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Caldwell Rd, an uphill continuation of McCulloch St in Dromana, was named after Robert Caldwell. Although he lost his properties in the parish of Kangerong through insolvency, he was heavily involved in the area's progress in its early days, such as moves to obtain a pier,the formation of the Kangerong Road Board, and being one of the three trustees for the recreation reserve. I discovered his insolvency while trying to determine the location of 173 acres in the parish of Kangerong occupied by William Henry Blakeley in 1876 and 1877. There is no mention of Dromana in the following or the Victoria Parliament website so this journal is intended to give a more complete picture of this pioneer. I will describe the locations of his properties in the Dromana district and supply material from trove in connection with statements made above. He did not move to Queensland in 1861 as implied by the following. I also intend to mention the Victorian Meat Preserving Co.


Robert Caldwell was born 1815 in Portobello a suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland and he established a business of Caldwell Brothers in Edinburgh. He had been educated in Edinburgh at the New Academy and Queens College. He arrived in Melbourne in 1852 and became a partner in Callender, Caldwell & Co., a firm of merchants until ca. 1860. In 1860 he was appointed to the Royal commission for Harbour improvements. He was then involved in various enterprises in Victoria, Queensland and Darwin until 1875, when he purchased the wine business of J.T. Fallon & Sons. He was a successful exhibitor of wines in the Melbourne Exhibition of 1880-1881. He opened up a market in India for colonial wines and was the founder and president of the Australian Wine Association. His firm, known as Caldwell & Co., became Caldwells Australian Wine Company Ltd in 1888 after his death. He was the author of The Gold Era of Victoria. A colourfull advert for Calldwells The Wine of Life is seen in Figure 4.

In addition he was President of the Chamber of Manufactures 1884-1885 and a director of Hobsons Bay Railway Co., the Colonial Bank, as well as commissioner of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. He was elected the Member of the Legislative Assembly for West Melbourne in October 1859 until July 1861, when he resigned on account of his poor health in Victoria, and he moved to the warmer climate of Queensland. He had married Elizabeth Cooper in 1856 at St. Kilda, Melbourne and they had 3 sons and several daughters. He died on 7 August 1887 at Brisbane, Queensland.

The death of Robert Caldwell is recorded in The Argus (Melbourne) dated 9 August 1887, two days after his death at Brisbane. He was described as of the firm of R. Caldwell and Co., wine merchants, Collins-street west, who held for many years a prominent position in mercantile circles, and who was especially active in recent years in promoting the Australian wine industry. He had caught a severe cold 2 years ago and it settled on his lungs, and he never recovered from it. The business of his firm, during his absence on account of ill health, was conducted by his son Robert Caldwell Junior, who had lately been admitted into it as a partner. In May last, under medical advice, he took a trip to Queensland for the purpose of escaping the severity of the Victorian winter. His death at Brisbane was stated to be due to bronchitis. The firm of Caldwell Brothers in Edinburgh was still in existence, but he had severed his connection with his brother.

He had a short period in Melbourne when he started the Victorian Meat-Preserving Company, of which he was the managing director at the same time as being in the Victorian Parliament; the company was not a success, and he went to Queensland where he took up a station and began sheep breeding. He had a few prosperous seasons followed by his prospects being shattered by the drought and the low price of wool. He gave up pastoral pursuits, returned from Queensland, settled in Warrnambool, Victoria, opened another meat preserving factory, but was not successful in that industry due to a glut of preserved meats, both locally and in England.

He next went to Port Darwin with stores and traded with nearby islands, as well as having a pearl fisheries interest which was very remunerative, but the climate was not to his liking. His next venture was to buy the Lake Albert Vineyard, near Wagga Wagga N.S.W. Unfortunately his obituary was not in a clear dated order, and I suspect that he never entered into the meat preserving business for a second time! His body was returned from Brisbane for burial in the Melbourne General Cemetery.

I acknowledge that I have abstracted information on Robert Caldwell from the Parliament of Victorias website.

McKENZIECALDWELL.--On the 2nd July, at "Bramber," Middle Brighton, by the Rev.Chas. Ross, of Darlington, the Rev.D.McKenzie, Clifton Hill, to Elizabeth, widow of the late Robert Caldwell, wine merchant, Melbourne.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 1 August 1903 p 9 Family Notices)

Crown allotment 4 of section 3,parish of Kangerong, consisted of 297 acres 2 roods and 29 perches. Known as "Dromana Hill",it was bounded on the west by the wedge-shaped town common (later the gravel reserve, )with frontages to Boundary Rd and a now-closed road (indicated by the boundary between the quarry land and Arthurs Seat State Park at the bottom of Melway 159 J-K12.) The Boundary Rd frontage can be shown by extending the quarry land boundaries northward; roughly between Nos.273 and 205.

Crown allotment 10B, no section, consisting of 172 acres 1 rood and 36 perches was granted on 30-1-1868. Bounded on the east by Sheehan's Rd (the original south end of White Hill Rd until Wiseman's Deviation was made)it had frontages to Tumbywood Rd of 728 metres and Arthurs Seat Rd of 207 metres. The western boundary is indicated by extending the eastern boundary of the Holmes Rd Reserve (Melway 190 G2) to the north and south boundaries.

THIS DAY. DROMANA. Sale by Public Auction of Two Valuable Properties in the Parish of Kangerong.
RESIDENCE, VINEYARD, ORCHARD, and 297a. 2r. 29p. And FARMING BLOCK of 172a. lr. 36p.
In the Insolvent Estate ot Robert Caldwell. By Order of R. E. Jacomb, Esq., Official Assignee For Positive and Absolute Sale.
Terms-One-fourth Cash, Balance 6, 12, and l8 Months, bearing 8 per Cent Interest.
ALFRED BLISS has been favoured witb instructions from R. E Jacomb, Esq., official assignee to SELL by PUBLIC AUCTION, at 82 Collins-street west, on Monday, January 30, at two o'clock,
Tho following landed properties, viz -
Lot 1.-297a. 2r. 29p., parish of Kangerong, fenced in with three-rail fence and subdivided.
Improvements,-Eight room wooden house and cellar, partly plastered, verandah in front, tank and several permanent springs. Large quantity saleable timber. 10 acres of orchard, partly pipe drained. About 10 acres of vineyard, six years planted. About two acres of vegetable and flower garden, shrubs of all kinds.

This is tho property that Mr. Caldwell has disbursed upwards of £4000 upon to make into a sea side family
residence and vineyard. It is situate three-quarters of a mile from Dromana Jetty, and is admitted to be
one of the most beautiful sites in Dromana, and for healthy atmosphere and sea air not to be surpassed.

Lot 2 -172a. lr. 36p., part of Section 10, parish of Kangerong, fenced in with three rail fence. Permanent water-holes and running spring. Rich chocolate soil. Surrounded by farms. About two miles and a half from Dromana Jetty.
Mr. Watkin, of the Dromana Hotel, will direct intending purchasers to the properties. These two lots are for absolute sale by order of the official assignee. Title perfect. Terms-One-fourth cash, balance 6, 12, and l8 months, bearing eight per. cent. interest. Sale takes place at 82 Collins-street west, on Monday, January 30 at two o'clock. (P.2, Argus, 30-1-1871.)

The 297 acre property, known as "Dromana-Hill" had been extensively advertised at the start of 1867 and in 1868 but had failed to sell.

(By auction on 8th April, if not sold privately).
This is one of the most healthy and picturesque summer residences. The property consists of over 460 acres, 297 of which are within 10 minutes' walk of the jetty, and 160 on the mountain, all fenced in and subdivided.
Tho following are some of the special features of this estate :
1. The climate is exceedingly equal, and free from hot or cold winds.
2. The beach for sea bathing Is unsurpassed.
3. The vineyard and orchard are now bearing largely, and will yield a handsome return.
4. Tho vegetable-garden can be irrigated by the natural fall of the creek; tho reserve of water could be
greatly increased.
5. The success of the orange trees proves the mildness of the climate.
6. About 100 acres are of rich chocolate soil, the remainder is good loam.
7. Abundance of fine granite can be had on the estate, and could be easily shipped to Melbourne at the jetty.
8. Several permanent wells of good water are on the property, and a small stream runs through it.
9. A coach runs daily, and a steamboat weekly, brings it within a few hours of Melbourne.
10. The Jetty is one of tho finest in tho bay.
Apply, for further information and for order to view tho property, to Mr. CALDWELL, 32 Queen-street : or to Mr.BYRNE, Collins-street.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 2 February 1867 p 8 Advertising)

Beautiful Property for Absolute Sale.
To Merchants, Retired Gentlemen, and Guardians.
GEMMELL, TUCKETT, and Co. have received in-
structions to SELL by AUCTION, on tho
ground, on Frida}, 0th Mnrch, at one o'clock,
The beautiful property know n as
Dromana hill,
Arthur's Seat.
Together with tho Btock, including
Horses, cows. Brittany bull, Shetland pony, Ac
Also. - '
Stosk of colonial wjno, vintages 1866 and 1807.
For particulars see " Australasian."
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 24 February 1868 p 3 Advertising)

Messrs. Caldwell and Lyall, M.L.A.'s, waited upon Mr. Francis, for the purpose of asking him to cause to be placed on the Estimates the sum of £2,000, for the construction of a jetty at Dromana.
Mr. FRANCIS, in reply, said that as there was no municipality at Dromana, the people of the district should endeavour to subscribe a sum of money, and then go to the Government to get it supplemented. He thought the best plan for the deputation to adopt would be to postpone the application, as at present it was the intention of the Government to stop many of the public works, there not being sufficient money to carry them on.
The deputation then withdrew.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 7 December 1859 p 5 Article)

The following could not be fixed on trove and I have only corrected a part. It might make readers appreciate how much work is required to present a readable article etc.

Mr. CALDWELL said he could not allow the motion to go to the vote without some remark as his name had been introduced in connoxhwith it on a former occasion. He believed that the present was a really hard case, for the persons living at Dromana were principally lime burners, wood-cutters, and fishermen, and they had been promised what on all hands was acknowledged to be necessary. So necessary was it oonsidered by the late Government, that they had promised to put a sum on the Estimates for the present year. £30,000 hod been derived from the sale of land in the district, and all tho money which had been expended in any shape amounted to only 11,000 pounds, therefore there was a large margin left.

For the Gipps Land district £000 had boon vot a few nights ago, and it would be found thal larger sum was expended thero than was rcceiv from tho sale of land. There were peculiar advantages in the Dromana district. For instance tho Government got all their best timber there for sleepers, piles, and telegraph posts; in fact 26,000 tons of produce were annually shipped from the place. The whole of the traffic was done by men wading up to the neck in water, there being not the least pier accommodation. He should support tho motion. -if'a * t . ' 1 .; ; (Bottom of Column 4, P.6,Argus, 19-6-1861.)

(The lime burners were mainly operating west of Boneo Rd and John Campbell, a former Dromana resident, supposedly erected the first Rye Pier in 1860. The beach road was so bad that a pier at Dromana would not have been much good for them, especially since it would be another five years until Ned Williams cut a road around Anthony's Nose and the lime burners would have had to wait for low tide and travel around this obstacle on the beach sand. It wouldn't have been of much benefit for fishermen either because if vessels bound for Melbourne were delayed by contrary conditions, as they often were, their catches would have rotted. Being a skilful politician, Robert did not bother to point out these facts.)

Fruit Trees for China
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 9 October 1936 p 5 Article
... Fruit Trees for China SOMERVILLE, Thursday. shipment A shipment or fruit trees has been sent to China by Messrs. Caldwell Bros., St Johns Nurseries, Somerville. This is claimed to be the first shipment of its kind to be sent from Victoria to China.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 31 July 1861 p 8 Article
... TO the ELECTORS of WEST MELBOURNE Gentlemen, CALDWELL I have to announce to you that I shall not at present offer myself for re-election. ROBERT CALDWELL Dromana, July 29. .

Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 10 March 1864 p 4 Family Notices
... BIRTHS. CALDWELL.-On the 4th inst., at Dromana-hill, Dromana, the wife of Robert Caldwell, Esq., of a daughter.

APPOIHTMENTS.-School Committees.
Jamieson School - Bear Rapiport, J.P., H.A. Berger, J.P., Thomas Smallman, Alexander McLean, James Cole Webb, George Harrison, R.N., Alfred Goulding, Julius Kaeppel, Wm. Green Power, Peter Gleeson,Rev. Frederick Smith; Albion School Joseph Solomon, Alfred Newman ; Dromana School - Robert Caldwell;etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 1 February 1866 p 6 Article)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 8 December 1862 p 6 Article
... KANGERONG ROAD DISTRICT. (COMMUNICATED.) A meeting of landholders and householders in the newly-formed road district of Kangerong, in the county of Mornington, having been convened for ... Mr. Caldwell said it was not necessary that the chairman should be either a land- holder or

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 21 July 1863 p 8 Advertising
... inclusive. ROBERT CALDWELL, Esq., J.P. - Sir.- His Excellency the Governor having proclaimed by notice in the Government Gazette the Road District, of Kangerong, we, the undersigned land- id ... p.m., for the purpose above stated. ROBERT CALDWELL, J P. 17th July. 1863.

Public notice is hereby given, that an ELECTION for one member of the above Board will be held at the office of the Board on Thursday, the 10th day of August, 1865, in room of Mr. John Creighton. (CRICHTON!)
Candidates to be nominated in accordance with the provisions of the 84th and 85th clauses of the Local
Government Act, No. 176.
And I hereby appoint Mr. Richard Watkin to receive candidates' nomination papers and deposits.
ROBERT CALDWELL, Returning Officer.
In accordance with the above notice, I will receive,at my residence, the Dromana Hotel, candidates' nomination papers and deposits, until 3 o'clock p.m. on Wednesday, the 2nd day of August, 1865.
Road Board Office, Dromana, July 26,1865.

KANGERONG ROAD DISTRICT -Notice is hereby given that an ELECTION for two AUDITORS for the above board will be held at the office of tho board, on Thursday, tho 1st March, 1866, at 12 o'clock noon.
ROBERT CALDWELL, Chairman, Road Board Office, Dromana Hotel, February 21, 1866.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 24 February 1866 p 7 Advertising)

(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 16 September 1863 p 5 Article))
To be a committee of management of the land reserved for a public park at Dromana, viz --Godfrey Howitt, Esq., M.D. ; Robert Caldwell, Esq., J.P. ; William Grace, Esq ;Joseph Brooks Burrell, Esq.; and Edward Latrobe Bateman, Esq.
(See Burrell below. William Grace was granted Gracefield, 249 acres on the east side of Caldwell Rd, and with Robert Caldwell and Henry Everest Adams was a pioneer of wine production in the area. The Gracefield Hotel, on the site of the original part of the Rye Hotel, was built on William Grace's grants by his son in law, Patrick Sullivan. Godfrey Howitt was granted all the land between Boneo Rd and the coast in the parish of Fingal from the (Old)Cape Schanck Rd junction to the Cape Schanck turn off. Edward Latrobe Bateman was a cousin of Governor Latrobe and an architect who is believed to have designed Anderson's "Barragunda" and "Heronswood." He received the grant for the triangular 9A Fingal at Melway 253 B8.)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 18 May 1863 p 6 Article
Joseph Brooks Burrell, Robert Caldwell, and James Ford, to be the trustees of the cemetery at Dromana.
(Burrell had taken over Andrew McCrae's Arthur's Seat Run in 1851. James Ford, transported for damaging machinery during the Industrial Revolution, pioneered and named Portsea and later received grants for the Wannaeue Estate, part of which is now the Rosebud Country Club.)

APPOINTMENTS.-To be added to the roll of magistrates for the colony of Victoria :
....... Robert Caldwell, Esq. (J.P. for Melbourne), Dromana ; etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 22 June 1867 p 7 Article)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 11 September 1867 p 4 Article
... Robert Caldwell, of Dromana, stating that large quantities of very fine mussels had been found in that neighbourhood ; and Mr. Caldwell suggested that if logs of wood were placed in the shallow water ..

Melbourne, October, 13.
Mr. Caldwell, the squatter, has filed his schedule, - with liabilities stated at £7,000, and assets £3,000. The causes of bankruptcy have been losses in pastoral pursuits in Queensland. He was formerly a member of the Assembly, and is now Manager for the Victorian Meat-Preserving Company.
(South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) Friday 14 October 1870 p 5 Article)

I had a feeling that the company's works were at Maribyrnong or Ascot Vale West but it was actually in Melbourne; no wonder they called it Smellbourne!

Tho origin of the company is interesting and properly dates from the time that Mr R. Caldwell, the present managing partner met Mr. R. M'Cracken, the present practical manager. The attention of the former (once a prominent member of the Legislative Assembly in Queensland, and subsequently engaged in squatting pursuits had for some time been directed towards meat preserving and in Mr. M'Cracken he found one who had long been practically acquainted with the work,(in Tasmania) etc.
Premises- a long range of two-storey bluestone buildings in Gallagher's-lane running off Bourke street west, just behind the old Rose of Australia Hotel, and still occupied by tho company-were taken, and work begun.
(Extracts from article:P.6, Argus, 20-4-1870.)
Soon after, the company moved to Stony Creek.
stony creek victorian meat preserving company pier‎
The Victorian Meat Preserving Company occupied this site from the (1860's????????) until 1880. Despite the fact that no archaeological evidence exists, it is probable that ...

They say that burning off fat is the result of hectic activity but in this case hectic activity was the result of "burning off" fat, for Robert and his employees.
The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle (NSW : 1864 - 1881) Wednesday 10 May 1871 p 4 Article

Crown allotment 2, section 2, Kangerong was granted to W.Caldwell, who may have been related to Robert. Consisting of 167 acres, with 400 metre frontages to the Nepean Highway and Boundary Rd,it is bisected by Shergold's Lane. Its western and eastern boundaries can be plotted on Melway by measuring 2cm either side of Shergold's Lane (18mm on maps in Superpages.)

I presume the grantee was W.R.Caldwell whose daughter's birth notice follows.
Family Notices
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 25 January 1866 p 4 Family Notices
... Caldwell, Dromana, of a daughter.

J.Caldwell, 34A, Balnarring, granted on 11-2-1876, consisting of 131 acres 3 roods 7 perches and situated at the south east corner of Stanleys and Merricks Rds. Being east of Red Hill Rd, this land would have been in the east riding of the shire of Flinders and Kangerong.

The Flinders and Kangerong Road Boards amalgamated and constituted the shire of Flinders and Kangerong. In the following August in '75 all the members were disbanded; four candidates were nominated for three in the west riding and he (John Cain)was successful and has never been opposed since. His colleagues were Messrs W.B. Ford and Robert Anderson, the latter held the seat till three years ago(John Barker jun, S. Tuck, and Geo.Henderson centre riding), (David Mairs, Caldwell and Robert Wighton east riding).
Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 11 October 1900 Edition: MORNING. p 3 Article)

Extract from my THE SHIRE OF FLINDERS journal.
CALDWELL John. 1875-6 Grantees in the parish of Kangerong bore the same surname and Caldwell Rd in Dromana recalls this. J.Caldwell was the grantee of 34A (on 11-2-1876) and 35A Balnarring, which fronted the east side of Merricks Rd between Stanleys Rd and Mornington-Flinders Rd (Melway 192 F 6-8 roughly.) As all the Kangerong Caldwells had left, this was probably John, making him an east riding councillor.

Oops,my memory is better than my eyesight! 35A Balnarring of 94 acres and 24 perches and granted on 14-4-1875, was south of 34A with a northern boundary of 581 acres and a southern frontage to Frankston-Flinders Rd of 170 metres. John's frontage to the east side of Merricks Rd stretched from Stanleys Rd to Frankston-Flinders Rd.

CALDWELL.--On the 31st ult., at Balnarring, James Caldwell, brother of the late John Caldwell, native of Beith, Ayrshire Scotland, aged 66 years.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 9 June 1892 p 1 Family Notices)

CALDWELL-INGRAM.-On the 26th Inst, at 8 Westgarth-street, Fitzroy, by James Taylor, Baptist minister, Mr. John Caldwell, of Balnarring, to Miss Violet Ingram.
(This would seem to indicate that John was not the Somerville pioneer.)

CALDWELL- On the 10th inst, at his residence,Balnarring, after a short illness, John Caldwell, native of Beath, Ayrshire, aged 67. A colonist of 38 years.
( The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 27 December 1890 p 1 Family Notices)

The orchard owned and occupied by Messrs.J. Caldwell and Sons is situated about two and a half miles from the railway station, and stands on the summit of a steep hill, comprising in all about 146 acres.The area however used for cultivation purposes is only 30 acres, the remainder being used for grazing stock, etc.
Unlike the majority of orchardists in the district the Messrs Caldwell are not adepts in horticultural. Prior to their removal to Somerville five years ago, they had no knowledge whatever of this particular industry, having being compelled to resort to it as a means of livelihood owing to a reversal of fortune,and they owe what knowledge they at present possess to the kindness of their neighbours. Since their residence in the district they have been very active in matters connected with the welfare of the place, and were amongst the promoters of the shows recently held at Somerville, the eldest son being secretary of the Somerville Fruit
growers' Association. The orchard is rather overstocked, owing to the trees being originally planted too close which has had a prejudicial effect upon them, and caused them to be rather stunted in their growth, but the Messrs. Caldwell are gradually thinning them out. Notwithstanding this, the fruit grown is of a superior quality, some splendid specimens being shown at the local shows, at which they were large prize-takers. As an instance of the quantity of fruit grown, during the first year 4,200 cases of fruit were sent away, exclusive of which about 90 cases of Early Margarets were given to the pigs.

This year, however, the yield was not nearly so large, the most noticeable falling off being in the Five Crown
apple, trees usually bearing from 10 cases downwards only bearing an average a little over half a case. Out of
a whole row of this particular kind of fruit only one and a half cases were obtained. Prices have also been correspondingly low this season. Two seasons ago as high a price as 15s per case was obtained for the Rome Beauty apple, but at present the price ranges from about 4s 6d up to 6s per case. The former was the highest price obtained during the season. The yield of some varieties of apples have, however, been just as good as ever, notably the Italian Red, 11 cases being got off one tree. It is the custom of the Messrs. Caldwell
to put burnt ashes around the foot of the trees in the place of manure, which they find has the effect of giving the fruit a rich bright color. The ashes are not specially burnt for the purpose,but are taken from the logs which have been burnt in the paddock, as well as those from household use. This does not apply to all of the trees, only a few being treated in this manner. The fruit held over when packed is placed in racks specially built for the purpose in the fruit room, then covered over with cloths, the fruit being picked
over from time to time in order to allow of any that may have become bruised being sorted out. At present
the firm have 100 cases of Stone Pippin in stock, besides which they have between 200 and 900 cases of apples of other varieties, including the Shepherd's Perfection, Light Aromatic, Rome Beauty, Italian Red, Cleopatra,
Nicker Jack and others, all of which are in splendid condition and of good quality, the Shepherd's Perfection being of a beautiful colour, more so than usual, owing, as the Messrs. Caldwell aver, to the use of the ashes above described. A small plot of ground is planted out with young shoots, which when ready will he transplanted into the orchard.

Mr. Caldwell, senior, and his two sons, do all the work connected with the orchard. By the courtesy of Mr.
J. M. Caldwell our representative was accorded a peep at the collection of preserves shows by Mrs. J. M. Cald-
well at the local show, for which she gained the first prize two years in succession. At present the collection
numbers nearly 100 varieties, all of which are ranged on shelves in the pantry two and three deep. Our repre-
sentative was informed that it was the intention of Mrs. J. M.Caldwell not to compete at the next show, but possibly before the time arrives that lady may be prevailed upon to once more enter the lists.
(Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 2 July 1896 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 26 December 1899 p 1 Family Notices
... and M. K. Ballantyne, late of Brighton, Victoria. CALDWELL.-On the 25th December, at the r ... -street, Abbotsford, Ellen Carley Caldwell, the beloved mother of J. M. Caldwell, of Somerville, and sister of Margaret Manson, Jane Harper, and Penelope Shegog, aged 83 years

CALDWELL.-On September 25, at St.John's, Somerville. Elizabeth Northey, relict of the late John Manson Caldwell,and loving mother of James and Benjamin, in her 94th year. (Interred at Frankston on September 26.)
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 28 September 1943 p 2 Family Notices)


Many tales in family folklore never made it into newspapers or documents. They could be true, just like I distinctly remembered reading an article a year or so ago about a letter sent from the Red Hill post office
by the postmistress. The descendant of Australasia's first sawmaker, who is writing a family history, wanted to document an aspect of this folklore regarding the Red Hill post office and sent me a private message through FAMILY TREE CIRCLES. At the time I knew exactly where his land at Red Hill was, when he was first assessed and that he was a saw maker,all from rate records. I had already read about his connection with the post office at Red Hill. But I didn't know he was Australasia's first saw maker!

Unfortunately I can't find the webpage re "Australasia" and it's nearly 1 a.m. so I'll go with one from the museum about his waistcoat.

Waistcoat - W.H. Blakeley, circa 1850-1900 - Museum Victoria
Off-white waistcoat that once belonged to William Henry Blakeley. His name is stamped inside the neckline. It is likely to date to the mid to late 19th century, although men's clothing of this period can be hard to date precisely and was often worn for many years.

Part of a collection of (word left out) and other material relating to the life of William Henry Blakeley and the Blakeley family donated to Museum Victoria. William Blakeley was the first saw manufacturer in Australia. He was born in England in 1839 and was indentured as a saw maker. In 1867 he set up his own saw shop in Little Bourke Street - soon to become a successful manufacturing business, W.H. Blakeley and Co (which became W.H. and Company Proprietary Limited in 1922), with several locations in inner Melbourne. The Blakeley business has continued into the 21st century. The donor and her sisters are the daughters of William and Annie's son William Gillott Blakeley and his wife Ada Henrietta.

The firm that the Red Hill pioneer started is still going strong. I deliberately have not corrected the mistake near the end. See if you can spot it. I left the next sentence out because the lady writing the family history ran the firm for some time afterwards before retiring.

William Henry Blakeley established his saw and knife manufacturing company in Melbourne in 1867. Born in Sheffield, England, in 1839 he was indentured as a saw maker and 1865 was commissioned to journey to New Zealand to install the then world's longest continuous bandsaw in a mill in in Tairu on Comomandel Peninsula. This installation completed he travelled to Melbourne and worked as a sub-contractor at a large mill on the bank Yarra River where the Arts Centre is now located.

In 1967, he set up his own saw shop in Lt Bourke Street.

In THE RED HILL, Sheila Skidmore wrote that William Henry Blakely had come from Sheffield in England,had made the world's largest bandsaw and taken it to New Zealand where he had stayed for two years to maintain it. This accords with the Industrial Knives website, which brings me to the Dromana Pioneer Pathway. It has a plaque stating WILLIAM HENRY AND MARTHA BLAKELEY 1865. The trouble with family folklore is that facts are there but get tangled up. William Henry Blakeley certainly arrived in 1865- in New Zealand!

When I read the saw maker's death notice and saw that his wife's name was Annie, I thought the plaque had a second error. When I mentioned this to the aforesaid author, she pointed out that Martha had died after bearing four living children and William had remarried in 1886 to Annie who also gave birth to four children who survived. Later I came across Tonkin's F.T.C. journal about the SHACKLOCK family and discovered Annie's maiden name, which tickled my sense of stupidity. Remembering the log cabin (probably built by Edward Barker, who was completely unrelated to the Barkers of Cape Scanck and Boneo and certainly related to William Henry Blakeley) that was moved from the Outlook Paddock to Blakeley's 140 acre block, I penned this product of too many late nights.

While grieving still for Martha
On the seat reserved for Arthur
His hut door slammed-what a shock!
He got himself a shack lock.

On page 23 of THE RED HILL, Sheila Skidmore discusses the early days of the settlement's post office. It opened in August 1871 with Alexander Marshall appointed postmaster at 10 pounds per annum. He was succeeded by Charles Davies in 1873. Emma Maloney (see below)was appointed as postmistress in 1876 at 15 pounds per annum. About this time the property was purchased by W.H.Blakeley for his son-in-law George Cousins*. Blakeley extended the buildings to build the present post office and a small store. He also added an oven and bakery which was probably never used.

P.24. Elizabeth Wheeler took over in 1878 and continued until Ethel M.Wheeler took over on 11-11-1925, continuing until 1936.Next to fun the post office was Miss A.Liversidge, followed by F.Molloy in 1954, L.H.Dawson in 1955 and R.Kinder in 1966.

