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THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 7, SORRENTO AND PORTSEA.

SORRENTO.
MR COPPIN AND SORRENTO.
TO THE EDITOR.
Sir.-In your issue of the 18th May Mr Coppin is called the discoverer of Sorrento. This is a mistake. When
the Hon. James Grant was Minister of Lands and Survey, Mr Charles Gavan Duffy and` Mr Blair, lime merchant,
each applied fpr the site of Sorrento, no doubt on account of the limestone in the ground, but by some oversight, it could not be discovered who had made the first application, and a long dispute arose, appearing in the press at the time. But as both applicants had much land I wrote to Mr Grant, and suggested the site should be cut up into small lots and put up at 4 an acre, so as to give other people a chance to get land.
This was done, and a Government township surveyed, and a jetty built. Mr Kerferd and Mr Anderson, Commissioner of Trade and Customs were the first to build houses, and then I believe followed the Sorrento hotel. Who built next I do not know, but old Sorrento residents may be able to supply the information. Some considerable
time afterwards Mr George Coppin got a company to promote journeys to the Back Beach, but at that time the
cost of steamboat fares was 1, and I wrote to Mr Coppin suggesting that his company should run a steamer at
reduced fares, after trying to get the fares reduced without result. Mr Coppin's company, after a time, bought and ran the Golden Crown, and reduced the fares to 3s 6d. This made the place go ahead quickly, and great credit is due to Mr Coppin and his Coy. Mr Duffy suggested the name Sorrento as he had been travelling in Italy, and named it after a town there. Long before Sorrento was founded I tried to start a town for summer resort threemiles east of Sorrento, but no lots were sold at that time. After Sorrento started I sold many lots. Canterbury never became a township, being eclipsed by Sorrento. Some place Mr Duffy, and some Mr Coppin as the founder of Sorrento, but no one has placed Mr Grant or myself in that position.
(Crispo should have stuck to his own experience because he concluded by giving the wrong origin of Dromana's name, supplied by an Italian. Drom is a Celtic word for hill and Dromana is of Irish origin.)
S. S. CRISPO.
Rye. (P.3, Mornington Standard, 1-6-1899.)

Duffy and Blair had been fighting court battles over land before Crispo suggested the village of Sorrento be created.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 15 January 1869 p 6 Article
... dummies, preferred against Mr. C. G. Duffy And Mr.W.A.Blair., Yesterday the decision of the ... Blair against the Hon. Mr. Duffy, and tho other a counter-charge brought by Mr. Duffy Against Mr. Blair. The charge in each case is one that is commonly called dummy ism. It has been referred to ... 3570 words

Government Advertisements.
Crown Lands Office, Melbourne,
December 21, 1869
A SALE of CROWN LANDS by public auction will be held at 2 o'clock on Friday, 11th January,1S70, at the auction rooms of Mostr. Gemmell,Tuckott, and Co, Colllns-ntreet west, Melbourne,
The following lots will bo offered :
VILLAGE LOTS.
Sorrento, oounty of Mornington, parish of Nepean, on Port fhillip Bay, at Point Sorrento. Upset price,
1 per acre. Allotments to 6, Sec. 1 ; 1 to 8, Sec.
2. Dr. 8p. to la. ICp.
SUBURBAN LOTS.
County of Mornington, parish of Ncpoan, adjoining the last-named lot, on Port Phillip lUy. Upset price,
3 per acre. Allotments 1 to 12, 9.1 to 16A, 13 to 30, la 8r. 17p. to 0a. 2r. IE 4-10p.
, Piano and Information can be obtained at tho Crown Land Office, Molbourno.
(P.7, Argus, 10-1-1870.)



PORTSEA.
Extract from: It's a Small World - Vicnet
home.vicnet.net.au/~pioneers/pppg5w.htm‎
IT'S A SMALL WORLD
Since I began entering the details of our pioneering ancestors into the records from 1977 onwards, there have been many amazing co-incidences and stories that have emerged, but none more so than the tale which can now be told.

Two men - James Sandle Ford, baptised on 12th of May, 1811, at Havant, Hampshire, England, and Samuel Morey, baptised on 2nd of May, 1811, also of Havant, Hampshire, were among a large group of men who were convicted at the Winchester Assizes on 30th of December, 1830, on a charge of machine breaking. Both men were sentenced to seven years transportation per the ship "Eliza II" (3rd voyage), which arrived at Hobart, Van Diemen's Land on the 26th May, 1831.

It is known that James Sandle Ford received a Free Pardon on the 3rd February, 1836 and that he left Launceston, VDL for Melbourne, Port Phillip, on 9th December, 1836, per the vessel "Enterprise".

Meanwhile, Samuel Morey was married at Hobart, VDL on 2nd May, 1836 to Catherine Travers. It is not yet known how or when they crossed to Melbourne.

James Sandle Ford was married on 8th February, 1841 at St. Francis' Roman Catholic Church, Melbourne, to Hannah Sullivan and Samuel Morey and his wife, Catherine, were the witnesses.

James Sandle Ford died on 18th July, 1890 at Portsea, Victoria; his wife Hannah having died there on 15th December, 1878.

Dennis and Honora Sullivan arrived at The Heads in about 1843(from memory) and their daughter, Hannah, married James Sandle Ford. They had probably met in Melbourne where some Sullivans had astounded everyone with their giant cucumber and an Honora Sullivan had committed an offence against the Masters and Servants Act,leaving the employer with whom she had undertaken a contract to serve another who had offered her more money. (BEARBRASS and EARLY MELBOURNE.) It is extremely likely that cucumber-growers were the elderly Dennis Sullivan and his children. If so their horticultural skills were extremely handy for James Sandle Ford who supplied vegetables and other produce to the Quarantine Station, which displaced the Sullivan family. Patrick Sullivan moved the family to the Rye area, married William Grace's daughter and later built the Gracefield Hotel on the site of the present Rye Hotel. When Patrick died,the management of the lime kiln (on The Dunes golf course site) was left in the hands of Antonio "Albas*" while his son James concentrated on firewood for bakers' ovens in Melbourne and the Gracefield Hotel. Later Mrs Weir (a Sullivan girl) ran the hotel for many years.
*It was stated in Lime Land Leisure that the kiln manager might have actually been Tony Salvas; such misinformation was the reason I wrote my first FAMILY TREE CIRCLES journal, about Antonio Albress!



Extract from:
The Farnsworth Track - Visit Mornington Peninsula
www.visitmorningtonpeninsula.org/.../Park-note-Mornington-Peninsula-
European settlement
The first European explorers described the Nepean Peninsula as park-like, with Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticilla) and Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata) interspersed with grassy clearings. When Lieutenant John Murray aboard the Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip Bay in 1802 he described the topography of the southern shore as . . . bold and high land with stout trees of various kinds ... The trees are at a good distance apart and no brush intercepts you. This timber was rapidly cleared when European settlers came; larger grazing areas were required, fence posts and firewood were needed, and the Sheoak was used to burn limestone to make lime for
the Melbourne building industry.

Arriving in 1840, James Sandle Ford was the districts first successful settler. Convicted of machine breaking in the agricultural unrest in southern England in 1830, he had been transported to Van Diemens Land, then pardoned before finding his way to the Peninsula.
He named the area Portsea after his home town in England and his energy and enterprise were soon evident, as he shipped lime to Melbourne and supplied produce to the nearby Quarantine Station established in 1852.
The Farnsworth family
The local Farnsworth family originated from John Farnsworth, who built some notable Sorrento and Portsea houses; the Sorrento Hotel and the Nepean Hotel, Portsea. John married James Fords daughter, Anne. Their son John Nepean Farnsworth farmed the area between Campbells Road and Portsea Golf Course (north of the walking track) and operated a horse-drawn transport business. Twentieth-century developments were introduced by John Nepeans two sons John James and Harry, who developed an extensive transport business.
John James Farnsworth (1902 -1984) had a long and active association with the district. After the Second
World War he established a red bus service linking Sorrento and Portsea via Mt Levy. He is mainly remembered for the Sorrento- Portsea-Queenscliff ferry service that he initiated in 1953 with the Judith Ann; he worked actively on the ferries until 1979. His desire to encourage more people to share the beauty of the ocean beach led to a long involvement with the former Ocean Park Committee.

MORE PORTSEA MEMORIES...
THE VILLAGE OF THE FORTIES
By B.H. McKERNAN
My grandfather, James Sandle Ford, with his wife and several young children settled at Portsea in the forties and named it after Portsea, a suburb of Portsmouth. At that time is was open well grassed country without tea-tree. After getting a home together my grandfather began to rear cattle and horses. The cattle he sold as meat to the shiploads of early settlers who landed in the adjacent quarantine station where they had to stay till granted a clean bill of health before proceeding up the bay to Sandridge. After weary months on board ship they
must have enjoyed fresh meat and eggs and butter from the dairy of my grandfather. The horses were driven in large mobs to Melbourne to be sold.

My father Alfred Ford was born in Portsea in 1850 and he lived most of his life there till his death in 1928. He often told us of his first visit to Melbourne at the age of 11 years, when he rode on horseback with some of his father's stockmen who were taking a mob of horses to be sold. When they reached the city they had great trouble in getting the horses safely across the ford at the Yarra where Princes Bridge now stands. My father spent some of his time fishing at this ford.

From the cottage in which he lived my grandfather built the present Nepean Hotel which has been added to and increased. It remained in his family for many years being kept by himself, a son and a son in-law for some years. It changed hands about 30 years ago. It again came into the family being bought by a son-in law John Cain whose daughters still own and conduct it. John Farnsworth who afterward married a daughter of James Ford and died there last year and whose son became a coach proprietor was the contractor and builder who erected the Nepean Hotel and houses owned at present by Mrs O'Hara (previously owned by Mr Ross Cox) and Mr Le Souef (originally built for Dr Robertson of St Kilda father of Dr W.Robertson of the Department of Agriculture) My grandfather reserved the beautiful block of land in front of the Nepean Hotel for a park and also built at his
own expense the first portion of the Portsea pier which extended to where the steps now are but was then deep enough to permit vessels such as the Golden Crown to load and unload their cargoes. He also built sea baths several piles of which are still standing and bathing boxes.

My father received his first education in a building which stood where some of the bungalows at Marshalls Hotel
now stand. The late Walter Knight, father of Charles Jack and Archie was also a scholar there. My father was
sent to school at Dromana later to finish his education. Later a school conducted by the late Mr and Mrs Hiskins was erected between Portsea and Sorrento where children of both places were taught. About 40 years ago a school was erected in the grounds of the quarantine station but it was not very satisfactory. When the quarantine station was closed during an epidemic the teacher stayed in quarantine and taught the children of the station hands. The few children who went from Portsea had to sit on a form outside the fence and receive their instruction,as well as the cane,from the mistress on the other side. The present State school built at Portsea about 17 years ago is really its first school.

The Lime Kilns...
Until all the limestone was taken from the ground lime burning was for many years the main industry. At one time my father had about 20 Chinese quarrying for him. The stone was burnt in kilns and sent to town in lime craft. As a child I remember going for our daily mail to the Nepean Hotel whither it was brought by coach from Dromana. It had been brought by another coach from Mornington where it had arrived by train. As there was not a post office the post mistress had a room at the Nepean Hotel. There was then not even the small wooden store which was afterward built by Mr Roberts and later bought by Mr W H Goss who enlarged it and had the post office transferred to where it now is.

My father told us that 60 years or more ago Portsea was the holiday rendezvous of men of letters learning and law from the city. Some of their descendants even to the fourth generation are still regular visitors. Before the death of the late Dr Fitchett there were four generations of his family there on holidays together.

More than 40 years ago Portsea became a garrison town. Barracks and fort were built and guns now long obsolete and dismantled were its pride and joy. For many years a company of permanent soldiers consisting of about 80 men and officers was stationed there. They were called the Victorian Permanent Artillery. Many had served in British regiments and it was a great delight to us children to see them march to the pier headed by the band which was sometimes stationed at Portsea. They wore navy uniforms well tailored with white helmets and white gloves. Once a month they boarded the little Mars or Vulcan to attend a full dress parade at Queenscliff. For many years now the barracks and fort have been deserted and left in charge of one gunner.

The Dispatch
In the early days people came for a change and a rest, and wore their oldest clothes. When mixed bathing began,
about 35 years ago, and the women wore bathing gowns from neck to ankle, how horrified the inhabitants were to see them bathing by the pier with their menfolk clad only in bathing trunks! In spite of all the crowds which have bathed at Portsea, there has never been a drowning accident, which speaks well for the safety of the beaches. When one sees service cars arriving and departing frequently throughout the day one thinks how means
of transport have improved during the last 30 years. During the winter months, from May till November, one relied on the S.S.Dispatch, which called once a week, to get either to or from the city. This little steamer, calling at Queenscliff and Portsea on the way, was advertised to leave Melbourne for the Gippsland Lakes
every Saturday at 2 p.m, but on the amount of cargo to be loaded often depended the time of sailing. Given a favourable wind and tide, and not too much cargo to unload at Queenscliff,
the Dispatch arrived at Portsea at any time between 7 p.m. and midnight. This weekly arrival was the social event of the week. The village turned out and often waited for hours in the cold and wind on the pier or in the shed. On her return from Lakes Entrance the Dispatch was due to call at Portsea to pick up passengers and cargo at 9 a.m. on Thursday, which she did if weather permitted. Sometimes passengers waited for a couple of days on
the pier, and the Dispatch would pass through on Saturday morning without calling and go to town to set off on her weekly trip outward bound. The intending passengers then had to wait till the following Thursday for their trip to the city.

How eagerly the residents waited for the Hygeia or Ozone to commence the season on Derby Day! They ran for six
months until the end of April. Everybody turned out on Derby Day to meet the boat at Sorrento and to welcome
friends and relations whom they had not seen for six months. Visitors during the winter months were few and rare, though several families which had seaside cottages came for the midwinter holidays.
(P.9,Argus,24-2-1934.)

SORRENTO, Thursday.
Mr. William B. Ford, late of the Nepean Hotel, Portsea, and a member of the Flinders Shire Council, committed suicide yesterday by cutting his throat. He was missed from his room by his wife, and upon a search being
made he was found with his face downwards on the floor, quite dead. The police immediately took possession of the place, and a magisterial inquiry will be held tomorrow. Troubles of a pecuniary nature are thought
to have been the cause of the fatal act.
(P.3, Argus,22-8-1884.)

The journalist beat the shire by thirty years in dropping Kangerong from its name!
William had lived on Wannaeue Station, bounded by Eastbourne, Jetty/Old Cape Schanck, Hiscock and Boneo Rd and had a hero, named William Salmon, as his cook.

SHIRE of FLINDERS and KANGERONG.-Notice is hereby given, that an ELECTION to fill an ordinary vacancy in the council for the West Riding of the above shire will be held on Thursday, the 9th day of August next.And I hereby appoint Tuesday, tho 31st inst, as the day before which, and my residence, Wannaeue, as the place at which, nominations of candidates, shall be delivered. WILLIAM FORD, Returning Officer.
(P.8,Argus, 25-7-1877.)

The following account of the history of Portsea and Sorrento by Sidney H.Wilson is excellent although the newspaper ink must have been running short, resulting in about 1% of the digitised text resembling English.
ORTSEA and SORRENTO MEMORIES OF SIXTY YEARS AGO
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 12 March 1932 p 8 Article Illustrated.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 21 February 1877 Supplement: The Argus Summary for Europe p 1 Article
... age in March. He is employed as cook on the station of Mr. Ford, at Wannaeue, between Rye and ..



Apart from lime burners and James Ford, many early settlers in the Portsea/Sorrento area were fishermen. See my journal about the Watsons and Stirlings of Portsea and Sorrento. Don't forget to visit the Nepean Museum and John Watt's nearby limestone cottage. Oh,and one more thing, while there,the tramway station above the Sorrento pier.



If I interpret the following correctly, James Murray married James Sandle Ford's sister and James Ford's father had died the day after Murray, both being buried in the same grave,presumably on the Vic.market site.

CORONER'S INQUEST.-Yesterday a Coroner's Inquest was convened at Mr. Howard's Union Inn, Elizabeth-street, upon view of the body of Mr. James Murray, landlord of the Melbourne Tavern, Elizabeth-street, who died at the
station of his brother-in-law, Mr. Ford, at Point Nepean, on the evening of Wednesday last. From the evidence it appeared that the deceased had latterly been drinking to such an excess as to bring on an attack of delirium tremens. The jury returned as their verdict, " That the said James Murray died by the visitation of God whilst in a state of delirium tremens the effect of previous intemperance." It is a somewhat extraordinary coincidence that the father-in-law of the deceased expired four and twenty-hours after his son-in-law; he was an old man named Ford, and had been bed ridden for some time. They were yesterday both consigned to one tomb.
(P.2, Melbourne Argus,16-2-1847.)

2 comment(s), latest 10 months ago

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 6, WEST OF RYE 1840-1850, SORRENTO'S FIRST BABY,TYRONE AND BLAIRGOWRIE.

CHAPTER 6.
I have read much about the area west of Rye but as the Nepean Historical Society has published so many books, I never felt a need to write about the area and thus made no notes. Elizabeth McMeekin's THOSE COURAGEOUS HARDY WOMEN and Jennifer Nixon's FAMILY, CONNECTIONS, SORRENTO AND PORTSEA both give a comprehensive history of the Nepean Peninsula and its pioneers, with the Skelton family as a starting point.

Naturally, as I examined other areas and pioneers on trove, I found out things about this area that nobody had mentioned previously, so I will confine myself to this new information. Both of the above authors discussed Clark's Cottage, which was unfortunately demolished after the Clark family's Mornington Hotel had become the Koonya. Jennifer stated that the cottage was built in about 1850 by a Mr Wells, despite contrary claims.

This extract comes from THE WELLS STORY which is available online.

