bergen
Andersen, Martha......................-+-...
Andersen, Sigrunn......................-+-...

Berntsen, Sigrid.......................Reine, Lfoten
Bergstad, Silas Elliot................Oslo
Bergstad, Solveig R..................-+-..
Birkeland, Lars........................Haugesund
Birkeland, Anna............................-+-.......
Bergh, Sissi.............................Kristiansand S.
Bigseth, Thora.........................Slagen, Snsberg
Botirius, Albinos......................London
Bentsen,Kirsten......................Lethbridge, Can.
Berntsen,Sonja Unn.......................-+-............. B
renengen,Knut......................Lillhammer
Brenengen,Johanne.....................-+-......
Brenengen,Halvor.......................-+-.....
Berg,Karoline........................Narverd, Tnsberg
Burnett,Paul L.......................Schreveport, La.
Burnett,Lorraine................................-+-.........
Burnett, Cheryl Lynn..........................-+-.........
Bondo, Svend.........................Odense, D.

Collin, Thomas........................Rockaway Beach, N.Y.
Cornell, Harold.......................Glendale, Cal.
Christensen, Anna...................Milwaukee
Carlsen,Agnes........................Cleveland
Carlson,Svea..........................Gteborg
Castleton,Edna.......................Suffolk, Engl.

Dokster, Olava.....................Bergen
Drange, Margit H...................Egersund
Dahl, Lailla..............................Van Nuys, Cal.
Dahl, Katharin................................-+-...........
Dahl, Kenneth................................-+-...........
Dahl,Clifford.................................-+-...........
Dale-Olsen, Ole......................Oregon, Wis.

Evenson, John..........................Fosston, Minn.
Eurn, Pearle...........................Nashville, Tenn.
Eurn,Rolf....................................-+-............
Egeland, Louis..........................Kvinesdal
Espedal,Andreas.....................Oslo
Espedal,Bjrg..........................-+-..

Faraas, Agnes..........................Seattle
Froland, John J........................Red Lodge, Mont.
Fagerli, Laura...........................Samnanger
Frantzen,Ingrid........................Lilleaker

Gundersen, Karin......................Brooklyn
Grimsland, Signe.....................Sndeled
Grimsland, Alsulf.........................-+-.....
Grimsland, Gerd..........................-+-.....
Gravem, Ellen.........................Gjora pr. Opdal
Glennie, Florence E................London

Hansen, Anna Marie................Lansing Mich.
Hansen, Kamma P.................Washington, D.C.
Halland, Edith..........................Nestun
Halland, Wencke........................-+-...
Hausvik, Martin.......................Turton, S.D.
Hanson, Gunhild......................Santa Rosa, Cal.
Hjelde, Berit............................Drammen
Hulaas, Mellicent.....................Detroit
Haug, John..............................Hempstead, N.J.
Haug,Margit..................................-+-............
Haug,Benice..................................-+-............
Hannanger, Gudrun..................Seattle
Hannanger,Carol.......................-+-...
Hannanger,Ronald.....................-+-...
Holmsten,Hansine..................Miami, Fla.
Hansen,Borgny......................Stavanger
Hansen, Jessie Marion.............Lillesand
Hinna,Dagmar........................Hetland
Hinna,Kre...............................-+-...
Hinna,Ellinor.............................-+-...
Hytten, Gunvor H...................Oslo
Hansen,Henny.........................-+-..
Haugen, Edward Johnson........Butte, N.D.
Haugen,Emma.............................-+-........
Harloff, Helga L.....................Maridal
Hellyvik,Tilly...........................New York
Hansen, AslaugMarie..............Kristiansand S.
Hjorten,Anna..........................Seattle
Helgeson, Ole M....................Ames, Ia.
Helgesen,Andreas...................Torvestad