* Rate records lack detail. The two Dromana Hotels, post offices, stores and dwellings at this time were described as "buildings" and in most cases the OWNER column was blank so it could not be determined whether the occupier owned the property or was leasing (and from whom.) William Henry Blakeley was assessed on 173 acres (no buildings)which I believe was Robert Caldwell's grant, crown allotment 10B Kangerong, across Arthurs Seat Rd from the eastern part of Blakeley's 72A Balnarring. This land fronted Sheehans Rd (the original south end of White Hill Rd until Wiseman's Deviation was made)with its northern boundary being Tumbywood Rd,near the post office. There is no proof that the sawmaker had not bought the post office and also no proof that he had.

However, George Cussons was certainly not William's son-in-law in 1876 and for a long time afterwards.
CUSSONS, BLAKELEY -[Silver wedding ] - On the 15th June, 1892, at Methodist Church, Kew, by Rev.J.J.Brown, George F.Cussons, only son of George Cussons, Stockport, England, to Martha, third daughter of W.H.Blakeley,(Redesall", Elphin grove, Glenferrie Melbourne. Present address, Commercial Bank of Aust. Ltd., Wycheproof.
(P.11, Argus, 23-6-1917.)

Any old residents of Red Hill would know exactly where "Blakeley's" was. It was crown allotment 72A in the parish of Balnarring,consisting of exactly 140 acres, and on the eastern corner of Mornington-Flinders and Arthurs Seat Roads,with frontages, respectively, of 921 and 807 metres. This land was granted to R.H.Holding on 20-2-1865. The south west corner is indicated by the F in Melway 190 D5 and the north east corner was just east of the Sheehans Rd corner.





This is the article that I remembered from one or two years ago that I have been trying to find for two weeks. Would you believe that I found it by entering "post mistress, red hill" after wasting hours searching "Red Hill post office", "post mistress, Mahoney", "letter, postmistress", Red Hill,Mahoney" (all in The Argus 1870-1879)? I could not correct the text in trove so I've done it here apart from the postmistress's name.
A respectable-looking married woman named Annie Simpson was charged at the Emerald-hill Police Court on Saturday with unlawfully obtaining by means of false pretences a letter, the property of the Postmaster-General, and addressed to Mrs.Anna Maria Nicholson, Clarke-street, on the 10th December last. It appeared that the letter was written and posted at Red-hill, near Dromana, by Mrs. Mahony (sic), the postmistress, and addressed to " Mrs. Nicholson, Clarke,street, Emerald-hill." It contained 2s 6d worth of postage stamps. The letter-carrier at Emerald-hill called at the house of the prisoner in Clarke-street thinking that Mrs. Nicholson,to whom the letter was addressed, resided there. Mrs. Simpson, in reply to the letter-carrier, said she was Mrs. Nicholson, and took the letter, which, after the postman had left, she opened and read in the presence of a woman named M'Kendrick. She told Mrs M'Kendrick at the time that she took the letter because she knew the handwriting.
Mrs. Mahony and the prisoner were acquainted, and it appeared were not on good terms, and the latter justified her detention of the letter and stamps to Mrs. M'Kendrick by saying that Mrs, Nicholson had had many a pound that she should have had.

Prisoner afterwards returned the letter to the person from whom it had been sent, but without the stamps. The prisoner was arrested on the 23rd inst. at Fitzroy by Detective Lomax, when she admitted having taken the letter. The Bench considered that the prisoner had deliberately imposed upon the postman,and fined her £5 with
10s. costs; or, in default of payment, one month's imprisonment.(P.5, Argus, 29-1-1877.)

3 comment(s), latest 8 months, 2 weeks ago


Although the Wong-Shings had a market garden near Chinaman's Creek, this had nothing to do with my choice of this journal's title. Oriental means "east" (with occidental being its opposite.) For some reason I can't remember, I did a Mt Martha search and found an article about a tour down the east coast (in 1886,I think). When I read about the prisoners of war and was reminded about George Bishop's involvement in the Shirley Collins case, I decided to write a journal about this coast and "oriental" tickled my fancy.

I intend to write this journal entirely from memory. The sources for every statement I make are in my previous journals or other works and usually come from trove.

The parish of Frankston is mainly separated from the parish of Lyndhurst to the north by Seaford Rd but on Long Island the boundary is the walkway beside the north boundary of the Riviera Hotel Car park. This hotel has previously been the Halfway House or the Carrum Hotel and is land granted to James McMahon, probably as the pre-emptive right of his Long Beach run. James also received a larger grant of about 160 acres at the east corner of Skye and McMahons Rds.

Olivers Hill was originally known as Old Man Davey's Hill. This was named after William Davey, who used the hill as a lookout to spot fish but was also granted land on the hill north of Sweetwater Creek. His son, James leased the Cannanuke Run from the crown and was granted the pre-emptive right bounded by Old Mornington Rd (west of Dory's Gully) and the beach as far south as Boundary Rd, the boundary between the parishes of Frankston and Moorooduc near the oriental coast. Old Man Davey's Hill was renamed Oliver's Hill because another Frankston pioneer of that name also used its heights to spot fish.

James built a basic homestead but later built Frankston's first mansion, overlooking Daveys Bay, which he called "Marysville". His son, James Jnr. became a pioneer near Red Hill and Bittern North, his grants becoming Forest Lodge, Seven Oaks, Kentucky and Rosslyn as well as 28A Wannaeue, split into three by Bullocky Bob White and his sons, with its north west corner across Main Creek Rd from Whites Rd.

Plenty of websites explain the origin of the name of Canadian Bay; it was named after three Canadians. Luckily in 1926 the Mt Eliza Progress Association published a history of the early days in the area, written by Mr Mann, who gave the Canadians' names as Jones,J.Hodgins and McCurley. They supplied firewood bound for Melbourne onto the Liverpool which anchored half a mile offshore. (I have previously stated a mile but spotted the error while searching my notes for other information!) All threehad settled in the district

The first was obviously Alfred Jones of Almond Bush Stud of Somerville. His biography in Victoria and its Metropolis tells how he moved from England to Canada aged about 12 and spent about two years loading the wood at Frankston (place names being pretty vague in 1888) before farming at Baxter's Flat,increased competition having lowered prices for firewood. J. Hodgins settled at the intersection of Hodgins and Henderson Rds, at Hastings. I have found no references to McCurley and he may have been Edward McGurk who was granted land between Jones and Hodgins. Boundary Rd is now Canadian Bay Rd.

J.T.Smith,the subject of my journal, JOHN THOMAS SMITH AND HIS ELECTORS, came to Victoria from Sydney in Melbourne's early days to teach at George Langhorne's mission on Melbourne's Botanical gardens site. Muzza of McCrae has in his collection of historic houses etc. a photo of Smith's Melbourne house that he states is the oldest surviving house in Melbourne. Smith soon turned to business and was seven times Mayor of Melbourne and a longtime parliamentarian,representing West Bourke (i.e. County of Bourke.) He was one of the early grantees in the parish of Moorooduc and built a beachside house that he called Nyora. His land on the south side of Boundary (Canadian Bay) road in the heart of Mt Eliza became the Ranelagh Estate.

As Smith was not a permanent resident of Mt Eliza,he leased his land to such as Frankston pioneer, Henry Cadby Wells. After Smith's death,ownership passed out of the family and the last owner before it was subdivided as the Ranelagh Estate was Henry Slaney,father of Moorooduc's prolific writer of letters to the editor, H.B.Slaney of "The Ranch" (across Three Chain Road from the east end of Craigie Rd.)

Next time you're in Mt Eliza have a look at the plaque in J.T.Smith Reserve and the Ranelagh Estate history Board near Ranelagh Dr. at Melway 105 E-F1.

There are many historic houses along the coast between Frankston and The Heads. Readers interested in finding out about them can download the SHIRE OF MORNINGTON HERITAGE STUDY re the area north of Ellerina Rd and the SHIRE OF FLINDERS HERITAGE STUDY re those to the south, particularly in Sorrento and Portsea. There are also websites that offer guided walking and driving historic tours along the coast near Mornington, another about the Ranelagh Estate at Mt Eliza and I propose to write similar self-guided heritage tour journals about Dromana and Rosebud.

Here however, I wish to mention just one historic house and how red tape can make things difficult for citizens who wish to preserve our history. My magnifying glass tells me that this house at 797 Esplanade, Mornington, which would appear to be between Main St and Tanti Ave, is called Mulberry. Ian Armstrong, who shares a surname with an early Clerk of Courts at Mornington, has spent a considerable amount restoring this house and would obviously be carrying out such a huge task in stages as finances allowed.

Peninsula carpenter, Steven Edwards, won a heritage award for restoration done on this house at the ceremony in 2011. Ian had obtained a permit to restore the roof in 2007 but obviously the carpentry was chewing up the available cash. During 2011, the roof needed repairs because leaks threatened the good work that had been done.
Rather than checking that the requirements of the lapsed permit were still valid and giving Ian all the assistance they could to expedite the urgent work, "demonstrating excellence in retention, restoration and re-use of our heritage places", bureaucrats wanted him to start the permit process all over again.

Just imagine if Ian had wanted to demolish the house so he could make bundles replacing it with the concrete and glass boxes that are popping up like mushrooms wherever there's a sea view. Let the roof leak and encourage squatters to move in,just like Dr Somers' former surgery at the Esplanade/Barkly St corner near Wilson Rd. Oh no, it's fallen to bits, the interior is ruined , has little remaining heritage value and is structurally unsound. Do you see that such bureaucratic obstruction actually favours those who wish to destroy heritage and hinders those who wish to preserve it.

Council threatened to sue if Ian carried out the urgent repairs. "I told them I'm not going to see a heritage property destroyed since the damn thing is now leaking," said Mr Armstrong. The council eventually issued an updated permit at their own cost after he refused to be "put through all their hoops again".
(P.3, Mornington News, 30-7-2013.)

Remembering that we are concerned in this journal with the Port Phillip Coast rather than the hinterland, one can get an idea of what land transport was like by watching a mum or dad wheel a pram onto the beach. When sand has been compacted and is dry,it's not too bad, but once the surface has been disturbed, especially on a hill,making progress is very difficult. The hill up Jetty Rd to McDowell St alongside Rosebud Primary School was almost impassable at times! Another spot that was always difficult for wheeled travel was the hill at White Cliff, west of Rye.

The first to make the trip by land from Melbourne to the Peninsula had to carry all they needed, requiring bullock drays. Edward Hobson at Kangerong,later Tootgarook, and Maurice Meyrick at Boniyong (Boneo) were two of these. Once they approached Carrum they had to stick to the coast to avoid the Carrum Swamp. The next obstacle was Olivers Hill so their course would have been what became Three Chain Road (Moorooduc Rd.) That would be why Frankston's Davey St heads south east. James Davey had to climb Old Man Davey's Hill (as Olivers Hill was originally known) to reach his Cannanuke Run but those travelling farther south would avoid it.

Ben Baxter established Carrup Carrup Run on what was called Baxter's Flat. The others continued on, Three Chain Road also skirting Mt Eliza. The next settler to think "Thisledome" was Captain Reid who preceded A.B.Balcombe on what the latter called The Briars. It was this former soldier who suggested a duel was the only gentlemanly way to solve the dispute between Dr Edward Barker of Cape Schanck and Maurice Meyrick of Boneo.

Although heading south west, Three Chain Rd stayed parallel with the coast until it passed through the Tuerong pre-emptive right (east of The Briars) first occupied by Aboriginal Protector Thomas. This road probably followed the dray ruts left by Hobson and Meyrick. Now trending more westerly the ruts would have been followed by those who built the telegraph line and finished up at today's Ponderosa Place, Dromana. The ruts would then have continued along what the Dromana Township map has labelled as "Main Road", Palmerston Avenue, which proceeded past the present road up Arthurs Seat to link up with today's Bayview Rd. As the routes of our highways were usually blazed by pioneers with their bullock drays, it can be said that Edmund Hobson did a fine job of choosing the route of the Mornington Peninsula Freeway!

The first white settler on the peninsula didn't intend to settle here and actually migrated the other way; to Melbourne! He was John Aitken who settled west of Sunbury and whose run was named Mt Aitken by Governor Bourke, an early guest at his property. The ship carrying his sheep from Tasmania went aground near Dromana and Aitken, with the help of the friendly Boon-Wurrung, carried them all ashore. No doubt he grazed his sheep nearby, perhaps on Dalkeith (north of Martha Cove near the Mornington turn-off)before taking them on the long trek to the parish of Buttlejork. He would have had no ruts to follow! He only had to parallel the coast to The Settlement (as Melbourne was known until Gov. Bourke named it after the Prime Minister, and William's Town after the King.) From there it was a different matter. He had to make a beeline toward Mt Macedon (Mt Alexander Rd)until he reached a track, soon known as Braybrook Rd (Buckley St) which led to Solomon's Ford (west end of
Canning St, Avondale Hts.) Once over the Saltwater River (probably after resting his flock on section 8, Doutta Galla for which he later received the grant) he followed the Kororoit Creek north, continuing north to the Calder Highway which he blazed as far as Mt Aitken.

Hobson stopped short of the future site of Dromana, settling between Mt Martha and Arthurs Seat on what later became Jamieson's Special Survey. Meyrick was known to have passed along the beach track for he fell asleep waiting for the tide to go out. Anthony's Nose jutted out into the sea and travellers had two options, to climb Arthurs Seat from the bottom of Foote St in Dromana or drive along the hard-packed sand at low tide.

Squatters had no fencing and it is likely that in looking for strayed cattle, Hobson had discovered the ascent from Foote St that is now Latrobe Pde. Following the course of the freeway, he discovered Hobson's Flat and just past the north end of Boneo Rd,he discovered lime, much in demand in the rapidly expanding Melbourne. He built a lime kiln near the present Marks Ave, named after one of the co-grantees of this land. It is not known whether Jamieson used the track from Foote St when he settled at Cape Schanck or took his supplies and stock by ship but the track became known as the road to Cape Schanck.

I once decided to ride my bike along part of this road, south of Browns Rd where it heads due south and is now closed. It gave me a real appreciation of how the word "travel" derived from "travail". I ended up having to wheel (sometimes carry) my bike almost the whole way because of the loose sand and abandoned my quest as soon as I reached Limestone Rd.

I won't ask you to take my word that travel was travail.Here is an extract from:
I Succeeded Once:
The Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 18391840.
Marie Hansen Fels.
The author of this work (which is available online) paraphrases the diary entry made by Aboriginal Protector Thomas.

21 October 1839
Thomas left Melbourne again for Arthurs Seat, meeting 54 blacks who were on
their way to Tubberubbabel; he had another awful journey, wading through
Mordialloc Creek up to his waist, nearly drowning his bullocks in a rising tide
at a creek eight miles further on (Konigo, now Frankston); then further on he
had another drama when his milking cows calf swam back over another creek
(between Frankston and Mt Martha, Smythe lists the following creeks, in order
going south from Frankston, Narringulling, Ballar, Kackerabooite, Gunyung
and Caarrar) the cow followed her calf, then the four hobbled bullocks followed
the cow and her calf: everyone survived, and he got back to Tubberubbabel at

Because of Anthony's Nose, settlers west of Arthurs Seat, mainly lime burners, usually arrived by ship, many of them sailors who jumped ship. The McCraes unloaded all their possessions from a vessel when they took up the Arthurs Seat Run,as did the Burrells who replaced them in 1851. Even after Ned Williams cut a road at Anthony's Nose in 1866, leading to pioneers calling it "the rocks", early residents at Rye etc still relied on sea transport to carry their produce (lime, later firewood for bakers' ovens), and return with supplies, because the beach road presented the type of travail described in my previous paragraph.

As parishes and townships were surveyed, Government roads were drawn on the maps to provide access to the crown allotments. They were not made nor were they named except in the townships. As late as the 1920's when the Stenniken grant (north of Ronald St at Tootgarook) was advertised for sale, Truemans Rd was called the Government road between Rosebud and Rye. Hiscock Rd was drawn from Old Cape Schanck to Truemans Rd and it's still shown as a dotted line west of Boneo Rd. I defy you to ride a bike along it as I tried to do. That's the sort of road that settlers faced when they arrived. Burrell Rd, the western boundary of Dromana Township, was living proof that it was easier to draw a road on a map than to make it, maintain it or even use it! To determine its location, extend the north-south section of Latrobe Pde south to the beach road. You'd have to be Superman to ride up it and a death-defying idiot to ride down the cliff.

Nobody likes paying taxes and the mainly subsistence* farmers had little money to spare, but eventually they agreed to form road boards because the roads were so bad. They kept up the tradition of early Elizabeth St in Melbourne, actually a creek course where travellers had to dodge trees and whole bullock teams perished in bogs. See my SHIRE OF FLINDERS journal re the Kangerong and Flinders Road Boards and the councillors.
(*Because the roads were so bad, and the peninsula's population so low, selling produce was out of the question so most farms had an orchard, vegetable plot, milking cows, chooks and maybe some pigs, and people ate well. The provision of piers and railways led to the establishment of guest houses which provided a summer market. Coppin's Sorrento provided a great market for the vegetables grown by Alf Head of Red Hill.

Dame Nellie Melba was a young girl when she noticed animals grazing on the Sorrento Cemetery. She was so moved that the final resting place of the pioneers was being desecrated that she organised a concert to raise funds to fence the cemetery. (See my journal about Dame Nellie's first concert.) It was ironic that Dame Nellie's father was responsible for the beginning of the end of the peninsula lime industry in the 1870's when he opened his lime quarry near Lilydale* (which must have acquired that name circa 1900; I only found this article by entering VICTORIA LIME AND CEMENT COMPANY.) (*Reason stated in LIME LAND LEISURE.)

The Lime-Burning Industry in Victoria: An Occupance ... -‎
by J HARRINGTON - ‎Cited by 2 - ‎Related articles
Cement Company, which included among its members David. Mitchell, who founded the Lilydale lime quarries in 1878 and the Victorian Portland Cement ...

Luckily lime burning was easily replaced by supplying ti-tree to fire the ovens of Melbourne's bakers,this new industry led by the Sullivans and Stennikens. John Cain turned his attention to farming,owning or leasing 2240 acres in the parishes of Wannaeue and Nepean by 1881. The kiln on the Rye supplied the last lime,used in the construction of James Little Brown's house in May Avenue.

Due to spillage, there was plenty of lime around the old kilns and this lime was used to make some of the shire's roads,especially near Sorrento. The late Ray Cairns said that roads made with lime were beautifully smooth but once they started to break up, deterioration was rapid. Others stated that they damaged horses' hooves and were slippery when wet. The glare from the white surface could also be a problem.

Flinders Shire Council. SATURDAY, APRIL 25th.
Mornington Standard (Frankston, Vic. : 1911 - 1920) Saturday 2 May 1914 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article
... Dromana road- Monier Pipe Coy., £270. 200 yards limestone Sorrento road-G. White, £60. 200 yards limestone Canterbury Rye road -J. Watts, £61 13s 4d. 50 yards Rock's metal, Boneo road-L. lazledine £14 17s ... decided to call for limestone. The Tram Coy., Sorrento, to be notified to place the road in tho rough ... 1337 words

An anecdote from a regular summer resident described the Nepean Highway (Sorrento Road) as "the white road".

The parish of Frankston extended from Seaford Rd (the Riviera Hotel on Long Island) to Canadian Bay Rd (originally called Boundary Rd) and Eramosa Rd. The parish of Mooooduc, which adjoined it at Mt Eliza and Somerville was a battle-axe shape extending east to Jones Rd north of Tyabb Rd and only to Derril Rd to the south. It went south to Ellerina/Bruce/Foxeys Rds, where it adjoined the parish of Kangerong. The Arthurs Seat pre-emptive right was the most northerly part of the parish of Wannaeue, which also included the Tootgarook pre-emptive right and went west to Government Rd/Weeroona St, where it adjoined the parish of Nepean.

Other parishes, on the Westernport side of the Peninsula were Tyabb, Balnarring and Bittern (basically west and east of Balnarring Rd), Flinders, and Fingal (to the line of Weeroona St where it adjoined Nepean.)

Most of the early settlers in the parish of Frankston and south to Schnapper Point (Mornington)are discussed in
another of my journals, as is the Tanti Hotel, established in 1854. By this time the Township of Osborne had been proclaimed by the Government. It was named after Queen Victoria's seaside residence and the streets were named after her children. The very small Town of Mornington had also been proclaimed at Schnapper Point and having obtained a pier by the late 1850's,it went ahead while Osborne's growth stagnated. The following plan shows the larger "township of Mornington and Osborne. I had thought the "new township of Gravesend" that Robert Byrne was advertising from 1854* was the part shaded red on the plan, but it must have between Strachans and Wilsons Rds as the following, much later advertisement shows.

Record (Emerald Hill, Vic. : 1881 - 1900) Friday 11 August 1882 p 2 Article
... and Poplar-streets,"land 383 x 100, £127 10. Schnapper Point, Main street, land 40 x 150, £230. ... brick,two-: storey houses on land, 34x72, £1150. Sch napper Point, Nelson street, Gravesend, land 2G4 x ... land, lflft. Gin. x 155ft. £820.., Sch nnppor Point, Albert street, 2 roods, 19 porches with ... 284 words

Pleasure Trip to the new Township of Gravesend, Snapper Point On Monday next, November 20th, the Gazelle
Steamer will leave Sandridge Pier for the above Township at half past eight a.m, and Williamstown at half past 9 a.m. R BYRNE invites intending purchasers etc.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 20 November 1854 p 3 Advertising)

Many family historians have been frustrated trying to find where the Moorooduc Cemetery was. It was the Mornington Cemetery, about which Val Wilson of the Mornington Historical Society has produced an excellent website. Moorooduc, the name of the parish, was applied to the cemetery, just as the cemetery near Hastings wascalled the Tyabb Cemetery. Craigie Rd was originally known as Cemetery Road. It is of interest that the Mornington Cemetery was first named the SPRINGS Cemetry (sic.)

Plan of villa allotments in the beautiful township of Osborne near ...‎
Real property Victoria Mt Martha Maps. Mt. Martha (Vic ... Plan of villa allotments in the beautiful township of Osborne near Snapper Point [cartographic material].

Just south of Mornington were two Runs, Mount Martha and Chechingurk. The Mount Martha Run must have been along the coast between Balcombe Creek and the Moorooduc/ Kangerong boundary at Ellerina Rd and then east to Tubbarubba. Its Pre-emptive Right was "Dalkeith" (homestead at Melway 151 C8). James Hearn acquired the grants for Dalkeith,the coastal land south to Hearn Rd and 952 acres surrounding Dalkeith, most of it in in 1856.

MOOROODUC.-Near Snapper Point, north side of Jamieson's Special Survey, at Mount Martha, on the road to the Heads. Upset price, £1 per acre.
45 202a 2r, no offer 46 161a 1r 32p, Anthony Connell, 20S 47 114a 3r, Andrew White, 20s
48 176a 22p, Anthony Connell, 23s 49 109a 3r, Andrew White, 20s 50 186a, James Hearn, 20S
51 291a, A. B. Balcombe. 21s 52 434a, James Hearn, 20s.
(P.2, Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer, 4-10-1855.)

James Hearn's purchases, above, were crown allotment 31 fronting the south side of Range Rd and crown allotment 33 between Forest Drive and the pre-emptive right. Range Rd was known as White's Lane prior to W.W.2 when troops from the Balcombe army camp used it and the Bourne dairy farm as a short cut to the rifle range. (Shirley Bourne, the female drover, was a White descendant.)See the CONNELL journal re Anthony Connell. Balcombe's purchase was crown allotment 32 between Range Rd and a parallel road which ran east from the bend in the highway in Melway 151 C3.

Extract from my journal about WILLIAM VALE AND THE TOWN OF MORNINGTON.
The History of Dalkeith appears on page 275 of the Shire of Morningtons Heritage Study. The Mount Martha Run was occupied by Dallymore and then Aitken before James Hearn took it up. Hearn acquired the pre-emptive right as well as over 1100 acres between Hearn and Bay Rds and 850 acres to the west, north and east of the P.R. The last of these allotments, 29A, encompassed the Tubbarubba diggings.

CHECHINGURK was first settled by Captain Reid who settled soon after Edward Hobson and Maurice Meyrick, who will be discussed later. He was the man who suggested that Dr Barker and Meyrick should settle their dispute with Victoria's second duel. As the plaque on the water fountain in Mornington's Empire Mall attests, the site of Mornington was part of the Run which was taken over by Alexander Beatson Balcombe. Balcombe also received grants for all the land fronting the south side of Beleura Hill Rd, which was probably the northern boundary of the Run. Balcombe called his pre-emptive right The Briars after the farm on which he grew up and Napoleon Bonaparte was a guest during his imprisonment.

Jamieson's Special Survey was part of the Kangerong run settled by Edward Hobson. I have never seen its boundaries on a map. He was one of the first settlers on the peninsula, along with Jamieson at Cape Schanck but probably only stayed there for a year or two before settling further west at Tootgarook. Squatters were very alert to newcomers settling near them and often spread rumours of aboriginal atrocities to scare them off.

Robinson* did point the finger squarely at pastoralists themselves in a later
observation. They spread rumours about native outrages in order to deter new
squatters from settling in their districts and claiming some of country hitherto
theirs to use. It worked like this: after the NSW Order in Council of 7 October
1847 anyone who could find a bit of country situated between neighbours who
had to be five miles from where you proposed to sit down, could simply squat
and pay the annual licence fee to the Commissioner of Crown Lands when he
called annually to assess and collect the fee, which was ten pounds for the
licence, and so much per head for stock. Robinson recorded that it was common
practice to raise cry against the blacks to keep people from country
(Pages 76-7, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.) *Robinson was the Chief Aboriginal Protector.

But Hobson raised no objection when assistant aboriginal protector, William Thomas set up his first protectorate about a mile to the east of his homestead. The aborigines had two other encampments nearby, one near Hobson's homestead and another near the Drive-In site.

A quote from I SUCCEEDED ONCE. (Available online.)
I was actually looking for the author, Marie Hansen Fel's, attribution of the harmonious relationship between the Boon-wurrung and settlers to the example set by Edward Hobson but found these descriptions of the squatters and the Arthurs Seat Run instead.

The character of the squatters on the Mornington
It was a fact that the Aborigines of the Port Phillip District, the Bonurong and the
Warworong were attracted to, and actually cultivated, high status Europeans
gentlemen and that they despised convicts. From the vantage point of
a meritocracy such as our own society, it requires a real effort to understand
how taken-for-granted were the manners, mores and attitudes of a class-based
society. It so happens that most of the names of squatters on the Mornington
Peninsula in 183940, who feature in Thomas journals, also appear in Paul
de Servilles appendixes of Gentlemen by Birth (titled, landed or armigerous
families), Gentlemen in Society (profession, commission and upbringing) or
Colonists claiming gentle birth and accepted by other gentlemen as gentlemen.
Edward Hobson and his brother, Dr Edmund Hobson (Kangerong), the brothers
Archibald, Hugh and Thomas Bushby Jamieson (Kangerong Special Survey),
Robert Jamieson (Cape Schanck), Samuel Rawson (Kunnung with Robert
Jamieson), Captain Reid (Tichingurook), Captain Baxter (Carup Carup), Alfred
and Maurice Meyrick (Boniong), Henry Howard Meyrick (Coolart), the Barker
brothers (Barrabong and Cape Schanck), and George Smith (Turtgoorook) living
with a woman believed by Melbourne society to be a niece by marriage of the
great Captain William Hobson RN, were all gentlemen in terms of one or other
of de Servilles categories. (P.19, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.)

On P.20 the youthfulness of the squatters is stressed.
Edward Hobson was 22; Henry Howard Meyrick was 17; brother Alfred was
19; cousin Maurice 20 (and Maurice was said to be an initiated man); Samuel
Rawson was 19; George Desailley was 17; his brother Francis junior 19; the
Barker brothers were 22 and 24; the Jamieson brothers were in their twenties;
only the two military men, Captain Reid and Captain Baxter, and George Smith
were mature adults. And contrary to what is commonly believed, George
Smith came down to the Mornington Peninsula not to Rye initially, but to
Buckkermitterwarrer (Drive-In site and Kangerong, and when he came, it was with a solid
three year relationship of reciprocity already built up with Benbow, father of
Mary, father also of Yankee Yankee.