Henry Cadby Wells born in September 1820, in the Parish of Potterne, Devizes, Wiltshire, England, to Richard Wells, (who was well-known as Dick Wells in the coaching world as he drove the four-horse coach across Salisbury Plain when highwaymen were not uncommon); and his wife Martha, nee Cadby.
Henry Cadby Wells was a boot-maker, he married Hanna Hill on the 9-9-1839. In December 1839 the young couple boarded the ship 'ADROMACHE' in Plymouth and sailed to Australia. When the ship was just off the Isle of St. Paul, during a raging storm, a daughter was born. The little girl was named Mary, but at the suggestion of captain she was nick-named Polly. Sadly Polly did not live very long and was buried at sea. The ship arrived in Melbourne on the 28-6-1840 after being becalmed off Port Phillip Bay for several days, (source; Bert Polglase's book)
All ships at that time had to anchor in Hobson's Bay off shore from Williamstown; the emigrants were taken by boat along the lower Yarra towards Melbourne. Both banks of the river were then still densely covered with tea-tree and Wattle. At the township immigrants scrambled through mud, or as is recorded, 'grandfather had to carry his wife ashore through water waist-deep' to a landing bank on the north side, where warehouses, inns and stores were replacing earlier hovels along the west end of Flinders street. Slightly uphill from this flood prone area, Collins Street West had already developed into the main retail location, especially between Queen and King Streets. 'There were good shops with drugs, groceries, haberdashery, ironmongery; indeed each shop seemed to be quite an emporium', (wrote J.B.Were)
Henry and Hannah are believed to have made their way down to Frankston where they stayed for a short time This would require first crossing the river on a punt or a ferry as no bridge existed until the mid 1840s. They would then have travelled through virgin bush, either on horse back or perhaps with a horse and jinker or cart of some sort. They may have had some bullock tracks to follow, but we can be sure the track was slow and difficult. It probably took some days for the young couple, camping overnight along the way. One may wonder how many other travellers they might have met along the way, or did they only see Kangaroos, Wallabies, Dingoes and other wild life, as well as bird life and the Aborigines. No doubt there was also a large population of snakes.
They may have passed some of the 500,000 sheep and 15,000 cattle that were in Victoria by that time, the property of licensed squatters, (Old Melbourne Town; P. 8)
It is believed that after a short stay in Frankston, Henry and Hannah made their way down to Sorrento, they known as Point Nepean. They were blessed with another daughter, Mary Louise Wells, also nick-named 'Polly', born 7-6-1841 at Sorrento and Baptised in the Church of England, Parish of St. James on the 10-10-1841. Polly was the eldest of 13 children, having 12 brothers ! ! Polly is believed to have been the first white baby born to permanent settlers of the Mornington Peninsula.


Most of the following history comes from Robert Cadby Wells, published in the Frankston Standard, in 1951/52. He states his grandfather, Henry Cadby Wells went into partnership with ship mate Robert Rowley in the business of lime burning, "Robert Rowley and Richard Kenyon began the industry in Sorrento. The depresion of 1842/43 put most of these pioneers out of business. Gideon Lang's map of 1842, when he applied for leasehold of much vacant land on the Peninsula, showed none of the original names. By 1845 business had recovered and 17 kilns, each employing several men, hard at work burning lime between Rye and Portsea.
Robert also states his grandfather maintained an interest in the lime burning industry and travelled between Sorrento and Melbourne, staying at Frank Stone's hotel after whom Frankston was named.
In 1846 the family moved to Melbourne where Henry worked at his trade of boot-making, he had learnt the art of tanning and dressing leather; riding boots were in great demand in those days; these were his speciality. He was there for some years, then sold the business and started a similar one in St. Kilda. After a few more years Henry was ready for another change, so he sold out again and had a go at Cray fishing. he bought an up-to-date boat and gear and with ship mate friend Rowley went down to Western Port Bay to catch crayfish. From a money point of view this venture exceeded all expectations. After being there for a few months they decided to go home for a few days, which they did but extended their stay to seven days. they had made the fatal mistake of leaving the boat anchored in the bay. the tide in this bay has a rise and fall of about 8 feet, and consequently when the tide ebbed the boat settled on the anchor, with the result that a hole was broken through the bottom. He sold the boat and gear for a few pounds and retired from the fishing business.

Robert Rowley's father was a soldier stationed in Sydney but some time after his transfer to Van Dieman's Land, he retired and was granted some land. Too fond of drink, he was fishing one day and drowned after falling out of his boat. Robert's mother later married Richard Kenyon and the couple moved to The Heads to burn lime, possibly for John Pascoe Fawkner. Robert did not go with them but visited them in about 1839. How Robert, who must have kept close links with Tasmania, marrying Christine Edwards from Longford, knew Henry Cadby Wells is a mystery but it would seem that he had received a letter from Robert outlining the lime-burning plans; why else would he risk travelling all the way to Sorrento with a pregnant wife? I believe the references to Robert being Henry's "old shipmate" relate to their crayfishing venture.


TYRONE.
Owen Cain was from Tyrone in Ireland, where limestone was a feature of the landscape. His property Tyrone stretched from the Whitecliffs/Cain Rd midline, where it adjoined the township of Rye,to Canterbury Rd. Street names on this area recall Cain in-laws (Murray, Neville, Ford),Owen's son (Michael), the name of a Cain house (Roslyn)as well as the farm and its owners. Centre Rd follows the course of Owen Cain's loading road where lime was taken from the kiln to be loaded into boats on the west side of White Cliff.For many decades Catholic services were held at Tyrone and Rosslyn,priests coming across the bay.

Mr Owen Cain died near Rye, on Thursday last, aged 98. He settled in the district early in 1842.
(Bairnsdale Advertiser and Tambo and Omeo Chronicle (Vic. : 1882 - 1918) Thursday 2 July 1896 p 2 Article.)

Councillor Anderson referred to the death of one of the oldest and most respected residents of the district, Mr.Owen Cain, of Rye, father of the president, Councillor John Cain, J.P. He moved " That as a mark of respect this council adjourn until 2 o'clock to transact the business of importance." then he would move a further adjournment. Councillor Callanan also spoke of the deceased gentleman as a highly respected resident. He seconded the motion, which was carried. (COUNCIL NEWS. Flinders and Kangerong Shire Council.
Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 2 July 1896 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article.)

CAIN-FORD.-On the 9th inst., at St. Finbar's Church, Brighton, by the Rev. Michael Carey, John, son of Owen Cain, of Rye, to Julia, daughter of James Ford, of Portsea.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 10 August 1877 p 1 Family Notices.)

RYE.
On Sunday, 28th June, about one of the largest funerals ever seen in the peninsula took place at Rye, when
about 500 people followed the remains of an old and respected resident named Mr. Owen Cain, sen. to its last
resting place in the quiet and picturesque little cemetery at Rye. Mr. Cain was 98 years of age, and was a native of Ireland. He has been a resident of Rye for the last 55 years. and had always taken a great interest in mattersconnected with the district in the early days. When Mr. Cain first settled at Rye he commenced business in the lime trade and in the early (40's?) supplied most of the lime that built the principal buildings in Melbourne. Doing such a large trade in lime, he employed a large number of hands in and around the place. Mr. Cain and his wife will long he remembered for their hospitality by many a weary traveller who had travelled many miles through the bush under a broiling sun, and always found a welcome rest under their roof. Mr. Cain had enjoyed good health almost up to the time of his death. Just a few hours before his death he had been out walking in the paddock, looking at the men ploughing, and had just returned to the house (the residence of his son, Mr. John Cain. J.P., with whom he had been living for some time) and was sitting in the arm chair when he passed quietly away. About eight months ago* he lost his wife, who had also reached a ripe old
age. The loss he deeply felt, and he never completely recovered from the blow.
(P.3, Mornington Standard,2-7-1896.)

I remember reading that Owen had said that he knew he was getting old when he had trouble mounting his horse (when aged over 90!)
*A very old colonist and resident of this district, Mrs. Sarah Cain, aged 96, died at the residence of her son, Councillor John Cain, J. P., president of the shire of Flinders and Kangerong, on Saturday last. She, with her husband, Owen Cain, who survives her, arrived in the colony in 1841, and settled in this district in February, 1842. Deceased and all her family were very popular, as was testified by the large number of persons in conveyances and on horseback, who attended the funeral in the Rye Cemetery on Monday last.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 31-10-1895.)


Another careless click has wiped out my quote from page 32 of Colin McLear's A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA, which I had just discovered was the source of my story about Rye's little girl lost. It contradicted I SUCCEEDED ONCE, which gave the location of George Smith's Wooloowoolooboolook as fronting Capel Sound, whereas John McLure, the McRae tutor, seems to have given its location as being 7 miles from the McCrae homestead on the road to the Schanck,which would put it in the vicinity of Pattersons Rd, Fingal. Luckily the following article about Georgiana McCrae's journal gives most of the story.

THE EARLY DAYS OF MELBOURNE.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 3 January 1885 p 4 Article
...nbsp; the discovery and safety of Sarah Ann Cain, the child of the lime-burner. She was only four ...

" October 26. (1844)News from Arthur's Seat of the discovery and safety of Sarah Ann Cain, the child of the lime-burner. She was only four years old, and had been lost for four days and five nights in the bush. Some of
the nights were very severe, with heavy rain. She had heard the men cooeying, but did not answer, fearing they were blacks. When found, she was warding the attacks of the crows on her face with her hands, and was all but exhausted. A warm bath and the administration of food in small quantities (a teaspoon at a time,by Mrs Smith*)
brought her completely round ; and she afterwards grew up a fine young woman.

*Mrs Smith was Edward Hobson's widowed mother and no proof of a marriage to George Smith has been found, according to Marie Fels in I SUCCEEDED ONCE. I have added the year and detail from Colin's account in brackets.

Lived in Victoria for Almost 94 Years.
MORNINGTON, Friday-Mrs Sarah Ann Rogers, the last member of the Cain family, pioneers of the Rye district, has
died. She was aged 94 years She was the widow of Mr James Rogers of Balnarring, and she had lived in Victoria for almost all her life, having arrived from New York (USA) in 1840. Her parents were Irish emigrants to the United States. (P.20,Argus,30-6-1934.)

There is extensive Cain genealogy in LIME LAND LEISURE but emigration to the U.S.A. and Sarah Ann's marriage are not mentioned as far as I remember. Phil Cain, a great researcher for the Rye Historical Society, would get a chuckle out of Sarah being the last of the Cain family. The journalist probably meant to say "the last of Owen Cain's children". James Rogers was the grantee of crown allotments 20,19A and 19B in the parish of Balnarring, 296 acres on the south side of Bittern-Dromana Rd,indicated by Melway 162 F-H12,the southern boundary being a line heading east to the corner of Warrawee and Balnarring Rds.

BLAIRGOWRIE.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 3 April 1869 p 2 Advertising
... and Hollins, TUESDAY, APRIL 6. At Two O'Clock. The Marine Village of Manners-Sutton. Sale of Allotments of Two Acres Each. G.WALSTAB has received Instructions from S. S. Crispo. Esq., to SELL by A ... favourite watering-place of the colony, known as MANNERS-SUTTON. It is situate between Point Nepean and ...

The Governor, Sir John Manners-Sutton, had been elevated to Viscount Canterbury while in office and Crispo, who had built a jetty, quickly changed the name of his village,which was across Canterbury Jetty Rd from Owen Cain's Tyrone.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 11 May 1874 p 7 Advertising
... A R Y NOTICE* COUNTY of MORNINGTON STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY It has been suggested hy Mr Crispo that ... tho following places -Frankston, Mornington, Dromana, Rye, Canterbury, Sorrento, Portsea, and ...

The house that gave Blairgowrie its name was built as Villa Maria by a prominent Irish parliamentarian. When it was bought by Dr. John Blair,he renamed it as Blairgowrie. An excellent free pamphlet detailing the history of the house can be obtained at the Nepean Historical Society Museum at Sorrento. The house was described as being in East Sorrento and the first instance I have found of the area being called Blairgowrie was in an advertisement for the sale of the Cain Estate.

BLAIRGOWRIE
BETWEEN RYE AND SORRENTO
And Between Canterbury Jetty and Mac's Corner
The subdivision of this newly opened up section of the Mornington
Peninsula, held by the descendants of the original Crown Grantee, John Cain,
for over three-quarters of a century, presents you with a unique opportunity
lo secure a seaside home site. Here, you and your family can enjoy all the
pleasures and excitement of Sun Bathing, Swimming, Surfing, Ocean, Bay,
and Rock Fishing, Flounder Spearing, and Cray Fishing.
The new roads that have been formed have made possible entrancing walks
of hitherto unrevealed beauty . . . roads which lead lo the surf beach of Bass
Strait or to the placid beach of Port Phillip Bay.
Already, attractive and modern homes have, been built there, and others
arc in course of construction. Situated between Rye and Sorrento (actually
2.5 miles on the Melbourne side of Sorrento), Cain's Estate commands a
glorious view of ocean, bay, and bushland scenery.
The Mornington Peninsula Bus Service, which runs from Frankston Rail-
way Station to Sorrento passes the Estate, and maintains a regular time-table.
Mac's Corner, the well-known landmark, is but 500 yards from St. John's Wood
Road, and provides a Post-office and Store.
This Estate offers the ideal site for a Holiday Home and an investment for
letting purposes.(P.15, Argus,15-12-1951.)

N.B.The above estate was not "Tyrone" which was granted to Owen Cain in 1860. John Cain's estate was probably comprised of crown allotments 32, 33,34,Nepean, 92 acres 2 roods and 15 perches on the north west corner of Canterbury Jetty and Melbourne Rds granted to John Cain in 1875, extending 982 metres to the west and an average of about 400 metres to the north. As St JohnsWood Rd was probably not officially named,it was probably called Mac's Corner. Blairgowrie residents would be surprised to find that the shopping centre was built on the site of Wilson's old abbatoir.


Further investigation into the first use of Blairgowrie to describe the locality is prompted by a memory that the post office was opened (and called Blairgowrie) before 1951. The following is from wikipedia. The first sentence is nonsense. Dr. Blair gave the same name to his other estate in Berwick. It does not state that the post office was called Blairgowrie when it opened;it may have been called the Sorrento East P.O.at first.
Blairgowrie was named after the Burgh of Blairgowrie, the second largest town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. A post office was not opened until 1 November 1947.

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 5, RYE.

We continue our journey to The Heads.

CHAPTER 5.
NO RYE TOWNSHIP IN 1850 BUT WHO WAS IN THE AREA? TYRONE, NO SORRENTO BUT ITS FIRST LIMESTONE COTTAGE.
COURAGEOUS HARDY WOMEN AND JENNIFER NIXON'S BOOK.

Not expecting much,I set out to find mention of limeburners on the peninsula a decade each side of 1850.

NOTICE.-The undersigned has CEASED to be in any way CONNECTED with tho BUSINESS now carried on by George Lancaster, in tho name of GEORGE WHITE, a limeburner, at Point Nepean, and will not be responsible for any debts that may be contracted by him on any account whatever from this date.Dated this 21th day of November, A.D. 1858.
his
GEORGE X WHITE,
mark
Witness, Walter Barter.
(P.8, Argus, 25-11-1858.)

I didn't have much luck finding articles about peninsula limeburners on trove but the above entry prompted me to check my journal about George White's family to see if I had provided detail re the 1859 petition there, which I had. (It can be found at the end of the TOOTGAROOK entry.) I did find an article about Owen Cain being robbed near Tullarook circa 1858.

My commentary concerning the petition lists the limeburners operating near Rye in the 1850's and the WHITE journal from which it came gives the locations of the White Brothers' kilns. As most of the kilns were not on the coast their locations will not be mentioned here but these can be checked in the maps in LIME LAND LEISURE.

RYE
In the 1850's Rye would have been a few huts on or near the foreshore. Their inhabitants probably combined limeburning and fishing to eke out a living. The township was proclaimed in 1861 and several histories claimed that the township was officially known as Tootgarook. I believed this until a search for the township of Tootgarook on trove produced not one result. So I searched for the township of Rye.

TOWN LOTS.
RYE. . .
County of Mornington, Parish of Nepean, situate on the south shore of Port Philip (sic)Bay, eight miles east of the Quarantine ground.
Upset price, 8 per acre.
Lot 1.-2r., 5 6s. the lot. Alex. K. Cowan. Lot 2.-2r., 4 Ids. Gd. the lot. Jno. Campbell. Lot 8 -2r., 6 the lot. J. Campbell. Lot 4.-2r., 5 10s. tho lot. Thos. T. Anderson. Lot 6.-2r., 4.5s. the lot. Joseph Eagin,
Lots 6 to 10.-No offer. Lot 11.-2r., 7 7s. 0d. tho lot. Alice Grace Cook. Lot 12-2r., 5 10s. the lot. A. G. Cook. Lot 13.-2r., 9 6s. the lot. Mary Ann Stenniker. Lot 14-2r" 4 the lot. M. A. Stenniker. Lot 15.-2r., 5 10s. the lot. M. A. Stenniker. Lot 16.-2r., 9 tho lot. William Grace.
SUBURBAN LOTS.
County of Mornington, parish of Kangerong, adjoining the township of Dromana, on Port Phillip Bay.
Upset price, 8 per acre.
Lot 17.-2a 3r. 26p., 3 per acre. John Campbell. (P.7,Argus, 28-4-1864.)

Alex K.Cowan's grant was crown allotment 5 of section 1, with frontages of 20 metres to the Esplanade and Nelson St between points 100 metres east of Napier St and 80 metres west of Lyons St.

John Campbell's adjoining grants were c/a 7 and 6 of section 1, on the western side of Cowan's between points 300 metres east of Napier St and 100 metres west of Lyons St. This would have been the site of the original RYE HOTEL which gave the township its name. John Campbell and William Cottier, both former Dromana residents, built this hotel.Campbell was supposed to have built the first Rye jetty in 1860. He was probably involved in the lime trade. Both Cottier and Campbell signed the petition of 9-1-1861 requesting that Robert Quinlan's school be chosen (rather than Nicholson's) to become the Dromana Common School, so they were obviously still residing at Dromana. (If they weren't, Nicholson would have pointed this out!)

Thomas Y.Anderson's grant, c/a 8 of section 1, was west of Campbell's, between points 40 metres east of Napier St and 140 metres west of Lyons St.
Joseph Eagin purchased c/a 5 of section 2 which had a frontage of one chain (20 metres) to both Nelson and Collingwood Sts and was between points 100 metres east of Napier St and 80 metres west of Lyons St.
Alice Grace Cook's grants were c/a 1 and 2 of section 3, fronting the west side of Napier St with 40 metre frontages to the Esplanade and Nelson St.

M.A.Stenniken was probably Mary Anne Stenniken (nee Sherlock),the wife of Ben Stenniken. The above mis-spelling of the surname was not an isolated incident. It is written properly on the Rye Township map but as Stenniker and Stenigain on the parish of Nepean map! As her grants were consecutive lots, I presume they were c/a 5, 4, 3 of section 3 with frontages to the Esplanade and Nelson St of 60 metres between points 100 metres east of Dundas St and 40 metres east of Napier St.