Ingebrigtsen, Samuel................Seattle

Johansen, Solveig B..............Oslo
Johansen, Olivia.....................Stavanger
Jensen, Elsie...........................New York
Jackson, Petra........................Brooklyn
Johnsen, Marie........................Long Meadow, Mass.
Johannessen, Knudine.............Brooklyn
Jensen, Esther Sofie................Miami, Fla.
Jensen,Eileen...............................-+-......
Jensen,William.............................-+-......
Jacobseo,Margit....................Kristiansand S.
Jensen,Olaf............................Miami, Fla.
Johnson,Signe........................Flint, Mich.
Johnson,Swan........................Chicago
Johnson,Elisabeth......................-+-.....
Jensen, JensChr......................Eldersley, Sask.
Johansen,Svanhild...................Bergen
Johansen,Sigrunn.......................-+-....
Jensen,Solveig........................Herad
Jensen, Helge Erling...................-+-....

Kalleklev, Oliva.......................Bergen
Knudsen, Margit......................Cromwell, Conn.
Kindem, Anna..........................Minneapolis
Kielland, Kitty Lange................New York
Knutsen, Peder J.....................Rolette, N.D.
Knutsen, Marlene..........................-+-..........
Knutsen, Peare..............................-+-..........
Knutsen, Lena Jonette..............Arendal
Kirk,Esben..............................Holslebro, D.
Kornbrekke,Arne....................Brooklyn
Kornbrekke,Gudrun....................-+-.....
Kornbrekke,Linda.......................-+-.....
Karlsen,Bnatrice....................Norwalk, Conn.

Long, Desmond.......................Long Island, N.Y.
Larsen, Edward.......................Drammen
Lindlv, Olga...........................Gteborg
Langvad, Anna T....................Odense, D.
Lindstrm, J. Emanuel..............Stockholm
Lindstrm, Mariet.........................-+-........
Lindstrm, Monica........................-+-........
Leikvold, Andrew...................Van Nuys, Cal.
Leikvold, Stella...............................-+-.........
Leikvold, Norma............................-+-.........
Leikvold, Jerrey..............................-+-........
Lervik, Emmy Torhild..............Austad
Liland,Jenny...........................Arendal
Larsen,Gertrude......................Benlon, Mont.
Lende,Olav.............................Fosston, Minn.
Larsen,Christian......................Seattle
Lynn, Inger O..........................Chicago
Lindholt, Unne.........................Oslo

Mostrm, Georg.....................Hisy
Morris, Thomas C..................Norfolk, Eng.
Mrk, Chrisline........................Suring, Wis.
Mland, Adolf.........................Bergen
Mland, Hilda............................-+-...
Magnesen, Ingeborg....................-+-...
Magnesen, Evind.........................-+-...
Myhre, Hans...........................Aberdeen, Wash.
Myklebust, Olav G.................V. Aker
Myklebust, Gudrun.....................-+-...

Neovius, Gsta.......................Stockholm
Neovius, Anne-Mari....................-+-.......
Nilsen, Elsa.............................Hamar
Nielsen, Olga...........................Brooklyn
Nyhus, Karen..........................San Pedro, Cal.
Nyhus, Torbjrn............................-+-.............
Nyhus, Shirley...............................-+-............
Nielsen, Christine.....................Nrager, D.
Nilsen,Marie...........................Spangereid

Olsen, Mathildus L..................Seattle
Olsen, Bessie.............................-+-...
Olsen, Gudmund......................Wankegan, Ill.
Oydna, Anna............................Konsmo
Opdahl, Fred............................V. Aker
Oulie, Valborg..........................Oslo

Ruud, Adolf.............................Flushing, N.Y.
Roemelt, Aslaug.......................Santa Barbara, Cal.
Roemelt.Sven................................-+-................
Roemelt,Evelyn.............................-+-...............
Rdslen, Elsie Sofie..................Nesodden
Rise,Ingeborg..........................Trondheim
Roeing,Nils..............................Vrena, Sv.
Rathbone,Florence...................London

Srlie, Inga..............................Oslo
Schellhorn, Erling.....................Bekkelaget
Sjlie, Norma Irene.................Oslo
Srensen Ingeborg M.............Glostrup, D.
Svenningsen, Klara..................Brooklyn
Svenningsen, Erling......................-+-.....
Stmli, Jrgen..........................Drammen
Segelson, Nora........................Oslo
Strm, Alf................................Seattle
Strm, Aslaug............................-+-...
Strm, Oddny............................-+-...
Strm, Aasa...............................-+-...
Skistad, Ragnhild......................Malm
Sjholm, Inga Marie.................Seattle