It has been said that this Special Survey of 1841 did not displace Edward Hobson as he'd already moved to Tootgarook. I get the impression that Marie Fels disagrees. Henry Dunn leased the Survey (and apparently the Mt Martha Run too, according to Leslie Moorhead in one of the school histories)from 1846 to 1851. From that time,it was leased to the first settlers in the Dromana area most of whom became stalwarts of the local community. See my journals about SAFETY BEACH, SARAH WILSON, GEORGE YOUNG, ANTHONY CONNELL etc.

The following extract from my journal SAFETY BEACH AND THE SURVEY NEAR DROMANA has been included here in support of the proposition that Captain Adams may have settled in the area before 1857, leaving Eliza at Wattle Place (Adams'Corner) while he traded across the sea.

Jamieson did not spend much time on his survey but enough to have social contact with other early settlers such as Captain Reid (on what became Balcolme's The Briars)and the McCraes on the Arthur's Seat Run. Somebody who did live there was Mrs Newby. On 15-2-1844, Captain Reid and his wife, Hugh Jamieson and Georgiana McCrae and hubby, Andrew, visited the Survey, meeting Mrs Newby and her two daughters. Mrs Newby complained of loneliness during Captain Newby's absences at sea. On 27-7-1845,Andrew told Georgiana about the three Newby children drowning. (P. 30 A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.) Was this true? Yes!

SHIPWRECKS. LOSS OF THE MARY. By the steamer Shamrock, which arrived here on Sunday, the distressing intelligence has been received of the total wreck of the barque Mary, Captain Newby, from this port to London in Bass's Straits; and we are sorry to add that no less than seventeen of her passengers have perished. The Mary left Sydney for London on the 19th of May, having on board 69 souls, including the crew, and a very valuable cargo. It was intended by the owners that she should proceed by the usual course round Cape Horn, and the Mary stood away to the southward for that purpose, but when she was off Cape Howe, the wind being at east south-east, with every appearance of a continuance from the same quarter, Captain Newby determined to attempt the westerly passage, notwithstanding the unpromising time of the year, and accordingly stood into Bass's Straits for that purpose. On the morning of the 24th May, the Mary was off Wilson's Promontory, when the wind suddenly died away, and at 10 A. M. a strong breeze sprung up from the northwest, and gradually increased to a gale with heavy rain. Thinking he had now got into a westerly wind, the captain determined to give up the westerly passage, and accordingly bore up and ran to the southward of Sir Roger Curtis' and Kent's Groups. At 6 P. M. he estimated the ship's position to be five miles south of the body of Kent's Group, fixed her course at east by north, and having been up the two previous nights, the captain went to bed, there being then a breeze from the north- west, which was sending the ship seven knots per hour. The chief mate had the watch from 8 to 12; about 11 he called the captain, saying he thought " land was handy ;" but upon the captain going upon deck, he could not see any land, and found that it was almost a calm. Broken water, however, was soon discovered off the lee beam,and a strong current was rapidly driving the ship towards it. There was no wind to make the ship answer her helm, she refused stays and drove broadside onto the rock. She first touched on the starboard bilge, then under the fore chains, and immediately parted abaft the foremast, the bows slipping off the rock into deep water; she then struck abaft, unshipped her rudder, and the topsides floated off the bottom,over the reef into smooth water. In seven minutes from the time she struck, the ship was in pieces. The most melancholy part remains to be told. Seventeen women and children were drowned and what is most extraordinary is, that not a mast was lost. Those drowned were-three of Captain Newby's daughters; six children of Mrs. Evans; Augusta and Catherine, daughters of Captain Collins, of Illawarra ; Mrs Heather, and two children, Mrs. Grey, Mrs. Turnbull, and Sarah Foulkes, servant to Mrs. Collins. How the remainder were saved we cannot understand. Captain Newby only remarks," we were saved in the long boat in the most wonderful manner." The above parties were lost in consequence of the upsetting of the whale boat, into which they had been lowered, but it has not been ascertained how this accident occurred. The reef upon which the Mary was lost lies to the north east of a rock described in the Australian Directory as Wright's rock, about three and a half miles, and is known to the sealers who visit Furneaux's Island as the north east or deep reef. etc.
(P.3, Mornington Chronicle, Sydney, 25-6-1845.)

The information was on page 4 of the Argus on Saturday 4th and Monday 6th in August, 1849. I have included some pre-emptive rights that were not on the oriental coast of Port Phillip Bay because I do not intend to include them in another journal. None of the parishes had been named at this time.

The Barkers had two leases, the Cape Schanck P.R. in the parish of Flinders and the Boniyong P.R. in Wannaeue and bounded by Boneo, Browns, Grasslands (now closed) and Limestone Rds. The King Run was probably the parish of Tyabb but the family name is recalled by the street in Flinders. Graham Whitehead's City of Kingston website mentions a squatting King family that was the origin of the city's name and may have been related. It is possible that George Smith's lease was the Tootgarook pre-emptive right. Edward Hobson was on "Traralgon" by this stage and may have transferred the lease to his (de facto) father in law.

The Tootgarook run had several names and Wooloowoolooboolook might have been one of them. Charles Hollinshed (LIME LAND LEISURE) speculated the James Purves might have been managing the Tootgarook Run; I'm not sure exactly when Smith took an aboriginal boy to America but he was probably not on his lease full-time anyway
(and as I've explained elsewhere,it was more likely that PETER Purves, who coined the name Tootgarook, would have been the manager.)Lastly, Robert White was Irish and completely unrelated to the Scottish Whites of Rosebud and Red Hill. His 640 acres would have been in the parish of Nepean, west of Government Rd/Weeroona St,perhaps nearer to Sorrento. The Irish Whites are discussed in my journal about THE WHITES OF SORRENTO AND RYE and the Scottish Whites in my journal about HILL HILLIS AND HIS RELATIVES.


Having just lost 150 minutes worth of text through careless clicking, I will have to abbreviate this entry. Dromana celebrated its 150th in 2011 but 18-8-2006 would seem to have been a more appropriate date. The township of Dromana was proclaimed in 1861 but many township blocks were sold on 18-8-1856. The buyers on that date included Commander Ross, William Dixon Scurfield and W.McRea*.

The township map can be accessed online:
Township of Dromana, Parish of Kangerong, County of Mornington ...‎
Township of Dromana, Parish of Kangerong, County of Mornington [cartographic material] / drawn and reproduced at the Department of Lands and Survey, ...

Note the suburban blocks accessed by way of Tower Hill Rd. Captain Adams (discussed later) owned 36 acres near the summit.

The township of Dromana stretched west from McCulloch St to Burrell Rd. The section of Dromana east of McCulloch St was part of section 1,parish of Kangerong. The coastal blocks in section 1 extended south to the "main road",Palmerton Ave. William Grace, who established Gracefield in 1857, bought most of these coastal blocks, with Samuel Rudduck, Nelson's father, buying Karadoc in 1858.

Commander Ross is the subject of one of my journals. William Dixon Scurfield built Scurfield's Hotel(later the Arthurs Seat Hotel) between Permien and Foote Sts. In 1864 it was described as having 9 rooms. Dromana's other hotel, the Dromana had 12 rooms by 1864. The latter was built by Richard Watkin*** on the western half of crown allotment 5, section 1, Kangerong, the other half being owned by Peter Pidoto.

Dromana's growth was caused by timber-getting on Arthurs Seat. Peter Pidoto** carried timber (piles, beams, sleepers) around the bay on his vesselS with the assistance of employees such as Robert Rowley (who will be discussed later.) When Mornington got its pier, Dromana residents (who claimed they had a bigger population)were most irate but were told that without a municipality, they would have to raise the money themselves.Robert Calwell,(subject of one of my journals) who established "Dromana Hill" in 1859, never gave up and was eventually successful.

* W.McRea was probably Dr Farquhar McCrae who was assessed on these blocks from 1864. He was the grantee of "Moreland" (bisected by Moreland Rd and named after his uncle's plantation in Jamaica) but left this estate in the management of Bulla pioneer, Michael Loeman, buying "LaRose" in Pascoe Vale South and building the original part of the homestead (Wentworth House?) in Le Cateau St. Farquhar was not very fair in his dealings, failing to repay a loan to his brother, Andrew (of the Arthurs Seat Run) and dudding J.F.L.V. (Alphabetical) Foster
over the transfer of a Run near Dandenong (where streets are named after Foster and the Doc.) Foster's demand for "satisfaction" caused the Doc's sudden departure for Sydney.

** Peter Pidoto did not ply only in the bay and was known to sail as far as Warrnambool, taking his chances with the Rip. The Phoenician probably replaced Peter's first vessel. Little Angelina most likely replaced the Phoenician;it was wrecked as the Woolamai after he had sold it. Peter's wife,living in Clifton Hill,was still rated on the 17 acres west of Carrick Drive in 1910 as well as unsold lots in Dromana's Railway Estate. Mrs Frances Pidoto of Queens Pde, Clifton Hill, was assessed in 1919 on the Railway Estate land and c/a 2,3 section 16, c/a 2 section 18 of Dromana Township; Peter had bought several township lots in 1864 and soon afterwards.

04/03/1881 Phoenician (+1881) wreck
PHOENICIAN; Ketch; Length: 16.4 m.; Owned by P. Pidoto, Dromana; Built at Benjamin Fairhall in 1852. Registered at Melbourne. Registration no. Melbourne 32/1865. On 04 March 1881, PHOENICIAN (Peter Pidoto) with a cargo of not known, was lost after capsizing. see wreck

*** I must confess to supplying Ray Stella of the Dromana Hotel with incorrect information. The place mats that Ray had printed must now be in hundreds of homes as very few are left. What Colin McLear actually stated in A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA was that the Dromana Hotel was built in the 1850's and that Richard Watkin was credited with building the first house in Dromana, as distinct from Kangerong,in 1857. I had taken this,in my early days of research, to mean that the Dromana Hotel was built in 1857. The following article shows that Scurfield's was the first hotel in Dromana and that Richard Watkin was running it.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 21 April 1858 p 6 Article
... George Williams, Fletcher's Hotel, Haw- thorne. Granted. Richard Watkin, Scurfield Hotel, Dromana. ..

As mentioned at the start of this entry, it was Arthurs Seat and its timber that was responsible for Dromana's rapid growth. Unfortunately, only Colin McLear has written much about the timber getters and those who hauled it to vessels. He hints that many of these men were Irish, accounting for the township's name. John Bryan lived in a hut just east of Gracefield near the summit and the track through the town common was called Bryan's Cutting.(See Melbourne Brindle's map.) He was known to have been in the area by 1860 because when Mary Ann McLear moved into Maryfield in that year, Bryan moved into The Willow (on the Survey just west of the drive-in site.) He later moved closer to his work. John Bryan cut piles, slabs,sleepers,beams and firewood.

No saw mills have been mentioned before Alexander Shand's at Main Ridge, decades later, so those early timber- getters used the splitting wedge, pit saw and perhaps the adze to square their timbers, just as Henry Tuck had done for the Arthurs Seat homestead in about 1843. Thomas and Charles Rymer,recalled by a Safety Beach street name,were probably involved in the early timber-getting but mainly worked at building fences, such as at Maryfield for Charles Graves before the McLears bought it and Arthurs Seat Park in the 1870's. Jonah (Doan) Griffith, Charles Brown,Thomas Tyler (perhaps an ancestor of Rye's Vic Tyler)and Jose Reman were other involved in supplying timber, some also supplying wattle bark for tanning leather.

George McLear, Henry William Wilson and Charles Dyson were three bullockies known to be operating by 1864. McLear and his brothers were Dromana's first butchers until they gave it away and were replaced by Wilson, whose son Godfrey hugely expanded the business. Their work was not easy either. Tracks to the coast through the forest would have had to be blazed and you can't drive a dray over stumps.Loading was another problem with no pier available. I quote from page 89 of A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.

PETER PIDOTA. (This is how the surname appeared in rate books from 1864 until 1919, so we can hardly blame Colin! I didn't twig until I failed to find mention of Pidota in trove.)
Peter seems to have had a thriving water transport business operating from the Dromana beach,his craft carrying the varied forest products to Melbourne and other shores of the bay. These craft, of very shallow draught, came almost to the shoreline for loading. Bullock teams waded out to them to effect the transfer of fire-wood,post,rails, shingles, slabs, sleepers, piles and wattle bark. On October 16,1864, George McLear supplied Peter with 94 feet of blackwood,the timber so prized for the manufacture of fine furniture.

While looking for Captain Adams' advertisement re his 36 acres fronting Arthurs Seat Rd near the summit, I discovered another Captain who carried Arthurs Seat firewood from Dromana to Melbourne. It seems that his ship suffered the same fate as Captain Billy Moore's vessel, co-owned by William Henry Blakeley of Red Hill, but with no survivors.

Three weeks or a month ago, a small schooner, the Cousins, Captain Irving, left Dromana with a cargo of firewood for Melbourne, two young lads being on board with him. The trip should have been made in one or two days, but nothing has been seen or heard of schooner, captain, or boys since. Captain Irving was one of the oldest and most experienced captains in the port. He leaves behind him a widow in distressed circumstances and two young children. An appeal has been made to the public in this case, and has met with some response.
(P.1s, Argus, 18-8-1873.)

This run was taken up by Andrew McCrae in 1843 and was taken over by the Burrells who purchased the pre-emptive Right in 1851. The following description of the boundaries was given when McCrae renewed his lease.

On the north by Mr Jamiesons special survey 4 miles, on the west by
the coast line of the bay to the nose of the mountain called St Anthonys
Nose, from thence along the Cape Schanck road to the Drumdunnuallock
creek being the boundary line with Mr Barker, and on the south by
the creek to its source, thence by a line bearing east to a point where
the continuation of the eastern boundary of the said special survey
meets the said line, the large waterhole below the bald hill being in
common with the Mt Martha run; also that piece of land between the
Cape Schanck road and the sea, commencing near the rocks or the Point
known as St Anthonys Nose, and ending at the creek* at the junction of
the Point Nepean and Cape Schanck roads, nearly opposite the end of
the paddock fence. (Pages 311-312, I SUCCEEDED ONCE.)

*Adams Creek which approached the bay shore where The Avenue is today.

If you can make sense of the above, you've left me for dead. Determining the southern and eastern boundaries rely on the "source of the Drum Drum Alloc Creek". I believe that the creek which flows over Kings Falls has been confused with the Drum Drum Alloc. This creek starts in "Sea Winds" and the line east from the "source" may have been approximately Arthurs Seat Rd which met a "continuation of the Eastern boundary of the Survey "(Bulldog Creek Rd.) This continuation today is Junction Rd and the n-s part of Red Hill Rd. The line east from the source and the continuation south of the Survey's eastern boundary later were used as the boundaries between the parishes of Kangerong and Balnarring, the latter separating the central and East Ridings of the Shire.

No wonder there were so many disputes about Run boundaries!

The time of the old sea-dog's arrival is shrouded in mystery as is the "Village of Wannaeue" which was mentioned once, in 1877. Adams folklore maintains that he was granted 750 acres FOR CARRYING CONVICTS*, which he clearly wasn't but as he came into ownership of the majority of Crown Allotment 20, Wannaeue, this may have been some sort of pre-emptive right. An Adams family historian maintains that he must have arrived after the Burrells bought the Arthurs Seat pre-emptive right in 1851 but the Run description above does not seem to include 20 Waanaeue. The Captain was supposed to have beached his ship in 1841 or thereabouts and used its timbers to build his house (on the McCrae car wash site.) Today's Wattle Place became known to all as Adams' Corner.
*Ticket of leave men were brought from Van Diemans Land in about 1841 to solve a severe labour shortage.

The strange thing was that the house that Captain Adams built was on crown allotment 20 of the parish of Wannaeue, which must have been reserved in early days as the site for a village. It was between The Avenue and the line of Parkmore Rd. Yet it was not crown allotment 20 land on which he was assessed in the first Kangerong Roads Board assessment of 1864. He was the owner of 191 acres, which was crown allotment 19, between Parkmore Rd and Adams Avenue, the next block west. This was granted to Issac White who was involved in an indenture with Captain Adams regarding a property at Port Melbourne. (Document in the possession of Harvey Marshall, an Adams descendant.) The captain also owned 36 acres in the Township of Dromana (Melway 159 E-F11)fronting Arthurs Seat Rd, McLear Rd and Arthurs Seat Park and, for a shorter time, 56 acres in the parish of Nepean bounded by Diamond Bay Rd, Melbourne Rd, the ends of Tullyvallin Cres/ Hartley Crt, and the coastal reserve.

The 1877 advertisement (in italics below) seems to indicate that Captain Adams had settled on the peninsula in 1857 but it is possible that Isaac White, grantee of crown allotment 19, Wannaeue, had settled there in about 1850 to look after Eliza while Captain Adams traded to places such as Singapore where they couldn't get enough of his potent Vivyan Vineyard wine, which Robert Rowley Senior said would have you climbing telegraph poles after a glass or two. Eliza would not have been the only wife waiting for her seafaring husband to come home; Mrs Newby, housekeeper for Jamieson on his special survey, waited many times, in 1845 finding that three of her daughters,who accompanied their father, had perished. (See article under the SAFETY BEACH heading.)

IN the SUPREME COURT of the COLONY of VICTORIA : In its Probate Jurisdiction.-In the Will of JOHN COCKBILL, late of Little Bourke-street West, in the City of Melbourne, in the Colony of Victoria, Publican, Deceased.-Notice is hereby given,that, after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of this notice, application will be made to this honourable Court, in its Probate Jurisdiction,that PROBATE of the LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of the said John Cockbill, deceased, may be granted to Henry Everist Adams, of Vivyan Vine-
yard, near Dromana, in the said colony, the sole executor named in and appointed by the said will.
Dated this twentieth day of March, 1873.WILLIAM HUGHES, 13 Bourke-street west, Melbourne, proctor for the said Henry Everist Adams. (P.7, Argus,21-3-1673.)

At Twelve O'Clock Noon At the Rooms, Corner of Swanston and Little Collins Streets.
Near Dromana, Close to Arthur's Seat, on the Main Road to Sorrento, Farm, of 191 Acres, with Weatherboard House. Also,
Adjoining Dromana park, and Close to tho Residence of Professor Hearn,
TWO GOVERNMENT ALLOTMENTS, Containing in All 36 Acres.
To Parties Requiring a Delightful Marine Residence, Squatters, Merchants, Capitalists, and Others.
BYRNE, VALE, and Co have received instructions from Captain Adams (who is retiring after a residence in the district of 20 years) to SELL by AUCTION, at their rooms, on Tuesday, March 20, at twelve o'clock noon,
The following valuable properties :
WANNAEUE, Near Dromana.
That valuable farm containing 191 acres, being Government lot No 19, subdivided into seven paddocks, partly laid down in English grasses, substantially fenced with post, rail, and wire, and having a bay frontage of nearly half a mile ; orchard, garden, and vineyard containing 2000 vines all in full bearing, with a comfortable weatherboard house containing 10 rooms, out-houses, &c.; brick tank holding 4000 gallons.
Crops to be removed or taken at a valuation. The auctioneers beg to call attention to tho above property, the land being good for cultivation, well timbered, and permanent water. Inspection invited.
KANGERONG, Adjoining Dromana-park.
Two Government allotments, being Allotment 5 of Section D and Allotment 6 of Section D, containing in all 36 acres, close to tho resldence of Professor Hearn.
Title, Crown grants.
(P.2, Argus, 20-3-1877.)

The 36 acres eventually passed into the ownership of Dromana's Nelson Rudduck but in 1879 Henty Everest Adams was assessed on both properties (as well as 61 acres in crown allotment 20, while his son, Robert, was assessed on 20 acres and a house*.)
* Crown allotment 20 had been alienated a year or so earlier, with the Adams family acquiring most of the land west of Wattle Rd. Robert had probably persuaded his father to leave the house as Robert's wife refused to live with the hard-drinking former mariner. Henry moved to live with his friends, the Mullens of South Melbourne.

NOTICE is hereby given, that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of this notice application will be made to the Supreme Court of the Colony of Victoria, in its Probate jurisdiction,
that PROBATE of the LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of HENRY EVEREST ADAMS, late of Vivyan Vineyard, near Dromana, in the colony of Victoria, land-owner, deceased, be granted to Eliza Adams,of Vivyan Vineyard, near Dromana aforesaid, the widow of the said deceased, and sole executrix named in and appointed by the sold will.
Dated this 7th day of November, 1881.HUGHES and MICHIE. 53 William-street, Melbourne, proctors for the said Eliza Adams. (P.3, Argus, 7-11-1881.)

Wannaeue, near Dromana, all fenced, divided into six paddocks, good grass and permanent water, beach frontage 600 fruit trees, 2000 vines, all bearing. 10 roomed house, brick,* tank, stables, &c. Sold in consequence of death of Mr Adams. No reasonable offer refused. Apply Mrs. E ADAMS, Wannaeue, near Dromana.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 13 December 1881 p 12 )

The 191 acre block did not sell and passed into the ownership of the captain's son, Robert Adams, who sold it to a land developer circa 1889. The land bisected by Rosemore Rd was subdivided but the developer soon became insolvent,the land south of South Rd, and unsold blocks, reverting to Adams. Parkmore was built in about 1896 by Albert Holloway.

Much more information is available about the captain and his descendants. In 1860,it is probable that along the coast from Anthony's Nose to TOOTGAROOK STATION, the only houses were (today's)McCrae's Cottage, a four roomed house and workmen's huts on crown allotment 17* (bounded by the beach road, Jetty Rd, Eastbourne Rd and the linr of Norm Clark Walk)and perhaps huts on the foreshore erected by crewmen of The Rosebud who may have decided to use a boat from the stranded vessel in May 1855 to try their luck as fishermen.

*The advertisement doesn't say crown allotment 17 but I'll bet you any money that it is!

Parish of Wannaeue, Arthur's Seat.129 Acres.
Four-roomed Cottage, Men's Huts,fronting Hobson's Bay, and within Thirty Miles from Melbourne by Water, and Forty-five Miles by Road.H.A. COFFEY, for F. E. Beaver and Co., is instructed to sell by auction, at
their rooms, 30 Collins-street west, on Tuesday, 1oth inst., at eleven o'clock, 129 acres superior agricultural land, having a large frontage to Hobson's Bay, and described in the Government plan as having water at a short distance from tho surface ; together with a neat cottage containing four rooms and a garden ; fruit trees, fenced in. From the great rise in tho value of property in this locality, tho healthful air and the beautiful
scenery, there can be no doubt but that this opportunity offers a fair chance for profitable investment to
the small capitalist, or would be admirably adapted for a marine residence.
The water is sufficiently deep in shore to admit the landing of provisions and goods close to the frontage.
(P.2, Argus, 5-3-1857.)

In ROSEBUD:FLOWER OF THE PENINSULA, Isabelle Moresby mentioned Maori fishermen living at Rosebud and I thought she was mistaken,thinking of the Maori Farm at Rye. However, a year or so past, I found that she was right. Although this incident happened quite a while after 1850, I will include it here in case I never find the article again.

Mr. Candler held an inquest on Wednesday, at Tootgarook, on the body of Patrick Wee Wee, a Maori fisherman, living at Rosebud, aged 30 years. On the 27th inst., Senior-constable Lyons was directed to the body of
deceased on the beach, between Rye and Dromana, it having been taken thereby two young men who saw it in the water. There were no marks of violence, and from the froth and blood coming from deceased's nose he appeared to have been drowned. On Sunday evening, the 20th inst., deceased was heard to agree with four young men sup-
posed to be Richard Knott, Richard Barry, Richard Abbott, and Richard Betwright, stonemasons, employed by Mr. Muir, contractor, at the Quarantine, to convey them in his boat to the Quarantine-ground. All the young men were sober, but the deceased was not quite sober. Shortly afterwards the five left, and were never seen on shore again. About 10 minutes after they were last seen on shore, a gust of wind suddenly sprung up from
the westward, the weather having been quite calm previously. Deceased could manage a boat well and was a good swimmer. On the afternoon of the 20th, Christian Miller, a seaman who was on board the fore-and-aft schooner Result, anchored off the pier at Tootgarook, heard a voice calling, and about 150 yards to the westward saw a man whether white or coloured he could not tell, clinging on a boat which was upset and drifting towards Rosebud. Miller was attending to the schooner, there being a heavy squall, and could give no assistance, and the boat and man drifted out of sight. The schooner was about half a mile from the pier, and the storm had risen very suddenly. The deceased's boat had never turned up, but the oars had been washed ashore, and the four young men had never since been heard of. The jury stated that deceased was found drowned, and that they believed he was accidentally drowned during a squall while conveying passengers to the Quarantine-ground on Sunday, the 20th inst. (P.5, Argus, 31-12-1869.)

Richard Barry's body was later found and an inquest was held.

Mr. Candler held an inquest on the 6th inst. at Tootgarook, on the body of Richard Barry, aged 18 years. Deceased was a mason, employed at works on the Quarantine-ground, and on the 20th ult. he was last seen arranging with a Maori to sail across to the Quarantine. The boat went, and deceased and three others who went in her were never seen again, a storm having sprung up. The Maori's body was washed up shortly afterwards. The body of deceased was discovered on the 3rd inst., much bitten about the face, hands, and left thigh by fishes, but deceased was identified by his clothes. It was found about a mile from Rye, on the beach. A verdict of accidentally drowned was returned. (P.6, Argus, 11-1-1870.)

James Purves' contribution to Mornington Peninsula history.
1.He was one of the two most important horse breeders in the colony's early days, his prime interest being business activity in Melbourne and his stud near Kilmore, but the horse business was also a major focus at Tootgarook.
2.Being a successful businessman he was able to purchase in 1850, the lease of the Tootgarook Run from Edward Hobson, incorporate the Wooloowoolooboolook Run (which was probably between Boneo Rd and Truemans Rd as it fronted Capel Sound according to I SUCCEEDED ONCE) and buy the Tootgarook pre-emptive right soon after.
3. He owned the Rosebud when it was stranded in May 1855 and had it insured for 700 pounds. Edward Hobson moved to Gippsland in about 1843,managing and naming his brother Edmund's Run and naming it by the aboriginal term for river of little fish,corrupted to Traralgon. It is possible that Tootgarook was managed by the Purves brothers, mainly Peter, with James paying the occasional visit. Edward Hobson got into financial difficulties and James Purves may have bought the Run and the schooner as a favour to help him out.

Charles Hollinshed, author of LIME LAND LEISURE (history of the shire of Flinders) was an architect and devoted many pages to James Purves and Edward Latrobe Bateman who followed the same profession. I don't recall him mentioning Peter Purves.

If you enter PURVES on trove and choose the decade 1850-1859,you'll find that James Purves did indeed spend much of his time in Melbourne, much of it in the courts.

Come on itellya, how can you say that James Purves spent little time at Tootgarook? A search for PURVES,TOOTGAROOK on trove produced these results.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 4 July 1862 p 4 Family Notices
...ohn Corboy, hotelkeeper, of Nenega, Ireland. PURVES -QUINAN-On the 16th ult, at the residence of the brides father, Dromana, by the Rev. James Glover, of Schnapper Point, James Purves, of Tootgarook,

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 11 November 1867 p 4 Family Notices
PURVES.-On the 3rd inst., at Broomielaw, Tootgarook, Mrs. James Purves of a daughter.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 13 June 1878 p 4 Article
... Purves was born in Berwick-on-Twccd, and carno out to Tasmania at tho ugo of 21. He arrived at Hobart ... \oyago occupied over a week, and the sheep were nearly famished on their ar- rival. Mr. Purves took up ... the Chintin station, at Deep Creek, and was also owner of Tootgarook station, near Dromana,

My first answer is that only the obituary concerns the architect and that it refers to Tootgarook only as an after-thought. The marriage and birth concern his nephew, the son of Peter Purves. This James Purves was born to Peter Purves and his wife Barbara(nee Scott)on 29-9-1835 in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England. A month later, Barbara died and heartbroken, Peter left the babe in the care of an aunt, and sailed to Van Diemans Land to join his brother James. Their expertise as architect and mason won them many bridge building contracts. At 18, young James had a burning desire to get to know his father and arrived at Tootgarook in 1852. Father and son had 8 years together before Peter died in 1860.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 31 March 1860 p 4 Family Notices
... daughter of Mr. Charles Cumming, farmer, Bacchus Marsh. DEATHS. On the 16th inst., at Tootgarook, Point Nepean, formerly of Berwick-on-Tweed, Mr. Peter Purves, aged 58 years, deeply regretted

If you were looking for James Purves, the architect and owner of Tootgarook,the following results for James Purves, Tootgarook, give a fair indication where to look.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Thursday 16 October 1856 p 8 Advertising
... Tom o'Lincoln. These will stand at Tootgarook, fifty miles from Melbourne, and near Arthur's Seat. _ For further particular seo Circulnrs, or in- quire of JAMES PURVES, 74 Collins-street west,

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Tuesday 23 June 1863 p 8 Advertising
... tho Breodiug Establishment at Tootgarook, consisting of impoittd thoroughbred mares, colonial do, ... For further particulars apply to J. PURVES, Scott's | Hotel, Collins stroot.