William Grace (who established the 250 acre "Gracefield" near Dromana in 1857) was granted c/a 6 of section 3 which had frontages of 20 metres to the Esplanade and Nelson St between points 80 metres east of Dundas St and 100 metres west of Napier St. His daughter married Patrick Sullivan who built the Gracefield Hotel on this site. The hotel was demolished about 50 years later by Mrs Hunt who built the PRESENT RYE HOTEL in its place. (See the foundation stone!)

Rye first developed because of lime and one of its old families can trace its time in the area to the late 1830's. It is known that Robert Rowley was lime burning ,with Henry Cadby Wells, by 1841 but his mother, a widow who remarried to Richard Kenyon, had already been there for about two years. James Little Brown,the man who transformed the ti-tee and rabbit infested wasteland south of Rye into beautiful pasture from about 1909, stayed with Robert Rowley for a couple of weeks when he arrived. No doubt Robert shared many stories of the old days with James, but not many would be as interesting and funny as this one.

"NO GOOD DAMPER INN."
TO THE EDITOR OF THE ARGUS.
Sir,In the interesting article, "The Gippsland Mystery," on Saturday, by Ernest McCaughan, it is stated that a
party of five whites and ten blacks were sent out under the leaderhip of De Villiers, an ex-police officer who kept the extraordinary named No Good Damper Inn. Apropos of this, a story was related to me by the late Robert Rowley, then of Rye (a very old colonist who had known Buckley, the wild white man). The story, which may be of interest, is that about the year 1840 lime was being burnt about Sorrento and Rye. A layer of sheoak logs was laid on the ground, then a layer of limestone. Another layer of logs, then again stone, and so on, until there was a considerable stack. Fire was next applied. By this rough and ready, though wasteful, system, lime used in the building of early Melbourne was then burned. The lime was then "slacked", afterwards sieved through a fine sieve, and forwarded to Melbourne by ketch. One of these old windjammers had the misfortune to go aground
near the site of Frankston. The lime was taken off undamaged, stacked, and carefully covered a little way from the shore.

A number of blacks were in the vicinity. They had had some little experience of the white fellow's flour. When they found the lime, sieved and done up in small bags under a tarpaulin, they were sure they had got the genuine article in plenty. So they mustered in force, took away all they possibly could, and, fearing pursuit, did not stop running till they put about 12 miles between them and the stack of lime. The blacks then mixed their flour with water upon their 'possum rugs and put the dough in the ashes to bake, the result being
spoiled rugs and bad damper. In the words of Mr. Rowley, "they called that place Dandenong," which means "no good damper. Yours, &c., J. L. BROWN
Sandringham, Sept. 8. (P.4, Argus, 9-9-1924.)

Though the following report from the Rye Correspondent comes well after 1850, it does relate to that era. The pier was required for the lime trade (which co-existed with fishing) and the void caused by the downturn in demand for lime was filled by the firewood industry.

RYE.
We have to record the death of Mr. John Campbell, a very old resident of this township, at the age of 77 years. He was one of the first contractors for the erection of the Jetty at this place, and afterwards followed various occupations up to the time of his decease. He was buried on the 11th inst., in the Rye general
cemetery-his funeral being well attended. He has been residing with his married daughter, Mrs. Jas. Cain,
for a long period, and he expired at her house.

The wood trade is very brisk, and the demand almost difficult to supply, as the ti-tree is so much required by
bakers and others, that it keeps the local suppliers at full pressure, for there are so many craftsmen* in the
trade, and the trip being short to Melbourne. they are able to make their passages very frequently.

A petition signed by nearly all the fishermen of Sorrento, Rye, Rosebud, and Dromana, to the " Anglers' Protection Society," and which was presented some time ago with regard to the destruction of the fish in the
Bay by different parties using mesh nets, has not yet had the desired effect, viz., the stopping the use of
them; but it is confidently expected that at the next meeting of that body, they will continue to urge upon the
Government the necessity of taking action before the Bay is denuded offish by this wholesale way of destroying them, and eventually depriving a number of industrious men from gaining a livelihood by hooking.
(P.2, Mornington Standard,18-5-1907.)
* Men sailing lime/firewood craft.

Another report in the same year is about one of the above-mentioned "craftsmen*." Ben Stenniken had land grants on both sides of Rye, on the west corner of Truemans Rd and south of Rye Township near the start of Melbourne Rd. He supplied the limestone for Rye's original church/hall/school on the site of the historic Anglican Church. When this was rebuilt as the church, some of Ben's limestone was re-used, supplemented by other limestone supplied by James Trueman, his neighbour at Wannaeue. Ben's lime was also used for the construction of the Dromana Anglican Church.
*Ben probably employed a skipper. I think I've read that John Cain was also a lime craft owner.

Ben's daughter, Maria, married Godfrey Burdett Wilson whose second given name (and his mother's maiden name)is recalled by a street on the Wannaeue grant. Ben's wife was the sister of Sam Sherlock who carried mail on horseback between Rye and Cheltenham in early days. The Stennikens eventually moved to Port Melbourne but Mary Ann (nee Sherlock) owned property at Dromana, which is probably how a Stenniken lad married (Lily?*) Clemenger of Parkmore at Rosebud whom he married. Mary Jane Stenniken received the grant of crown allotment 14, Fingal (Melway 253 J11), which would explain family connections with the Kennedys, (Pattersons?*) and Harry Prince.
* I just had to check. M.Wilson was Maria who married Godfrey Burdett Wilson. The Kennedy, Patterson and Stenniken graves are on the south side of the main path at Rye Cemetery about 30 metres from the gate.
PATTERSON. In loving memory of my dear sister, Rachel, who passed away at Dromana,May 27, 1923.Ever remembered.
Loved In life, treasured in death. A beautiful memory is all we have left.
(Inserted by her loving sister, M. Wilson,Dromana.)
PATTERSON (nee Stenniken).-In loving memory of my dear wife, Rachel, and our dear mother,who passed away at Dromana on the 27th May,1923. (P.1, Argus, 27-5-1925.)

STENNIKEN (nee Lily Clemenger). -On the 5th September, at Nurse Sandford's private hospital, Canterbury road, Albert Park, to Mr.and Mrs. J. Stenniken-a daughter. (P.17, Argus,15-9-1923.)


RYE.
We are happy to state that the favorite ketch " Gertrude" belonging to Mr. B. Stenniken and which sank in
the lagoon at Port Melbourne during the late gales, has been successfully floated, and it is sincerely hoped by the residents here that she will shortly be again carrying her cargoes of wood and lime, etc., to Melbourne as she has been doing for a great number of years.(P.2, Mornington Standard, 14-9-1907.)

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 4, TOOTGAROOK STATION AND THE 1859 PETITION.

We continue our journey to The Heads.

CHAPTER 4.
TOOTGAROOK STATION.
James Purves' contribution to Mornington Peninsula history.
1.He was one of the two most important horse breeders in the colony's early days, his prime interest being business activity in Melbourne and his stud near Kilmore, but the horse business was also a major focus at Tootgarook.
2.Being a successful businessman he was able to purchase in 1850, the lease of the Tootgarook Run from Edward Hobson, incorporate the Wooloowoolooboolook Run (which was probably between Boneo Rd and Truemans Rd as it fronted Capel Sound according to I SUCCEEDED ONCE) and buy the Tootgarook pre-emptive right soon after.
3. He owned the Rosebud when it was stranded in May 1855 and had it insured for 700 pounds. Edward Hobson moved to Gippsland in about 1843,managing and naming his brother Edmund's Run and naming it by the aboriginal term for river of little fish,corrupted to Traralgon. It is possible that Tootgarook was managed by the Purves brothers, mainly Peter, with James paying the occasional visit. Edward Hobson got into financial difficulties and James Purves may have bought the Run and the schooner as a favour to help him out.

Charles Hollinshed, author of LIME LAND LEISURE (history of the shire of Flinders) was an architect and devoted many pages to James Purves and Edward Latrobe Bateman who followed the same profession. I don't recall him mentioning Peter Purves.

If you enter PURVES on trove and choose the decade 1850-1859,you'll find that James Purves did indeed spend much of his time in Melbourne, much of it in the courts.

Come on itellya, how can you say that James Purves spent little time at Tootgarook? A search for PURVES,TOOTGAROOK on trove produced these results.


The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 4 July 1862 p 4 Family Notices
...ohn Corboy, hotelkeeper, of Nenega, Ireland. PURVES -QUINAN-On the 16th ult, at the residence of the brides father, Dromana, by the Rev. James Glover, of Schnapper Point, James Purves, of Tootgarook,

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 11 November 1867 p 4 Family Notices
PURVES.-On the 3rd inst., at Broomielaw, Tootgarook, Mrs. James Purves of a daughter.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 13 June 1878 p 4 Article
... Purves was born in Berwick-on-Twccd, and carno out to Tasmania at tho ugo of 21. He arrived at Hobart ... \oyago occupied over a week, and the sheep were nearly famished on their ar- rival. Mr. Purves took up ... the Chintin station, at Deep Creek, and was also owner of Tootgarook station, near Dromana,

My first answer is that only the obituary concerns the architect and that it refers to Tootgarook only as an after-thought. The marriage and birth concern his nephew, the son of Peter Purves. This James Purves was born to Peter Purves and his wife Barbara(nee Scott)on 29-9-1835 in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England. A month later, Barbara died and heartbroken, Peter left the babe in the care of an aunt, and sailed to Van Diemans Land to join his brother James. Their expertise as architect and mason won them many bridge building contracts. At 18, young James had a burning desire to get to know his father and arrived at Tootgarook in 1852. Father and son had 8 years together before Peter died in 1860.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 31 March 1860 p 4 Family Notices
... daughter of Mr. Charles Cumming, farmer, Bacchus Marsh. DEATHS. On the 16th inst., at Tootgarook, Point Nepean, formerly of Berwick-on-Tweed, Mr. Peter Purves, aged 58 years, deeply regretted

If you were looking for James Purves, the architect and owner of Tootgarook,the following results for James Purves, Tootgarook, give a fair indication where to look.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 16 October 1856 p 8 Advertising
... Tom o'Lincoln. These will stand at Tootgarook, fifty miles from Melbourne, and near Arthur's Seat. _ For further particular seo Circulnrs, or in- quire of JAMES PURVES, 74 Collins-street west,

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 23 June 1863 p 8 Advertising
... tho Breodiug Establishment at Tootgarook, consisting of impoittd thoroughbred mares, colonial do, ... For further particulars apply to J. PURVES, Scott's | Hotel, Collins stroot.

The clincher,if further proof is needed that the architect spent little time at Tootgarook,cannot be found on trove but is available in Peter Wilson's ON THE ROAD TO ROSEBUD and Jennifer Nixon's FAMILY, CONNECTIONS, SORRENTO AND PORTSEA. (P.S.I have pasted a commentary about the petition at the end of the TOOTGAROOK entry.) It involves a dodgy petition opposing a plan to build a fence from White Cliff, circa 1859, to enclose the police paddock. Investigation by a government official found that many who signed the petition did not really oppose the fence, many actually wanting it. They had been persuaded to sign by James Ford and Peter Purves, who between them had something like 600 bullocks obtaining free grazing on the police paddock. It would have taken some time to get all the signatures and they don't seem to have missed anybody except James Purves, Peter's brother, the owner of Tootgarook!

The Tootgarook pre-emptive right started 833 metres west of Truemans Rd (Keith/Morris St midline), extending west to Government Rd, Rye. The southern boundary is indicated by the ends of streets heading south off Brights Drive. The architect had also purchased crown allotments 1, 2, 3 of the parish of Nepean, 174 acres between the pre-emptive right and the township of Rye (originally called Tootgarook.)

The following commentary about the 1859 petition comes from my journal about the WHITES OF SORRENTO AND RYE.
THE 1859 PETITION.
At this time, there was no township of Rye, and according to LIME LAND LEISURE, the Rye Hotel was in Dromana! When the Township was declared in 1861, it was called Tootgarook, probably because it had been part of the Tootgarook run. John Campbell apparently had built a jetty in 1860 and this probably prompted lime burners to erect houses near the pier so they would be close to home when they brought the day's production for shipping. One house, occupied by John Berry, and later by the Sullivans when they moved from the Heads in 1852, is said to have been the first house in the township area. In 1869, almost all of the suburban blocks south of the cemetery and west of Dundas St were bought by limeburners ( more truly lime merchants such as W.A Blair. It has not been definitely established whether Thomas Monahan was connected with the lime industry or just a land speculator.)
James Purves bought his square mile pre-emptive right on 22-10-1855. Ford's land was mainly near Portsea. The Wannbaeue parish map does not indicate when the Fords acquired Wannaeue Station bounded by Eastbourne Rd, Boneo Rd, an eastern extension of Hiscock Rd and Jetty/Old Cape Schank Rd. O'Shannassy reported that Purves and Ford were the only landowners.

Many of the limeburners would have been illiterate. Their names would have been printed (by Peter Purves or James Sandle Ford) and followed by "their mark", usually a cross (X). The names on the petition opposing construction of the fence were: James Ford, Peter Purves, Robert Rainey, James Patterson, George Mitchell, Robert Quinan, George White, Robert White, Richard White, Jeremiah White , James Swan,
Arthur Robinson MATCD (presumably the other Melbourne resident), Alfred Evans, Nathan Page, John Dillon, Edward Russell, Patrick Sullivan, Edward M.Williams, Richard White, George White, Isaac Prout, Owen Cain, Mrs John Devine, Ben Stennigan (Stenniken), Timothy Sullivan, Thomas Clancy, George Baker, Charles Dean, Mrs Edward Skelton, Samuel Clark, Samuel Williams, Richard Kenna (Melbourne resident!)

Snr Constable O'Shannassy was asked to ascertain why the settlers and limeburners had signed the petition. He found that Clark, Williams, Nathan Page, Mrs Skelton and Jeremiah White had not signed and weren't even asked to sign. George White senior and Robert Quinan, both limeburners, had signed, not wanting to offend their old neighbours,even though they actually wanted the fence. Thomas White and 15 other limeburners wanted the fence to prevent Ford and Purves overgrazing the area with their combined 800 head of cattle. They complained that their own bullocks (obviously used for ploughing and hauling lime)were dying from starvation.
Robert, George and Richard White, Ford, Purves, Cain, Stennigan (sic), and Patrick and Timothy Sullivan feared that their cattle would be turned out of the area.


N.B.Much genealogical information regarding Peter Purves and the descendants of his son, James, are available in Hec. Hanson's MEMOIRS OF A LARRIKIN. Send a private message if you would like this information.

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 3, DROMANA TO ROSEBUD.

We continue our journey to The Heads.

CHAPTER 3.
DROMANA.
Having just lost 150 minutes worth of text through careless clicking, I will have to abbreviate this entry. Dromana celebrated its 150th in 2011 but 18-8-2006 would seem to have been a more appropriate date. The township of Dromana was proclaimed in 1861 but many township blocks were sold on 18-8-1856. The buyers on that date included Commander Ross, William Dixon Scurfield and W.McRea*.

The township map can be accessed online:
Township of Dromana, Parish of Kangerong, County of Mornington ...
digital.slv.vic.gov.au/dtl_publish/simpleimages/9/2647775.html‎
Township of Dromana, Parish of Kangerong, County of Mornington [cartographic material] / drawn and reproduced at the Department of Lands and Survey, ...

Note the suburban blocks accessed by way of Tower Hill Rd. Captain Adams (discussed later) owned 36 acres near the summit.

The township of Dromana stretched west from McCulloch St to Burrell Rd. The section of Dromana east of McCulloch St was part of section 1,parish of Kangerong. The coastal blocks in section 1 extended south to the "main road",Palmerton Ave. William Grace, who established Gracefield in 1857, bought most of these coastal blocks, with Samuel Rudduck, Nelson's father, buying Karadoc in 1858.

Commander Ross is the subject of one of my journals. William Dixon Scurfield built Scurfield's Hotel(later the Arthurs Seat Hotel) between Permien and Foote Sts. In 1864 it was described as having 9 rooms. Dromana's other hotel, the Dromana had 12 rooms by 1864. The latter was built by Richard Watkin*** on the western half of crown allotment 5, section 1, Kangerong, the other half being owned by Peter Pidoto.

Dromana's growth was caused by timber-getting on Arthurs Seat. Peter Pidoto** carried timber (piles, beams, sleepers) around the bay on his vessels with the assistance of employees such as Robert Rowley (who will be discussed later.) When Mornington got its pier, Dromana residents (who claimed they had a bigger population)were most irate but were told that without a municipality, they would have to raise the money themselves.Robert Caldwell,(subject of one of my journals) who established "Dromana Hill" in 1859, never gave up and was eventually successful.

* W.McRea was probably Dr Farquhar McCrae who was assessed on these blocks from 1864. He was the grantee of "Moreland" (bisected by Moreland Rd and named after his uncle's plantation in Jamaica) but left this estate in the management of Bulla pioneer, Michael Loeman, buying "LaRose" in Pascoe Vale South and building the original part of the homestead (Wentworth House?) in Le Cateau St. Farquhar was not very fair in his dealings, failing to repay a loan to his brother, Andrew (of the Arthurs Seat Run) and dudding J.F.L.V. (Alphabetical) Foster
over the transfer of a Run near Dandenong (where streets are named after Foster and the Doc.) Foster's demand for "satisfaction" caused the Doc's sudden departure for Sydney.

** Peter Pidoto did not ply only in the bay and was known to sail as far as Warrnambool, taking his chances with the Rip. The Phoenician probably replaced Peter's first vessel. Little Angelina most likely replaced the Phoenician;it was wrecked as the Woolamai after he had sold it. Peter's wife,living in Clifton Hill,was still rated on the 17 acres west of Carrick Drive in 1910 as well as unsold lots in Dromana's Railway Estate. Mrs Frances Pidoto of Queens Pde, Clifton Hill, was assessed in 1919 on the Railway Estate land and c/a 2,3 section 16, c/a 2 section 18 of Dromana Township; Peter had bought several township lots in 1864 and soon afterwards.

04/03/1881 Phoenician (+1881) wreck
PHOENICIAN; Ketch; Length: 16.4 m.; Owned by P. Pidoto, Dromana; Built at Benjamin Fairhall in 1852. Registered at Melbourne. Registration no. Melbourne 32/1865. On 04 March 1881, PHOENICIAN (Peter Pidoto) with a cargo of not known, was lost after capsizing. see wreck
(PHOENICIAN KETCH 1852-1881 - WRECK WRAK EPAVE WRACK PECIO www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?57256)

*** I must confess to supplying Ray Stella of the Dromana Hotel with incorrect information. The place mats that Ray had printed must now be in hundreds of homes as very few are left. What Colin McLear actually stated in A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA was that the Dromana Hotel was built in the 1850's and that Richard Watkin was credited with building the first house in Dromana, as distinct from Kangerong,in 1857. I had taken this,in my early days of research, to mean that the Dromana Hotel was built in 1857. The following article shows that Scurfield's was the first hotel in Dromana and that Richard Watkin was running it.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 21 April 1858 p 6 Article
... George Williams, Fletcher's Hotel, Haw- thorne. Granted. Richard Watkin, Scurfield Hotel, Dromana. ..