Thorstensen, Inga.....................Brooklyn
Thomsen, Aage........................Kbenhavn
Thomsen, Fanni...........................-+-........
Thomsen, Hanne..........................-+-.......
Tramp, Julie..........................Vancouver
Thompson, Lina....................Portland, Oreg.
Thoring, Adolf......................Ardmore, Pa.
Thoring, Marie..........................-+-..........
Thoring, Kari............................-+-.........
Thoring, Ragnhild.......................-+-.........
Thorvaldsen, Inger K.............Oslo

van Egmond, Julia M..............Hollywood
Vetnes, Bertha........................Holum, Mandal

Woronovsky, Elsa..................Oslo
Woronovsky, Sonja.................-+-..
Wendt, Ruth..........................Ystad, Sv.
Waardal, Peter.......................Bergen
Westergaard, Marion..............Eau Clair, Wis.
Wendell, Harry L...................Kbenhavn
Wendell, Inger C.......................-+-.........
Wessman, Victoria..................Stockholm
Ween, Anders.........................Ski
Ween, Margit..........................-+-.
Ween, Ingrid...........................-+-.
Wilds, Mabel F.....................London
Wolstad, Angelikke...............lesund

Aasheim, Else........................Sknevik

source :Submitted by * Bonnie (Hansen) Otto * In memory of her mother. Solveig Marie (Sunde) Hoglund 16.6.1928 - 30.8.1999

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

DAVID RASMUSSEN - Ireland - 1777

David RASMUSSEN (AFN: CC4S-RS) Pedigree
Sex: M Family

Event(s)
Birth: Abt. 1777
<So Jernlose, Holbaek, Denmark>
Parents
Marriage(s)
Spouse: Maren OLSEN (AFN: CC4S-S0)

Till we meet again - Regards - edmondsallan

2 comment(s), latest 3 years, 1 month ago

SAINT PATRICK - of Ireland

Saint Patrick of Ireland

Much of Patrick's life is shrouded in mystery and historians differ on the probable chronology of the saint's life. Fortunately, he has left behind two documents, his Confession and his Letter to Coroticus, Saint Patrickwhich describe some of his experiences. He was not the first Christian missionary to reach Ireland, but the principal credit for converting the pagan island and establishing the Celtic church belongs to him.

He was the son of a Roman official, Calpurnius, living probably in Wales. As a boy of sixteen, Patrick was captured by raiders and sold to an Irish chieftain, Milchu. He spent years in slavery, herding sheep on Slemish Mountain in Co. Antrim. He escaped following a dream in which a voice told him a ship would be waiting to take him to his own country. After a journey of 200 miles he found the ship, and was eventually able to return to his family.

One night, in a dream, he heard voices calling him back to Ireland. It is thought that he studied under Saint Germanus at Auxerre, France, and that his mission to Ireland was approved due to the early death of Saint Palladius, who had been sent as a bishop to the Irish "believing in Christ" in 431. Consequently, 432 is the traditional date for Patrick's voyage to Ireland, which ended on the shores of Strangford Lough. He quickly made a convert of a local chief named Dichu, who gave him a barn at Saul, Co. Down, for his first church.

Before long Patrick made his way to the Hill of Tara, Co. Meath, seat of the high king of Ireland. Arriving on the eve of Easter, he lit a paschal fire on the nearby Hill of Slane. At this time of year, it was pagan practice to put out all fires before a new one was lit at Tara. When the druids at Tara saw the light from Slane, they warned King Laoghaire that he must extinguish it or it would burn forever. Patrick was summoned to Tara, and on the way he and his followers chanted the hymn known as "The Lorica" or "Saint Patrick's Breastplate".
source:From the Appletree Press title: A Little Book of Celtic Saints.

Till we meet again - Regards -edmondsallan