The clincher,if further proof is needed that the architect spent little time at Tootgarook,cannot be found on trove but is available in Peter Wilson's ON THE ROAD TO ROSEBUD and Jennifer Nixon's FAMILY, CONNECTIONS, SORRENTO AND PORTSEA. (P.S.I have pasted a commentary about the petition at the end of the TOOTGAROOK entry.) It involves a dodgy petition opposing a plan to build a fence from White Cliff, circa 1859, to enclose the police paddock. Investigation by a government official found that many who signed the petition did not really oppose the fence, many actually wanting it. They had been persuaded to sign by James Ford and Peter Purves, who between them had something like 600 bullocks obtaining free grazing on the police paddock. It would have taken some time to get all the signatures and they don't seem to have missed anybody except James Purves, Peter's brother, the owner of Tootgarook!

The Tootgarook pre-emptive right started 833 metres west of Truemans Rd (Keith/Morris St midline), extending west to Government Rd, Rye. The southern boundary is indicated by the ends of streets heading south off Brights Drive. The architect had also purchased crown allotments 1, 2, 3 of the parish of Nepean, 174 acres between the pre-emptive right and the township of Rye (originally called Tootgarook.)

The following commentary about the 1859 petition comes from my journal about the WHITES OF SORRENTO AND RYE.
At this time, there was no township of Rye, and according to LIME LAND LEISURE, the Rye Hotel was in Dromana! When the Township was declared in 1861, it was called Tootgarook, probably because it had been part of the Tootgarook run. John Campbell apparently had built a jetty in 1860 and this probably prompted lime burners to erect houses near the pier so they would be close to home when they brought the day's production for shipping. One house, occupied by John Berry, and later by the Sullivans when they moved from the Heads in 1852, is said to have been the first house in the township area. In 1869, almost all of the suburban blocks south of the cemetery and west of Dundas St were bought by limeburners ( more truly lime merchants such as W.A Blair. It has not been definitely established whether Thomas Monahan was connected with the lime industry or just a land speculator.)
James Purves bought his square mile pre-emptive right on 22-10-1855. Ford's land was mainly near Portsea. The Wannbaeue parish map does not indicate when the Fords acquired Wannaeue Station bounded by Eastbourne Rd, Boneo Rd, an eastern extension of Hiscock Rd and Jetty/Old Cape Schank Rd. O'Shannassy reported that Purves and Ford were the only landowners.

Many of the limeburners would have been illiterate. Their names would have been printed (by Peter Purves or James Sandle Ford) and followed by "their mark", usually a cross (X). The names on the petition opposing construction of the fence were: James Ford, Peter Purves, Robert Rainey, James Patterson, George Mitchell, Robert Quinan, George White, Robert White, Richard White, Jeremiah White , James Swan,
Arthur Robinson MATCD (presumably the other Melbourne resident), Alfred Evans, Nathan Page, John Dillon, Edward Russell, Patrick Sullivan, Edward M.Williams, Richard White, George White, Isaac Prout, Owen Cain, Mrs John Devine, Ben Stennigan (Stenniken), Timothy Sullivan, Thomas Clancy, George Baker, Charles Dean, Mrs Edward Skelton, Samuel Clark, Samuel Williams, Richard Kenna (Melbourne resident!)

Snr Constable O'Shannassy was asked to ascertain why the settlers and limeburners had signed the petition. He found that Clark, Williams, Nathan Page, Mrs Skelton and Jeremiah White had not signed and weren't even asked to sign. George White senior and Robert Quinan, both limeburners, had signed, not wanting to offend their old neighbours,even though they actually wanted the fence. Thomas White and 15 other limeburners wanted the fence to prevent Ford and Purves overgrazing the area with their combined 800 head of cattle. They complained that their own bullocks (obviously used for ploughing and hauling lime)were dying from starvation.
Robert, George and Richard White, Ford, Purves, Cain, Stennigan (sic), and Patrick and Timothy Sullivan feared that their cattle would be turned out of the area.

N.B.Much genealogical information regarding Peter Purves and the descendants of his son, James, are available in Hec. Hanson's MEMOIRS OF A LARRIKIN. Send a private message if you would like this information.


Not expecting much,I set out to find mention of limeburners on the peninsula a decade each side of 1850.

NOTICE.-The undersigned has CEASED to be in any way CONNECTED with tho BUSINESS now carried on by George Lancaster, in tho name of GEORGE WHITE, a limeburner, at Point Nepean, and will not be responsible for any debts that may be contracted by him on any account whatever from this date.Dated this 21th day of November, A.D. 1858.
Witness, Walter Barter.
(P.8, Argus, 25-11-1858.)

I didn't have much luck finding articles about peninsula limeburners on trove but the above entry prompted me to check my journal about George White's family to see if I had provided detail re the 1859 petition there, which I had. (It can be found at the end of the TOOTGAROOK entry.) I did find an article about Owen Cain being robbed near Tullarook circa 1858.

My commentary concerning the petition lists the limeburners operating near Rye in the 1850's and the WHITE journal from which it came gives the locations of the White Brothers' kilns. As most of the kilns were not on the coast their locations will not be mentioned here but these can be checked in the maps in LIME LAND LEISURE.

In the 1850's Rye would have been a few huts on or near the foreshore. Their inhabitants probably combined limeburning and fishing to eke out a living. The township was proclaimed in 1861 and several histories claimed that the township was officially known as Tootgarook. I believed this until a search for the township of Tootgarook on trove produced not one result. So I searched for the township of Rye.

RYE. . .
County of Mornington, Parish of Nepean, situate on the south shore of Port Philip (sic)Bay, eight miles east of the Quarantine ground.
Upset price, £8 per acre.
Lot 1.-2r., £5 6s. the lot. Alex. K. Cowan. Lot 2.-2r., £4 Ids. Gd. the lot. Jno. Campbell. Lot 8 -2r., £6 the lot. J. Campbell. Lot 4.-2r., £5 10s. tho lot. Thos. T. Anderson. Lot 6.-2r., £4.5s. the lot. Joseph Eagin,
Lots 6 to 10.-No offer. Lot 11.-2r., £7 7s. 0d. tho lot. Alice Grace Cook. Lot 12-2r., £5 10s. the lot. A. G. Cook. Lot 13.-2r., £9 6s. the lot. Mary Ann Stenniker. Lot 14-2r" £4 the lot. M. A. Stenniker. Lot 15.-2r., £5 10s. the lot. M. A. Stennlker. Lot 16.-2r., £9 tho lot. William Grace.
County of Mornington, parish of Kangerong, adjoining the township of Dromana, on Port Phillip Bay.
Upset price, £8 per acre.
Lot 17.-2a 3r. 26p., £3 per acre. John Campbell. (P.7,Argus, 28-4-1864.)

Alex K.Cowan's grant was crown allotment 5 of section 1, with frontages of 20 metres to the Esplanade and Nelson St between points 100 metres east of Napier St and 80 metres west of Lyons St.

John Campbell's adjoining grants were c/a 7 and 6 of section 1, on the western side of Cowan's between points 300 metres east of Napier St and 100 metres west of Lyons St. This would have been the site of the original RYE HOTEL which gave the township its name. John Campbell and William Cottier, both former Dromana residents, built this hotel.Campbell was supposed to have built the first Rye jetty in 1860. He was probably involved in the lime trade. Both Cottier and Campbell signed the petition of 9-1-1861 requesting that Robert Quinlan's school be chosen (rather than Nicholson's) to become the Dromana Common School, so they were obviously still residing at Dromana. (If they weren't, Nicholson would have pointed this out!)

Thomas Y.Anderson's grant, c/a 8 of section 1, was west of Campbell's, between points 40 metres east of Napier St and 140 metres west of Lyons St.
Joseph Eagin purchased c/a 5 of section 2 which had a frontage of one chain (20 metres) to both Nelson and Collingwood Sts and was between points 100 metres east of Napier St and 80 metres west of Lyons St.
Alice Grace Cook's grants were c/a 1 and 2 of section 3, fronting the west side of Napier St with 40 metre frontages to the Esplanade and Nelson St.

M.A.Stenniken was probably Mary Anne Stenniken (nee Sherlock),the wife of Ben Stenniken. The above mis-spelling of the surname was not an isolated incident. It is written properly on the Rye Township map but as Stenniker and Stenigain on the parish of Nepean map! As her grants were consecutive lots, I presume they were c/a 5, 4, 3 of section 3 with frontages to the Esplanade and Nelson St of 60 metres between points 100 metres east of Dundas St and 40 metres east of Napier St.

William Grace (who established the 250 acre "Gracefield" near Dromana in 1857) was granted c/a 6 of section 3 which had frontages of 20 metres to the Esplanade and Nelson St between points 80 metres east of Dundas St and 100 metres west of Napier St. His daughter married Patrick Sullivan who built the Gracefield Hotel on this site. The hotel was demolished about 50 years later by Mrs Hunt who built the PRESENT RYE HOTEL in its place. (See the foundation stone!)

Rye first developed because of lime and one of its old families can trace its time in the area to the late 1830's. It is known that Robert Rowley was lime burning ,with Henry Cadby Wells, by 1841 but his mother, a widow who remarried to Richard Kenyon, had already been there for about two years. James Little Brown,the man who transformed the ti-tee and rabbit infested wasteland south of Rye into beautiful pasture from about 1909, stayed with Robert Rowley for a couple of weeks when he arrived. No doubt Robert shared many stories of the old days with James, but not many would be as interesting and funny as this one.

Sir,In the interesting article, "The Gippsland Mystery," on Saturday, by Ernest McCaughan, it is stated that a
party of five whites and ten blacks were sent out under the leaderhip of De Villiers, an ex-police officer who kept the extraordinary named No Good Damper Inn. Apropos of this, a story was related to me by the late Robert Rowley, then of Rye (a very old colonist who had known Buckley, the wild white man). The story, which may be of interest, is that about the year 1840 lime was being burnt about Sorrento and Rye. A layer of sheoak logs was laid on the ground, then a layer of limestone. Another layer of logs, then again stone, and so on, until there was a considerable stack. Fire was next applied. By this rough and ready, though wasteful, system, lime used in the building of early Melbourne was then burned. The lime was then "slacked", afterwards sieved through a fine sieve, and forwarded to Melbourne by ketch. One of these old windjammers had the misfortune to go aground
near the site of Frankston. The lime was taken off undamaged, stacked, and carefully covered a little way from the shore.

A number of blacks were in the vicinity. They had had some little experience of the white fellow's flour. When they found the lime, sieved and done up in small bags under a tarpaulin, they were sure they had got the genuine article in plenty. So they mustered in force, took away all they possibly could, and, fearing pursuit, did not stop running till they put about 12 miles between them and the stack of lime. The blacks then mixed their flour with water upon their 'possum rugs and put the dough in the ashes to bake, the result being
spoiled rugs and bad damper. In the words of Mr. Rowley, "they called that place Dandenong," which means "no good damper. Yours, &c., J. L. BROWN
Sandringham, Sept. 8. (P.4, Argus, 9-9-1924.)

Though the following report from the Rye Correspondent comes well after 1850, it does relate to that era. The pier was required for the lime trade (which co-existed with fishing) and the void caused by the downturn in demand for lime was filled by the firewood industry.

We have to record the death of Mr. John Campbell, a very old resident of this township, at the age of 77 years. He was one of the first contractors for the erection of the Jetty at this place, and afterwards followed various occupations up to the time of his decease. He was buried on the 11th inst., in the Rye general
cemetery-his funeral being well attended. He has been residing with his married daughter, Mrs. Jas. Cain,
for a long period, and he expired at her house.

The wood trade is very brisk, and the demand almost difficult to supply, as the ti-tree is so much required by
bakers and others, that it keeps the local suppliers at full pressure, for there are so many craftsmen* in the
trade, and the trip being short to Melbourne. they are able to make their passages very frequently.

A petition signed by nearly all the fishermen of Sorrento, Rye, Rosebud, and Dromana, to the " Anglers' Protection Society," and which was presented some time ago with regard to the destruction of the fish in the
Bay by different parties using mesh nets, has not yet had the desired effect, viz., the stopping the use of
them; but it is confidently expected that at the next meeting of that body, they will continue to urge upon the
Government the necessity of taking action before the Bay is denuded offish by this wholesale way of destroying them, and eventually depriving a number of industrious men from gaining a livelihood by hooking.
(P.2, Mornington Standard,18-5-1907.)

* Men sailing lime/firewood craft.

Another report in the same year is about one of the above-mentioned "craftsmen*." Ben Stenniken had land grants on both sides of Rye, on the west corner of Truemans Rd and south of Rye Township near the start of Melbourne Rd. He supplied the limestone for Rye's original church/hall/school on the site of the historic Anglican Church. When this was rebuilt as the church, some of Ben's limestone was re-used, supplemented by other limestone supplied by James Trueman, his neighbour at Wannaeue. Ben's lime was also used for the construction of the Dromana Anglican Church.
*Ben probably employed a skipper. I think I've read that John Cain was also a lime craft owner.

Ben's daughter, Maria, married Godfrey BurdettWilson whose second given name (and his mother's maiden name)is recalled by a street on the Wannaeue grant. Ben's wife was the sister of Sam Sherlock who carried mail on horseback between Rye and Cheltenham in early days. The Stennikens eventually moved to Port Melbourne but Mary Ann (nee Sherlock) owned property at Dromana, which is probably how a Stenniken lad married (Lily?*) Clemenger of Parkmore at Rosebud whom he married. Mary Jane Stenniken received the grant of crown allotment 14, Fingal (Melway 253 J11), which would explain family connections with the Kennedys, (Pattersons?*) and Harry Prince.
* I just had to check. M.Wilson was Maria who married Godfrey Burdett Wilson. The Kennedy, Patterson and Stenniken graves are on the south side of the main path at Rye Cemetery about 30 metres from the gate.
PATTERSON. In loving memory of my dear sister, Rachel, who passed away at Dromana,May 27, 1923.Ever remembered.
Loved In life, treasured in death. A beautiful memory is all we have left.
(Inserted by her loving sister, M. Wilson,Dromana.)
PATTERSON (nee Stenniken).-In loving memory of my dear wife, Rachel, and our dear mother,who passed away at Dromana on the 27th May,1923. (P.1, Argus, 27-5-1925.)

STENNIKEN (nee Lily Clemenger). -On the 5th September, at Nurse Sandford's private hospital, Canterbury road, Albert Park, to Mr.and Mrs. J. Stenniken-a daughter. (P.17, Argus,15-9-1923.)

We are happy to state that the favorite ketch " Gertrude" belonging to Mr. B. Stenniken and which sank in
the lagoon at Port Melbourne during the late gales, has been successfully floated, and it is sincerely hoped by the residents here that she will shortly be again carrying her cargoes of wood and lime, etc., to Melbourne as she has been doing for a great number of years.(P.2, Mornington Standard, 14-9-1907.)

I have read much about the area west of Rye but as the Nepean Historical Society has published so many books, I never felt a need to write about the area and thus made no notes. Elizabeth McMeekin's THOSE COURAGEOUS HARDY WOMEN and Jennifer Nixon's FAMILY, CONNECTIONS, SORRENTO AND PORTSEA both give a comprehensive history of the Nepean Peninsula and its pioneers, with the Skelton family as a starting point.

Naturally, as I examined other areas and pioneers on trove, I found out things about this area that nobody had mentioned previously, so I will confine myself to this new information. Both of the above authors discussed Clark's Cottage, which was unfortunately demolished after the Clark family's Mornington Hotel had become the Koonya. Jennifer stated that the cottage was built in about 1850 by a Mr Wells, despite contrary claims.

This extract comes from THE WELLS STORY which is available online.

Henry Cadby Wells born in September 1820, in the Parish of Potterne, Devizes, Wiltshire, England, to Richard Wells, (who was well-known as Dick Wells in the coaching world as he drove the four-horse coach across Salisbury Plain when highwaymen were not uncommon); and his wife Martha, nee Cadby.
Henry Cadby Wells was a boot-maker, he married Hanna Hill on the 9-9-1839. In December 1839 the young couple boarded the ship 'ADROMACHE' in Plymouth and sailed to Australia. When the ship was just off the Isle of St. Paul, during a raging storm, a daughter was born. The little girl was named Mary, but at the suggestion of captain she was nick-named Polly. Sadly Polly did not live very long and was buried at sea. The ship arrived in Melbourne on the 28-6-1840 after being becalmed off Port Phillip Bay for several days, (source; Bert Polglase's book)
All ships at that time had to anchor in Hobson's Bay off shore from Williamstown; the emigrants were taken by boat along the lower Yarra towards Melbourne. Both banks of the river were then still densely covered with tea-tree and Wattle. At the township immigrants scrambled through mud, or as is recorded, 'grandfather had to carry his wife ashore through water waist-deep' to a landing bank on the north side, where warehouses, inns and stores were replacing earlier hovels along the west end of Flinders street. Slightly uphill from this flood prone area, Collins Street West had already developed into the main retail location, especially between Queen and King Streets. 'There were good shops with drugs, groceries, haberdashery, ironmongery; indeed each shop seemed to be quite an emporium', (wrote J.B.Were)
Henry and Hannah are believed to have made their way down to Frankston where they stayed for a short time This would require first crossing the river on a punt or a ferry as no bridge existed until the mid 1840s. They would then have travelled through virgin bush, either on horse back or perhaps with a horse and jinker or cart of some sort. They may have had some bullock tracks to follow, but we can be sure the track was slow and difficult. It probably took some days for the young couple, camping overnight along the way. One may wonder how many other travellers they might have met along the way, or did they only see Kangaroos, Wallabies, Dingoes and other wild life, as well as bird life and the Aborigines. No doubt there was also a large population of snakes.
They may have passed some of the 500,000 sheep and 15,000 cattle that were in Victoria by that time, the property of licensed squatters, (Old Melbourne Town; P. 8)
It is believed that after a short stay in Frankston, Henry and Hannah made their way down to Sorrento, they known as Point Nepean. They were blessed with another daughter, Mary Louise Wells, also nick-named 'Polly', born 7-6-1841 at Sorrento and Baptised in the Church of England, Parish of St. James on the 10-10-1841. Polly was the eldest of 13 children, having 12 brothers ! ! Polly is believed to have been the first white baby born to permanent settlers of the Mornington Peninsula.

Most of the following history comes from Robert Cadby Wells, published in the Frankston Standard, in 1951/52. He states his grandfather, Henry Cadby Wells went into partnership with ship mate Robert Rowley in the business of lime burning, "Robert Rowley and Richard Kenyon began the industry in Sorrento. The depresion of 1842/43 put most of these pioneers out of business. Gideon Lang's map of 1842, when he applied for leasehold of much vacant land on the Peninsula, showed none of the original names. By 1845 business had recovered and 17 kilns, each employing several men, hard at work burning lime between Rye and Portsea.
Robert also states his grandfather maintained an interest in the lime burning industry and travelled between Sorrento and Melbourne, staying at Frank Stone's hotel after whom Frankston was named.
In 1846 the family moved to Melbourne where Henry worked at his trade of boot-making, he had learnt the art of tanning and dressing leather; riding boots were in great demand in those days; these were his speciality. He was there for some years, then sold the business and started a similar one in St. Kilda. After a few more years Henry was ready for another change, so he sold out again and had a go at Cray fishing. he bought an up-to-date boat and gear and with ship mate friend Rowley went down to Western Port Bay to catch crayfish. From a money point of view this venture exceeded all expectations. After being there for a few months they decided to go home for a few days, which they did but extended their stay to seven days. they had made the fatal mistake of leaving the boat anchored in the bay. the tide in this bay has a rise and fall of about 8 feet, and consequently when the tide ebbed the boat settled on the anchor, with the result that a hole was broken through the bottom. He sold the boat and gear for a few pounds and retired from the fishing business.

Robert Rowley's father was a soldier stationed in Sydney but some time after his transfer to Van Dieman's Land, he retired and was granted some land. Too fond of drink, he was fishing one day and drowned after falling out of his boat. Robert's mother later married Richard Kenyon and the couple moved to The Heads to burn lime, possibly for John Pascoe Fawkner. Robert did not go with them but visited them in about 1839. How Robert, who must have kept close links with Tasmania, marrying Christine Edwards from Longford, knew Henry Cadby Wells is a mystery but it would seem that he had received a letter from Robert outlining the lime-burning plans; why else would he risk travelling all the way to Sorrento with a pregnant wife? I believe the references to Robert being Henry's "old shipmate" relate to their crayfishing venture.

Owen Cain was from Tyrone in Ireland, where limestone was a feature of the landscape. His property Tyrone stretched from the Whitecliffs/Cain Rd midline, where it adjoined the township of Rye,to Canterbury Rd. Street names on this area recall Cain in-laws (Murray, Neville, Ford),Owen's son (Michael), the name of a Cain house (Roslyn)as well as the farm and its owners. Centre Rd follows the course of Owen Cain's loading road where lime was taken from the kiln to be loaded into boats on the west side of White Cliff.For many decades Catholic services were held at Tyrone and Rosslyn,priests coming across the bay.

Mr Owen Cain died near Rye, on Thursday last, aged 98. He settled in the district early in 1842.
(Bairnsdale Advertiser and Tambo and Omeo Chronicle (Vic. : 1882 - 1918) Thursday 2 July 1896 p 2 Article.)

Councillor Anderson referred to the death of one of the oldest and most respected residents of the district, Mr.Owen Cain, of Rye, father of the president, Councillor John Cain, J.P. He moved " That as a mark of respect this council adjourn until 2 o'clock to transact the business of importance." then he would move a further adjournment. Councillor Callanan also spoke of the deceased gentleman as a highly respected resident. He seconded the motion, which was carried. (COUNCIL NEWS. Flinders and Kangerong Shire Council.
Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 2 July 1896 Edition: MORNING p 3 Article.)

CAIN-FORD.-On the 9th inst., at St. Finbar's Church, Brighton, by the Rev. Michael Carey, John, son of Owen Cain, of Rye, to Julia, daughter of James Ford, of Portsea.
(The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 10 August 1877 p 1 Family Notices.)

On Sunday, 28th June, about one of the largest funerals ever seen in the peninsula took place at Rye, when
about 500 people followed the remains of an old and respected resident named Mr. Owen Cain, sen. to its last
resting place in the quiet and picturesque little cemetery at Rye. Mr. Cainwas 98 years of age, and was a native of Ireland. He has been a resident of Rye for the last 55 years. and had always taken a great interest in mattersconnected with the district in the early days. When Mr. Cain first settled at Rye he commenced business in the lime trade and in the early (40's?) supplied most of the lime that built the principal buildings in Melbourne. Doing such a large trade in lime, he employed a large number of hands in and around the place. Mr. Cain and his wife will long he remembered for their hospitality by many a weary traveller who had travelled many miles through the bush under a broiling sun, and always found a welcome rest under their roof. Mr. Cain had enjoyed good health almost up to the time of his death. Just a few hours before his death he had been out walking in the paddock, looking at the men ploughing, and had just returned to the house (the residence of his son, Mr. John Cain. J.P., with whom he had been living for some time) and was sitting in the arm chair when he passed quietly away. About eight months ago* he lost his wife, who had also reached a ripe old
age. The loss he deeply felt, and he never completely recovered from the blow.
(P.3, Mornington Standard,2-7-1896.)

I remember reading that Owen had said that he knew he was getting old when he had trouble mounting his horse (when aged over 90!)
*A very old colonist and resident of this district, Mrs. Sarah Cain, aged 96, died at the residence of her son, Councillor John Cain, J. P., president of the shire of Flinders and Kangerong, on Saturday last. She, with her husband, Owen Cain, who survives her, arrived in the colony in 1841, and settled in this district in February, 1842. Deceased and all her family were very popular, as was testified by the large number of persons in conveyances and on horseback, who attended the funeral in the Rye Cemetery on Monday last.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 31-10-1895.)

Another careless click has wiped out my quote from page 32 of Colin McLear's A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA, which I had just discovered was the source of my story about Rye's little girl lost. It contradicted I SUCCEEDED ONCE, which gave the location of George Smith's Wooloowoolooboolook as fronting Capel Sound, whereas John McLear, the McRae tutor, seems to have given its location as being 7 miles from the McCrae homestead on the road to the Schanck,which would put it in the vicinity of Pattersons Rd, Fingal. Luckily the following article about Georgiana McCrae's journal gives most of the story.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 3 January 1885 p 4 Article
...nbsp; the discovery and safety of Sarah Ann Cain, the child of the lime-burner. She was only four ...

" October 26. (1844)News from Arthur's Seat of the discovery and safety of Sarah Ann Cain, the child of the lime-burner. She was only four years old, and had been lost for four days and five nights in the bush. Some of
the nights were very severe, with heavy rain. She had heard the men cooeying, but did not answer, fearing they were blacks. When found, she was warding the attacks of the crows on her face with her hands, and was all but exhausted. A warm bath and the administration of food in small quantities (a teaspoon at a time,by Mrs Smith*)
brought her completely round ; and she afterwards grew up a fine young woman.

*Mrs Smith was Edward Hobson's widowed mother and no proof of a marriage to George Smith has been found, according to Marie Fels in I SUCCEEDED ONCE. I have added the year and detail from Colin's account in brackets.

Lived in Victoria for Almost 94 Years.
MORNINGTON, Friday-Mrs Sarah Ann Rogers, the last member of the Cain family, pioneers of the Rye district, has
died. She was aged 94 years She was the widow of Mr James Rogers of Balnarring, and she had lived in Victoria for almost all her life, having arrived from New York (USA) in 1840. Her parents were Irish emigrants to the United States. (P.20,Argus,30-6-1934.)

There is extensive Cain genealogy in LIME LAND LEISURE but emigration to the U.S.A. and Sarah Ann's marriage are not mentioned as far as I remember. Phil Cain, a great researcher for the Rye Historical Society, would get a chuckle out of Sarah being the last of the Cain family. The journalist probably meant to say "the last of Owen Cain's children". James Rogers was the grantee of crown allotments 20,19A and 19B in the parish of Balnarring, 296 acres on the south side of Bittern-Dromana Rd,indicated by Melway 162 F-H12,the southern boundary being a line heading east to the corner of Warrawee and Balnarring Rds.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 3 April 1869 p 2 Advertising
... and Hollins, TUESDAY, APRIL 6. At Two O'Clock. The Marine Village of Manners-Sutton. Sale of Allotments of Two Acres Each. G.WALSTAB has received Instructions from S. S. Crispo. Esq., to SELL by A ... favourite watering-place of the colony, known as MANNERS-SUTTON. It is situate between Point Nepean and ...

The Governor, Sir John Manners-Sutton, had been elevated to Viscount Canterbury while in office and Crispo, who had built a jetty, quickly changed the name of his village,which was across Canterbury Jetty Rd from Owen Cain's Tyrone.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 11 May 1874 p 7 Advertising
... A R Y NOTICE* COUNTY of MORNINGTON STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY It has been suggested hy Mr Crispo that ... tho following places -Frankston, Mornington, Dromana, Rye, Canterbury, Sorrento, Portsea, and ...

The house that gave Blairgowrie its name was built as Villa Maria by a prominent Irish parliamentarian. When it was bought by Dr. John Blair,he renamed it as Blairgowrie. An excellent free pamphlet detailing the history of the house can be obtained at the Nepean Historical Society Museum at Sorrento. The house was described as being in East Sorrento and the first instance I have found of the area being called Blairgowrie was in an advertisement for the sale of the Cain Estate (Tyrone) which ironically is in Rye, not Blairgowrie.