As mentioned at the start of this entry, it was Arthurs Seat and its timber that was responsible for Dromana's rapid growth. Unfortunately, only Colin McLear has written much about the timber getters and those who hauled it to vessels. He hints that many of these men were Irish, accounting for the township's name. John Bryan lived in a hut just east of Gracefield near the summit and the track through the town common was called Bryan's Cutting.(See Melbourne Brindle's map.) He was known to have been in the area by 1860 because when Mary Ann McLear moved into Maryfield in that year, Bryan moved into The Willow (on the Survey just west of the drive-in site.) He later moved closer to his work. John Bryan cut piles, slabs,sleepers,beams and firewood.

No saw mills have been mentioned before Alexander Shand's at Main Ridge, decades later, so those early timber- getters used the splitting wedge, pit saw and perhaps the adze to square their timbers, just as Henry Tuck had done for the Arthurs Seat homestead in about 1843. Thomas and Charles Rymer,recalled by a Safety Beach street name,were probably involved in the early timber-getting but mainly worked at building fences, such as at Maryfield for Charles Graves before the McLears bought it and Arthurs Seat Park in the 1870's. Jonah (Doan) Griffith, Charles Brown,Thomas Tyler (perhaps an ancestor of Rye's Vic Tyler)and Jose Reman were other involved in supplying timber, some also supplying wattle bark for tanning leather.

George McLear, Henry William Wilson and Charles Dyson were three bullockies known to be operating by 1864. McLear and his brothers were Dromana's first butchers until they gave it away and were replaced by Wilson, whose son Godfrey hugely expanded the business. Their work was not easy either. Tracks to the coast through the forest would have had to be blazed and you can't drive a dray over stumps.Loading was another problem with no pier available. I quote from page 89 of A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.

PETER PIDOTA. (This is how the surname appeared in rate books from 1864 until 1919, so we can hardly blame Colin! I didn't twig until I failed to find mention of Pidota in trove.)
Peter seems to have had a thriving water transport business operating from the Dromana beach,his craft carrying the varied forest products to Melbourne and other shores of the bay. These craft, of very shallow draught, came almost to the shoreline for loading. Bullock teams waded out to them to effect the transfer of fire-wood,post,rails, shingles, slabs, sleepers, piles and wattle bark. On October 16,1864, George McLear supplied Peter with 94 feet of blackwood,the timber so prized for the manufacture of fine furniture.


While looking for Captain Adams' advertisement re his 36 acres fronting Arthurs Seat Rd near the summit, I discovered another Captain who carried Arthurs Seat firewood from Dromana to Melbourne. It seems that his ship suffered the same fate as Captain Billy Moore's vessel, co-owned by William Henry Blakeley of Red Hill, but with no survivors.

Three weeks or a month ago, a small schooner, the Cousins, Captain Irving, left Dromana with a cargo of firewood for Melbourne, two young lads being on board with him. The trip should have been made in one or two days, but nothing has been seen or heard of schooner, captain, or boys since. Captain Irving was one of the oldest and most experienced captains in the port. He leaves behind him a widow in distressed circumstances and two young children. An appeal has been made to the public in this case, and has met with some response.
(P.1s, Argus, 18-8-1873.)

ARTHURS SEAT RUN.
This run was taken up by Andrew McCrae in 1843 and was taken over by the Burrells who purchased the pre-emptive Right in 1851. The following description of the boundaries was given when McCrae renewed his lease.

On the north by Mr Jamiesons special survey 4 miles, on the west by
the coast line of the bay to the nose of the mountain called St Anthonys
Nose, from thence along the Cape Schanck road to the Drumdunnuallock
creek being the boundary line with Mr Barker, and on the south by
the creek to its source, thence by a line bearing east to a point where
the continuation of the eastern boundary of the said special survey
meets the said line, the large waterhole below the bald hill being in
common with the Mt Martha run; also that piece of land between the
Cape Schanck road and the sea, commencing near the rocks or the Point
known as St Anthonys Nose, and ending at the creek* at the junction of
the Point Nepean and Cape Schanck roads, nearly opposite the end of
the paddock fence. (Pages 311-312, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.)

*Adams Creek which approached the bay shore where The Avenue is today.

If you can make sense of the above, you've left me for dead. Determining the southern and eastern boundaries rely on the "source of the Drum Drum Alloc Creek". I believe that the creek which flows over Kings Falls has been confused with the Drum Drum Alloc. This creek starts in "Sea Winds" and the line east from the "source" may have been approximately Arthurs Seat Rd which met a "continuation of the Eastern boundary of the Survey "(Bulldog Creek Rd.) This continuation today is Junction Rd and the n-s part of Red Hill Rd. The line east from the source and the continuation south of the Survey's eastern boundary later were used as the boundaries between the parishes of Kangerong and Balnarring, the latter separating the central and East Ridings of the Shire.

No wonder there were so many disputes about Run boundaries!

CAPTAIN HENRY EVEREST ADAMS.
The time of the old sea-dog's arrival is shrouded in mystery as is the "Village of Wannaeue" which was mentioned once, in 1877. Adams folklore maintains that he was granted 750 acres FOR CARRYING CONVICTS*, which he clearly wasn't but as he came into ownership of the majority of Crown Allotment 20, Wannaeue, this may have been some sort of pre-emptive right. An Adams family historian maintains that he must have arrived after the Burrells bought the Arthurs Seat pre-emptive right in 1851 but the Run description above does not seem to include 20 Waanaeue. The Captain was supposed to have beached his ship in 1841 or thereabouts and used its timbers to build his house (on the McCrae car wash site.) Today's Wattle Place became known to all as Adams' Corner.
*Ticket of leave men were brought from Van Diemans Land in about 1841 to solve a severe labour shortage.

The strange thing was that the house that Captain Adams built was on crown allotment 20 of the parish of Wannaeue, which must have been reserved in early days as the site for a village. It was between The Avenue and the line of Parkmore Rd. Yet it was not crown allotment 20 land on which he was assessed in the first Kangerong Roads Board assessment of 1864. He was the owner of 191 acres, which was crown allotment 19, between Parkmore Rd and Adams Avenue, the next block west. This was granted to Issac White who was involved in an indenture with Captain Adams regarding a property at Port Melbourne. (Document in the possession of Harvey Marshall, an Adams descendant.) The captain also owned 36 acres in the Township of Dromana (Melway 159 E-F11)fronting Arthurs Seat Rd, McLear Rd and Arthurs Seat Park and, for a shorter time, 56 acres in the parish of Nepean bounded by Diamond Bay Rd, Melbourne Rd, the ends of Tullyvallin Cres/ Hartley Crt, and the coastal reserve.

The 1877 advertisement (in italics below) seems to indicate that Captain Adams had settled on the peninsula in 1857 but it is possible that Isaac White, grantee of crown allotment 19, Wannaeue, had settled there in about 1850 to look after Eliza while Captain Adams traded to places such as Singapore where they couldn't get enough of his potent Vivyan Vineyard wine, which Robert Rowley Senior said would have you climbing telegraph poles after a glass or two. Eliza would not have been the only wife waiting for her seafaring husband to come home; Mrs Newby, housekeeper for Jamieson on his special survey, waited many times,but in 1845 accompanied her husband and three of her daughters perished. (See article under the SAFETY BEACH heading.)

IN the SUPREME COURT of the COLONY of VICTORIA : In its Probate Jurisdiction.-In the Will of JOHN COCKBILL, late of Little Bourke-street West, in the City of Melbourne, in the Colony of Victoria, Publican, Deceased.-Notice is hereby given,that, after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of this notice, application will be made to this honourable Court, in its Probate Jurisdiction,that PROBATE of the LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of the said John Cockbill, deceased, may be granted to Henry Everist Adams, of Vivyan Vine-
yard, near Dromana, in the said colony, the sole executor named in and appointed by the said will.
Dated this twentieth day of March, 1873.WILLIAM HUGHES, 13 Bourke-street west, Melbourne, proctor for the said Henry Everist Adams. (P.7, Argus,21-3-1673.)

THIS DAY.
At Twelve O'Clock Noon At the Rooms, Corner of Swanston and Little Collins Streets.
VALUABLE COUNTRY PROPERTIES.
PARISH of WANNAEUE,
Near Dromana, Close to Arthur's Seat, on the Main Road to Sorrento, Farm, of 191 Acres, with Weatherboard House. Also,
PARISH of KANGERONG,
Adjoining Dromana park, and Close to tho Residence of Professor Hearn,
TWO GOVERNMENT ALLOTMENTS, Containing in All 36 Acres.
To Parties Requiring a Delightful Marine Residence, Squatters, Merchants, Capitalists, and Others.
BYRNE, VALE, and Co have received instructions from Captain Adams (who is retiring after a residence in the district of 20 years) to SELL by AUCTION, at their rooms, on Tuesday, March 20, at twelve o'clock noon,
The following valuable properties :
WANNAEUE, Near Dromana.
That valuable farm containing 191 acres, being Government lot No 19, subdivided into seven paddocks, partly laid down in English grasses, substantially fenced with post, rail, and wire, and having a bay frontage of nearly half a mile ; orchard, garden, and vineyard containing 2000 vines all in full bearing, with a comfortable weatherboard house containing 10 rooms, out-houses, &c.; brick tank holding 4000 gallons.
Crops to be removed or taken at a valuation. The auctioneers beg to call attention to tho above property, the land being good for cultivation, well timbered, and permanent water. Inspection invited.
Also,
KANGERONG, Adjoining Dromana-park.
Two Government allotments, being Allotment 5 of Section D and Allotment 6 of Section D, containing in all 36 acres, close to tho resldence of Professor Hearn.
Title, Crown grants.
(P.2, Argus, 20-3-1877.)

The 36 acres eventually passed into the ownership of Dromana's Nelson Rudduck but in 1879 Henry Everest Adams was assessed on both properties (as well as 61 acres in crown allotment 20, while his son, Robert, was assessed on 20 acres and a house*.)
* Crown allotment 20 had been alienated a year or so earlier, with the Adams family acquiring most of the land west of Wattle Rd. Robert had probably persuaded his father to leave the house as Robert's wife refused to live with the hard-drinking former mariner. Henry moved to live with his friends, the Mullens of South Melbourne.

NOTICE is hereby given, that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of this notice application will be made to the Supreme Court of the Colony of Victoria, in its Probate jurisdiction,
that PROBATE of the LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of HENRY EVEREST ADAMS, late of Vivyan Vineyard, near Dromana, in the colony of Victoria, land-owner, deceased, be granted to Eliza Adams,of Vivyan Vineyard, near Dromana aforesaid, the widow of the said deceased, and sole executrix named in and appointed by the sold will.
Dated this 7th day of November, 1881.HUGHES and MICHIE. 53 William-street, Melbourne, proctors for the said Eliza Adams. (P.3, Argus, 7-11-1881.)


FOR SALE CHEAP 191 ACRES of LAND,
Wannaeue, near Dromana, all fenced, divided into six paddocks, good grass and permanent water, beach frontage 600 fruit trees, 2000 vines, all bearing. 10 roomed house, brick,* tank, stables, &c. Sold in consequence of death of Mr Adams. No reasonable offer refused. Apply Mrs. E ADAMS, Wannaeue, near Dromana.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 13 December 1881 p 12 )

The 191 acre block did not sell and passed into the ownership of the captain's son, Robert Adams, who sold it to a land developer circa 1889. The land bisected by Rosemore Rd was subdivided but the developer soon became insolvent,the land south of South Rd, and unsold blocks, reverting to Adams. Parkmore was built in about 1896 by Albert Holloway.

Much more information is available about the captain and his descendants. In 1860,it is probable that along the coast from Anthony's Nose to TOOTGAROOK STATION, the only houses were (today's)McCrae's Cottage, a four roomed house and workmen's huts on crown allotment 17* (bounded by the beach road, Jetty Rd, Eastbourne Rd and the linr of Norm Clark Walk)and perhaps huts on the foreshore erected by crewmen of The Rosebud who may have decided to use a boat from the stranded vessel in May 1855 to try their luck as fishermen.

*The advertisement doesn't say crown allotment 17 but I'll bet you any money that it is!

TUESDAY, 10th MARCH~
Parish of Wannaeue, Arthur's Seat.129 Acres.
Four-roomed Cottage, Men's Huts,fronting Hobson's Bay, and within Thirty Miles from Melbourne by Water, and Forty-five Miles by Road.H.A. COFFEY, for F. E. Beaver and Co., is instructed to sell by auction, at
their rooms, 30 Collins-street west, on Tuesday, 1oth inst., at eleven o'clock, 129 acres superior agricultural land, having a large frontage to Hobson's Bay, and described in the Government plan as having water at a short distance from tho surface ; together with a neat cottage containing four rooms and a garden ; fruit trees, fenced in. From the great rise in tho value of property in this locality, tho healthful air and the beautiful
scenery, there can be no doubt but that this opportunity offers a fair chance for profitable investment to
the small capitalist, or would be admirably adapted for a marine residence.
The water is sufficiently deep in shore to admit the landing of provisions and goods close to the frontage.
(P.2, Argus, 5-3-1857.)

In ROSEBUD:FLOWER OF THE PENINSULA, Isabelle Moresby mentioned Maori fishermen living at Rosebud and I thought she was mistaken,thinking of the Maori Farm at Rye. However, a year or so past, I found that she was right. Although this incident happened quite a while after 1850, I will include it here in case I never find the article again.

INQUESTS.
Mr. Candler held an inquest on Wednesday, at Tootgarook, on the body of Patrick Wee Wee, a Maori fisherman, living at Rosebud, aged 30 years. On the 27th inst., Senior-constable Lyons was directed to the body of
deceased on the beach, between Rye and Dromana, it having been taken thereby two young men who saw it in the water. There were no marks of violence, and from the froth and blood coming from deceased's nose he appeared to have been drowned. On Sunday evening, the 20th inst., deceased was heard to agree with four young men sup-
posed to be Richard Knott, Richard Barry, Richard Abbott, and Richard Betwright, stonemasons, employed by Mr. Muir, contractor, at the Quarantine, to convey them in his boat to the Quarantine-ground. All the young men were sober, but the deceased was not quite sober. Shortly afterwards the five left, and were never seen on shore again. About 10 minutes after they were last seen on shore, a gust of wind suddenly sprung up from
the westward, the weather having been quite calm previously. Deceased could manage a boat well and was a good swimmer. On the afternoon of the 20th, Christian Miller, a seaman who was on board the fore-and-aft schooner Result, anchored off the pier at Tootgarook, heard a voice calling, and about 150 yards to the westward saw a man whether white or coloured he could not tell, clinging on a boat which was upset and drifting towards Rosebud. Miller was attending to the schooner, there being a heavy squall, and could give no assistance, and the boat and man drifted out of sight. The schooner was about half a mile from the pier, and the storm had risen very suddenly. The deceased's boat had never turned up, but the oars had been washed ashore, and the four young men had never since been heard of. The jury stated that deceased was found drowned, and that they believed he was accidentally drowned during a squall while conveying passengers to the Quarantine-ground on Sunday, the 20th inst. (P.5, Argus, 31-12-1869.)

Richard Barry's body was later found and an inquest was held.

Mr. Candler held an inquest on the 6th inst. at Tootgarook, on the body of Richard Barry, aged 18 years. Deceased was a mason, employed at works on the Quarantine-ground, and on the 20th ult. he was last seen arranging with a Maori to sail across to the Quarantine. The boat went, and deceased and three others who went in her were never seen again, a storm having sprung up. The Maori's body was washed up shortly afterwards. The body of deceased was discovered on the 3rd inst., much bitten about the face, hands, and left thigh by fishes, but deceased was identified by his clothes. It was found about a mile from Rye, on the beach. A verdict of accidentally drowned was returned. (P.6, Argus, 11-1-1870.)

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY, CHAPTER 2, PARISHES, PRE-EMPTIVE RIGHTS & JAMIESON'S SPECIAL SURVEY.

This is the start of an examination of the coast south from Mornington with a focus on early settlement in incorporating later history (especially regarding the pioneer families.)

CHAPTER 2.
CIRCA 1850, OSBORNE TO THE HEADS,PARISHES,QUARANTINE, PORTUGESE AND MAORIS,THE ROSEBUD, TOWNSHIPS AND PRODUCE.
The parish of Frankston extended from Seaford Rd (the Riviera Hotel on Long Island) to Canadian Bay Rd (originally called Boundary Rd) and Eramosa Rd. The parish of Mooooduc, which adjoined it at Mt Eliza and Somerville was a battle-axe shape extending east to Jones Rd north of Tyabb Rd and only to Derril Rd to the south. It went south to Ellerina/Bruce/Foxeys Rds, where it adjoined the parish of Kangerong. The Arthurs Seat pre-emptive right was the most northerly part of the parish of Wannaeue, which also included the Tootgarook pre-emptive right and went west to Government Rd/Weeroona St, where it adjoined the parish of Nepean.

Other parishes, on the Westernport side of the Peninsula were Tyabb, Balnarring and Bittern (basically west and east of Balnarring Rd), Flinders, and Fingal (to the line of Weeroona St where it adjoined Nepean.)

Most of the early settlers in the parish of Frankston and south to Schnapper Point (Mornington)are discussed in
another of my journals, as is the Tanti Hotel, established in 1854. By this time the Township of Osborne had been proclaimed by the Government. It was named after Queen Victoria's seaside residence and the streets were named after her children. The very small Town of Mornington had also been proclaimed at Schnapper Point and having obtained a pier by the late 1850's,it went ahead while Osborne's growth stagnated. The following plan shows the larger "township of Mornington and Osborne. I had thought the "new township of Gravesend" that Robert Byrne was advertising from 1854* was the part shaded red on the plan, but it must have between Strachans and Wilsons Rds as the following, much later advertisement shows.