Sir.-In your issue of the 18th May Mr Coppin is called the discoverer of Sorrento. This is a mistake. When
the Hon. James Grant was Minister of Lands and Survey, Mr Charles Gavan Duffy and` Mr Blair, lime merchant,
each applied fpr the site of Sorrento, no doubt on account of the limestone in the ground, but by some oversight, it could not be discovered who had made the first application, and a long dispute arose, appearing in the press at the time. But as both applicants had much land I wrote to Mr Grant, and suggested the site should be cut up into small lots and put up at £4 an acre, so as to give other people a chance to get land.
This was done, and a Government township surveyed, and a jetty built. Mr Kerferd and Mr Anderson, Commissioner of Trade and Customs were the first to build houses, and then I believe followed the Sorrento hotel. Who built next I do not know, but old Sorrento residents may be able to supply the information. Some considerable
time afterwards Mr George Coppin got a company to promote journeys to the Back Beach, but at that time the
cost of steamboat fares was £1, and I wrote to Mr Coppin suggesting that his company should run a steamer at
reduced fares, after trying to get the fares reduced without result. Mr Coppin's company, after a time, bought and ran the Golden Crown, and reduced the fares to 3s 6d. This made the place go ahead quickly, and great credit is due to Mr Coppin and his Coy. Mr Duffy suggested the name Sorrento as he had been travelling in Italy, and named it after a town there. Long before Sorrento was founded I tried to start a town for summer resort threemiles east of Sorrento, but no lots were sold at that time. After Sorrento started I sold many lots. Canterbury never became a township, being eclipsed by Sorrento. Some place Mr Duffy, and some Mr Coppin as the founder of Sorrento, but no one has placed Mr Grant or myself in that position.
(Crispo should have stuck to his own experience because he concluded by giving the wrong origin of Dromana's name, supplied by an Italian. Drom is a Celtic word for hill and Dromana is of Irish origin.)
Rye. (P.3, Mornington Standard, 1-6-1899.)

Duffy and Blair had been fighting court battles over land before Crispo suggested the village of Sorrento be created.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 15 January 1869 p 6 Article
... dummies, preferred against Mr. C. G. Duffy And Mr.W.A.Blair., Yesterday the decision of the ... Blair against the Hon. Mr. Duffy, and tho other a counter-charge brought by Mr. Duffy Against Mr. Blair. The charge in each case is one that is commonly called dummy ism. It has been referred to ... 3570 words

Government Advertisements.
Crown Lands Office, Melbourne,
December 21, 1869
A SALE of CROWN LANDS by public auction will be held at 2 o'clock on Friday, 11th January,1S70, at the auction rooms of Mostró. Gemmell,Tuckott, and Co, Colllns-ntreet west, Melbourne,
The following lots will bo offered :
Sorrento, oounty of Mornington, parish of Nepean, on Port fhillip Bay, at Point Sorrento. Upset price,
£1 per acre. Allotments Í to 6, Sec. 1 ; 1 to 8, Sec.
2. Dr. 8p. to la. ICp.
County of Mornington, parish of Ncpoan, adjoining the last-named lot«, on Port Phillip lUy. Upset price,
£3 per acre. Allotments 1 to 12, 9.1 to 16A, 13 to 30, la 8r. 17p. to 0a. 2r. IE 4-10p.
, Piano and Information can be obtained at tho Crown Land Office, Molbourno.
(P.7, Argus, 10-1-1870.)

Extract from: It's a Small World - Vicnet‎
Since I began entering the details of our pioneering ancestors into the records from 1977 onwards, there have been many amazing co-incidences and stories that have emerged, but none more so than the tale which can now be told.

Two men - James Sandle Ford, baptised on 12th of May, 1811, at Havant, Hampshire, England, and Samuel Morey, baptised on 2nd of May, 1811, also of Havant, Hampshire, were among a large group of men who were convicted at the Winchester Assizes on 30th of December, 1830, on a charge of machine breaking. Both men were sentenced to seven years transportation per the ship "Eliza II" (3rd voyage), which arrived at Hobart, Van Diemen's Land on the 26th May, 1831.

It is known that James Sandle Ford received a Free Pardon on the 3rd February, 1836 and that he left Launceston, VDL for Melbourne, Port Phillip, on 9th December, 1836, per the vessel "Enterprise".

Meanwhile, Samuel Morey was married at Hobart, VDL on 2nd May, 1836 to Catherine Travers. It is not yet known how or when they crossed to Melbourne.

James Sandle Ford was married on 8th February, 1841 at St. Francis' Roman Catholic Church, Melbourne, to Hannah Sullivan and Samuel Morey and his wife, Catherine, were the witnesses.

James Sandle Ford died on 18th July, 1890 at Portsea, Victoria; his wife Hannah having died there on 15th December, 1878.

Dennis and Honora Sullivan arrived at The Heads in about 1843(from memory) and their daughter, Hannah, married James Sandle Ford. They had probably met in Melbourne where some Sullivans had astounded everyone with their giant cucumber and an Honora Sullivan had committed an offence against the Masters and Servants Act,leaving the employer with whom she had undertaken a contract to serve another who had offered her more money. (BEARBRASS and EARLY MELBOURNE.) It is extremely likely that cucumber-growers were the elderly Dennis Sullivan and his children. If so their horticultural skills were extremely handy for James Sandle Ford who supplied vegetables and other produce to the Quarantine Station, which displaced the Sullivan family. Patrick Sullivan moved the family to the Rye area, married William Grace's daughter and later built the Gracefield Hotel on the site of the present Rye Hotel. When Patrick died,the management of the lime kiln (on The Dunes golf course site) was left in the hands of Antonio "Albas*" while his son James concentrated on firewood for bakers' ovens in Melbourne and the Gracefield Hotel. Later Mrs Weir (a Sullivan girl) ran the hotel for many years.
*It was stated in Lime Land Leisure that the kiln manager might have actually been Tony Salvas; such misinformation was the reason I wrote my first FAMILY TREE CIRCLES journal, about Antonio Albress!

Extract from:
The Farnsworth Track - Visit Mornington Peninsula
European settlement
The first European explorers described the Nepean Peninsula as park-like, with Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticilla) and Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata) interspersed with grassy clearings. When Lieutenant John Murray aboard the Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip Bay in 1802 he described the topography of the southern shore as . . . bold and high land with stout trees of various kinds ... The trees are at a good distance apart and no brush intercepts you. This timber was rapidly cleared when European settlers came; larger grazing areas were required, fence posts and firewood were needed, and the Sheoak was used to burn limestone to make lime for
the Melbourne building industry.

Arriving in 1840, James Sandle Ford was the districts first successful settler. Convicted of machine breaking in the agricultural unrest in southern England in 1830, he had been transported to Van Diemens Land, then pardoned before finding his way to the Peninsula.
He named the area Portsea after his home town in England and his energy and enterprise were soon evident, as he shipped lime to Melbourne and supplied produce to the nearby Quarantine Station established in 1852.
The Farnsworth family
The local Farnsworth family originated from John Farnsworth, who built some notable Sorrento and Portsea houses; the Sorrento Hotel and the Nepean Hotel, Portsea. John married James Fords daughter, Anne. Their son John Nepean Farnsworth farmed the area between Campbells Road and Portsea Golf Course (north of the walking track) and operated a horse-drawn transport business. Twentieth-century developments were introduced by John Nepeans two sons John James and Harry, who developed an extensive transport business.
John James Farnsworth (1902 -1984) had a long and active association with the district. After the Second
World War he established a red bus service linking Sorrento and Portsea via Mt Levy. He is mainly remembered for the Sorrento- Portsea-Queenscliff ferry service that he initiated in 1953 with the Judith Ann; he worked actively on the ferries until 1979. His desire to encourage more people to share the beauty of the ocean beach led to a long involvement with the former Ocean Park Committee.

My grandfather, James Sandle Ford, with his wife and several young children settled at Portsea in the forties and named it after Portsea, a suburb of Portsmouth. At that time is was open well grassed country without tea-tree. After getting a home together my grandfather began to rear cattle and horses. The cattle he sold as meat to the shiploads of early settlers who landed in the adjacent quarantine station where they had to stay till granted a clean bill of health before proceeding up the bay to Sandridge. After weary months on board ship they
must have enjoyed fresh meat and eggs and butter from the dairy of my grandfather. The horses were driven in large mobs to Melbourne to be sold.

My father Alfred Ford was born in Portsea in 1850 and he lived most of his life there till his death in 1928. He often told us of his first visit to Melbourne at the age of 11 years, when he rode on horseback with some of his father's stockmen who were taking a mob of horses to be sold. When they reached the city they had great trouble in getting the horses safely across the ford at the Yarra where Princes Bridge now stands. My father spent some of his time fishing at this ford.

From the cottage in which he lived my grandfather built the present Nepean Hotel which has been added to and increased. It remained in his family for many years being kept by himself, a son and a son in-law for some years. It changed hands about 30 years ago. It again came into the family being bought by a son-in law John Cain whose daughters still own and conduct it. John Farnsworth who afterward married a daughter of James Ford and died there last year and whose son became a coach proprietor was the contractor and builder who erected the Nepean Hotel and houses owned at present by Mrs O'Hara (previously owned by Mr Ross Cox) and Mr Le Souef (originally built for Dr Robertson of St Kilda father of Dr W.Robertson of the Department of Agriculture) My grandfather reserved the beautiful block of land in front of the Nepean Hotel for a park and also built at his
own expense the first portion of the Portsea pier which extended to where the steps now are but was then deep enough to permit vessels such as the Golden Crown to load and unload their cargoes. He also built sea baths several piles of which are still standing and bathing boxes.

My father received his first education in a building which stood where some of the bungalows at Marshalls Hotel
now stand. The late Walter Knight, father of Charles Jack and Archie was also a scholar there. My father was
sent to school at Dromana later to finish his education. Later a school conducted by the late Mr and Mrs Hiskins was erected between Portsea and Sorrento where children of both places were taught. About 40 years ago a school was erected in the grounds of the quarantine station but it was not very satisfactory. When the quarantine station was closed during an epidemic the teacher stayed in quarantine and taught the children of the station hands. The few children who went from Portsea had to sit on a form outside the fence and receive their instruction,as well as the cane,from the mistress on the other side. The present State school built at Portsea about 17 years ago is really its first school.

The Lime Kilns...
Until all the limestone was taken from the ground lime burning was for many years the main industry. At one time my father had about 20 Chinese quarrying for him. The stone was burnt in kilns and sent to town in lime craft. As a child I remember going for our daily mail to the Nepean Hotel whither it was brought by coach from Dromana. It had been brought by another coach from Mornington where it had arrived by train. As there was not a post office the post mistress had a room at the Nepean Hotel. There was then not even the small wooden store which was afterward built by Mr Roberts and later bought by Mr W H Goss who enlarged it and had the post office transferred to where it now is.

My father told us that 60 years or more ago Portsea was the holiday rendezvous of men of letters learning and law from the city. Some of their descendants even to the fourth generation are still regular visitors. Before the death of the late Dr Fitchett there were four generations of his family there on holidays together.

More than 40 years ago Portsea became a garrison town. Barracks and fort were built and guns now long obsolete and dismantled were its pride and joy. For many years a company of permanent soldiers consisting of about 80 men and officers was stationed there. They were called the Victorian Permanent Artillery. Many had served in British regiments and it was a great delight to us children to see them march to the pier headed by the band which was sometimes stationed at Portsea. They wore navy uniforms well tailored with white helmets and white gloves. Once a month they boarded the little Mars or Vulcan to attend a full dress parade at Queenscliff. For many years now the barracks and fort have been deserted and left in charge of one gunner.

The Dispatch
In the early days people came for a change and a rest, and wore their oldest clothes. When mixed bathing began,
about 35 years ago, and the women wore bathing gowns from neck to ankle, how horrified the inhabitants were to see them bathing by the pier with their menfolk clad only in bathing trunks! In spite of all the crowds which have bathed at Portsea, there has never been a drowning accident, which speaks well for the safety of the beaches. When one sees service cars arriving and departing frequently throughout the day one thinks how means
of transport have improved during the last 30 years. During the winter months, from May till November, one relied on the S.S.Dispatch, which called once a week, to get either to or from the city. This little steamer, calling at Queenscliff and Portsea on the way, was advertised to leave Melbourne for the Gippsland Lakes
every Saturday at 2 p.m, but on the amount of cargo to be loaded often depended the time of sailing. Given a favourable wind and tide, and not too much cargo to unload at Queenscliff,
the Dispatch arrived at Portsea at any time between 7 p.m. and midnight. This weekly arrival was the social event of the week. The village turned out and often waited for hours in the cold and wind on the pier or in the shed. On her return from Lakes Entrance the Dispatch was due to call at Portsea to pick up passengers and cargo at 9 a.m. on Thursday, which she did if weather permitted. Sometimes passengers waited for a couple of days on
the pier, and the Dispatch would pass through on Saturday morning without calling and go to town to set off on her weekly trip outward bound. The intending passengers then had to wait till the following Thursday for their trip to the city.

How eagerly the residents waited for the Hygeia or Ozone to commence the season on Derby Day! They ran for six
months until the end of April. Everybody turned out on Derby Day to meet the boat at Sorrento and to welcome
friends and relations whom they had not seen for six months. Visitors during the winter months were few and rare, though several families which had seaside cottages came for the midwinter holidays.

SORRENTO, Thursday.
Mr. William B. Ford, late of the Nepean Hotel, Portsea, and a member of the Flinders Shire Council, committed suicide yesterday by cutting his throat. He was missed from his room by his wife, and upon a search being
made he was found with his face downwards on the floor, quite dead. The police immediately took possession of the place, and a magisterial inquiry will be held tomorrow. Troubles of a pecuniary nature are thought
to have been the cause of the fatal act.
(P.3, Argus,22-8-1884.)

The journalist beat the shire by thirty years in dropping Kangerong from its name!
William had lived on Wannaeue Station, bounded by Eastbourne, Jetty/Old Cape Schanck, Hiscock and Boneo Rd and had a hero, named William Salmon, as his cook.

SHIRE of FLINDERS and KANGERONG.-Notice is hereby given, that an ELECTION to fill an ordinary vacancy in the council for the West Riding of the above shire will be held on Thursday, the 9th day of August next.And I hereby appoint Tuesday, tho 31st inst, as the day before which, and my residence, Wannaeue, as the place at which, nominations of candidates, shall be delivered. WILLIAM FORD, Returning Officer.
(P.8,Argus, 25-7-1877.)

The following account of the history of Portsea and Sorrento by Sidney H.Wilson is excellent although the newspaper ink must have been running short, resulting in about 1% of the digitised text resembling English.
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 12 March 1932 p 8 Article Illustrated.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Wednesday 21 February 1877 Supplement: The Argus Summary for Europe p 1 Article
... age in March. He is employed as cook on the station of Mr. Ford, at Wannaeue, between Rye and ..

Apart from lime burners and James Ford, many early settlers in the Portsea/Sorrento area were fishermen. See my journal about the Watsons and Stirlings of Portsea and Sorrento. Don't forget to visit the Nepean Museum and John Watt's nearby limestone cottage. Oh,and one more thing, while there,the tramway station above the Sorrento pier.




14 comment(s), latest 1 year, 2 months ago


It would be difficult to read any local history of Rye without encountering the surname ROWLEY. Although some local histories mention members of the pioneering families moving elsewhere,this is the exception rather than the rule. Using LIME LAND LEISURE and other peninsula histories, one of my early research projects, an entry in my PENINSULA DICTIONARY HISTORY called FAMILY CONNECTIONS aimed to explain how the bride and groom became acquainted. One connection had me baffled for over a year,that between Robert Rowley senior and Christina (or Christine) Edwards*. The mystery was finally solved because of a man whose father moved from the Mallee to Rye.

(*POSTSCRIPT. 29-3-2014.
Although I did not make a note of the year, I believe that I remember seeing that Robert Rowley married in 1858 or 1859. This may have been on page 144 of LIME LAND LEISURE. Ron Doig,whose mother was a Rowley, told me that Robert,aged 38,married Chistena (my spelling,probably relying on the above book),aged 22,in 1859 in Longford, Tasmania. Either the year given was wrong or the marriage notice below was published well after the ceremony.

ROWLEY-EDWARDS - By the Rev. J Smithies, at the house of Mr Joseph Tongs, Illawarra, Christina Edwards, the only daughter of Mr William Edwards, of Newborough, Fife, Scotland, to Mr Robert Rowley, of Dromana, Victoria.
(P.5,Launceston Examiner,22-1-1861.)

2717 ROWLEY Robert b1822 29/12/1911 89 Christena born London,arrived Sydney 8/7/1826
2717 ROWLEY Christena b1838 3/9/1924 86 Robert born Scotland,Both Pioneers of this District.

If Robert was 38 at the time of his wedding,this would indicate that the wedding took place in 1860 or 1861.
If Christena was 22 at the time of the wedding, this would also indicate that the wedding took place in 1860 or 1861. Thus it is likely that Robert and Chistena were married in late 1860 or very early in 1861.As an earlier notice appeared in the same newspaper on 1-1-1861, the wedding was probably in December 1860.

When I saw the residence of Joseph Tongs was at Illawarra,I immediately thought of New South Wales, but Illawarra was also a station in Gippsland. Joseph Tongs' lease* on the station may have been transferred or cancelled in 1863, accounting for his arrival in Launceston from Melbourne in that year. As roads into Gippsland would have been little more than blazed tracks circa 1860,it is likely that Peter Pidoto,for whom Robert Rowley worked at Dromana, was carrying more than timber on his vessel and was delivering supplies to the Gippsland pioneers through Port Albert and other suitable landing places.
(*Joseph Tongs may have OWNED Illawarra.)

KAYE and BUTCHART will SELL by AUCTION,on an early day, which will be duly announced,The stations known as
SWAN REACH, ILLAWARRA, KILLMORIE,and ALLANDALE,situate on the Tambo River and Lake King,etc.
(P.3,Argus,5-1-1863.) Frank Rowley's move to Stratford (Gippland, as mentioned later in the journal)) may have resulted from Robert's early familiarity with the area. The Tongs family appears to have been associated with Longford, in whose police court John Tongs, known to own 100 acres on the Cressy Estate by 1865, was fined five shillings in 1861 for not registering his dog. S.Tongs did jury service in 1862. (P.5,The Cornwall Chronicle, 3-5-1862, SUPREME COURT.

It is possible that Joseph Tongs was related to Christena or her guardian.

At the time I was working on another entry in the dictionary history called HISTORIC ORIGINS OF STREET NAMES and I received a phone call from a descendant of James Trueman in response to my letter in DESPERATELY SEEKING. Now living in Rosebud, she had once been a customer of hairdresser, Raymond Guest, of Canterbury Rd in Melbourne's eastern suburbs. His son, Raymond, still lives in that locality and told me the origins of the street names on James Trueman's grants on the western side of Truemans Rd. He also sent me the subdivision plans of the Almaray Estate, named after his mother and father and mentioned his neighbours to the east and fronting Truemans Rd, the Doigs. A bit more phone book speculation and I was talking to Ron Doig, son of poultry farmer, Alfred Doig, who had married a Rowley "chick!", and eventually subdivided the western half of Trueman's grants as the Oceanaires Estate.

In about 1909, James Little Brown (repeatedly called John by rate collectors even though he was a councillor!) mysteriously arrived from the Mallee and transformed the ti-tree and rabbit infested land at the back of Rye into beautiful pasture.

How was it that Alf Doig and James Little Brown just happened to turn up at far-flung Rye? It all revolves around the Rowley family not being quite so tied to the Rye area as generally portrayed. It was not unusual for sons to move away from the family farm; while large families were fine for helping with harvesting, the farm could not support the sons when they were ready to start their own families. This problem was mentioned in requests for the extensions of the railway from Red Hill; lack of transport to Melbourne precluded more extensive agriculture, so sons were leaving the area. One of these was the father of George Townsend (whose letter to Cinderella was the basis of my journal about Dromana etc through the eyes of a twelve year old.) Another was Michael Cain who spent time at Sale and in Adelaide (where his daughter, Mary Agnes,who married Hill Harry Cairns, was born.)

Robert Rowley was quite the nomad. His father died in Tasmania while he was quite young and his mother married Richard Kenyon. His mother and stepfather were among the earliest lime burners at the Heads,perhaps supplying another from the Apple Isle who was a Sorrento resident in 1803, John Pascoe Fawkner. Robert did not come with them! A few years later he started his own lime burning operation in the Sorrento area with Frankston pioneer, Henry Cadby Wells who walked all the way from Melbourne with his pregnant wife, and whose daughter was the first white child born in Sorrento,on the site of the Koonya Hotel (formerly "Lugger Jack" Clark's "Mornington Hotel".)

After the 1840's depression ended the lime burning venture, Wells returned to Richmond but his bootmaking must have been profitable because by 1849 he and Robert were in partnership, crayfishing in Henry's boat, which was lucrative until the boat came down on its anchor in Westernport while they visited their families. It was at this time that Henry built Clark's Cottage (demolished for extension of the Koonya.)

Robert's first house at Rye was on the foreshore opposite the original post office. He was probably fishing at the time. But his first marital abode was probably on the east side of Carrigg St in Dromana. What had he been doing since the early 1850's?

Could he have returned to Tasmania. He married Christena Edwards at Longford, Tasmania when he was about 37 and Christina, 22. Ron Doig said the marriage took place in 1859 and Nell Arnold said that it was in 1860 but Ron had access to extensive genealogy compiled by Heather Spunner. Robert was born in 1822 and died on 29-12-1911 and Christena was born in 1838 and died on 3-9-1924, aged 86, according to Rye Cemetery records.

I have speculated that Robert had been a crewman on vessels sailing between Victoria and Tasmania during the 1850's,perhaps with Henry Cadby Wells, to account for Henry calling Robert his old shipmate,but I now realise that "Shipmate" could be in reference to their crayfishing together. However, in light of his former crayfishing and later employment by Peter Pidito, this employment cannot yet be discarded as a theory. He could also have returned to Tasmania, perhaps to live with relatives or to work as a policeman*.(Cornwall Chronicle.)
As Christina had only just been born when he first came to the heads to visit his mother and stepfather and still a toddler when he started lime burning with Wells,he obviously kept in contact with the Edwards family in some way. I have formed the impression from trove that an Edwards family was involved in export.

*An OLD COLONIST. -An old colonist at present in the Gippsland district, is Mr. R. Rowley of Rye the father of
Mr. Frank Rowley, Stratford, and Mr. R. Rowley of Rye. Mr. Rowley sen. landed in Tasmania in 1824 being then 4 years old. He there resided until 1844 when he came to Rye Victoria: where he has since lived. In Tasmania he held an appointment under the Government and received from the Crown a grant of land. Mr. Rowley is in his 88th. year. ((P.2, Mornington Standard, 18-1-1908.)

Perhaps the policeman was Robert. He would have been 2 when his father, James, was transferred to Hobart from Sydney. As illustrated previously, he had not lived at Rye all the time since his arrival and he would have been in the "Northern Isle" (a bit of Tasmanian humour) by 1841 as the following shows (unless Henry Cadby Wells walked all the way to Sorrento just on the off-chance that Robert would be waiting for them.)

It is believed that after a short stay in Frankston, Henry and Hannah made their way down to Sorrento, then known as Point Nepean. They were blessed with another daughter, Mary Louise Wells, also nick-named 'Polly', born 7-6-1841 at Sorrento and Baptised in the Church of England, Parish of St. James on the 10-10-1841. Polly was the eldest of 13 children, having 12 brothers ! ! Polly is believed to have been the first white baby born to permanent settlers of the Mornington Peninsula. (THE WELLS STORY-ONLINE.)
N.B. Henry and Hannah had to go to the original cathedral in Melbourne, St James Old Cathedral, now located at West Melbourne. St James the Less at Mt Eliza did not exist until much later.

Very soon after their marriage, Robert and Christina were at Dromana. Crown allotment 4, section 1, Kangerong of 36 acres, between the western side of the Dromana Hotel and the eastern end of Sea Quinn Close, extended south to Palmerston Ave. It was subdivided very early, the Dromana Hotel and an associated 17 acres,with John McClear's house on one acre, on the western half; the eastern half consisted of 17 acres owned by mariner, Peter Pidoto, and Holden's store on one acre. The following description of Carrigg Drive refers to the eastern half, east of the covered footpath that runs alongside the hairdresser, Kindilan Society and other shops.

P.39, A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA. Holden's General Store stood near the corner of Carrigg St. Next door to the store was a slab hut where at one time the Rowleys, later of Rye, lived. Mr Rowley worked at loading Peter Pidota's (sic) craft. (The author, Colin McLear, would have been told all this by relatives, fisherman John McLear and Mrs Holden being the pioneering neighbours near Carrigg St referred to in my journal of that name.)
P.132. The petition of 9-3-1861 leaves no doubt that Mr Rowley was Robert Rowley,his signature indicating that he was not a spelling champion,almost forgetting the w in his surname.

This was not the only connection between the Rowleys and Dromana; Robert bought land on the summit of Arthurs Seat (crown allotment 25B, section B, Wannaeue of 93 acres) in 1904, in his mid 80's, to exploit its timber. James Rowley was a member of the committee of the Dromana Sports Club when it ran its last recorded (horse) racing meeting on 11-3-1927. And now the Mallee!

Robert Rowley seems to have settled on his grants (46 and 46A, section A Wannaeue of 117 acres) south of the Trueman/Guest land, in about 1867. He had earlier lived in the house on the foreshore mentioned previously. He built a new house on his farm near the present Carboor St. In 1900 Robert was assessed on the Truemans Rd farm but by 1910 he must have moved to his third house, 17 Lyons St, Rye and James Rowley, fisherman of Rye was assessed, as he was in 1919.

At about that time, Wilfred Rowley moved to the mallee (P.145 LIME LAND LEISURE.) He spent 13 years there contracting and managing an experimental farm at Carwup, south of RedCliffs. While there he met and married Emma Shaw. He also became friendly with the Doigs. Harry Doig came to visit the Rowleys at Rye and met Dorothy Rowley whom he married in 1939.

James Little Brown.
Excerpt from the Cr J.L.Brown entry in my SHIRE OF FLINDERS journal.
Jim stayed for 18 days with Robert Rowley on the west side of Truemans Rd, south of Trueman's grant.Then he went to Melbourne and bought 1500 acres from banks and trust companies. In very short time, land was cleared, burned, fenced and sown with grass. The wire netting fences kept rabbits out and those trapped inside could not escape the inevitable.Overseen by James Cain and Robert Myers, well were dug and windmills installed to pump water into concrete troughs.

As stated earlier, Jim Brown just happened to turn up at Rye in 1909. I believe that Jim had previously lived in Rye* and Wilfred Rowley's move to the Mallee might have been suggested by Jim.

The curator of the estates of deceased persons has obtained rules to administer the estates of the fol- lowing deceased persons under Act No. 1,060: John Barnard (de bonis non adminis), of Geelong West, who died on 2nd March 1895, £400; David Brown, of Rye, who died 8th July 1900, £3,325/0/4 etc.
(P.3, Argus, 19-7-1900.)

While I was trying to find more about this David Brown, and substituting Tootgarook for Rye, I found this mention of Raymond and Alma Guest's subdivision.

Clues and News
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 7 December 1953 p 8 Article Illustrated.
I've always had a yen for a weekend house-to get away from the city and crowds. I haven't got the house yet, but I've invested in a block of land on the Almaray Estates at Tootgarook-for only £25 deposit and£2 monthly! It's a super spot, between Rosebud and Rye, with a perfect bathing beach and a background of lovely country-side. There are several excellent blocks still available, so if you like my idea, contact Almaray Estates, 33 Edgevale Rd,, Kew. UM4212.

By the way,it was Harry Doig from the Mallee who ensured that the area's name became Tootgarook and not Birkdale which Whitaker's Tourist bus advertisements called it because of Birkdale House on the east corner of Carmichael St.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 12 December 1938 p 15 Advertising
... omce cent_5775 DROMANA Rosebud Birkdale Rye - Whltaker s leave Whlglit ? 110 Flinders st 9 30 a m 5 p m

Raymond Guest was clever, sneaking advertisements into gossip type columns such as clues and news and:
Easter Parade of theShopping Spy.
Holiday home.
I love swimming and sunbathing and the man in my life likes fishing and shooting-so we're unanimous in our praise of theAlmaray Estates at Tootgarook, a gorgeous spot on the Mornington Peninsula, between Rosebud and Rye. A new subdivision of land has recently been made and excellent blocks are available at moderate prices (cash or £25 deposit and £2 monthly). During Easter, see Mr. Guest at end of Morris st., otherwise contact
Almaray Estates, 33 Edgevale rd., Kew. (P.8, Argus, 8-4-1954.)

1 comment(s), latest 1 year, 4 months ago


Because,in order not to exceed the capacity of the surnames list,I have been covering four pages per journal, I will need about 500 journals to detail all the people appearing in the photographs. Therefore I have decided to conduct an experiment. The first person, not already mentioned, to appear on page 9 is Sir Isaac Isaacs.

If I do a search for him on trove there are 183 760 results, and as anyone who has used trove a lot would know, a lot of them are about Sir something else, Isaac someone else etc. The summaries of these results may not indicate whether there is a photo with the article. There are some photos on the right of the newspaper articles but not many and the Fairfax Collection is not mentioned. However it is unlikely that any photos would be found there for some of the people recorded in the Fairfax Collection.

What if we do a trove search for "Fairfax, Isaacs"? A bit better, with one photo at least implied in the summaries of the first 20 results. The information regarding photos and data sets to the right of the articles does not mention the Fairfax Collection. The aim of the experiment is to find not only the Fairfax collection but all the photos of Sir Isaac Isaacs within it (to avoid the necessity to scroll through all 3994 photos to find them.)

Now we try "Fairfax, negatives, Sir Isaac Isaacs". Only 79 results, one photo and no mention of the collection.

Now "Fairfax collection of glass plate negatives, Sir Isaac Isaacs". Absolutely useless.
The same search terms in the pictures, photos, objects category rather than digitised newspapers and more. No!
The same search terms on google. No.
A search for FAIRFAX COLLECTION OF GLASS PLATE NEGATIVES on google. Plenty of results but the aim of finding all the photos of a nominated person in the Fairfax collection has not been achieved.

It is great that the N.L.A. has digitised the collection but to save family historians having to scroll through 3994 photos to find the photo they seek (or to find if there is one there at all) more needs to be done. That was the aim of my journals about the collection. Have they helped? Let's try Mr Bromley.

First result on trove under pictures etc.:
Victorian cricketer Mr Bromley, 1933
Fairfax Corporation
[ Photograph : 1933 ]

Let's try a search for Doug Nichols (No 171 on page 9) in the same way.
Fourth result but others as well:

Photograph of Doug Nicholls
[ Object, Photograph ]
View online
At National Museum
Photograph of Doug Nicholls

Lois Briggs
Herald and Weekly Times
[ Photograph : 4 images : 1961 ]
Keywords: Briggs, Lois.; Models (Persons) - Victoria.; Aboriginal Australians.
... and Mrs Selwyn Briggs, shows her diploma to her uncle, Pastor Doug Nicholls, right, and Mrs Nicholls, left ...

Indigenous Victorian Australian Rules footballer Doug Nicholls, 15 August 1931
Fairfax Corporation
[ Photograph : 1931 ]
View online
At National Library

Now I'll try Thomas Dunbabin (No.3981 on page 200.)

Thomas Dunbabin at his desk speaking on the telephone, New South Wales, ca. 1915
Fairfax Corporation
[ Photograph : 1900-1930 ] This was No.3981.

Miss B. [Beatrice] Beedham (later Mrs Thomas Dunbabin), Tasmanian Exhibition, 1894-5, Season Ticket Holder - Warick Street
[ Photograph ]

Thomas Dunbabin with W.R. Sudgrove, Captain Green and an unidentified man on the deck of a ship, New South Wales, ca. 1915
Fairfax Corporation

Now I'm pretending to be a family historian and I haven't a clue whether the collection contains a photo of this person. THOMAS SMITH.(I just made the name up.)

Thomas Smith
Duryea, Townsend, 1823-1888, photographer
[ Photograph : 1870 ]
Keywords: Smith, Thomas
... Thomas Smith, Bank Manager at Gawler ...

[ Photograph : 2 images : 1895-9402 ]
Keywords: Smith, Thomas (Portraits); portraits; beards
... Mr Thomas Smith posing in his Masonic regalia

It works. I don't need to do another 498 journals.



I came across these in the National Library of Australia newsletter. You can access them by googling the words above (in upper case.) There are 20 photos per page and I have only included photos of people here. From first impressions the photos mainly concern N.S.W. (*Unless another place is specified in the summary,it can probably be assumed that the person was in N.S.W.and to save the time spent repeatedly typing N.S.W., I will not do so even if it is specified.)


P. 5.
American wrestler, John Killonis 1927; Conductor, Sir Hamilton Harty, 1934; Cricketer, Tim Wall, 1933; Archbishop Michael Kelly, 1920; Sir Norman Kater, 1932; Rugby Union player, Syd King, 1930; Rosemary James with dog, Cobbity, 1936; Frank Harvey 1936; Athlete, F.W.O'Brien, 1931.
Fisherman,Charlie Messenger, 1930; Mrs Agnes(Goodsin?)on ship, 1925; Miss Preston Stanley 1933; Aust. golfer, J.Ferrier, 1934;Tennis player, Lethersley, 1930; Rev. Canon R.B.Hammond 1929.
Senator P.F.Mooney 1931; Dr William Robert Maloney 1930; Mr and Mrs W.Fairfax 1928, Sprinter, Eileen Wearne (x2), 1932; Victorian cricketer, Mr Bromley, 1933; Cricketer, E.P.Whitfield, 1933; Prof.G.L.Wood 1933.
Mr Fox and man 1925; Cricketer, Archie Jackson, 1933; Athlete, F.W.O'Brien again, 1931; Writer, William Hatfield in Darwin, 1931; Sir Hugh Denison, 1920; Dr Arthur John Waldock,Canberra,1944.



I came across these in the National Library of Australia newsletter. You can access them by googling the title of this journal. There are 20 photos per page and I have only included photos of people here. From first impressions the photos mainly concern N.S.W. (*Unless another place is specified in the summary,it can probably be assumed that the person was in N.S.W.and to save the time spent repeatedly typing N.S.W., I will not do so even if it is specified.)


Herbert H.Fishwick; Archbishop John Charles Wright of Sydney 1930; Sir James O'Grady Gov of Tas.
Miss Frances Bult N.S.W. 1934; Breakspear at tennis N.S.W. 1931; Jockey Shelton * 1934; Judge Beeby 1927.
Mrs Roland Kitson 1932; Cricketer, Alexander Hurwood, bowling, Queensland, 1927; Miss Gladys de Haviland, 1929;
Charles Haywood, radio announcer, 1932; Jockey, W.Eastburn, 1934; Indigenous sailor 1932; Olympic swimmer, Noel Ryan, 1930; Sir Robert Garran 1932; Jim Mollison's plane, Mascot, 1931; Distance runner, Jack Sheaves, 1932;
Cricketer,Norman Falk, batting, 1934.
B.Kelly (no given name) 1932 (cricketer?); Aust. cricketer, B.J.Tobin,1933; Mrs Mares, 1931; Sir Hugh Poynter, 1931; Rev.Dr.Edward Griffith,1928; Swimmer, Edna Davy, 1928; F.C.Thompson batting in Queensland,1927; Pianist, Wilhelm Baukhaust, 1926, Jockey O'Shea, 1934; Rev. David Flett Brandt, 1927.



44 Sydney-road, Brunswick.
Dear Cinderella,- 30/5/17
This is the first time I have written to you. I will take for my subject Dromana, a seaside town 44 miles away. First of all we get the boat at Port Melbourne, at about 11 o'clock. Then we start off down the Bay, sometimes calling at St. Kilda and Brighton. After a couple of hours' trip we reach Mornington, and a little further on Dromana. The place I was stopping at is about 500 yards from the beach. To the back of the township there is a mountain, called Arthur's Seat, on the top there is an old lighthouse, from which you can see Melbourne on a very clear day. A little to the east and further down the mountain is the Cairn Memorial of Flinders. It is thought to be standing where he stood on the day he landed. About a mile from the Cairn, there were found three old muskets, which were thought to have been left by Flinders, but it was not so. On the road to Rosebud there is the South Channel lighthouse, and further along still, past Rosebud, there are the graves of three old pioneers, John Silkhorn and two other pioneers. Besides the graves, the site of the first house in Victoria, can also be seen. I think Dromana is one of the most interesting towns in Victoria. There is the beach, the bush, the mountains, and almost everything that can be thought of. In the gullies there are numbers of different wild flowers and ferns; the coral fern is like a piece of coral. One day, while up the mountain, we saw a fox (the first one I had ever seen) that, as soon as it saw us, turned and ran for dear life itself, but afterwards we could hear it barking. Well, Cinderella, I think I will close now, hoping to get a prize.
-I remain, your new friend,
GEORGE TOWNSEND. Age 12 years 6 months.(P.53, Leader, Melbourne, 7-7-1917.)

It was a feeling of guilt that led to the discovery of this letter. A Mr Townsend had saved the life of Henry (William Burdett Coutts) Wilson's son at about the time young George (above)was born. I gave Mr Townsend's name as John in the journal about the possible first recorded use of mouth to mouth resuscitation in Australia (maybe even the world!) I did a search for "John Townsend, Dromana" in the hope that the same incident had been reported using the savior's given name. George's letter was so interesting, I decided to make it the subject of a journal now in case I was unable to re-find it later.

Having seen Silkhorn's name before, I suspected he might have been the first person recorded as dying in Victoria, so I googled "Silkhorn, Sorrento, Collins", the first result being:
Our Great Southern Land: Trivial History October 10‎

The blogger, Jayne, makes history fun.
1803 Having an itchy foot and time on his hands, Collins decided to set up camp and call it a settlement at Sullivan Bay near Sorrento in Victoria.
This was the first attempt of Europeans parking their posteriors in Victoria.

1803 There's no show without Punch and John Silkhorne got in on the act by upping and dying to become the first bloke to pop his clogs in Victoria, at Collins' settlement camp thingie.. - See more at:

The OH NOES gremlins are back. Hopefully,a continuation later.....(One paragraph at a time, but it submitted!)

The other two graves were obviously also from the short-lived settlement at Sullivan's Bay.

Other features in the letter that intrigue me are the muskets found on Arthurs Seat and the (site of) the first house in Victoria. Was there an article about how the muskets actually did come to be there? I presume that the first house was at Collins' settlement. The following comes from:
Collins Settlement Site (Heritage Listed Location) : On My Doorstep‎

The British Government's decision to establish a settlement in southern Australia appears to have been prompted by favourable reports of Port Phillip Bay and concerns about the interest of the French in the area. The colonising party despatched from England comprised military personnel, administrative staff, a few free settlers and a majority of convicts. Some were fortunate enough to be accompanied by wives and children. Lt-Governor Collins led the party of 467 persons.

The settlement was established on an area of land between the Western Sister and Eastern Sister, prominent headlands which mark each end of Sullivan Bay. Most of the settlement was close to the Eastern Sister. Initially a tent encampment, work commenced quickly on building a jetty and other timber structures, including huts. Local limestone was apparently used to construct chimneys for the huts, and for the building of the magazine. As well as barrels set into sand to trap fresh water, wells were dug, as were privies. Land was cleared for the growing of crops, perhaps totalling several acres.

One last point.In A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA, Colin McLear said that John Townsend's house opposite the school on the south corner of Ligar St, was still standing. Sadly it has now been replaced by two home units. Being in the Dromana Township (west of McCulloch St), the house might have been a century and a half old! Ligar St is twenty eight eightieths of a mile from the beach= 28 chains=28x22= 460+24 yards=484 yards, which is fairly close to 500 yards, so John Townsend's house was most likely where young George stayed during his holidays.

From J. Townsend, Dromana, drawing attention to the state of the road and water-table fronting his property
at the corner of M'Culloch and Ligar streets. The corner of the latter was a perfect quagmire since the late rain.-Cr Shaw moved that the engineer inspect and report. Seconded by Cr Shand, and carried.
(P.5, Mornington Standard, 6-8-1904.)

BLAIR, DUFFY, SWANN in comment 1.

1 comment(s), latest 1 year, 4 months ago


When I arrived in Tullamarine in 1971, I soon became friendly with a terrific fellow named Leo Caton. He took me to my first Tullamarine Progress Association meeting and before it ended, I was the editor of the Sonic,a monthly community newsletter which contained news from the progress association, youth club, little aths. and many other organisations, and had been started by (who else?)Leo Dineen. If anything was needed for the hall, Leo,a trade teacher, was the one to ask and I was his apprentice.He'd pick up the keys from Rhonda Lilley who lived at 16 Broadmeadows Rd and we'd install the drapes, badminton-net sockets and so on.

I played badminton and if anyone ever played minton badly, I was the one! Rhonda introduced me to Ruth and they both tried to explain that the little feathery thing took a little longer to get there than a tennis ball. I was on the hall committee with Leo, Rhonda and Ruth so I got to know the two gal-pals fairly well. Not knowing that I'd start writing Tullamarine's history in 1988 or that Ruth had been in the area for so long, I missed the chance to get her story of early suburban Tullamarine. However, her son,Michael, has contacted me thanks to family tree circles and supplied the attached photo which was taken from the top of the drive-in screen.

Michael had written several details, which will be added to this journal soon, and has undertaken to name the owners of the houses shown in the photo. His sister, whom I apparently coached in Little Aths., has much to tell.

My journal, THE SUBURB OF TULLAMARINE outlines the transition of Tullamarine from farmland to suburbia, but I will give a brief chronology here. The area between Melrose Drive and Broadmeadows Rd had originally been part of E.E.Kenny's Camp Hill but was sold in parcels of 11 (shop area), 52, and 26 (fronting Sharps Rd) acres. These were consolidated by Sam Mansfield and became known as Mansfield's Triangle. The 400 acres between Sharps Rd and the Catherine Ave houses, part of William Foster's grant,was sold to the Kilburns who called it Fairfield. Much later they sold to James Harrick (whose restored cottage near Keilor Park is now the Keilor Historical Society museum) and in about 1910,it was sold in two 200 acre parts. The western part, between Fisher Grove houses and the end of Sharps Rd, became Brightview, owned by Michael Reddan and the Doyles and is now industrial. George Mansfield bought the western half (Dalkeith) and built the homestead in 1910.

Tommy Loft, who had been farming at Greenvale and incredibly, the residential area of Moonah Links Golf Course in 1920, soon after bought Dalkeith and subdivided the area between Broadmeadows Rd and Eumarella St; the land bisected by Gordon St followed soon afterwards, as his son,Ray's,Californian Bungalow was built in 1927. Gordon St was named after Ray's son. The blocks sold like melted ice creams and most were owned by Tommy's daughters and their husbands (Scoones, Exel.)The Lloyd Brothers were the first longtime residents on Tommy's subdivision. The next owner of Dalkeith was Leslie King Dawson, and in 1951, Moorooduc storekeeper and postmaster, Percy Hurren became the last to farm Dalkeith. John Petersen (east side of Dawson St Kindergarten)at one time had the most northerly and westerly house on Dalkeith and had to discourage Percy's cows from eating his garden. (The Petersens were soon heavily involved in Little Aths.) The Drive-in opened in 1956 and the photo taken from the top of its screen indicates that subdivision on Dalkeith had not commenced.

Mansfield's Triangle, now called the Triangular Estate was underway by the 1950's, water being obtained from a standpipe across Lancefield Road (Melrose Drive.) Sid Hedger helped the residents to obtain less primitive conditions. In about 1956, Henderson Rd was made, requiring demolition of the post office, and Mrs Watson relocated to the present liquor store. Leo Dineen, who settled on the triangular Estate, wrote some memories of Tullamarine in 1960:
A milk bar/ garage (Greens Corner) at the corner of Mickleham and Bulla Road.
Housing only as far west as Gordon St. and Christopher Crescent, with other houses past Tadstan Dr. and on the Triangle Estate.
Unmade streets on the Triangle with stagnant water in poorly drained gutters.
One small Infant Welfare Centre off Carol Grove.
No Broadmeadows Rd. School as the old school (S.S.2613) was in its last year of operation at the Conders Lane corner. (Nth. Corner of Link Rd. and Melrose Dr.)
NO hall, tennis courts,kindergarten,doctor, chemist, sporting teams, youth club or sewerage and only a couple of shops.

I asked Michael if his father, Frank,was related to Ben Kelly, a Progress Association stalwart who lived on the north corner of Tadstan Drive and could out-row men half his age. Elayne is Elayne Whatman of the Broadmeadows Historical Society.

Carolyn told me recently that she went to a square dance in a shed or something on Hurren's farm, which was a short distance north along Broadmeadows Rd from us. You can see it in the photo on the other side of the road from us at 76. Dawson St was put in in the early 60's after Hurrens sold up and moved out. The house would have been a little bit north of where Dawson St is now.

No, dad wasn't related to Ben. His family came from Bendigo. He was born in Redesdale near Kyneton and also lived in Goornong north of Bendigo.

I'll send an email to Elayne re the photo at some stage and copy you in - re the people living in the houses in the photo - eg Harold and Ruby Green lived at 78 Broadmeadows Rd. They were related to the Greens of Greens corner. My brother was pally with Terry Green who I think was a nephew of Harold and Ruby.

My younger sister Barbara remembers you. She was involved in Little Athletics. I captained what I think was Tulla's first cricket team, the Under 14's, coached by John Pearson and Ken Davies at about the same time.

My family lived at 76 Broadmeadows Rd from 1953 till the 80's or later. My mother Ruth Kelly was involved with the Tullamarine Progress Association for a long time. There was a thermometer in the window of Garner's newsagency for quite a while showing how much money had been raised to build the community hall.

My father, Frank Kelly, ran a welding shop behind the service station at the corner of Bulla and Mickleham Rd's in the 50's and early 60's. I believe the original service station was the same building that used to be the old pub which, legend has it, was once frequented by Squizzy Taylor.

I can remember picnicing by the creek when the western side of Broadmeadows Rd was largely farmland. There used to be a nice spot where it ran under Sharps Rd and there was a stand of large pine trees providing shade. It's just a dip in the road now.

1 comment(s), latest 1 year, 4 months ago


There's a Station St and an equestrian trail to remind us of the Red Hill-Bittern railway. Centrepoint now occupies the site of the Red Hill Station. When I tell people about the Railway Estate in Dromana they think I'm mad. Where the heck was Kennedy's corner past which Red Hill residents walked to the train before the Red Hill line was built? These are the thoughts that popped into my head when I read STEAMY PICS KEY TO NEW LINE OF INQUIRY (P. 30,Mornington News, 30-7-2013.) The article also appeared on page 8 of the 25-7-2013 issue of the Southern Peninsula News.

The Mornington Peninsula Shire has commissioned a heritage management plan for the Red Hill-Bittern line and would like assistance to add to the scarce collection of photos (of trains, stations, bridges, goods being loaded or unloaded,passengers, railway staff etc) as well as tickets,other relevant material and information about operations. If you can help, contact the Shire's heritage planner, Simon Lloyd ( or phone 1300 850 600.)

The following chronology outlines the agitation for railway services on the Peninsula. You will come to understand why it took so long for Red Hill to get its railway. After the chronology will appear articles about
stations on the Bittern to Red Hill line. The chronology may take some time to complete. It will need to deal with Mornington Junction (Baxter) and the railway league's success with the Mornington line, Mt Eliza's opposition to a direct route and of course the likelihood of a line to Dromana before 1890.

It usually took about 20 years from the start of agitation before railway communication was achieved. People wanted the railway but owing to the hilly hinterland, and arguments about routes, deputations were usually speaking for the local good rather than for the peninsula as a whole. Somerville developed rapidly after its station was built and special trains carried huge crowds from far afield for its famed Fruitgrowers' Show. The original Langwarrin Township died when bypassed by the railway but was revived by Nathaniel Pearce after whom the township was renamed. Mornington station helped those living as far away as Rosebud West, fishermen, rabbit trappers and passengers, with the help of such as Lou Anderson, Harry Cains and Jimmy Williams who transported cargo and people in their traps, Rosebud passengers waiting at the Meeting Tree. Keith McGregor replaced his trap with a Ford T Model Ford van and soon buses were started by such as Dyson and Whitaker.

Unfortunately the decision to build the Red Hill railway came after the foundation of the Country Roads Board and a combination of better roads, the aforementioned buses (direct to Melbourne) picking up Red Hill folk at Moat's Corner, and painfully slow trains caused peninsula people to become motor-minded (as a future Acting Prime Minister put it.)

Baxter was known as Mornington Junction, for there the Stony Point and Mornington lines branched off. A direct route to Mornington was abandoned, as a compromise, in the 1880's and a direct electric railway about 70 years later due to opposition from Frankston and Mt Eliza.

Housing Estates, better access roads and infrastructure such as stockyards, cranes and coolstores followed the building of a station. Being at the end of a line, Red Hill Station required a turntable.
The new line of railway from Caulfield to Frankston will be formally opened on Monday by the Minister of Railways. The first section as far as Mordialloc was opened for traffic on the 19th December last, but the
whole of the line has now been completed. The length of the line is 20 miles. etc.
(P.13, Argus, 29-7-1882.)

A public meeting of tho Schnapper Point Railway League was held in the Mornington Athenaeum on Saturday evening, to take into consideration the prospect of the extension of the line of railway from Frankston to Mornington, and also as to the route........

The subject of the railway route was then discussed, and the plan of it, produced by the secretary, was examined. It showed that the route last adopted by the Government, round Mount Eliza and by Baxter's flat, is
considerably longer than by the route known as Wilkinson's survey and over the Mount, the additional distance being between two and three miles.

Mr ALLCHIN then addressed the meeting, and concluded by moving that in the interest of tho whole district the route known as Wilkinson's Survey be adopted. (P.10, Argus, 10-7-1883.)

Eventually, Mr Allchin, and others who preferred the direct route, saw the sense of the line going through Mornington Junction so that the residents on the Westernport side, and Mornington, could both get a railway service.

A public meeting, convened and presided over by Mr J Thompson, JP, the shire president, to consider the omission from the Government Railway Bill of the lines from Frankston to Hastings and Mornington,
was held in the shire hall today. (P.3, Argus, 20-10-1884.)

The following is a letter written in 1885 but it concerns agitation that had been underway in 1876. John Keys was a grantee of much land in the parish of Lyndhurst between Mordialloc Creek and the National Water Sports Centre. He probably also owned land in neighbouring parishes such as Mordialloc (for which an online map is not available.) Why would he be working on behalf of Mornington residents? I think there are three reasons. The parish of Lyndhurst contained the Carrum Swamp which was good for dairying but due to frequent flooding, few settlers, such as Frankston's Mark Young, stayed long or erected dwellings there. Keys may have planned to get a line as far as his area so his milk could be sent to Melbourne.It is significant that his endeavours finished in 1879. Much of Lyndhurst was in large holdings, owned by such as the Keys and McMahens, with some owners probably absentees,leasing to poor subsistent farmers. The population was low and did not contain many men of influence. As the land west of the present highway near Mornington,in the parish of Moorooduc, was alienated in smaller allotments, the pier attracted business, and prominent academics and businessmen were drawn by the clifftop views, Mornington's population was numerous,prosperous and influential. Keys probably thought that their support would speed construction of the line to Mordialloc, which was probably the portion of the line approved in 1879. The crossing over Carrum Creek required the building of "Patterson's Folly" so-named because people believed the bridge named after the politician would not survive. This was probably the main reason the line did not reach Frankston until 1882. The Carrum Creek is now called the Patterson River.

To the Editor of the S. B.& M. Journal.
SIR.- In your issue of the 31st ultimo there appeared a letter from Mr. H. F.Norton,(from Phillip Island-itellya) in answer to your Mornington correspondent, re the apathy shown by the Mornington representatives re railway communication to Mornington. Having acted for six years as secretary to the Mornington Railway League, and having during that time and since been brought in close contact with Messrs. Balfour,Dobson and Buchanan, M.L.C.'s, and Mr.Gibb, M.L.A., I can fully endorse all that has been said by Mr. Norton as to the valuable services rendered by each of these gentlemen at all times and on all occasions. In my opinion the cause of the non-inclusion of the line to Mornington in the Bill recently laid before the Assembly is not to be laid at the door of Mr.Gibb but was owing to the want of unity on the part of the residents of the Point, who could not agree amongst themselves as to the route. I have no hesitation in saying had they abandoned the insane idea of route along the coast the line would have been included in the Bill from Baxter's Flat. There is another part of Mr. Norton's letter which I wish to refer to, and for which I beg to thank him for directing the attention of the people in the Mornington district to their indebtedness to me for the services rendered and cash paid by me on account of the League. It is possible that the inhabitants of the Mornington district may not be aware of the amount of their indebtedness to me, and to dispel their ignorance on this subject I will now,through the columns of your valuable paper, do what the members of the League ought to have done long ago-place before them the amount of their debt to me with the hope that they will at once take steps to liquidate it.

On the 6th October, 1876, I was appointed Secretary and Treasurer to the League, which was in active operation up to December,1879, when we succeeded in getting the first instalment of the line scheduled to
At that time the League was indebted to me in the sum of £1017s.4d. Since then I have received from Mr.Jones*, of Somerville, £14 10s., leaving a balance due to me of £136 11s. 4d. Considering that the bulk of this is cash out of my pocket, and that I am not personally benefitted to the extent of one shilling in the construction of the line, I think it is high time that I was recouped by those who have benefitted by its construction to a considerable extent, and I feel sure that their sense of honor will at once cause them, now that it is brought under their notice, to pay off their liability. I will forego £50 of the amount due to me if the balance is paid within say three or four months.-Yours faithfully,JOHN KEYS. Dandenong, 2nd January, 1885.

We do not perceive what reason there can be on the part of Mr. Keys to forego 50 pounds. It seems to us rather that he ought to be paid £50 for the energetic and efficient manner in which he conducted the business. We are glad the subject has been brought up, as we do not suppose that Mr. Keys would have done otherwise than put up with the loss.--E.] (P.3, South Bourke and Mornington Journal,7-1-1885.)

*Alf Jones, of Almond Bush Stud in Somerville,went to Canada with his parents while almost into his teens, and after coming to Victoria, with Hodgins (Hastings pioneer) and McCurley, two other Canadians, cut timber and carted it along Boundary Rd to its end where it was rowed to the Liverpool, anchored a mile offshore, which transported it to Melbourne. The boundary between the Moorooduc and Frankston parishes is now called Canadian Bay Rd. (Victoria and Its Metropolis, 1888 and Mt Eliza History by Mr Mann, 1926.)

In reference to the Mornington line of railway, communications have been received that corroborate the rumours alluded to in my last letter. viz., that tenders for the construction of the Mornington branch would not be included in the tenders shortly to be called for the Hastings and Crib Point line as promised to the two last deputations by Mr. Speight. This has given great umbrage and dissatisfaction to the whole district and it is not improbable that a large and influential deputation of the Railway League, Parliamentary representatives and the Shire Council will be organised and wait upon the Railway Commissioners with a view to the promises so made being adhered to.

The Mornington League at once took action and since writing the foregoing, interviews have taken place with
Mr. Speight and the Commissioner by Messrs. C. J. Jenner, J. Balfour, L. L.Smith and R. Watson (the chairman of
the Mornington Railway League), in each of which Mr. Speight has explained that in consequence of the Department not being ready to call tenders for the Crib Point line and Mornington branch together, the calling for or letting the latter would be simply delayed until the former was completed to the junction, but then the Mornington line would be ready and let and completed simultaneously with the Hastings line in November next year, and in time for the summer season. This was considered by a section of the residents to be satisfactory and a deputation unnecessary, but a public meeting was held in the Mechanics' Institute on Saturday evening last to consider the advisability or otherwise of further action.
(P.3, South Bourke and Mornington Journal, 3-8-1887.)

A deputation waited upon Mr Gillies, Minister of Railways yesterday, to urge the desirability of constructing a branch line from the Frankston and Hastings railway to Dromana, Sorrento, and Point Nepean. Sir W J Clarke,
M L C , Dr Dobson, M L C ,and Mr Coppin, M L A supported the application. It was pointed out that the line would give communication all the year round to a district at present isolated during the winter months and it would bring about an improvement in the fish supply of Melbourne. The lime industry at Sorrento would also be benefited. In the event of a federal quarantine station being established, a smaller area of land would suffice for the quarantine station at the Heads which might be transferred to Mud Island, and the present quarantine ground could be cut up into villa allotments and sold by public auction, as it would make a charming seaside resort.

Mr Gillies said he knew something about the district and was well aware that a railway would be of great advantage. The first step however, in the way of railway construction was to make an examination of the
country, and he would have that done. (P.4, Argus, 26-4-1888.)