COMMERCIAL.
Record (Emerald Hill, Vic. : 1881 - 1900) Friday 11 August 1882 p 2 Article
... and Poplar-streets,"land 383 x 100, 127 10. Schnapper Point, Main street, land 40 x 150, 230. ... brick,two-: storey houses on land, 34x72, 1150. Sch napper Point, Nelson street, Gravesend, land 2G4 x ... land, lflft. Gin. x 155ft. 820.., Sch nnppor Point, Albert street, 2 roods, 19 porches with ... 284 words

*FRIDAY, 24TH NOVEMBER.
Gravesend.
Pleasure Trip to the new Township of Gravesend, Snapper Point On Monday next, November 20th, the Gazelle
Steamer will leave Sandridge Pier for the above Township at half past eight a.m, and Williamstown at half past 9 a.m. R BYRNE invites intending purchasers etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 20 November 1854 p 3 Advertising)

Many family historians have been frustrated trying to find where the Moorooduc Cemetery was. It was the Mornington Cemetery, about which Val Wilson of the Mornington Historical Society has produced an excellent website. Moorooduc, the name of the parish, was applied to the cemetery, just as the cemetery near Hastings wascalled the Tyabb Cemetery. Craigie Rd was originally known as Cemetery Road. It is of interest that the Mornington Cemetery was first named the SPRINGS Cemetry (sic.)

Plan of villa allotments in the beautiful township of Osborne near ...
digital.slv.vic.gov.au/dtl_publish/simpleimages/13/2556365.html‎
Real property Victoria Mt Martha Maps. Mt. Martha (Vic ... Plan of villa allotments in the beautiful township of Osborne near Snapper Point [cartographic material].

PRE-EMPTIVE RIGHTS.
Just south of Mornington were two Runs, Mount Martha and Chechingurk. The Mount Martha Run must have been along the coast between Balcombe Creek and the Moorooduc/ Kangerong boundary at Ellerina Rd and then east to Tubbarubba. Its Pre-emptive Right was "Dalkeith" (homestead at Melway 151 C8). James Hearn acquired the grants for Dalkeith,the coastal land south to Hearn Rd and 952 acres surrounding Dalkeith, most of it in in 1856.

MOOROODUC.-Near Snapper Point, north side of Jamieson's Special Survey, at Mount Martha, on the road to the Heads. Upset price, 1 per acre.
45 202a 2r, no offer 46 161a 1r 32p, Anthony Connell, 20S 47 114a 3r, Andrew White, 20s
48 176a 22p, Anthony Connell, 23s 49 109a 3r, Andrew White, 20s 50 186a, James Hearn, 20S
51 291a, A. B. Balcombe. 21s 52 434a, James Hearn, 20s.
(P.2, Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer, 4-10-1855.)

James Hearn's purchases, above, were crown allotment 31 fronting the south side of Range Rd and crown allotment 33 between Forest Drive and the pre-emptive right. Range Rd was known as White's Lane prior to W.W.2 when troops from the Balcombe army camp used it and the Bourne dairy farm as a short cut to the rifle range. (Shirley Bourne, the female drover, was a White descendant.)See the CONNELL journal re Anthony Connell. Balcombe's purchase was crown allotment 32 between Range Rd and a parallel road which ran east from the bend in the highway in Melway 151 C3.

Extract from my journal about WILLIAM VALE AND THE TOWN OF MORNINGTON.
The History of Dalkeith appears on page 275 of the Shire of Morningtons Heritage Study. The Mount Martha Run was occupied by Dallymore and then Aitken before James Hearn took it up. Hearn acquired the pre-emptive right as well as over 1100 acres between Hearn and Bay Rds and 850 acres to the west, north and east of the P.R. The last of these allotments, 29A, encompassed the Tubbarubba diggings.

CHECHINGURK was first settled by Captain Reid who settled soon after Edward Hobson and Maurice Meyrick, who will be discussed later. He was the man who suggested that Dr Barker and Meyrick should settle their dispute with Victoria's second duel. As the plaque on the water fountain in Mornington's Empire Mall attests, the site of Mornington was part of the Run which was taken over by Alexander Beatson Balcombe. Balcombe also received grants for all the land fronting the south side of Beleura Hill Rd, which was probably the northern boundary of the Run. Balcombe called his pre-emptive right The Briars after the farm on which he grew up and Napoleon Bonaparte was a guest during his imprisonment.

Jamieson's Special Survey was part of the Kangerong run settled by Edward Hobson. I have never seen its boundaries on a map. He was one of the first settlers on the peninsula, along with Jamieson at Cape Schanck but probably only stayed there for a year or two before settling further west at Tootgarook. Squatters were very alert to newcomers settling near them and often spread rumours of aboriginal atrocities to scare them off.

Robinson* did point the finger squarely at pastoralists themselves in a later
observation. They spread rumours about native outrages in order to deter new
squatters from settling in their districts and claiming some of country hitherto
theirs to use. It worked like this: after the NSW Order in Council of 7 October
1847 anyone who could find a bit of country situated between neighbours who
had to be five miles from where you proposed to sit down, could simply squat
and pay the annual licence fee to the Commissioner of Crown Lands when he
called annually to assess and collect the fee, which was ten pounds for the
licence, and so much per head for stock. Robinson recorded that it was common
practice to raise cry against the blacks to keep people from country
(Pages 76-7, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.) *Robinson was the Chief Aboriginal Protector.

But Hobson raised no objection when assistant aboriginal protector, William Thomas set up his first protectorate about a mile to the east of his homestead. The aborigines had two other encampments nearby, one near Hobson's homestead and another near the Drive-In site.

A quote from I SUCCEEDED ONCE. (Available online.)
I was actually looking for the author, Marie Hansen Fel's, attribution of the harmonious relationship between the Boon-wurrung and settlers to the example set by Edward Hobson but found these descriptions of the squatters and the Arthurs Seat Run instead.

The character of the squatters on the Mornington
Peninsula
It was a fact that the Aborigines of the Port Phillip District, the Bonurong and the
Warworong were attracted to, and actually cultivated, high status Europeans
gentlemen and that they despised convicts. From the vantage point of
a meritocracy such as our own society, it requires a real effort to understand
how taken-for-granted were the manners, mores and attitudes of a class-based
society. It so happens that most of the names of squatters on the Mornington
Peninsula in 183940, who feature in Thomas journals, also appear in Paul
de Servilles appendixes of Gentlemen by Birth (titled, landed or armigerous
families), Gentlemen in Society (profession, commission and upbringing) or
Colonists claiming gentle birth and accepted by other gentlemen as gentlemen.
Edward Hobson and his brother, Dr Edmund Hobson (Kangerong), the brothers
Archibald, Hugh and Thomas Bushby Jamieson (Kangerong Special Survey),
Robert Jamieson (Cape Schanck), Samuel Rawson (Kunnung with Robert
Jamieson), Captain Reid (Tichingurook), Captain Baxter (Carup Carup), Alfred
and Maurice Meyrick (Boniong), Henry Howard Meyrick (Coolart), the Barker
brothers (Barrabong and Cape Schanck), and George Smith (Turtgoorook) living
with a woman believed by Melbourne society to be a niece by marriage of the
great Captain William Hobson RN, were all gentlemen in terms of one or other
of de Servilles categories. (P.19, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.)

On P.20 the youthfulness of the squatters is stressed.
Edward Hobson was 22; Henry Howard Meyrick was 17; brother Alfred was
19; cousin Maurice 20 (and Maurice was said to be an initiated man); Samuel
Rawson was 19; George Desailley was 17; his brother Francis junior 19; the
Barker brothers were 22 and 24; the Jamieson brothers were in their twenties;
only the two military men, Captain Reid and Captain Baxter, and George Smith
were mature adults. And contrary to what is commonly believed, George
Smith came down to the Mornington Peninsula not to Rye initially, but to
Buckkermitterwarrer (Drive-In site and Kangerong, and when he came, it was with a solid
three year relationship of reciprocity already built up with Benbow, father of
Mary, father also of Yankee Yankee.

JAMIESON'S SPECIAL SURVEY.
It has been said that this Special Survey of 1841 did not displace Edward Hobson as he'd already moved to Tootgarook. I get the impression that Marie Fels disagrees. Henry Dunn leased the Survey (and apparently the Mt Martha Run too, according to Leslie Moorhead in one of the school histories)from 1846 to 1851. From that time,it was leased to the first settlers in the Dromana area most of whom became stalwarts of the local community. See my journals about SAFETY BEACH, SARAH WILSON, GEORGE YOUNG, ANTHONY CONNELL etc.

The following extract from my journal SAFETY BEACH AND THE SURVEY NEAR DROMANA has been included here in support of the proposition that Captain Adams may have settled in the area before 1857, leaving Eliza at Wattle Place (Adams'Corner) while he traded across the sea.

Jamieson did not spend much time on his survey but enough to have social contact with other early settlers such as Captain Reid (on what became Balcolme's The Briars)and the McCraes on the Arthur's Seat Run. Somebody who did live there was Mrs Newby. On 15-2-1844, Captain Reid and his wife, Hugh Jamieson and Georgiana McCrae and hubby, Andrew, visited the Survey, meeting Mrs Newby and her two daughters. Mrs Newby complained of loneliness during Captain Newby's absences at sea. On 27-7-1845,Andrew told Georgiana about the three Newby children drowning. (P. 30 A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.) Was this true? Yes!

SHIPWRECKS. LOSS OF THE MARY. By the steamer Shamrock, which arrived here on Sunday, the distressing intelligence has been received of the total wreck of the barque Mary, Captain Newby, from this port to London in Bass's Straits; and we are sorry to add that no less than seventeen of her passengers have perished. The Mary left Sydney for London on the 19th of May, having on board 69 souls, including the crew, and a very valuable cargo. It was intended by the owners that she should proceed by the usual course round Cape Horn, and the Mary stood away to the southward for that purpose, but when she was off Cape Howe, the wind being at east south-east, with every appearance of a continuance from the same quarter, Captain Newby determined to attempt the westerly passage, notwithstanding the unpromising time of the year, and accordingly stood into Bass's Straits for that purpose. On the morning of the 24th May, the Mary was off Wilson's Promontory, when the wind suddenly died away, and at 10 A. M. a strong breeze sprung up from the northwest, and gradually increased to a gale with heavy rain. Thinking he had now got into a westerly wind, the captain determined to give up the westerly passage, and accordingly bore up and ran to the southward of Sir Roger Curtis' and Kent's Groups. At 6 P. M. he estimated the ship's position to be five miles south of the body of Kent's Group, fixed her course at east by north, and having been up the two previous nights, the captain went to bed, there being then a breeze from the north- west, which was sending the ship seven knots per hour. The chief mate had the watch from 8 to 12; about 11 he called the captain, saying he thought " land was handy ;" but upon the captain going upon deck, he could not see any land, and found that it was almost a calm. Broken water, however, was soon discovered off the lee beam,and a strong current was rapidly driving the ship towards it. There was no wind to make the ship answer her helm, she refused stays and drove broadside onto the rock. She first touched on the starboard bilge, then under the fore chains, and immediately parted abaft the foremast, the bows slipping off the rock into deep water; she then struck abaft, unshipped her rudder, and the topsides floated off the bottom,over the reef into smooth water. In seven minutes from the time she struck, the ship was in pieces. The most melancholy part remains to be told. Seventeen women and children were drowned and what is most extraordinary is, that not a mast was lost. Those drowned were-three of Captain Newby's daughters; six children of Mrs. Evans; Augusta and Catherine, daughters of Captain Collins, of Illawarra ; Mrs Heather, and two children, Mrs. Grey, Mrs. Turnbull, and Sarah Foulkes, servant to Mrs. Collins. How the remainder were saved we cannot understand. Captain Newby only remarks," we were saved in the long boat in the most wonderful manner." The above parties were lost in consequence of the upsetting of the whale boat, into which they had been lowered, but it has not been ascertained how this accident occurred. The reef upon which the Mary was lost lies to the north east of a rock described in the Australian Directory as Wright's rock, about three and a half miles, and is known to the sealers who visit Furneaux's Island as the north east or deep reef. etc.
(P.3, Mornington Chronicle, Sydney, 25-6-1845.)

AS I'VE JUST FOUND INFORMATION ABOUT PRE-EMPTIVE RIGHTS WHILE RESEARCHING "POINT NEPEAN" IN THE 1840'S ON TROVE, I'VE DECIDED TO INSERT IT HERE, AFTER THE SURVEY, AT THE END OF MY "PRE-EMPTIVE RIGHTS" ENTRY.
The information was on page 4 of the Argus on Saturday 4th and Monday 6th in August, 1849. I have included some pre-emptive rights that were not on the oriental coast of Port Phillip Bay because I do not intend to include them in another journal. None of the parishes had been named at this time.

The Barkers had two leases, the Cape Schanck P.R. in the parish of Flinders and the Boniyong P.R. in Wannaeue and bounded by Boneo, Browns, Grasslands (now closed) and Limestone Rds. The King Run was probably the parish of Tyabb but the family name is recalled by the street in Flinders. Graham Whitehead's City of Kingston website mentions a squatting King family that was the origin of the city's name and may have been related. It is possible that George Smith's lease was the Tootgarook pre-emptive right. Edward Hobson was on "Traralgon" by this stage and may have transferred the lease to his (de facto) father in law.

The Tootgarook run had several names and Wooloowoolooboolook might have been one of them. Charles Hollinshed (LIME LAND LEISURE) speculated the James Purves might have been managing the Tootgarook Run; I'm not sure exactly when Smith took an aboriginal boy to America but he was probably not on his lease full-time anyway
(and as I've explained elsewhere,it was more likely that PETER Purves, who coined the name Tootgarook, would have been the manager.)Lastly, Robert White was Irish and completely unrelated to the Scottish Whites of Rosebud and Red Hill. His 640 acres would have been in the parish of Nepean, west of Government Rd/Weeroona St,perhaps nearer to Sorrento. The Irish Whites are discussed in my journal about THE WHITES OF SORRENTO AND RYE and the Scottish Whites in my journal about HILL HILLIS AND HIS RELATIVES.

Superintendent's Office, Melbourne, 8th August, 1849.
CROWN LANDS BROUGHT WITHIN THE SETTLED DISTRICTS.
(requiring payment of rent for approved selections under pre-emption.) His Excellency the Governor directs it to be notified, for the information of all persons concerned, that in pursuance of the 22nd Clause of the Regu-lations of 29th March, 1848, His Excellency has been pleased to approve of the Claims which have been made by the parties enumerated in the annexed list, to the pre-emptive right to Leases of the several portions of Land referred to.
2. It is necessary that the rent, viz., Twenty Shillings per section of 640 acres, for the remainder of the present year, for the Lands in question, be paid into the Sub-Treasury, at, Melbourne, within one month from the present date : in default of which the Leases of the Lands will, in accordance with the 26th Clause of the Regulations, be put up to sale by auction.
By His Excellency's Command, C. J. LA TROBE.

COUNTY OF MORNINGTON.
Number, Name, Address, Lot No., Acres, Parish size?, Situation.
2. Alex Balcombe, Melbourne, 1, 640, 4790 ac., Pt Phillip Bay.
3. John Barker, Cape Schanck, 1, 640, 16x640 ac, Western Port Bay.
4. John Barker, -------- ditto,-- 1, 640, 12x640 ac.,-----ditto.
8. Owen Cain, Dandenong! ---, 1, 640, Point Nepean (Only lot in parish.)
14, James Davey, no address, 1, 640, 4x640 ac lots?, not given.
17. Martha Jane King, W'port, 1, 640, 5x640?, Westernport.
19. Andrew M.McCrae, ArthursSeat, 1, 640, 3x640?, Sth of Kang. Survey.
35. George Smith, Pt. Nepean, 1, 640, 30x640, Port Phillip Bay.
36. Daniel Sullivan, Pt. Nepean, 1, 640, 4x640, Pt. Phillip Bay.
37. Richard Tonks,--- Point King,----- 1, only lot, Port Phillip Bay.
38. Henry Tuck, Manton's Creek, 1, 10x640, Westernport Bay.
41. Robert White, Pt Nepean, 1, 640,5x640, Port Phillip Bay.
N.B. The column headed Parish size? should probably be size of run. For example, Andrew McCrae,John Barker (Boneo) and George Smith were all in Wannaeue, John Barker and Henry Tuck on the western and eastern part of Flinders, and Dennis Sullivan, Robert White and Richard Tonks all in the parish of Nepean. I would have to check whether James Davey's P.R.* was on the Kannanuke Run (near Davey's Bay) or the Ballanrong Run just east of Mornington, at that time.

*James Davey was on Ballanrong. (P.3,Sydney Morning Herald, 28-10-1848.)

THE EAST COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY. CHAPTER 1, SEAFORD TO ARTHURS SEAT & TRANSPORT.

I have broken THE ORIENTAL COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY into parts so that all of the pioneers mentioned can be included in the surnames list, which has a capacity far too small to include them all in one journal. Transport is discussed as far as Sorrento, whose white roads left an indelible impression on early holiday-makers.

CHAPTER 1.
ORIENTAL.
Although the Wong-Shings had a market garden near Chinaman's Creek, this had nothing to do with my choice of this journal's title. Oriental means "east" (with occidental being its opposite.) For some reason I can't remember, I did a Mt Martha search and found an article about a tour down the east coast (in 1886,I think). When I read about the prisoners of war and was reminded about George Bishop's involvement in the Shirley Collins case, I decided to write a journal about this coast and "oriental" tickled my fancy.

SOURCES.
I intend to write this journal entirely from memory. The sources for every statement I make are in my previous journals or other works and usually come from trove.

HALF-WAY HOUSE, LONG BEACH RUN, PARISH OF FRANKSTON, CANNANUKE, OLIVERS HILL, CANADIANS.
The parish of Frankston is mainly separated from the parish of Lyndhurst to the north by Seaford Rd but on Long Island the boundary is the walkway beside the north boundary of the Riviera Hotel Car park. This hotel has previously been the Halfway House or the Carrum Hotel and is land granted to James McMahon, probably as the pre-emptive right of his Long Beach run. James also received a larger grant of about 160 acres at the east corner of Skye and McMahons Rds.

Olivers Hill was originally known as Old Man Davey's Hill. This was named after William Davey, who used the hill as a lookout to spot fish but was also granted land on the hill north of Sweetwater Creek. His son, James leased the Cannanuke Run from the crown and was granted the pre-emptive right bounded by Old Mornington Rd (west of Dory's Gully) and the beach as far south as Boundary Rd, the boundary between the parishes of Frankston and Moorooduc near the oriental coast. Old Man Davey's Hill was renamed Oliver's Hill because another Frankston pioneer of that name also used its heights to spot fish.

James built a basic homestead but later built Frankston's first mansion, overlooking Daveys Bay, which he called "Marysville". His son, James Jnr. became a pioneer near Red Hill and Bittern North, his grants becoming Forest Lodge, Seven Oaks, Kentucky and Rosslyn as well as 28A Wannaeue, split into three by Bullocky Bob White and his sons, with its north west corner across Main Creek Rd from Whites Rd.