A party of Government surveyors have arrived at Mornington and camped at Balcombe Creek, for the purpose of making a trial survey of railway line from Mornington to Dromana and Sorrento.
(The Caulfield and Elsternwick Leader (North Brighton, Vic. : 1888 - 1902) Saturday 26 May 1888 p 6 Article)

George Coppin, a Richmond resident, had a personal stake because Sorrento was the resort he had created and Sir William Clarke (Big Clarke's son)had inherited all of Jamieson's Special Survey apart from John Vans Agnew Bruce's 1000 or so acres north of Tassells Creek (Martha Cove Waterway.)

A request preferred by Mr. L. L. Smith,M.L.A., on behalf of the residents of Flinders and other places interested in the Crib Point line, for a noonday train in addition to the present morning and evening service to and from Hastings, has been favourably entertained by the Railway Commissioners,but Messrs. D. Munro and Co., the contractors for the construction of the line, intimate that their present traffic arrangements are
only temporary,and that they will be compelled to stop running their passenger trains directly the ballasting commences. They cannot therefore undertake to make any satisfactory arrangement for the conveyance of mail between Mornington Junction and Hastings. Under these circumstances the postal authorities state that the proposed additional mail to Hastings cannot be carried until the railway line is taken over by the Government. The line has been ballasted for about a mile beyond Somerville, and the metal rails laid a mile beyond Hastings. It is considered extremely doubtful whether the line will be completed through to Crib Point
by Easter.(P.7, Argus, 14-2-1889.)

The time for completing the railway from Frankston to Hastings and Crib Point, according to contract expired on
November 1, 1888, and to all appearances it will be months still, at the present rate at which work is progressing, before this portion of the line can be taken over by the Government from the contractors.The material for ballasting has still to be quarried and then crushed. The line is completed and in the hands of the Government as far as the junction where the two branches, one to Hastings and the other to Mornington, diverge. The part from the junction to Hastings is still in the hands of the contractors, who are allowed to run trains on their own account, and it is with the management of this portion of the line that fault is

There is only one passenger train daily to and from Melbourne ; there is a fish train in the morning, the down
train coming in at 9.40 a.m., and the up train returning in 10 minutes afterwards. The charge from Hastings to the junction is altogether out of proportion to the usual rate of railway fares, being 3s. for about nine miles. There is no distinction between first and second-class passengers, and no return tickets are issued.

The railway arrangements affect those of the post-office to a great degree. There is only one delivery, and one despatch daily. The Postmaster-General has agreed to a second, but this can not come into force until the Government have taken over this portion of the line. The post office is closed here for the receipt of letters, etc. at 9 a.m. and the down mail is not delivered for more than an hour after that, so that if one wants to
answer a letter the day he receives it he must use the telegraph ; otherwise, if the reply be posted after 9 in the morning, it will not be delivered until the afternoon of the following day in Melbourne. Great dissatisfac- tion is expressed by the residents at the existing state of the postal and railway arrangements, and with much cause. That such should be the case within 40 miles of Melbourne, and with railway communication the
whole distance, is not in keeping with modern ideas, commercial or otherwise.
(P.3, South Bourke and Mornington Standard, 1-5-1889.)

The above articles raise an important function of the railways, the carrying of mail and newspapers.

It didn't take long before the first fatal accident occurred at Mornington Junction (Baxter.)
The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 13 May 1889 p 10 Article
... THE RAILWAY ACCIDENT AT MORNINGTON. THE INQUEST ON THE GUARD. Mr. Gaudier held an inquest at the Alfred Hospital on Saturday on the body of John Sims Ward, a guard in the employ of the Railway department, who was killed at the Mornington Junction station on Wednesday night by the collision between etc.

There are a large number of visitors here, and a crowd of workmen, tradesmen engaged in the various buildings in progress, and laborers working on the railway line and stations, to be prepared for the opening day, which, given fine weather, will be a busy one for Mornington. I am told that the demand for tickets for both banquet and ball is going good, and that both will be a success. Arrangements are being made to give the more notable visitors a generous and courteous reception, but I am sorry to say there will be some two or three gentlemen who have worked and greatly assisted in obtaining railway communication for Mornington, who will not be able to be present. I allude more particularly to His Honor Judge Webb, R. Watson, Esq.,chairman of the Mornington Railway League, and one whom the whole colony mourn, viz., the recently deceased Sir J.Lorimer. The two former gentlemen are away in Europe, one in search of health,and the other on important business in connection with the progress of the district, and both gentlemen, although absent, will, on their return, hail with pleasure the opening of the line, and the late improvements to the township and neighborhood. (P.2, South Bourke and Mornington Journal, 11-9-1889.)

N.B. Robert Watson was advised to move to the seaside for the sake of his health and bought James Hearn's grants which extended along the Mt Martha coast from Balcombe Creek to Hearn Rd and east to the Tubbarubba diggings. During the boom of the latter 1880's he subdivided the coastal area but sales were affected by the 1890's depression, with much of the area becoming two Fairbairn farms. Watson Rd is on the grounds he retained around his homestead. (Shire of Mornington Heritage Study.)

From our own Correspondent.
The long looked for opening of the above railway took place on the 10th inst., the day being generally kept as a holiday. The township presented quite a gay appearance, being decorated with flags for the occasion; and there was a large concourse of spectators present at the terminus to witness the arrival of the train containing the invited guests from Melbourne. The party was met by the President and Councillors of the Shire, and the former read over an address of welcome to the visitors, after which Dr.Pearson and several other gentlemen were driven round the township, meeting afterwards at the Mechanics' Institute, where a banquet had been prepared for the occasion, to which about eighty gentlemen sat down, The Shire President(Councillor Down- ward) presided, having on his right the Hons. Dr. Pearson, Dr. Dobson and other gentlemen;and on his left Dr. L L.Smith with the Presidents and ex-Presidents of the adjoining Shires, Messrs.Martin, Poole and Cain. .......
The Hon. Dr. Dobson (who was suffering from a severe cold) briefly responded on behalf of the Legislative Council. He said that the people of Mornington had at last obtained their long looked for railway line; but they had another battle to fight,and that was to bring their beautiful township within the suburban radius-to obtain the running of one or more Sunday trains. He had long known Schnapper Point, and at a meeting held at the Royal hotel-then Mr. Rennison's-twenty-five years ago he had advocated a railway line to that place, and as their representative in the Legislative Council, in conjunction with the Mornington Railway League, he had done all in his power to connect that place with one of the greatest commercial cities of the world. He was delight- ed at the success with which their efforts had been crowned, and it afforded him a vast amount of pleasure in being present at the opening of the Mornington railway.(Cheers.).....

Councillor Irvine proposed "Success to the Mornington railway," and said that when the line was thrown out by the Assembly the first man to move for its being reinstated was the late Sir James Lorimer-(dissent)-whose recent loss the country deplored. The Rev. J. Caldwell, who responded to the toast, said that he was an Irishman-(cheers)-and a fifteen years resident of Mornington. (Lond cheers.) He had taken a personal interest in the Mornington railway; also in other improvements to the place.
(P.3, South Bourke and Mornington Journal, 18-9-1889.)
Dr Pearson made the first speech,responding to a toast to the ministry, incredibly praising the opposition for its constructive criticism, but then raved on about the books used to teach children to read and hardly mentioned the railway. You will note that I abandoned correcting the text of his speech. The Irish Rev. James Caldwell, a Presbyterian minister, was upset that the "secular" facet of the 1872 Education Act precluded the use of the Bible to teach reading and also opposed Dr Dobson's desire that Sunday trains come to Mornington. Mornington residents shared Caldwell's grief soon after when his wife died and his sons drowned after a football game at Mordialloc. His speech specifies the contribution that Sir James Lorimer had made. James Caldwell wrote a letter in 1885 (P.3, South Bourke and Mornington Journal, 7-1-1885) denying that parliamentarians had been inactive regarding Mornington's railway and praising Hon. J.Balfour.

An accident happened on Friday evening last to Mr L. Anderson's fish waggon,running between Rosebud and the
Mornington Railway Station. Whilst travelling over Mount Martha some part of the harness gave way, and one of the horses being a young one took fright, and the pair became unmanageable. They were brought to a standstill by the waggon colliding with the bank on the roadside.The vehicle was overturned, and the baskets of fish were scattered in the road.Just at this time the evening coach to Dromana came up, and, with the help of the coach driver, Mr Anderson was able to set the waggon again in its proper position, and go on his way fortunately with little damage done.(P.3, Mornington Standard,19-10-1889.)

Melbourne, dep.-7.10 a.m.-*9.10-12.20p.m.-*1.20-2.15-*4.45-*6.35-9.35 *11.25.
Frankston, arr.-8.27 a.m.-10.30-1.40p.m.- 2.40-3.35 -6.5-7.55-10.55 -12.45.
Frankston, dep.-10.35 a.m.-2.45 p.m.6.10-8.2-12.50.
Langwarrin; dep.-10.45 a.m.-2.55 p.m.-6.20-8.12-1.0.
Mornington Junction, dep.--10.50 am.-3.0 p.m.-6.25-8.17-1.5. '
Moorooduc, dep.--11.2 a.m.-3-.12 p.m.-6.37-8.29-1.17 .
Mornington, arr.--11-.15 a.m.-3.25 p.m.-6.50--8.42-1.30.
*Those marked with an asterisk run through to Mornington.
(P.4, Mornington Standard, 30-11-1889.)

From N. Rudduck, Dromana, asking for repairs of 3-chain road leading to proposed Wesleyan parsonage, on Railway estate, Dromana.-The secretary had effected temporary repairs.
(P.3, Mornington Standard, 11-1-1890.)

At Two O'clock. On the Ground.
Charming Situation. Beautiful Sea Views. Picturesque Mountain Scenery.
HARRY A. DERHAM has been instructed to SELL by PUBLIC AUCTION, on the ground, on 3rd January, the balance of allotments in this desirable estate on remarkably easy terms, viz. :
£5 DEPOSIT EACH ALLOTMENT, Balance in bills at 3, 6,9, 12,15, and l8 months, interest 6 per cent. Title Certificate.
(P.2, Argus, 24-12-1890.)

The railway estate was the subdivision of Crown allotment 13, Section 1 Kangerong. This consisted of 36 acres 3 roods 29 perches and was bounded by Palmerston Avenue, Jetty Rd and Boundary Rd. Mrs Mary Ann Dyson, Mrs Sarah Ann Griffiths and Mrs Frances Pidoto were three people assessed in 1919 on blocks in the Railway estate which were specified in each case as being "part c/a 13, Sect.1, Kangerong."

Palmerston Avenue is labelled "Main Road" on the Kangerong parish map that can be accessed online by entering "Kangerong, County of Mornington. This was the three chain road mentioned by Nelson Rudduck.

A stalwart of the Methodist Church in Dromana, Red Hill and Rosebud, Nelson Rudduck financed the Wesleyan parsonage,which is mentioned in the Shire of Flinders Heritage Study and hopefully is still standing. It was on Palmerston Avenue.

Very great dissatisfaction is being expressed by the residents of Hastings, Tyabb,and Somerville at the new railway timetable which comes into operation on Monday next. By the new arrangement only two trains instead of three will be run daily, the first of which will arrive at Prince's-bridge at 2.10 p.m. instead of 9.45 a.m. as heretofore. As most of the residents of Somerville and Tyabb are market gardeners and fruitgrowers, the new arrangement will greatly inconvenience them, as it will be next to impossible for them to transact their business and return the same evening by the last train leaving Prince's-bridge at 6.10 p.m. Residents express themselves as satisfied with two trains a day provided they were more conveniently arranged. During the last three months the business at these stations has increased 50 per cent, and there is every prospect of it still further increasing, as settlers are arriving every week. Last month the receipts at the Somerville station alone reached £142 14s. 8d., and upwards of 900 passengers were booked. (P.8, Argus, 7-5-1892.)

See Bittern Station at end.

SOMERVILLE, Wednesday.
The returns of the produce raised in this district during the last season show an increase on last year, owing no doubt to the heavy crop of apricots. In the month of January no less than 5,561 cases of fruit were forwarded by rail. For the six months the returns are - Somerville Station 23,728 cases of fruit, 5,824 bags and 347 crates of vegetables, and 1,8941 tons of firewood. Tyabb Station - 5,713 cases of fruit, 2,526 bags and 49 crates of vegetables, and 547 tons of firewood. Moorooduc - 79 cases of fruit, 384 tons of firewood. etc.
(P.6, Argus, 4-9-1896.)

Railway to Red Hill.
At the urgent request of a number of fruitgrowers in the neighborhood of Red Hill, the members of the old com-
mittee of the Mornington Peninsula Central Railway League met in the Red Hill schoolhouse on Wednesday evening last week to consider what steps could be taken to obtain a railway into the district. It was urged that on ac-
count of the great increase in the fruit growing industry of late, particularly in that of strawberries, for which the district is especially suitable, and which require speedy transit to market owing to their perishable nature, that a railway is urgently needed. This season several of the growers have planted from twenty to thirty thousand plants, so that at the present time there are between 400,0000 and 500,000 plants in the district, and the number is increasing. Others are preparing land with the intention of planting as soon
as they can procure the plants. The output of other fruits is also steadily increasing, as the young trees come
into bearing, and other produce, such as hay, grain or vegetables could be equally well grown if there were a way of getting it to market. Hundreds of acres of land, now devoted to depasturing a few head of cattle could be intensely and profitably cultivated. At present everything has to be carted to Mornington, Bittern or Melbourne over roads that are almost impassable, and sometimes never good, entailing such labor and loss of time that many only grow what they need for their own use, and so the place remains almost at a

If the line surveyed and passed some 8 or 9 years ago were constructed it would put life into the district and develop a great industry that would need no bonus to encourage it. There need be no fear that the line would not pay, as the whole peninsula could be turned into a great market garden, out of which a constant stream
of produce would flow, and until then the timber would be a valuable aid to the traffic. A public meeting has been called for Saturday next at 7.30 p.m. to see what steps can be taken to further the project, when there should be a large attendance. (P.2,Mornington Standard, 22-6-1899.)

Railway to Red Hill.
On Saturday evening last a public meeting of the residents of Red Hill and surrounding district was held in a
large barn belonging to Mr. H P.Davey, of Forest Lodge, which he had very kindly lent for the occasion. The
meeting was convened for the purpose of considering the best means of getting a railway into the district, and notwithstanding the very unfavorable state of the weather there were about fifty present, nearly all of whom are fruitgrowers.

Mr F. Harrison was voted to the chair. A letter was read from Mr Downward,M.L.A., regretting his inability to attend the meeting; also from Cr Baldry regretting that the present state of his health prevented him from being present, and generously offering to help if needed financially. The chairman in his opening address spoke of the great need of a railway in the district, and that the amount of fruit grown, especially strawberries,
justified the growers in asking for a line. He had never seen finer fruit than that grown about Red Hill, and if the strawberries, which cannot be surpassed, could only be placed on the Sydney market they would fetch prices that would pay handsome. He thought that if the residents stated their case and the Government looked into the matter they would soon see the justice of the claim for a railway.

Mr Mcllroy spoke of the great improvements made in the district during the last nine years. At that time
when they were agitating for a continuation of the line from Baxter's Plat to Merricks, within a radius of 3 miles of Merricks there was 232 acres of orchard and 700 of other cultivation. Now, he believed, the orchards were about twice that area, and now there were about 400,000 plants in the district, and land being prepared to increase the quantity. He also spoke of the necessity of a railway to open up the district. The Shire of Flinders and Kangerong contains an area of 184 square miles, with a population of 2540, many of whom are young people just thinking of making homes for themselves, and a railway would be the means of keeping them in the district, and dividing the holdings, instead of compelling them to leave, as some of them have already done, because there are no means of getting produce to a market, and therefore no profit in producing anything.
He trusted they would all let their voices be heard and help the cause to the best of their ability.
After some others had spoken in the same strain it was unanimously resolved,"that this meeting is of opinion that we should apply for a railway." It was also resolved that on account of lapse of time the old league should be considered defunct, and that a new league should be formed, to be called the Mornington Peninsula Central Railway League. It was also resolved that Mr A. E. Bennett be elected secretary, Mr R. Sheehan treasurer, and Mr F. Harrison be chairman of the league. It was also resolved that Messrs J and J. Bayne, A. Head, J.Wiseman, H. P. Davey, J.C.Griffith, N. Prossor, W. H. Blakely, G. (Meakin?), J. Shand, W. J. and J. McIlroy be elected a committee to carry out the wishes of the league. The meeting closed with a vote of thanks to Mr Davey for the use of the room, and also to the chairman. (P.3, Mornington Standard, 29-6-1899.)

Accredited representatives of the Mornington Peninsula Central Railway League, accompanied by Mr. Knox, M.L.C., and Mr.Downward, M.L.A., approached the Minister of Railways yesterday, and asked that the proposal to construct a railway from Baxter's Flat to Merricks should be referred to the Railways Standing Committee for consideration and report, it was about 14 miles in length, would not be expensive to construct, would open up a good district where almost anything could be grown, and would prove a profitable line. The original railway should never have been diverted to Mornington, but should have been extended through the centre of the peninsula.

Mr. H.R.Williams replied that he could hold out no hope at present of granting their request. He had closed his list of lines for reference to the committee, and did not intend to add to it. He would,however, send an officer to the district to report on the prospects of the line. He might ask the committee next session to
consider the proposal. (P.4, Argus,27-10-1899.)

No report of a meeting appointing the "accredited representatives" has been found on trove; perhaps Sheila Skidmore obtained her information from the Peninsula Post.On P.51-2 of THE RED HILL, she stated that the deputation was to consist of W.H.Blakeley, Mr(H.P.)Davey, William McIlroy and Thomas Cleine. They were to meet at Blakeley's premises in Lonsdale St in Melbourne.

Railway Extension.
The ball has once more been set rolling as regards an agitation for a railway through the southern part of the
Mornington Peninsula. A meeting, which had been called by Mr W. J.McIlroy, was held in the Red Hill State school on the evening of Friday July 4th. With the exception of a few representatives from other places the attendants consisted of residents of Red Hill. Mr Head was voted to the chair and Mr W. Oswin appointed sec
retary pro. tem. After speeches urging the necessity of a strong agitation to secure the much needed railway, to which boon the district certainly has some very forcible claims, were made by Messrs Head, McIlroy and Oswin,and a letter which had been addressed to Mr McIlroy by Mr Morley, secretary of the Sorrento Progress Association, stating that the people of Sorrento would be glad to co-operate in agitating for a railway, and asking for information as to what course of action was decided upon at the meeting had been read, the following resolution was carried:--" That in consequence of the "Flinders Peninsula Railway League" having failed to effectively push the claims of this district to a railway, this meeting approves of the formation of a new league to be called the " Mornington Peninsula Railway League."

Some discussion then took place re the constitution of the league. Most of the speakers were of opinion that it
was inadvisable to elect a committee consisting of representatives from the various townships interested, as some of the members would then have to travel a considerable distance to attend the meetings. It seemed to be the general opinion that a branch of the league, with a separate working committee should be formed in each place and that delegates for a united conference or a deputation should be appointed when required. A resolution,that a central committee he appointed in Red Hill and that other districts be invited to co-operate was carried. The following office-bearers were elected President, Mr Head; vice president,Mr Hoskins;secretary. Mr W. J.Mcllroy; committee, Meesrs Bennett,T. Cleine, Holmes, W. Oswin, Shand and Wiseman. It was decided that no membership subscription be charged, but that money should be collected when required.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 12-7-1902.)

Railway Extension through the Peninsula.
A meeting of the Mornington Peninsula Railway League was held in the Flinders Mechanics' Institute last Saturday, when representatives from Red Hill, Dromana, Boneo, Cape Schanck, Flinders, Shoreham, and Balnarring were present. Mr C. T. Cooke was voted to the chair. After reading the notice of the meeting, the secretary
(Mr Maxwell), read a letter from Mr Downward, M.L.A., apologising for not having accepted an invitation
to be present, owing to other engagements. At the outset, it was urged by Mr Sharp that statistics should be
gathered from the various districts interested, in view of the enquiry which would be made by the Railways Standing Committee. After a general discussion on several matters regarding the agitation, in which Messrs. Nowlan, Rudduck, Anderson, and other gentlemen took part, it was resolved, on the motion of Messrs. Rudduck and Anderson, " That the League respectfully request the Premier to refer the extension of the Railway through the Mornington Peninsula to the railways Standing Committee as early as possible," and on the motion of Messrs Cooke and Nowlan, Mr Downward is to be asked to present the above resolution. On the proposition of Mr Anderson, seconded by Mr Sharp, the following were appointed to collect statistics for submission to the Standing Committee :
Messrs M'Ilroy, Red Hill; M. Higgins, Shoreham; L. Wilding, Flinders; D.Cairns, Boneo; R. Anderson, Cape
Schanck ; W. Oswin; Balnarring; . W.Rudduck, Dromana; and Baldry; Main Ridge.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 48-10-1904.)

The report of tho Railway Standing Committee on the proposed line to Flinders was laid on the table of the Legislative Assembly yesterday by the chairman (Mr Graham). The report stated that the committee was of opinion, in view of the large annual loss estimated, that it was not expedient to construct a railway, either to Flinders or Red Hill. The estimates of the cost of the various routes suggested were: - Mornington via Red Hill and Kangerong to Flinders £130 000, Moorooduc via Red Hill and Kangerong to Flinders £117,000, Somerville via Red Hill and Kangerong to Flinders, £117 000, Bittern via Red Hill and Kangerong to Flinders £110 000, and Bittern via coast of Westernport to Flinders, £97,500.
(P.8, Argus, 12-12-1906.) N.B. The article also contains further details regarding losses on each route, loading of rates and the Commonwealth's opinion that the railway was not of enough military benefit to justify any contribution.

A mob of sheep, totalling 1550 in thirteen trucks, was forwarded from Bittern railway station this week to
Werribee. They were a portion of the starving sheep, belonging to the Metropolitan Board of Works farm, which had to be sent away in February for grass. This lot had been grazing on C.T. Cooke's Cape Schanck station, at Flinders, and looked well, the change evidently agreeing with them.
(P.2, Mornington Standard,30-5-1908.)

A Flinders meeting saw agreement for the areas to combine
In "open route" agitation for a railway line.
Discussion turned to "loading" (extra rates to support the cost),
But disputes about routes soon saw co-operation lost.

HASTINGS. Hon. P. McBride, Minister of Railways, travelled from Flinders to Dromana and back to Shoreham via Red Hill, accompanied by his wife and Mr Sidney Smith, on Friday. He is now, no doubt, well posted as to the great advantages of running a railway line from Moorooduc or Mornington Junction to Flinders. The country is good for both timber, fruit, and small products; as a defence line and for pleasure resort traffic; it should pay from the start.
(p.2, Mornington Standard, 15-6-1912.)

RAILWAY MATTERS:-Residents in the southern part of the peninsula are once more bestirring themselves over the
matter of railway communication with the metropolis. The Flinders Improvement Society set the ball rolling this time, and other centres are taking the matter up. On Friday night a meeting of the residents of Red Hill was held in the school, Cr Haig being in the chair. The matter was fully discussed, Messrs. M'Ilroy, Head, Sheehan and Haig speaking in favor of the construction of the railway. At the end of the discussion Messrs M'Ilroy, Holmes, and Prossor were appointed to represent Red Hill on a deputation to the Minister on 28th August. Those present agreed to defray all the expenses of the delegation. Among those present were Messrs Shaw, Farrel, and Christie of Dromana, at which town a meeting to further the same object is to be held on Friday next.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 24-8-1912.)

The construction of a broad-gauge railway from Bittern to Red Hill, via Merricks Creek, a length of 9 3/4 miles, with an intermediate station about three-quarters of a mile north of the crossing over Merricks Creek on the Bittern-Flinders road, was recommended by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Railways in a report tabled in the Legislative Assembly yesterday. Several routes of railways to serve the Mornington Peninsula were brought under the notice of the committee.
(P.7, Argus, 17-7-1914.) N.B. The article describes all routes and costs.

(Letter from C.R.B.) re carriage of road making material on railways at reduced rates for materials proposed to be used on contracts carried out under the provisions of the Country Roads Act, such materials to be consigned in the name of council; contractor to be supplied with an order from the council to the station master,so that the delivery may be made.Received.

Report of Standing Committee on railways extension, re extension of line through Mornington Peninsula-Bittern towards Red Hill. Received.

Peninsula Railway League, forwarding copy of resolution passed at a public meeting held at Shoreham, re extensions under the Country Roads Board, and protesting against further extension, as contemplated railway extension in the district would greatly affect future road construction.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 1-8-1914, Flinders Shire Council.)

The above correspondence to the recently renamed shire reveals how the formation of the C.R.B.had placed an extra obstruction in the way of those working for the provision of railways. Not only would the discounted freight reduce revenue and make existing lines seem less financially viable but the Government funds were allocated to road making much more than in the past leaving less of the pie for railway construction. Ratepayers would oppose one to allow the other. Discussion regarding the above reveals that some of the C.R.B. deviations were unnecessarily expensive. No report of the meeting at Shoreham has been found on trove.

The further extension of the road to Flinders is in abeyance till route of the railway to Red Hill is determined.(P.2, Mornington Standard, 5-9-1914.)

Red Hill's happiness came at a cost to Crib Point.
Consternation was caused here when the new railway time table was disclosed, cutting out the evening train to Crib Point on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and, consequently, the early morning train to the city on the other three days. Presumably, this is to allow of-the engine running the trains on the Red Hill line. This is a serious blow to Crib Point and the Naval Depot and a big effort is to be made to keep the trains to Crib Point as at present and have the new line otherwise provided for. This end of the line is financially sound and fully justifies the trains at present provided. The traffic to and from the Naval Depot is very considerable and the retrograde step proposed will be seriously challenged, and an effort made to prevent an injustice to this expanding depot and township. If the proposal is adhered to it will cripple the fishing industry in
Westernport waters.
(P.2, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 2-12-1921.)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Saturday 3 December 1921 p 28 Article
... BITTERN-RED HILL LINE. OPENED BY MR BARNES. Orchard Land Made Accessible. In the presence of about 700 people, the cockspur railway line from Bittern to Red Hill was formally opened yesterday by the Minister for Railways (Mr. Barnes). The ceremony took place at the new station at Red Hill.
My apologies for not correcting the whole article. It's far too long. Sheila Skidmore wrote the following summary in THE RED HILL.

The committee that planned the ceremony included Sam Tuck who had lived at Manton's Creek for 77 years. Another member,James Wiseman,was unable to attend the ceremony and died a few days later aged over 90. The ribbon cut by Mr Barnes was held by 5 year old Mary Forest and the oldest lady in the district, Mrs Haig, a resident for 45 years who had turned 92 a few days earlier (and was probably the Shire Councillor's mother.) There are several photos of the railway in THE RED HILL.

Some Caterpillars
The special train from Red Hill, containing 500 passengers and the Ministerial party was stopped on Friday by thousands of caterpillars being on the rails at Tomkins Hill, close to Red Hill station. Sand was used, and the train proceeded on its journey. The evening train had a similar experience with caterpillars on Friday night. The caterpillars have destroyed several thousands of tons of hay in the Merricks and Balnarring districts.
(P.4, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 9-12-1921.)

When the two lines were extended from Mornington Junction (Baxter) in 1889, the commissioners would not have thought that level crossings posed any danger. When James Firth's wife died in 1923, on the way home after driving from Somerville to the Mornington races, the fact that the report of the accident went feral, appearing in papers all over Australia within days, indicates that level crossing collisions were relatively rare. The very next year, another fatal accident occurred on the Stony Point line.

Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954) Saturday 10 February 1923 p 5 Article
... KILLED BY TRAIN. WOMAN'S SAD END. MELBOURNE, Friday.-Mrs. James Firth, a middle aged woman,

Woman Jumps to Death.
Evidently becoming panic-stricken at the approach of a train at a level crossing at Moorooduc on February 8, Mrs. Ellen Firth, of Somerville, jumped from the motor-car which she was driving and was struck by the engine.
The city coroner (Dr. Cole) held an inquest yesterday, and returned a finding of accidental death, adding that no blame was attachable to the crew of the train. William Grady, railway engine-driver,said that he was driving a race special from Mornington. When near the Moorooduc station he saw the front wheel of a motor-car on the line. Edward John Connor, nurseryman, said Mrs. Firth drove down the road towards the crossing, and when the car was about 30 yards from it he heard the whistle of the train. The car had just crossed the line when he saw Mrs. Firth get over the back of it. Had she remained in the car she would have escaped, as the engine only
touched the hood.(P.13, Argus, 16-2-1923. Inquest.)