Plenty of websites explain the origin of the name of Canadian Bay; it was named after three Canadians. Luckily in 1926 the Mt Eliza Progress Association published a history of the early days in the area, written by Mr Mann, who gave the Canadians' names as Jones,J.Hodgins and McCurley. They supplied firewood bound for Melbourne onto the Liverpool which anchored half a mile offshore. (I have previously stated a mile but spotted the error while searching my notes for other information!) All threehad settled in the district

The first was obviously Alfred Jones of Almond Bush Stud of Somerville. His biography in Victoria and its Metropolis tells how he moved from England to Canada aged about 12 and spent about two years loading the wood at Frankston (place names being pretty vague in 1888) before farming at Baxter's Flat,increased competition having lowered prices for firewood. J. Hodgins settled at the intersection of Hodgins and Henderson Rds, at Hastings. I have found no references to McCurley and he may have been Edward McGurk who was granted land between Jones and Hodgins. Boundary Rd is now Canadian Bay Rd.



NYORA, WELLS, RANELAGH.
J.T.Smith,the subject of my journal, JOHN THOMAS SMITH AND HIS ELECTORS, came to Victoria from Sydney in Melbourne's early days to teach at George Langhorne's mission on Melbourne's Botanical gardens site. Muzza of McCrae has in his collection of historic houses etc. a photo of Smith's Melbourne house that he states is the oldest surviving house in Melbourne. Smith soon turned to business and was seven times Mayor of Melbourne and a longtime parliamentarian,representing West Bourke (i.e. County of Bourke.) He was one of the early grantees in the parish of Moorooduc and built a beachside house that he called Nyora. His land on the south side of Boundary (Canadian Bay) road in the heart of Mt Eliza became the Ranelagh Estate.

As Smith was not a permanent resident of Mt Eliza,he leased his land to such as Frankston pioneer, Henry Cadby Wells. After Smith's death,ownership passed out of the family and the last owner before it was subdivided as the Ranelagh Estate was Henry Slaney,father of Moorooduc's prolific writer of letters to the editor, H.B.Slaney of "The Ranch" (across Three Chain Road from the east end of Craigie Rd.)

Next time you're in Mt Eliza have a look at the plaque in J.T.Smith Reserve and the Ranelagh Estate history Board near Ranelagh Dr. at Melway 105 E-F1.


HISTORIC HOUSES, WEBSITES AND RED TAPE.
There are many historic houses along the coast between Frankston and The Heads. Readers interested in finding out about them can download the SHIRE OF MORNINGTON HERITAGE STUDY re the area north of Ellerina Rd and the SHIRE OF FLINDERS HERITAGE STUDY re those to the south, particularly in Sorrento and Portsea. There are also websites that offer guided walking and driving historic tours along the coast near Mornington, another about the Ranelagh Estate at Mt Eliza and I propose to write similar self-guided heritage tour journals about Dromana and Rosebud.

Here however, I wish to mention just one historic house and how red tape can make things difficult for citizens who wish to preserve our history. My magnifying glass tells me that this house at 797 Esplanade, Mornington, which would appear to be between Main St and Tanti Ave, is called Mulberry. Ian Armstrong, who shares a surname with an early Clerk of Courts at Mornington, has spent a considerable amount restoring this house and would obviously be carrying out such a huge task in stages as finances allowed.

Peninsula carpenter, Steven Edwards, won a heritage award for restoration done on this house at the ceremony in 2011. Ian had obtained a permit to restore the roof in 2007 but obviously the carpentry was chewing up the available cash. During 2011, the roof needed repairs because leaks threatened the good work that had been done.
Rather than checking that the requirements of the lapsed permit were still valid and giving Ian all the assistance they could to expedite the urgent work, "demonstrating excellence in retention, restoration and re-use of our heritage places", bureaucrats wanted him to start the permit process all over again.

Just imagine if Ian had wanted to demolish the house so he could make bundles replacing it with the concrete and glass boxes that are popping up like mushrooms wherever there's a sea view. Let the roof leak and encourage squatters to move in,just like Dr Somers' former surgery at the Esplanade/Barkly St corner near Wilson Rd. Oh no, it's fallen to bits, the interior is ruined , has little remaining heritage value and is structurally unsound. Do you see that such bureaucratic obstruction actually favours those who wish to destroy heritage and hinders those who wish to preserve it.

Council threatened to sue if Ian carried out the urgent repairs. "I told them I'm not going to see a heritage property destroyed since the damn thing is now leaking," said Mr Armstrong. The council eventually issued an updated permit at their own cost after he refused to be "put through all their hoops again".
(P.3, Mornington News, 30-7-2013.)


TRANSPORT.
Remembering that we are concerned in this journal with the Port Phillip Coast rather than the hinterland, one can get an idea of what land transport was like by watching a mum or dad wheel a pram onto the beach. When sand has been compacted and is dry,it's not too bad, but once the surface has been disturbed, especially on a hill,making progress is very difficult. The hill up Jetty Rd to McDowell St alongside Rosebud Primary School was almost impassable at times! Another spot that was always difficult for wheeled travel was the hill at White Cliff, west of Rye.

The first to make the trip by land from Melbourne to the Peninsula had to carry all they needed, requiring bullock drays. Edward Hobson at Kangerong,later Tootgarook, and Maurice Meyrick at Boniyong (Boneo) were two of these. Once they approached Carrum they had to stick to the coast to avoid the Carrum Swamp. The next obstacle was Olivers Hill so their course would have been what became Three Chain Road (Moorooduc Rd.) That would be why Frankston's Davey St heads south east. James Davey had to climb Old Man Davey's Hill (as Olivers Hill was originally known) to reach his Cannanuke Run but those travelling farther south would avoid it.

Ben Baxter established Carrup Carrup Run on what was called Baxter's Flat. The others continued on, Three Chain Road also skirting Mt Eliza. The next settler to think "Thisledome" was Captain Reid who preceded A.B.Balcombe on what the latter called The Briars. It was this former soldier who suggested a duel was the only gentlemanly way to solve the dispute between Dr Edward Barker of Cape Schanck and Maurice Meyrick of Boneo.

Although heading south west, Three Chain Rd stayed parallel with the coast until it passed through the Tuerong pre-emptive right (east of The Briars) first occupied by Aboriginal Protector Thomas. This road probably followed the dray ruts left by Hobson and Meyrick. Now trending more westerly the ruts would have been followed by those who built the telegraph line and finished up at today's Ponderosa Place, Dromana. The ruts would then have continued along what the Dromana Township map has labelled as "Main Road", Palmerston Avenue, which proceeded past the present road up Arthurs Seat to link up with today's Bayview Rd. As the routes of our highways were usually blazed by pioneers with their bullock drays, it can be said that Edward Hobson did a fine job of choosing the route of the Mornington Peninsula Freeway!

The first white settler on the peninsula didn't intend to settle here and actually migrated the other way; to Melbourne! He was John Aitken who settled west of Sunbury and whose run was named Mt Aitken by Governor Bourke, an early guest at his property. The ship carrying his sheep from Tasmania went aground near Dromana and Aitken, with the help of the friendly Boon-Wurrung, carried them all ashore. No doubt he grazed his sheep nearby, perhaps on Dalkeith (north of Martha Cove near the Mornington turn-off)before taking them on the long trek to the parish of Buttlejork. He would have had no ruts to follow! He only had to parallel the coast to The Settlement (as Melbourne was known until Gov. Bourke named it after the Prime Minister, and William's Town after the King.) From there it was a different matter. He had to make a beeline toward Mt Macedon (Mt Alexander Rd)until he reached a track, soon known as Braybrook Rd (Buckley St) which led to Solomon's Ford (west end of
Canning St, Avondale Hts.) Once over the Saltwater River (probably after resting his flock on section 8, Doutta Galla for which he later received the grant) he followed the Kororoit Creek north, continuing north to the Calder Highway which he blazed as far as Mt Aitken.

Hobson stopped short of the future site of Dromana, settling between Mt Martha and Arthurs Seat on what later became Jamieson's Special Survey. Meyrick was known to have passed along the beach track for he fell asleep waiting for the tide to go out. Anthony's Nose jutted out into the sea and travellers had two options, to climb Arthurs Seat from the bottom of Foote St in Dromana or drive along the hard-packed sand at low tide.





Squatters had no fencing and it is likely that in looking for strayed cattle, Hobson had discovered the ascent from Foote St that is now Latrobe Pde. Following the course of the freeway, he discovered Hobson's Flat and just past the north end of Boneo Rd,he discovered lime, much in demand in the rapidly expanding Melbourne. He built a lime kiln near the present Marks Ave, named after one of the co-grantees of this land. It is not known whether Jamieson used the track from Foote St when he settled at Cape Schanck or took his supplies and stock by ship but the track became known as the road to Cape Schanck.

I once decided to ride my bike along part of this road, south of Browns Rd where it heads due south and is now closed. It gave me a real appreciation of how the word "travel" derived from "travail". I ended up having to wheel (sometimes carry) my bike almost the whole way because of the loose sand and abandoned my quest as soon as I reached Limestone Rd.

I won't ask you to take my word that travel was travail.Here is an extract from:
I Succeeded Once:
The Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 18391840.
Marie Hansen Fels.
The author of this work (which is available online) paraphrases the diary entry made by Aboriginal Protector Thomas.

21 October 1839
Thomas left Melbourne again for Arthurs Seat, meeting 54 blacks who were on
their way to Tubberubbabel; he had another awful journey, wading through
Mordialloc Creek up to his waist, nearly drowning his bullocks in a rising tide
at a creek eight miles further on (Konigo, now Frankston); then further on he
had another drama when his milking cows calf swam back over another creek
(between Frankston and Mt Martha, Smythe lists the following creeks, in order
going south from Frankston, Narringulling, Ballar, Kackerabooite, Gunyung
and Caarrar) the cow followed her calf, then the four hobbled bullocks followed
the cow and her calf: everyone survived, and he got back to Tubberubbabel at
sunset.

Because of Anthony's Nose, settlers west of Arthurs Seat, mainly lime burners, usually arrived by ship, many of them sailors who jumped ship. The McCraes unloaded all their possessions from a vessel when they took up the Arthurs Seat Run,as did the Burrells who replaced them in 1851. Even after Ned Williams cut a road at Anthony's Nose in 1866, leading to pioneers calling it "the rocks", early residents at Rye etc still relied on sea transport to carry their produce (lime, later firewood for bakers' ovens), and return with supplies, because the beach road presented the type of travail described in my previous paragraph.

SURVEY.
As parishes and townships were surveyed, Government roads were drawn on the maps to provide access to the crown allotments. They were not made nor were they named except in the townships. As late as the 1920's when the Stenniken grant (north of Ronald St at Tootgarook) was advertised for sale, Truemans Rd was called the Government road between Rosebud and Rye. Hiscock Rd was drawn from Old Cape Schanck to Truemans Rd and it's still shown as a dotted line west of Boneo Rd. I defy you to ride a bike along it as I tried to do. That's the sort of road that settlers faced when they arrived. Burrell Rd, the western boundary of Dromana Township, was living proof that it was easier to draw a road on a map than to make it, maintain it or even use it! To determine its location, extend the north-south section of Latrobe Pde south to the beach road. You'd have to be Superman to ride up it and a death-defying idiot to ride down the cliff.

Nobody likes paying taxes and the mainly subsistence* farmers had little money to spare, but eventually they agreed to form road boards because the roads were so bad. They kept up the tradition of early Elizabeth St in Melbourne, actually a creek course where travellers had to dodge trees and whole bullock teams perished in bogs. See my SHIRE OF FLINDERS journal re the Kangerong and Flinders Road Boards and the councillors.
(*Because the roads were so bad, and the peninsula's population so low, selling produce was out of the question so most farms had an orchard, vegetable plot, milking cows, chooks and maybe some pigs, and people ate well. The provision of piers and railways led to the establishment of guest houses which provided a summer market. Coppin's Sorrento provided a great market for the vegetables grown by Alf Head of Red Hill.

THE WHITE ROAD.
Dame Nellie Melba was a young girl when she noticed animals grazing on the Sorrento Cemetery. She was so moved that the final resting place of the pioneers was being desecrated that she organised a concert to raise funds to fence the cemetery. (See my journal about Dame Nellie's first concert.) It was ironic that Dame Nellie's father was responsible for the beginning of the end of the peninsula lime industry in the 1870's when he opened his lime quarry near Lilydale* (which must have acquired that name circa 1900; I only found this article by entering VICTORIA LIME AND CEMENT COMPANY.) (*Reason stated in LIME LAND LEISURE.)

The Lime-Burning Industry in Victoria: An Occupance ... - Ashadocs.org
www.ashadocs.org/aha/14/14_04_Harrington.pdf‎
by J HARRINGTON - ‎Cited by 2 - ‎Related articles
Cement Company, which included among its members David. Mitchell, who founded the Lilydale lime quarries in 1878 and the Victorian Portland Cement ...

Luckily lime burning was easily replaced by supplying ti-tree to fire the ovens of Melbourne's bakers,this new industry led by the Sullivans and Stennikens. John Cain turned his attention to farming,owning or leasing 2240 acres in the parishes of Wannaeue and Nepean by 1881. The kiln on the Rye C.F.A.site supplied the last lime,used in the construction of James Little Brown's house in May Avenue.

Due to spillage, there was plenty of lime around the old kilns and this lime was used to make some of the shire's roads,especially near Sorrento. The late Ray Cairns said that roads made with lime were beautifully smooth but once they started to break up, deterioration was rapid. Others stated that they damaged horses' hooves and were slippery when wet. The glare from the white surface could also be a problem.

Flinders Shire Council. SATURDAY, APRIL 25th.
Mornington Standard (Frankston, Vic. : 1911 - 1920) Saturday 2 May 1914 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article
... Dromana road- Monier Pipe Coy., 270. 200 yards limestone Sorrento road-G. White, 60. 200 yards limestone Canterbury Rye road -J. Watts, 61 13s 4d. 50 yards Rock's metal, Boneo road-L. lazledine 14 17s ... decided to call for limestone. The Tram Coy., Sorrento, to be notified to place the road in tho rough ... 1337 words

An anecdote from a regular summer resident described the Nepean Highway (Sorrento Road) as "the white road".

A CORRECTION: DROMANA HOTEL, ESTABLISHED 1862, VIC., AUST.

The superb laminated place mat,detailing the history of the Dromana Hotel (and its competitor) that Ray Stella had printed has an error and it's all my fault. As my journal THE ORIENTAL COAST OF PORT PHILLIP BAY explains, a misreading of Colin McLear's information led me to believe that the Dromana Hotel was built in 1857. Ray used my information about the two hotels,adding that Prime Minister, John Curtin,had lived at the Dromana while his father was the manager and that the Stellas had bought the hotel in 1986. Ray, who has great interest in the hotel's history, could have included more information such as the internal wall (that Ray showed me)which was part of the original building, and that John Coleman died at the hotel after having sold it.

That the construction date was wrong was indicated by my seeing a reference to Richard Watkin leasing William Dixon Scurfield's hotel after 1857. I checked the first (1864) rates but found that both hotels were in operation:
William Dixon Scurfield, house,9 rooms, hotel,Dromana;
Richard Watkins (sic)12 roomed brick house, Hotel Dromana (nett annual value 110 pounds.)

The reference then must have been on trove. In looking for the information that I know is there (it's in the ORIENTAL COAST journal), I discovered that the competitors were actually partners in 1858.

DROMANA.
On Port Phillip Bay, about 45 miles from Melbourne, at the foot of Arthur's Seat,parish of Kangerong, county of Mornington. Upset price, 8 per acre. Lot 3. Two roods, 28 the lot. Scurfield and Watkin.


(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 11 May 1858 p 5.) See 10-5-1858.

This is what I was looking for.
Richard Watkin, Scurfield Hotel, Dromana. Postponed for 14 days.
(DISTRICT LICENSING COURT. (Before Septimus Martin, S.M, (chairman), P. Davis, Edward Cohen, Samuel Heaps, Walsh, Ballen, and Vaughan, Esqs., J.P.'s.)
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 21 April 1858 p 6 Article.

A new thematic display at the Dromana Museum will hopefully be ready for History Week 2013. While tourism was being discussed at a planning meeting, the consultant was unimpressed with my comment that shooting (hunting) was one of the early tourist attractions. Richard Watkin would have understood me.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 27 August 1858 p 8. SCURFIELD HOTEL, Arthur's Seat, kept by Richard Watkin. Abundance of game. Horses and dogs always ready.

Richard was also involved with the timber trade that caused Dromana's development. The timber-getters, bullockies and ship owners involved in his supply chain are discussed in my ORIENTAL COAST journal.

TO CONTRACTORS.The undersigned is prepare to supply any quantity of POSTS and RAILS Sleepers, hewn and sawn Timber. Piles, and SquS,Timber. RICHARD WATKINS, Scurfield Hotel,Dromana, Arthur's Seat.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 30 November 1858 p 7.)

Richard soon had competition.
TO CONTRACTORS or TIMBER MERCHANTS.
-PILES, Squared Beams, Posts and Rails, or any description of Hardwood SUPPLIED in Melbourne or Williamstown, at low rates. A large quantity prepared for delivery. Orders promptly attended to. Reference-Neil M'Lean, Esq , 11 Swanston-street; or Messrs. Musson and Co., Collins-street west. No connection with Mr. Watkins, Dromana,
Survey Bay
. Post address, Dugald M'Queen, Dromana Post-office, Survey Bay, Arthur's Seat.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 7 December 1858 p 7.)

10-5-1858.
The block for which Scurfield and Watkin paid 28 pounds on the previous day, as reported on 11-5-1858, was, without dispute, crown allotment 1, section 2,township of Dromana. On the township map the grantees are recorded as W.D.Scurfield and R.Walker. (I'm not the only one who makes mistakes!) This block was on the west corner of The Esplanade and Foote St. Consisting of 2 roods, it had frontages of 50 metres to the former (halfway to McArthur St) and 40 metres to the latter. This block is now bisected by the start of Latrobe Pde.

I believe that Richard Watkin was a builder. This belief is based on his involvement in the timber trade. He may also have been a bricklayer. I have not seen one reference to a bricklayer in Dromana's history so it is possible that he built the Dromana hotel himself. Whether he got Peter Pidoto or whomever to return with bricks after carrying his timber to Melbourne or obtained them from Walter Gibson's clay pit on "Glenholm" or Captain Adams (whose son supplied the bricks for the Anglican church at Dromana) can only be guessed. Here are Colin McLear's words which I misunderstood.

P.38.Richard Watkin is credited with having had built in 1857 the first house in Dromana as distinct from Kangerong...He also constructed a store.
P.54.In the 19th Century prospecting days, miners could sell their findings to Dawes who ran a store on the corner of Foote St and Latrobe St in the first Carnarvon which then stood there. On the counter stood his gold scales in what was the first Dromana Post Office. P.82. This building was constructed of McCrae granite. Walter Gibson later built a new post office in the centre of town...


In articles from 1861, it appeared that the Hotel Dromana had been built but further examination of election meetings revealed that "hotel, Dromana" was actually Scurfield's hotel.


LAW REPORT. INSOLVENT COURT. MONDAY, APRIL. 20
(Before W. B. Noel, Esq, Chief Commissioner of Insolvent Estates.)
CERTIFICATE MEETINGS.
Certificates of discharge were granted to the following insolvents, there being no Opposition ;J. A. Creelman, of Richmond, surgeon ; William Lewis Hall, of Melbourne,agent ; Joseph Davies, of the United Company, Ballarat, miner; Louis Hirschfield, of Melbourne, bird dealer ; Kingwall and Watkin, of Dromana, storekeepers (to Watkin
only) ; etc. (The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 21 April 1863 p 6 Article.)

DROMANA HOTEL, Established 1862.- First class accommodation and sea bathing. Coach from Melbourne daily. Steamer Williams four times a week. Tho scenery around Dromana is unrivalled in the colony. Terms moderate Horses and vehicles at low rates . R. Watkin, Proprietor.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 16 January 1880 p 3.)

KERR, AIRD, GRANT, KERRSLAND, GLENALLAN AND GLEN LYN NEAR GLENROY, MELBOURNE, VIC., AUST.

APOLOGIES. To save a few hours, my corrections of trove text has been done without referring to the original articles.

It's not very often that I use trove just for fun. I did a search for Yuroke, a parish north of Swain St near Gellibrand Hill. Found a few families such as Saunders that I can't remember George Lloyd mentioning in MICKLEHAM ROAD 1920-1953. Moving on to Harpsdale, was reminded that Jack Simmie had told me that its western portion had become "Troodos*"; saw the birth notices for David Brodie's children, that his widow moved to Royal Park and that his son married Angus Grant's daughter.

*The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 22 August 1952 p 8 Family Notices
... ENGAGEMENTS DYSON - HOLLAND - HAMILTON.-Barbara Mary, eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs A K Dyson Dyson- Holland, of Troodos, Yuroke, to Edward Talbot, youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. C. Talbot Hamilton, 31 Leslie road, Essendon.
As DYSON-HOLLAND came out as two separate surnames in the surname list,I rewrote it as DYSONHOLLAND. To test whether this would be effective, I did a google search for "dysonholland, yuroke" and found:

20 Sep 1954 - Killed by octopus - Trove
trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/50610979‎
He was Able Seaman Kirk Dyson-Holland, of Yuroke (Vic), who caught an octopus about eight inches in diameter while he was wading three miles from Darwin.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 1 June 1901 p 9 Family Notices
... BRODIE-GRANT.-On the 1st May, at Bulla Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. L. M. Weir, William McKenzie, second son of David Brodie, "Harpsdale," Mickleham, to Mary Elizabeth (Cissie), second daughter of Angus Grant, "Springbank," Greenvale.
(Angus Grant was possibly related to William Grant of Craigllachie, but was not his son.)
William Fraser Grant,of Craigllachie on Tullamarine Island, was the father of Elsie May who married Percy Papworth on 25-10 1907 at Williamstown. (My PAPWORTH ETC.journal.)

Remembering that John Kerr had land in Yuroke,I gave him a run next.
Then I found notices such as these. Poor Lillian Kerr (nee Aird) had a pretty rotten 1906. Hang on,I thought, Andrew Lemon wrote in BROADMEADOWS: A FORGOTTEN HISTORY that John Kerr Jnr established "Glenallan" between Broadmeadows Township (Westmeadows)and Pacoe Vale Rd. Did he get the name of the farm wrong? No, as you will see below.

Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 9 June 1906 p 11 Family Notices
KERR - On the 8th June, John Kerr, late of "Glen Lyn", Glenroy, the beloved husband of Lillian Kerr, aged 56 years.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 17 September 1906 p 1 Family Notices
DEATHS. AIRD. -On the 16th September, at his residence, "Glen Lyn," Glenroy, Robert, the dearly beloved husband of Elizabeth Aird, and loving father of Lillian Kerr,

Lillian was the wife of John Kerr Jnr.



TUESDAY, MARCH 10. At Twelve O'clock.
CLEARING SALE Of FARMING IMPLEMENTS, DAIRY UTENSILS, &C?., At GLENALLAN, BROADMEADOWS.
WILLIAM ADAMSON and Co. have received instructions from the trustee In the estate of Mr. John Kerr to SELL, as above, by PUBLIC AUCTION, through their auctioneer,
The whole of his complete working plant, Consisting of Drays, mllk waggons, waggonette, dray and other harness, ploughs, harrows, rollers, mowing machines, Held, stack and truss elevators, also barrows, milk cans, and sundries too numerous to particularise. For further details sec posters.
Win. Adamson and Co., 403 Bourke street._
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 12 March 1892 p 2 Advertising)

Like his father, John Kerr Jnr was heavily into dairying, although his operation was not as big as that of Thomas Baker of Somerton. The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 18 February 1907 p 8 Article
... DEPLORABLE TRAGEDY. -THOUGHTLESS RIFLE PRACTICE. YOUTH CHARGED WITH MURDER. Mr. Thomas Baker's dairy farm at Somerton was the scene of a tragedy on Saturday afternoon

John Twomey owned Glenallan at the time the new shire hall was built in 1928. In 1944, R.Parkinson established the Glenallan Stud there.


Suddenly I had a feeling that I'd written about Glen Lyn previously. I had,in the journal about the Oaklands Hunt riding through Glenroy etc.and it was then occupied by the McLeans. I had wondered if the homestead was still standing. It seems as if it is.

Heritage Listed Location
Glenlyn
34 Finchley Avenue,Glenroy, Moreland City
(Glenroy, VIC 3046 - Historic Activity Locations : On My Doorstep
www.onmydoorstep.com.au/at/3046/glenroy/activities/historic‎
0.5kms - Heritage Listed Location Glenlyn 34 Finchley Avenue,Glenroy, Moreland City. 0.5kms - Heritage Listed Location Greystanes 58 Belair Avenue,Glenroy, ...)

DETAILS / SIGNIFICANCE
Glenlyn is of local historical significance. The house dates from the first period of suburban subdivision of Glenroy, which occurred in the 1880s, probably as part of James Chapman's Forest Hills Estate.

N.B. The Glenroy West/Jacana area, over 1500 acres, was sold by Duncan Kennedy (Donald's brother) to James Chapman in July 1887 for 76 000 pounds.


JOHN KERR SNR. AND KERRSLAND.
Andrew Lemon devoted many pages of BROADMEADOWS: A FORGOTTEN HISTORY to the Kerr family. A plan on page 78 shows how Donald Kennedy's "Glenroy" consisted of three farms when his widow sold it in 1886, Pasture Hill of 383 acres (occupied by John Kerr), Bayview Farm of nearly 345 acres (occupied by Thomas Stranks) and Glenroy Farm of nearly 389 acres (occupied by M.J.C. Cochrane*.) John Kerr who had been leasing in the district since about 1860 bought Pasture Hill and Bayview Farm. Judging by the Glenallan sale notice, John Snr also bought that property and John Jnr had been leasing it from him.

(In two of those amusing errors common to historians who lack decades of background knowledge of an area, both Glenroy Farm and most of today's Gladstone Park were described as being in MOONEE PONDS. In THE STOPOVER THAT STAYED, the history of the City of Essendon, Grant Aldous devoted much attention to John Cochrane, whose farm was in the shire of Broadmeadows. In A.D.Pyke's THE GOLD THE BLUE, a history of Lowther Hall, the author wrote of Peter McCracken's time (1846-1855) at Stewarton in MOONEE PONDS before moving to Kensington and establishing a dairy farm on the eastern two thirds of J.R.Murphy's "Kensington Park" (between Kensington Rd and thesouth end of Bellair St. Both confused Moonee Ponds, meaning near the Moonee Ponds Creek, with the suburb.)
N.B.The name of Stewarton was changed to Gladstone shortly after John Cock took over the lease from the Kerrs in 1892.

Place: Pasture Hill Farm / Kerrsland / St Joseph's Foundling Home ...
www.hume.vic.gov.au/files/2863eb0f.../29GibsonStBroadmeadows.pdf‎
Kerrsland that was for many years the home of pioneer Broadmeadows district farmer John Kerr, a Scotsman who .... Geoghegan) College at Broadmeadows.

John Kerr built a magnificent house which still stands as part of Penola College (the renamed Geohegan College.) In its early days it was called Glenroy House, but later,probably from 1888 when the Wiseman brothers and partners were selling Glenroy Farm as the TOORAK OF THE NORTH, the name was changed to "Kerrsland".

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 23 August 1880 p 3 Article
... MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. BROADMEADOWS (Shire). -Mr. George Edols, of Dunhelen, the retiring president, was again proposed, but on his declining, Mr Kerr of Glenroy was unanimously elected and briefly acknowledged the compliment after which a unanimous vote of thanks ... 116 words

North Melbourne Advertiser (Vic. : 1873 - 1894) Saturday 5 January 1889 p 3 Article
... BROADMEADOWS COUNCIL This council held their monthly meeting on Friday the 28th ulto. CORRESPONDENCE. Letter from Councillor Kerr, of Kerrsland, resigning his seat as councillor on account of ill health. The resignation was accepted and the secretary directed to convey to Mr. Kerr...

Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 13 March 1890 p 1 Family Notices
KERR.-On the 12th inst., at his residence, Kerrsland, Broadmeadows, John Kerr, beloved husband of M.G.Kerr, aged 66 years. A colonist of 37 years.

TROTMANKERR. On the 25th October, at the Parsonage, Lonsdale street, by the Rev. A. R.Edgar, Joseph Trotman J.P., of Waldara, Wangaratta to Margaret Grace, widow of the late John Kerr, J.P., of Kerrsland, Broadmeadows,
and only daughter of the late Rev. John Currie.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 6 November 1897 p 1 Family Notices)

How would John Kerr's widow have known a bloke who lived at Wangaratta? Where did I start? Why,Yuroke of course.

Family Notices
Illustrated Australian News for Home Readers (Melbourne, Vic. : 1867 - 1875) Saturday 5 September 1868 p 14 Family Notices
TROTMAN.- On the 14th ult., at Glen Arthur*, Yuroke, the wife of Mr J.Trotman, farmer, of twin sons. All ... 1047 words
(*Glen Arthur is now the western half of Greenvale reservoir.)

ROBERT CALDWELL OF "DROMANA HILL", VIC., AUST., AND OTHER PENINSULA CALDWELLS.

Caldwell Rd, an uphill continuation of McCulloch St in Dromana, was named after Robert Caldwell. Although he lost his properties in the parish of Kangerong through insolvency, he was heavily involved in the area's progress in its early days, such as moves to obtain a pier,the formation of the Kangerong Road Board, and being one of the three trustees for the recreation reserve. I discovered his insolvency while trying to determine the location of 173 acres in the parish of Kangerong occupied by William Henry Blakeley in 1876 and 1877. There is no mention of Dromana in the following or the Victoria Parliament website so this journal is intended to give a more complete picture of this pioneer. I will describe the locations of his properties in the Dromana district and supply material from trove in connection with statements made above. He did not move to Queensland in 1861 as implied by the following. I also intend to mention the Victorian Meat Preserving Co.


ROBERT CALDWELL, MERCHANT, POLITICIAN, & FOUNDER ...
www.auspostalhistory.com/articles/1831.shtml‎

Robert Caldwell was born 1815 in Portobello a suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland and he established a business of Caldwell Brothers in Edinburgh. He had been educated in Edinburgh at the New Academy and Queens College. He arrived in Melbourne in 1852 and became a partner in Callender, Caldwell & Co., a firm of merchants until ca. 1860. In 1860 he was appointed to the Royal commission for Harbour improvements. He was then involved in various enterprises in Victoria, Queensland and Darwin until 1875, when he purchased the wine business of J.T. Fallon & Sons. He was a successful exhibitor of wines in the Melbourne Exhibition of 1880-1881. He opened up a market in India for colonial wines and was the founder and president of the Australian Wine Association. His firm, known as Caldwell & Co., became Caldwells Australian Wine Company Ltd in 1888 after his death. He was the author of The Gold Era of Victoria. A colourfull advert for Calldwells The Wine of Life is seen in Figure 4.

In addition he was President of the Chamber of Manufactures 1884-1885 and a director of Hobsons Bay Railway Co., the Colonial Bank, as well as commissioner of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. He was elected the Member of the Legislative Assembly for West Melbourne in October 1859 until July 1861, when he resigned on account of his poor health in Victoria, and he moved to the warmer climate of Queensland. He had married Elizabeth Cooper in 1856 at St. Kilda, Melbourne and they had 3 sons and several daughters. He died on 7 August 1887 at Brisbane, Queensland.

The death of Robert Caldwell is recorded in The Argus (Melbourne) dated 9 August 1887, two days after his death at Brisbane. He was described as of the firm of R. Caldwell and Co., wine merchants, Collins-street west, who held for many years a prominent position in mercantile circles, and who was especially active in recent years in promoting the Australian wine industry. He had caught a severe cold 2 years ago and it settled on his lungs, and he never recovered from it. The business of his firm, during his absence on account of ill health, was conducted by his son Robert Caldwell Junior, who had lately been admitted into it as a partner. In May last, under medical advice, he took a trip to Queensland for the purpose of escaping the severity of the Victorian winter. His death at Brisbane was stated to be due to bronchitis. The firm of Caldwell Brothers in Edinburgh was still in existence, but he had severed his connection with his brother.

He had a short period in Melbourne when he started the Victorian Meat-Preserving Company, of which he was the managing director at the same time as being in the Victorian Parliament; the company was not a success, and he went to Queensland where he took up a station and began sheep breeding. He had a few prosperous seasons followed by his prospects being shattered by the drought and the low price of wool. He gave up pastoral pursuits, returned from Queensland, settled in Warrnambool, Victoria, opened another meat preserving factory, but was not successful in that industry due to a glut of preserved meats, both locally and in England.

He next went to Port Darwin with stores and traded with nearby islands, as well as having a pearl fisheries interest which was very remunerative, but the climate was not to his liking. His next venture was to buy the Lake Albert Vineyard, near Wagga Wagga N.S.W. Unfortunately his obituary was not in a clear dated order, and I suspect that he never entered into the meat preserving business for a second time! His body was returned from Brisbane for burial in the Melbourne General Cemetery.

I acknowledge that I have abstracted information on Robert Caldwell from the Parliament of Victorias website.


ROBERT CALDWELL'S WIDOW.
McKENZIECALDWELL.--On the 2nd July, at "Bramber," Middle Brighton, by the Rev.Chas. Ross, of Darlington, the Rev.D.McKenzie, Clifton Hill, to Elizabeth, widow of the late Robert Caldwell, wine merchant, Melbourne.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 1 August 1903 p 9 Family Notices)

ROBERT CALDWELL'S GRANTS.
Crown allotment 4 of section 3,parish of Kangerong, consisted of 297 acres 2 roods and 29 perches. Known as "Dromana Hill",it was bounded on the west by the wedge-shaped town common (later the gravel reserve, )with frontages to Boundary Rd and a now-closed road (indicated by the boundary between the quarry land and Arthurs Seat State Park at the bottom of Melway 159 J-K12.) The Boundary Rd frontage can be shown by extending the quarry land boundaries northward; roughly between Nos.273 and 205.

Crown allotment 10B, no section, consisting of 172 acres 1 rood and 36 perches was granted on 30-1-1868. Bounded on the east by Sheehan's Rd (the original south end of White Hill Rd until Wiseman's Deviation was made)it had frontages to Tumbywood Rd of 728 metres and Arthurs Seat Rd of 207 metres. The western boundary is indicated by extending the eastern boundary of the Holmes Rd Reserve (Melway 190 G2) to the north and south boundaries.

THE INSOLVENCY.
THIS DAY. DROMANA. Sale by Public Auction of Two Valuable Properties in the Parish of Kangerong.
RESIDENCE, VINEYARD, ORCHARD, and 297a. 2r. 29p. And FARMING BLOCK of 172a. lr. 36p.
In the Insolvent Estate ot Robert Caldwell. By Order of R. E. Jacomb, Esq., Official Assignee For Positive and Absolute Sale.
Terms-One-fourth Cash, Balance 6, 12, and l8 Months, bearing 8 per Cent Interest.
ALFRED BLISS has been favoured witb instructions from R. E Jacomb, Esq., official assignee to SELL by PUBLIC AUCTION, at 82 Collins-street west, on Monday, January 30, at two o'clock,
Tho following landed properties, viz -
Lot 1.-297a. 2r. 29p., parish of Kangerong, fenced in with three-rail fence and subdivided.
Improvements,-Eight room wooden house and cellar, partly plastered, verandah in front, tank and several permanent springs. Large quantity saleable timber. 10 acres of orchard, partly pipe drained. About 10 acres of vineyard, six years planted. About two acres of vegetable and flower garden, shrubs of all kinds.

This is tho property that Mr. Caldwell has disbursed upwards of 4000 upon to make into a sea side family
residence and vineyard. It is situate three-quarters of a mile from Dromana Jetty, and is admitted to be
one of the most beautiful sites in Dromana, and for healthy atmosphere and sea air not to be surpassed.

Lot 2 -172a. lr. 36p., part of Section 10, parish of Kangerong, fenced in with three rail fence. Permanent water-holes and running spring. Rich chocolate soil. Surrounded by farms. About two miles and a half from Dromana Jetty.
Mr. Watkin, of the Dromana Hotel, will direct intending purchasers to the properties. These two lots are for absolute sale by order of the official assignee. Title perfect. Terms-One-fourth cash, balance 6, 12, and l8 months, bearing eight per. cent. interest. Sale takes place at 82 Collins-street west, on Monday, January 30 at two o'clock. (P.2, Argus, 30-1-1871.)

The 297 acre property, known as "Dromana-Hill" had been extensively advertised at the start of 1867 and in 1868 but had failed to sell.

FIND ADV.RE ABOVE.
FOR ABSOLUTE SALE DROMANA-HILL ESTATE And PHAROS VINEYARD
(By auction on 8th April, if not sold privately).
This is one of the most healthy and picturesque summer residences. The property consists of over 460 acres, 297 of which are within 10 minutes' walk of the jetty, and 160 on the mountain, all fenced in and subdivided.
Tho following are some of the special features of this estate :
1. The climate is exceedingly equal, and free from hot or cold winds.
2. The beach for sea bathing Is unsurpassed.
3. The vineyard and orchard are now bearing largely, and will yield a handsome return.
4. Tho vegetable-garden can be irrigated by the natural fall of the creek; tho reserve of water could be
greatly increased.
5. The success of the orange trees proves the mildness of the climate.
6. About 100 acres are of rich chocolate soil, the remainder is good loam.
7. Abundance of fine granite can be had on the estate, and could be easily shipped to Melbourne at the jetty.
8. Several permanent wells of good water are on the property, and a small stream runs through it.
9. A coach runs daily, and a steamboat weekly, brings it within a few hours of Melbourne.
10. The Jetty is one of tho finest in tho bay.
Apply, for further information and for order to view tho property, to Mr. CALDWELL, 32 Queen-street : or to Mr.BYRNE, Collins-street.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 2 February 1867 p 8 Advertising)

Beautiful Property for Absolute Sale.
DROMANA-HILL,
ARTHUR'S SEAT.
To Merchants, Retired Gentlemen, and Guardians.
GEMMELL, TUCKETT, and Co. have received in-
structions to SELL by AUCTION, on tho
ground, on Frida}, 0th Mnrch, at one o'clock,
The beautiful property know n as
Dromana hill,
Arthur's Seat.
Together with tho Btock, including
Horses, cows. Brittany bull, Shetland pony, Ac
Also. - '
Stosk of colonial wjno, vintages 1866 and 1807.
For particulars see " Australasian."
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 24 February 1868 p 3 Advertising)


PIER.
DROMANA.
Messrs. Caldwell and Lyall, M.L.A.'s, waited upon Mr. Francis, for the purpose of asking him to cause to be placed on the Estimates the sum of 2,000, for the construction of a jetty at Dromana.
Mr. FRANCIS, in reply, said that as there was no municipality at Dromana, the people of the district should endeavour to subscribe a sum of money, and then go to the Government to get it supplemented. He thought the best plan for the deputation to adopt would be to postpone the application, as at present it was the intention of the Government to stop many of the public works, there not being sufficient money to carry them on.
The deputation then withdrew.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 7 December 1859 p 5 Article)

The following could not be fixed on trove and I have only corrected a part. It might make readers appreciate how much work is required to present a readable article etc.

Mr. CALDWELL said he could not allow the motion to go to the vote without some remark as his name had been introduced in connoxhwith it on a former occasion. He believed that the present was a really hard case, for the persons living at Dromana were principally lime burners, wood-cutters, and fishermen, and they had been promised what on all hands was acknowledged to be necessary. So necessary was it oonsidered by the late Government, that they had promised to put a sum on the Estimates for the present year. 30,000 hod been derived from the sale of land in the district, and all tho money which had been expended in any shape amounted to only 11,000 pounds, therefore there was a large margin left.

For the Gipps Land district 000 had boon vot a few nights ago, and it would be found thal larger sum was expended thero than was rcceiv from tho sale of land. There were peculiar advantages in the Dromana district. For instance tho Government got all their best timber there for sleepers, piles, and telegraph posts; in fact 26,000 tons of produce were annually shipped from the place. The whole of the traffic was done by men wading up to the neck in water, there being not the least pier accommodation. He should support tho motion. -if'a * t . ' 1 .; ; (Bottom of Column 4, P.6,Argus, 19-6-1861.)

(The lime burners were mainly operating west of Boneo Rd and John Campbell, a former Dromana resident, supposedly erected the first Rye Pier in 1860. The beach road was so bad that a pier at Dromana would not have been much good for them, especially since it would be another five years until Ned Williams cut a road around Anthony's Nose and the lime burners would have had to wait for low tide and travel around this obstacle on the beach sand. It wouldn't have been of much benefit for fishermen either because if vessels bound for Melbourne were delayed by contrary conditions, as they often were, their catches would have rotted. Being a skilful politician, Robert did not bother to point out these facts.)

Fruit Trees for China
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 9 October 1936 p 5 Article
... Fruit Trees for China SOMERVILLE, Thursday. shipment A shipment or fruit trees has been sent to China by Messrs. Caldwell Bros., St Johns Nurseries, Somerville. This is claimed to be the first shipment of its kind to be sent from Victoria to China.



NOT STANDING 1861.
TO the ELECTORS of WEST MELBOURNE
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 31 July 1861 p 8 Article
... TO the ELECTORS of WEST MELBOURNE Gentlemen, CALDWELL I have to announce to you that I shall not at present offer myself for re-election. ROBERT CALDWELL Dromana, July 29. .

CHILDREN BORN AT DROMANA HILL.
Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 10 March 1864 p 4 Family Notices
... BIRTHS. CALDWELL.-On the 4th inst., at Dromana-hill, Dromana, the wife of Robert Caldwell, Esq., of a daughter.

DROMANA COMMON SCHOOL.
APPOIHTMENTS.-School Committees.
Jamieson School - Bear Rapiport, J.P., H.A. Berger, J.P., Thomas Smallman, Alexander McLean, James Cole Webb, George Harrison, R.N., Alfred Goulding, Julius Kaeppel, Wm. Green Power, Peter Gleeson,Rev. Frederick Smith; Albion School Joseph Solomon, Alfred Newman ; Dromana School - Robert Caldwell;etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 1 February 1866 p 6 Article)

ROAD BOARD.
KANGERONG ROAD DISTRICT. (COMMUNICATED.)
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 8 December 1862 p 6 Article
... KANGERONG ROAD DISTRICT. (COMMUNICATED.) A meeting of landholders and householders in the newly-formed road district of Kangerong, in the county of Mornington, having been convened for ... Mr. Caldwell said it was not necessary that the chairman should be either a land- holder or

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 21 July 1863 p 8 Advertising
... inclusive. ROBERT CALDWELL, Esq., J.P. - Sir.- His Excellency the Governor having proclaimed by notice in the Government Gazette the Road District, of Kangerong, we, the undersigned land- id ... p.m., for the purpose above stated. ROBERT CALDWELL, J P. 17th July. 1863.

KANGERONG DISTRICT ROAD BOARD.
Public notice is hereby given, that an ELECTION for one member of the above Board will be held at the office of the Board on Thursday, the 10th day of August, 1865, in room of Mr. John Creighton. (CRICHTON!)
Candidates to be nominated in accordance with the provisions of the 84th and 85th clauses of the Local
Government Act, No. 176.
And I hereby appoint Mr. Richard Watkin to receive candidates' nomination papers and deposits.
ROBERT CALDWELL, Returning Officer.
In accordance with the above notice, I will receive,at my residence, the Dromana Hotel, candidates' nomination papers and deposits, until 3 o'clock p.m. on Wednesday, the 2nd day of August, 1865.
RICHARD WATKIN.
Road Board Office, Dromana, July 26,1865.

KANGERONG ROAD DISTRICT -Notice is hereby given that an ELECTION for two AUDITORS for the above board will be held at the office of tho board, on Thursday, tho 1st March, 1866, at 12 o'clock noon.
ROBERT CALDWELL, Chairman, Road Board Office, Dromana Hotel, February 21, 1866.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 24 February 1866 p 7 Advertising)

PARK TRUSTEE.
APPOINTMENTS.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 16 September 1863 p 5 Article))
To be a committee of management of the land reserved for a public park at Dromana, viz --Godfrey Howitt, Esq., M.D. ; Robert Caldwell, Esq., J.P. ; William Grace, Esq ;Joseph Brooks Burrell, Esq.; and Edward Latrobe Bateman, Esq.
(See Burrell below. William Grace was granted Gracefield, 249 acres on the east side of Caldwell Rd, and with Robert Caldwell and Henry Everest Adams was a pioneer of wine production in the area. The Gracefield Hotel, on the site of the original part of the Rye Hotel, was built on William Grace's grants by his son in law, Patrick Sullivan. Godfrey Howitt was granted all the land between Boneo Rd and the coast in the parish of Fingal from the (Old)Cape Schanck Rd junction to the Cape Schanck turn off. Edward Latrobe Bateman was a cousin of Governor Latrobe and an architect who is believed to have designed Anderson's "Barragunda" and "Heronswood." He received the grant for the triangular 9A Fingal at Melway 253 B8.)

DROMANA CEMETERY.
THE GAZETTE.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 18 May 1863 p 6 Article
Joseph Brooks Burrell, Robert Caldwell, and James Ford, to be the trustees of the cemetery at Dromana.
(Burrell had taken over Andrew McCrae's Arthur's Seat Run in 1851. James Ford, transported for damaging machinery during the Industrial Revolution, pioneered and named Portsea and later received grants for the Wannaeue Estate, part of which is now the Rosebud Country Club.)

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE.
APPOINTMENTS.-To be added to the roll of magistrates for the colony of Victoria :
....... Robert Caldwell, Esq. (J.P. for Melbourne), Dromana ; etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 22 June 1867 p 7 Article)

ROBERT CALDWELL, POLITICAL MUSSEL MAN!
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 11 September 1867 p 4 Article
... Robert Caldwell, of Dromana, stating that large quantities of very fine mussels had been found in that neighbourhood ; and Mr. Caldwell suggested that if logs of wood were placed in the shallow water ..




VICTORIAN MEAT PRESERVING COMPANY.
VICTORIA.
Melbourne, October, 13.
Mr. Caldwell, the squatter, has filed his schedule, - with liabilities stated at 7,000, and assets 3,000. The causes of bankruptcy have been losses in pastoral pursuits in Queensland. He was formerly a member of the Assembly, and is now Manager for the Victorian Meat-Preserving Company.
(South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Friday 14 October 1870 p 5 Article)

I had a feeling that the company's works were at Maribyrnong or Ascot Vale West but it was actually in Melbourne; no wonder they called it Smellbourne!

Tho origin of the company is interesting and properly dates from the time that Mr R. Caldwell, the present managing partner met Mr. R. M'Cracken, the present practical manager. The attention of the former (once a prominent member of the Legislative Assembly in Queensland, and subsequently engaged in squatting pursuits had for some time been directed towards meat preserving and in Mr. M'Cracken he found one who had long been practically acquainted with the work,(in Tasmania) etc.
Premises- a long range of two-storey bluestone buildings in Gallagher's-lane running off Bourke street west, just behind the old Rose of Australia Hotel, and still occupied by tho company-were taken, and work begun.
(Extracts from article:P.6, Argus, 20-4-1870.)
Soon after, the company moved to Stony Creek.
stony creek victorian meat preserving company pier
vhd.heritage.vic.gov.au/places/result_detail/13780?print=true‎
The Victorian Meat Preserving Company occupied this site from the (1860's????????) until 1880. Despite the fact that no archaeological evidence exists, it is probable that ...



They say that burning off fat is the result of hectic activity but in this case hectic activity was the result of "burning off" fat, for Robert and his employees.
THE FIRE AT THE VICTORIAN MEAT-PRESERVING COMPANY'S WORKS.
The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle (NSW : 1864 - 1881) Wednesday 10 May 1871 p 4 Article
... THE FIRE AT THE VICTORIAN MEAT-PRESERVING PRESERVING COMPANY'S WORKS. (From the Daily Telegraph.)


OTHER CALDWELL GRANTS.(OTHER PARISHES TOO, AND SOMERVILLE/CHINA.)
Crown allotment 2, section 2, Kangerong was granted to W.Caldwell, who may have been related to Robert. Consisting of 167 acres, with 400 metre frontages to the Nepean Highway and Boundary Rd,it is bisected by Shergold's Lane. Its western and eastern boundaries can be plotted on Melway by measuring 2cm either side of Shergold's Lane (18mm on maps in Superpages.)

I presume the grantee was W.R.Caldwell whose daughter's birth notice follows.
Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 25 January 1866 p 4 Family Notices
... Caldwell, Dromana, of a daughter.

J.Caldwell, 34A, Balnarring, granted on 11-2-1876, consisting of 131 acres 3 roods 7 perches and situated at the south east corner of Stanleys and Merricks Rds. Being east of Red Hill Rd, this land would have been in the east riding of the shire of Flinders and Kangerong.

The Flinders and Kangerong Road Boards amalgamated and constituted the shire of Flinders and Kangerong. In the following August in '75 all the members were disbanded; four candidates were nominated for three in the west riding and he (John Cain)was successful and has never been opposed since. His colleagues were Messrs W.B. Ford and Robert Anderson, the latter held the seat till three years ago(John Barker jun, S. Tuck, and Geo.Henderson centre riding), (David Mairs, Caldwell and Robert Wighton east riding).
(MUNICIPAL MEMS. PRESIDENT JOHN CAIN.
Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 11 October 1900 Edition: MORNING. p 3 Article)

Extract from my THE SHIRE OF FLINDERS journal.
CALDWELL John. 1875-6 Grantees in the parish of Kangerong bore the same surname and Caldwell Rd in Dromana recalls this. J.Caldwell was the grantee of 34A (on 11-2-1876) and 35A Balnarring, which fronted the east side of Merricks Rd between Stanleys Rd and Mornington-Flinders Rd (Melway 192 F 6-8 roughly.) As all the Kangerong Caldwells had left, this was probably John, making him an east riding councillor.

Oops,my memory is better than my eyesight! 35A Balnarring of 94 acres and 24 perches and granted on 14-4-1875, was south of 34A with a northern boundary of 581 acres and a southern frontage to Frankston-Flinders Rd of 170 metres. John's frontage to the east side of Merricks Rd stretched from Stanleys Rd to Frankston-Flinders Rd.

CALDWELL.--On the 31st ult., at Balnarring, James Caldwell, brother of the late John Caldwell, native of Beith, Ayrshire Scotland, aged 66 years.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 9 June 1892 p 1 Family Notices)

CALDWELL-INGRAM.-On the 26th Inst, at 8 Westgarth-street, Fitzroy, by James Taylor, Baptist minister, Mr. John Caldwell, of Balnarring, to Miss Violet Ingram.
(This would seem to indicate that John was not the Somerville pioneer.)

CALDWELL- On the 10th inst, at his residence,Balnarring, after a short illness, John Caldwell, native of Beath, Ayrshire, aged 67. A colonist of 38 years.
( The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 27 December 1890 p 1 Family Notices)


PROGRESSIVE SOMERVILLE.
THE NURSERIES AND ORCHARDS:No. II,
MESSRS. J. M. CALDWELL AND SONS,
The orchard owned and occupied by Messrs.J. Caldwell and Sons is situated about two and a half miles from the railway station, and stands on the summit of a steep hill, comprising in all about 146 acres.The area however used for cultivation purposes is only 30 acres, the remainder being used for grazing stock, etc.
Unlike the majority of orchardists in the district the Messrs Caldwell are not adepts in horticultural. Prior to their removal to Somerville five years ago, they had no knowledge whatever of this particular industry, having being compelled to resort to it as a means of livelihood owing to a reversal of fortune,and they owe what knowledge they at present possess to the kindness of their neighbours. Since their residence in the district they have been very active in matters connected with the welfare of the place, and were amongst the promoters of the shows recently held at Somerville, the eldest son being secretary of the Somerville Fruit
growers' Association. The orchard is rather overstocked, owing to the trees being originally planted too close which has had a prejudicial effect upon them, and caused them to be rather stunted in their growth, but the Messrs. Caldwell are gradually thinning them out. Notwithstanding this, the fruit grown is of a superior quality, some splendid specimens being shown at the local shows, at which they were large prize-takers. As an instance of the quantity of fruit grown, during the first year 4,200 cases of fruit were sent away, exclusive of which about 90 cases of Early Margarets were given to the pigs.

This year, however, the yield was not nearly so large, the most noticeable falling off being in the Five Crown
apple, trees usually bearing from 10 cases downwards only bearing an average a little over half a case. Out of
a whole row of this particular kind of fruit only one and a half cases were obtained. Prices have also been correspondingly low this season. Two seasons ago as high a price as 15s per case was obtained for the Rome Beauty apple, but at present the price ranges from about 4s 6d up to 6s per case. The former was the highest price obtained during the season. The yield of some varieties of apples have, however, been just as good as ever, notably the Italian Red, 11 cases being got off one tree. It is the custom of the Messrs. Caldwell
to put burnt ashes around the foot of the trees in the place of manure, which they find has the effect of giving the fruit a rich bright color. The ashes are not specially burnt for the purpose,but are taken from the logs which have been burnt in the paddock, as well as those from household use. This does not apply to all of the trees, only a few being treated in this manner. The fruit held over when packed is placed in racks specially built for the purpose in the fruit room, then covered over with cloths, the fruit being picked
over from time to time in order to allow of any that may have become bruised being sorted out. At present
the firm have 100 cases of Stone Pippin in stock, besides which they have between 200 and 900 cases of apples of other varieties, including the Shepherd's Perfection, Light Aromatic, Rome Beauty, Italian Red, Cleopatra,
Nicker Jack and others, all of which are in splendid condition and of good quality, the Shepherd's Perfection being of a beautiful colour, more so than usual, owing, as the Messrs. Caldwell aver, to the use of the ashes above described. A small plot of ground is planted out with young shoots, which when ready will he transplanted into the orchard.

Mr. Caldwell, senior, and his two sons, do all the work connected with the orchard. By the courtesy of Mr.
J. M. Caldwell our representative was accorded a peep at the collection of preserves shows by Mrs. J. M. Cald-
well at the local show, for which she gained the first prize two years in succession. At present the collection
numbers nearly 100 varieties, all of which are ranged on shelves in the pantry two and three deep. Our repre-
sentative was informed that it was the intention of Mrs. J. M.Caldwell not to compete at the next show, but possibly before the time arrives that lady may be prevailed upon to once more enter the lists.
(Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 2 July 1896 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 26 December 1899 p 1 Family Notices
... and M. K. Ballantyne, late of Brighton, Victoria. CALDWELL.-On the 25th December, at the r ... -street, Abbotsford, Ellen Carley Caldwell, the beloved mother of J. M. Caldwell, of Somerville, and sister of Margaret Manson, Jane Harper, and Penelope Shegog, aged 83 years

CALDWELL.-On September 25, at St.John's, Somerville. Elizabeth Northey, relict of the late John Manson Caldwell,and loving mother of James and Benjamin, in her 94th year. (Interred at Frankston on September 26.)
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 28 September 1943 p 2 Family Notices)