What would the Railway Commissioners have thought of this, Strathmore???
SATURDAY, MAY 12, 1923
First Association.
Frankston v. Mornington
Hastings v. Naval Base.
Dromana v. Somerville.
"Strathmore" . wants to hear from everybody interested in football, from Ormond to Dromana and Phillip Island. Pars about players, past and present bits about club officials, titbits respecting club doings, etc., are all welcome. Just address the envelope to "Strathmore," care "Standard" Publishing offices, Frankston, and hand
same to the railway station officials, who will send it along. No stamps are necessary for railway delivery.
(P.1, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 2-5-1923.)

The Railways
On Tuesday next the annual inspection by the Railways Commissioners will be made. Deputationists intending to interview the Commissioners are specially asked to elect one representative of each association or body interested to explain the whole of the requirements so that time may be saved in dealing with the requests.
The following programme has been mapped out: The special leaves Mordialloc at 9.21 a.m. and will inspect
Aspendale, arrive, 9.25.
Edithvale, depart, 10.17.
Chelsea, depart, 10.40.
Carrum,- depart, 11.3.
Seaford, depart, 11.20.
Frankston, arrive, 11.25; depart 11.50.
Langwarrin, depart, 12.4.
Baxter, arrive, 12.9; depart, 12.20.
Moorooduc, depart, 12.35.
Mornington, arrive, 12.43; depart,1.15.
On returning from Mornington they will arrive at Baxter at 1.30, and then inspect as under:-
Somerville, depart, 2.0.
Tyabb, depart, 2.16.
Hastings, depart, 2.34.
Bittern, arrive, 2.40; depart, 2.55.
Balnarring, depart, 3.10.
Merricks, depart, 3.32.
Red Hill, arrive, 3.44.
At 4.2 they leave Red Hill for Bittern, which they are timed to leave at 4.30, to inspect:
Crib Point, depart, 5.0.
Stony Point, arrive, 5.5.
(P.1, Frankston and Somerville Standard,13-7-1923.)

Sir, I can endorse all "H.B.C.'s" statements in his letter of Thursday. The peninsula is neglected as far as fast travelling trains are concerned, and we have the slowest trains in Victoria, averaging just over 10 miles an hour. A train leaves Red Hill, 51 miles from Melbourne, at 2.35 p.m., and is timed to reach Flinders street
about 7 p.m., but is usually later. A train leaves Flinders street at 8.10 a.m, timed to reach Red Hill 12 noon; often nearer 1 p.m. Another instance. I left Flinders street 5.5 p.m., reached Frankston 6 p.m. Took motor-coach,, left 6.10. Reached Moat's Corner at 6.50, drove four miles, all up hill; reached home 7.30 p.m.
My neighbour remained in the train. Reached Red Hill station at 9.15 p.m., and then had to get to his home, two miles away. We have a good motor service that leaves Moat's Corner, nearest point to Red Hill station, at 8.30 a.m., returning twice daily, two hours en route, at practically the same cost:-Railway fare, 6/8; motor, 7/6. The peninsula is well patronised by both seaside and country visitors, being close to Mornington, Mount Martha, Dromana, Rosebud, Rye, Sorrento, and Portsea, and on Westernport by Balnarring, Merricks, Shoreham, and Flinders. All we want is a decent train service. Large numbers of week-end blocks have been purchased at Red Hill, but owing to bad train service buyers are holding off from building until a better service is available, Give us a good time-table and the peninsula will go ahead, and absorb many who are at present hugging the city-
Yours &c, G.H. Red Hill, July 23. (P.9, Argus, 25-7-1923.)

I'm not a betting man, but I'm willing to risk my entire fortune that the author of the letter was George HiggEns. No the E is not a mistake; his name was so often written as Higgins. To make matters worse, The name of the judge who owned Heronswood at Dromana, and delivered the Harvester Judgement that led to the Basic Wage was rendered in the 1919 assessment as Henry B.Higgens instead of Higgins.

George was a real estate agent whose address in the 1919 assessment was given as Flagstaff Gardens, West Melbourne. He sold the Railway Station Estate at Red Hill which is discussed under RED HILL STATION near the end of this journal.There is a photo of his Red Hill real estate office in the RED HILL RAILWAY display at the Dromana Historical Society museum in the old shire office. THE DISPLAY HAS MANY OTHER PHOTOS THAT WILL BE OF GREAT INTEREST TO THE SHIRE'S HERITAGE PLANNING OFFICERS.

George became a shire councillor and the intersection of Arthurs Seat and Mornington-Flinders Rds was known as HIGGENS CORNER. The motor-coach that George took from Frankston to Moat's Corner was probably Billy Adams' seven -seat tourer, Keith McGregor,his wife (Billy's sister) and brother having driven in Keith's T model Ford van to the Stawell area to try wheat farming. The motor-coach may also have been Syd Napper, George Dyson or Fred Whitaker's (P.53 A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.)

On the same page is a photo of Maurie Shaw's bus that later saved hinterland residents the walk to Moat's corner to board the through-bus. The Red Hill Railway display, mentioned earlier, states that PASS trains stopped running in 1929, which I take to mean PASSENGER TRAINS. In view of George's letter, it is easy to see why patronage would have fallen off and why James Fenton said that peninsula residents were motor-minded in 1947. To the shire council's displeasure,the authorities banned Maurie's bus service.

Announcement :
Connecting with the Morning and Evening Bus returning from Frankston and the Mid-day Bus leaving Dromana
For Melbourne.
(M.- SHAW, Proprietor)
Leaves DROMANA ................ ........... 10.35 a.m. 6.35 p.m.
Leaves ERLANDSON STORE ................... 11.10 a.m. 7.10 p.m.
Leaves MAIN RIDGE P.O. ....... ......... 11.30 a.m. 7.30 p.m.
Leaves ARTHUR SEAT ........... .... .... 12.00 Noon 7.45 p.m.
Connects with Melbourne Buses at Moat's Corner.
DROMANA to MAIN RIDGE ................: .................2/6
MOAT'S CORNER to MAIN RIDGE .... .... ........ :..:. ... 2/
MOAT'S CORNER to ARTHUR SEAT .... .... .......:.... .... 3/
RED HILL to DROMANA .................... ...... .... ....2/-..
MAIN RIDGE to DROMANA .... .... ....... .... .... .. . ,.1/6
ARTHUR SEAT to DROMANA ............ .... .... .... . ... 1/
(P.4, Standard, Frankston, 5-10-1944.)

N.B.See the Tyabb Progress Association's similar complaint in 1928 re slow trains.
Sheila Skidmore's THE RED HILL cites slow and late trains and not enough capacity, causing fruit to rot, as the reason for fruitgrowers switching to road transport. The provision of railways and stations led to demands for improvement of the roads leading to them and construction/provision of appropriate facilities. Stations in fruit growing areas would soon have a cool store, Moorooduc, yards and races to hold and load stock, and with Somerville, a crane to load trees from the nurseries for which both areas were famed.

Deputation Urges Extension.
Residents of the Red Hill district introduced by Mr Downward M.L.A. waited on the Minister for Railways (Mr Old) yesterday with a request for the extension of the railway from Red Hill to Baldry's Corner* (a distance of five miles), thence to Boneo. Councillor M.B. Wettenhall said that when the line was opened to Red Hill, the then Minister for Railways (Mr Barnes)had mentioned that that point was not intended to be the terminus. The line only touched the fringe of the very best country in the Mornington Peninsula, and there were 30 000 or
40 000 acres of land on which could he grown products such as potatoes,onions and fruits sufficient to supply Melbourne. The drawback, however, was the lack of communication. He knew one man who had grown hundreds of tons of excellent onions which had rotted before they could be sent to Melbourne.

Messrs T. Darley, W.Roberts, T. Swift, R.G.Barrett, W.M.True and R.Keys,in support pointed out that Red Hill station was not used by residents farther on because of its inconvenience. Goods were carted instead from Bittern.

In reply, Mr Old said that the line either should not have been built to Red Hill or should have gone farther. The weak point of the case for extension was the fact that practically the whole of the land was within reasonable distance of the railway. Whether the service was satisfactory was a different proposition. In most
parts of Victoria land within eight miles of a railway was considered to be well served.

Councillor Wettenhall-Seven miles in our country is equal to 14 miles elsewhere,on account of its hilly nature. Mr Old agreed that local conditions had to be considered. He promised to include the proposal in the list for submission to the Cabinet which would decide on the lines to receive the attention of the Railways Standing Committee. (P.6, Argus, 25-10-1923.)

* Baldry's Corner. Without knowing the route of the railway to Baldry's Corner, it is hard to know which of the possible locations was Baldry's Corner. It could have been the north end of Baldry's Rd, which if travelling east along Shands Rd and then along Main Creek Rd to Arthurs Seat Rd, is 5 miles from Arkwells Lane, not the station. However if the route headed east along the Red Hill/Main Ridge locality boundary and then along Stony Creek Rd-Beaulieu Rd, it would be almost exactly 5 miles. If this was the right corner, the railway would have followed Browns Rd to Boneo.

If Cr Oswin's very accurately measured last-ditch suggestion (if a railway couldn't be obtained for Flinders) of making a beeline to the west boundary of Hansen's (sic),Melway 190 F9, was part of the proposed route and the line continued straight to the bridge in Shands Rd(190 A12), the distance to this spot would be about four miles and it would be about five miles to the corner of Limestone Rd (now a fire access track)and Baldry's Rd at the bottom of Melway 254 F3. If this was Baldry's Corner, the railway to Boneo would have gone along Limestone Rd.This spot was not far from John Baldry's crown allotment 8, section B, Wannaeue, south of the yellow-shaded equestrian centre.

Two other possible locations of Baldry's corner are (a) 254 G8 and(b)254 K8. John Baldry's grant and probably the original portion of "Wildwood", crown allotment 22A, section B,parish of Flinders was between corner,or bend a)and Main Creek, and (b)was the corner of Baldrys and Mornington-Flinders Rds. It is unlikely that these were the corner referred to because both are a fair bit more than 5 miles, even with a very direct route and there is not a direct route between them and Boneo.

Claims for £6,100.
Arising out of a fatality which occurredon April 28, at the level crossing on the Frankston-Stony Point railway line, at the point at which the Somerville-Melbourne road crosses near Baxter railway station, two actions for damages have been launched against the Railways Commissioners. They were heard concurrently before Judge
Moule and a special jury in the County Court yesterday.

Alfred Ernest Field was driving his motor-lorry in the evening towards Melbourne, with John Thomas Twyford of
Somerville, orchardist, as a passenger, and the lorry was run into by a special train travelling from Somerville. Field was killed and Twyford was injured. The Perpetual Executors and Trustees Association, as administrators of the estate of Field, on behalf of and for the benefit of Elizabeth Maude Field, widow of de-
ceased, and seven children, claims £4,000 in respect of the death of Field and £600 damages for loss of the motor-lorry. A claim of £ 1,500 by Twyford is for personal injury.

The case for plaintiff is that the accident was caused through the negligence of the Victorian Railways Commissioners in failing to provide sufficient safeguardsat the crossing. It is alleged that the engine was travelling with the tender in trout, that no light, or not sufficient light, was shown on the front of the tender, that the driver and fireman did not keep a sufficient look out when approaching the crossing, that the train was travelling at excessive speed, that no whistle was blown, and that, owing to a cutting; through which the line ran up to the crossing, and by reason of the angle at which the line intersected the road, the crossing was highly dangerous. No beacon or bell was placed as a warning. Furthermore, a mound of earth, on the top of which was a fence, was allowed to remain near the crossing in such position that the view of an approaching train was obscured. (P.9, Argus, 5-12-1924.)

The Railways Standing Committee will visit Mornington Peninsula next week in connection with the proposed railway extension from Red Hill. Evidence will be taken at Dromana at half-past 10 o'clock, and at Red Hill at a quarter to 2 o'clock on Tuesday February 24; at Flinders at half-past 11 o'clock on Wednesday, February 25; at Rosebud at a quarter to 11 o'clock; and at Sorrento at a quarter past 2 o'clock on Thursday, February 26. (P.13, Argus, 19-2-1925.)

Proposed New line.
A deputation of residents from the Moorooduc district waited upon the Minister for Railways (Mr. Eggleston) yesterday and urged that a railway line should be constructed from Morooduc to Sorrento, a distance of about 23 miles. Members of the deputation said that the Railways Standing Committee was now considering the construction of a line in a southerly direction from Red Hill, but by adopting the proposed extension to Sorrento between 12 and 15 miles of construction would be saved in providing railway facilities for the same district, and the line to Sorrento would pass through a large area of valuable agricultural land. Mr. Eggleston, in reply, said that the request was difficult to deal with as the proposed extension from Red Hill had been referred by his predecessor in office to the Railways Standing Committee.(P.9, Argus, 23-4-1925.)

It is freely rumoured here that steps are being taken by the Railway Department to reduce the status of the Tyabb Railway Station to a lower grade. Residents of the district should immediately get together and hold an
indignation meeting, as it would be most disastrous for the district to lose the services of the stationmaster.
The rather lean fruit season just passed has had its effect upon the revenue, but with several record seasons in view look how difficult it would be sending inter-State and ex-port away. It is hinted that Hastings station may also be reduced. For reasons similar to Tyabb, the revenue there has also fallen short. The public bodies here should immediately co-operate and seek the assistance of the district Shire Councilin protesting against the proposed reduction here. (P.6, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 2-9-1927.)

Lacking direct rail services, the shores of Westernport have been little touched by seaside settlers in the
past, but motor transport is now bringing the people across the peninsula from Frankston to Balnarring,
Shoreham, and Flinders in search of unoccupied water frontages. ........

The rambling Red Hill railway and the Flinders main road come within a mile of the shore at Balnarring, but
the railway service needs much speeding-up if the public is to be induced to use it as a holiday resort service. (P.7, Frankston andSomerville Standard, 7-10-1927.)

The movement initiated by the Tyabb Progress Association towards requesting the Railway Commissioners to run the Stony Point and Red Hill first morning train direct from starting station to Frankston has earned
the support of the Westernport and Balnarring Progress Associations.They deplore the great loss of timeentailed by the existing wait at Baxter every morning. It is expected that the Progress Association at Crib Point will also support the proposal.A conference will be called shortlyto arrange for a deputation to the Railway Commissioners. (P.3, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 6-1-1928.)

Originally, carrier Harry Cairns and Jimmy the Squid Williams took fish, rabbits and passengers to the Mornington railhead but by about 1920 they had been succeeded by Keith McGregor and Len Dunk who introduced motorised transport. Ironically, one of the speakers at the opening of the Red Hill-Bittern railway was William Calder, chairman of the Country Roads Board. This was like getting the Devil to speak at the opening of a new wing in Heaven! Because of Calder's great work and faster cars, a trip by road to Melbourne was no longer "travail". Because of falling revenue, the Government restricted the Peninsula buses to taking their passengers to Frankston station. Too bad if a slight delay meant missing the train!

DROMANA, Wednesday. -An enthusiastic meeting of residents of Dromana, Portsea, Sorrento. Flinders, and elsewhere on the peninsula was held at the Mechanics'Institute, Dromana, this afternoon, it being the first annual meeting of the Mornington Peninsula Development League. The principal item on the business paper was the
'bus ban.

Councillor D. Macfarlan, president of the Shire of Flinders, declared that they should not sit down and have their means of communication taken away. Mornington Peninsula was not served by a railway, and had a just cause. They were in a better position to express their opinions now that the 'bus legislation had been in operation for six months. He moved:

"That owing to the delay and inconvenience to passengers caused by the break in the journey a service of 'buses be permitted to run from the city to Dromana, Rosebud, Rye, Sorrento, and Portsea, and Flinders, none of which towns is served by railway, and that a monster deputation from the Peninsula wait upon the Minister(Mr Jones),to protest strongly against thehardship inflicted."

Councillor Macfarlan said that a deputation from the Flinders Council should amalgamate with the larger body.
Mr. Spencer Jackson, secretary of the Dromana Progress Association, supporting the motion, said that in his opinion a committee of five should be appointed to organise the deputation. They must remember that "persistency penetrates." The motion was agreed to unanimously.Councillor A.J. Kirton (Mornington),
Councillor D. Macfarlan (Sorrento), Councillor G. Higgins (Red Hill), Mr A. Hamilton (Shoreham), and Mr. Spencer Jackson (Dromana) were appointed a committee,with Mr. Jackson as organising secretary.
(P.15,Argus, 13-9-1928.) N.B. The Red Hill rep. was George Higgens.

Having achieved a rail service, the various communities through their progress associations and similar bodies kept up the fight for facilities to be maintained and improved. Also see 2-9-1927.
For a considerable time the railway goods yard at Tyabb railway station have (sic) been in a very rough state. The chief railway ,engineer (Mr. Richards) visited the station a few days ago and had an interview with Cr. Alden, and as a result, it is believed considerable improvements will be effected. The entire metalled surface of the goods yards will be torn up by suitable road building machinery and properly screened and levelled. Cr. Alden is to be commended for bringing this matter before the railway authorities.
(P.8, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 22-5-1936.)

BONEO The Boneo Branch of the United Country Party decided to request the Railway Commissioners to provide better loading facilities at the Moorooduc railway station. At present there is no provision for the loading or unloading of stock to or from motor transport. The provision of a ramp for this purpose would eliminate much inconvenience and permit greater co-operation between the two systems of transport. PROPOSED COASTAL RAILWAY. The proposal for a coastal railway from Frankston to Portsea received favorable comment at the recent branch meeting. It is the obvious answer to the transport problems which beset the Peninsula at present, and which will become more acute in the post-war years. With the continued expansion of agricultural pursuits on the Peninsula, the need for a railway is be coming more and more apparent; not to mention the increasing flow of passenger traffic which, during holiday seasons, is increasing to such dimensions that it will be beyond the capacity of any motor service to handle. Such a railway is the only way to open up the Peninsula in a sure and permanent way by bringing the whole countryside within ready access of the City and the major markets.
(P.3, Standard, Frankston, 17-5-1945.)

Mr C. B. Wilson, secretary of the Mornington-Mt Martha Publicity
League, said yesterday that the request made for a direct railway between Frankston and Mornington was not a stupid proposal as claimed by certain councillors of Frankston and Hastings Shire. It was an excellent proposal and would aid development. The Frankston and Hastings Council could rest assured that its criticism of the plan would not upset Mornington's efforts. (P.6, Argus, 20-6-1946.)

Charles Bowman Wilson, after whom the C.B.Wilson Reserve in Wilsons Rd, Mornington, was named, was (according to Joan Downward)a train driver who surprised many by becoming president of the shire of Mornington, a position coveted by many prominent citizens. He was a descendant of "Bonnie William from Dundee" whose family followed Ralph Ruddell on Tuerong and an unrelated Wilson family from Mornington (according to the author of the Bonnie William website.) See the entry by Val Wilson of the Mornington Historical Society on the Mornington Cemetery website.

(To the Editor)
Sir,-Evidently "An old Resident" (Mt Eliza) does not want to see development of the Peninsula take place-otherwise he would have a different frame of mind as regards The Mornington effort to have a direct railway.
through Mt. Eliza. Evidently he is one of those who has his own motor car. He mentions about Mornington's lack of facilities, but he will be surprised to know what is contemplated in the way of improvements. If he watches the local Press he will get a big shock. I can also tell him that Mornington has facilities which towns twice its size do not possess. It's to be hoped "An Old Resident" will come along to the Parliamentary Committee hearing when it takes place. He will be welcome. He will hear a lot of reasons why South Peninsula people want fast electric train services along a direct route which will also give reasonable fares to the travelling public.Hoping he will come along.Yours, etc., Mornington. "PROGRESS." (P.2, Standard, Frankston, 22-5-1947.)

That the Mornington Peninsula people are motor-minded and that expenditure of £300,000 on a proposed electric coastal railway from Frankston to Mornington was not justified or desired, was the main basis of objection voiced by several Frankston and district speakers who gave sworn evidence before the State Public Works Committee on Wednesday, August 13, at Frankston Shire Offices.
Hon. James E. Fenton said he had been a resident of the Peninsula for over 30 years. His study of Peninsula people over the past 20 years proved conclusively that they were motor-minded people. Practically all stock and produce was moved by motor truck through the Peninsula. It was the general mode of transport. He stressed the tragedy of the Red Hill line, where he and other ratepayers using the line had to pay for the land through which the railway was constructed. The line was now practically, a closed book and a complete "wash-out," al-
though it cost £70,000 to construct.
He was certainly opposed to the direct line to Mornington, as the £300,000 could be devoted to much better things.. Water supply had played a most important part in the development of the Peninsula.(P.1s, Standard, Frankston, 21-8-1947.)

Plan to electrify Mornington line.
Electrification of the Frankston-Mt Eliza-Mornington railway was recommended to the Parliamentary Public Works Committee yesterday. The Mornington Shire committee of electrification submitted evidence in which it recommended that £300,000 should be spent on the project. Electrification of the line, it was said, would enable district industries to expand and provide easy transport of commodities to market.
(P.3, Argus, 1-7-1948.)

Bayside railway line opposed.
FRANKSTON people were opposed to construction of a railway line along the coast from Frankston to Mornington, Cr. G. V. Hurst,president of Frankston and Hastings Shire, told the Public Works Committee yesterday.They believed, he said, that the Peninsula, "the playground of Victoria," would be best served by the present bus services.

The proposed coast railway through Mt. Eliza would cost thousands of pounds and would take only four minutes less than the present Mornington line through Baxter,Cr. Hurst said. Cr. Hurst attacked claims by Mornington Shire, which supports the coastline scheme, that Mornington could one day be a subsidiary port to Melbourne.
"No port can function without a great outgoing trade, and what exporter would bypass Melbourne for Mornington?" he asked. Cr. A. E. Webb (Cranbourne Shire) told the committee that his shire was also opposed to the
new line. The old Mornington line should be electrified instead,he said.
(P7, Argus, 13-10-1950.)

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Friday 12 June 1953 p 14 Article
... 'White elephant' railways to close Three country branch railway lines which have been losing money heavily will be closed permanently on June 28. The condemned lines are: Redesdale Junction ... branch of the Melbourne-Leongatha line. . Bittern-Red Hill: A 10 mile branch on the Mornington Peninsula.

Land Sale at Red Hill.
On Saturday, September 30, Messrs Knight & Harwood will conduct an Important subdivisional sale of the
Railway Station Estate at Red Hill. The land upon which the Red Hill station is built originally formed part
of this estate. The land offered includes 61 township lots and 19 lots from 6 to 15 acres, and includes well timbered, virgin country, and. the soil varies from dark loam to rich chocolate. The opening of this estate is
the era of the development of Red Hill, as the township is being formed round and upon this estate. The acreage areas are highly suitable for orcharding, and for the culture of fruit of almost any description. The Red Hill district is on the verge of big developments, for, although an old-settled part of the Mornington Peninsula, it has hitherto remained in comparative obscurity, known chiefly to those in the fruit business as a source of small fruits, especially strawberries and apple of excellent quality. To others it is known merely as a picturesque locality, some six miles from Dromana and near the shores of Westernport Bay. The undoubted potentialities of the district for fruit-growing and small farming are now in a good way of being developed. The imposing 24,000-case cool store near the station at once indicates the lines on which development is likely to proceed. The farm produce, peas, beans, potatoes, green maize and lucerne, together with a variety of vegetables, showed the capacity of the district for general farming.
(P.4, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 22-9-1922.)

The Red Hill Station Estate would not have been on the western side of the east end of Arthurs Seat Rd because this was the Red Hill Village Settlement on crown allotment 74 Balnarring, alienated in the 1890's.
In the south east corner of the settlement,part of the 14 acre crown allotment 74K had been acquired,74K1 of 1 acre being purchased by the Victorian Railway Commissioners on 11-7-1922, about two acres had been transferred to the C.R.B. (the Shoreham Rd deviation near No.160)and another 1.2 acres east of the deviation, 74 K2, was also bought by the railways and is now the site of The Long Table.

Station Rd, south of Mechanics Rd was part of the original government road but when the station was built,it became a dead end and in 1921, the Country Roads Board built two deviations, one going south of Marma and Almora Avenues and the other around the station (Red Hill Centrepoint site.)

On the 1907 map of the parish of Balnarring available online, the area bounded by Arthurs Seat Rd, Mechanics' Rd and Station Rd is labelled Military purposes, gazetted 1889. On my Balnarring map (October 1954), from which the information about deviations etc. above came, this same area is labelled Township of Red Hill, gazetted 1922. This was strange because another Red Hill Township was declared in the 1860's and its post office remained there at 710 White Hill Rd until fairly recently in terms of Red Hill's history. The Methodist Church opened near the post office in 1884. The church bought two blocks near the station in 1922 (presumably the Uniting Church site west of Perry Lane)and relocated their chapel in 1932. (P.31-2 THE RED HILL, Sheila Skidmore.)

I believe the Railway Station Estate was north of the station and east of Station Rd on crown allotment 77, Balnarring,including the two avenues west of Red Hill Rd, Beauford Rd and Thomas Rd. It may have been subdivided by Arthur A. Thomas who subdivided the Hindhope Estate at Rosebud at about the same time.

Referring to a statement that the Mornington Fruitgrowers' Association had complained of the condition of the entrance to Red Hill station, the Railway Commissioners have intimated that,between the roadway outside the railway boundary and the approach to the station, a culvert is being provided to overcome accumulations of storm water.(P.13, Argus, 6-7-1923.)

The Balnarring railway station was at Melway 193 E5, just within the parish of Bittern. It was on the south side of Frankston-Flinders Rd(which the railway followed from the Bittern station)between a point opposite the Mt Barron St corner and Sandy Point Rd.Civic Court indicates the path of the railway into the parish of Balnarring. This area is still linked to Red Hill- by the RED HILL BAKERY across Balnarring Rd!

An accident, which may yet be attended with fatal results, occurred at the Bittern railway station on Saturday night, just as the last train from Stoney Point was arriving at the station. A Melbourne lady named Mrs. Shand and her two children--one baby in arms were thrown out of a trap at Bittern station. Mrs. Shand was rendered unconscious, as was also the baby, the other child escaping with comparatively little damage. The train had justarrived, and no medical assistance being at hand the sufferers were placed in a carriage with the necessary attendance,and a doctor telegraphed for at the nearest available station. Mrs. Shand was much better before the train left Bittern station, but it was not expected that the baby could survive the injuries it received, for from appearance concussion of the brain was probable,irrespective of the shaking it had received. Mrs Shand is a resident of Hawksburn. ((P.2, Mornington Standard, 1-3-1894.)

The reporter obviously had little local knowledge, judging by his spelling of Stony Creek and his failure to establish why the Melbourne woman had been in the area. She was obviously the daughter in law of Alexander Shand and had been giving her children a holiday with their grandparents at the west end of Shands Rd. They would have travelled to the Bittern Station (Melway 164 F7) via Shands, Shoreham and Frankston-Flinders Rds.[i/]

Money and Tobacco Stolen.
HASTINGS, Thursday. - A window of the office at the Bittern railway station
was forced, the safe blown open, and £7/17/10 in cash stolen, in addition to tobacco and cigarettes valued at £12. Constable Egan and Detectives Saker and West are making inquiries. (P.10, Argus, 7-12-1928.)

The Merricks railway station ground was at Melway 192 E-F9. Merricks Rd originally ran straight to Frankston-Flinders Rd but was diverted along the northern boundary of the station site from which a small piece has been used for a left turn slip-lane into Merricks Rd.

Paper to be Used.
Much interest is being taken in the erection of a factory or mill at Merricks, on the Bittern-Red Hill railway, near Westernport Bay, for the manufacture of kraft paper, which is to be used for bagging cement. Hitherto the practice has been to use jute bags almost exclusively for this purpose, but in other parts of the world notably Germany, tough paper, made up in five layers, has been found to serve the purpose.

One objection that has been raised to jute bags is that the fine cement powder penetrates them and causes trouble in handling. Jute is also criticised on the score of expense. It is contended that the kraft paper bags will be much cheaper, and that after being once used they can be thrown away or destroyed without any
appreciable loss. The parties interested in the project are also said to be interested
in the manufacture of cement. A beginning has already been made with the construction of the works.
(P.9, Argus, 11-1-1927.)

As I have researched fairly extensively for my THE MYSTERIOUS HENRY GOMM and THE FEMALE DROVER: A HISTORY OF MOOROODUC, I will provide a few snippets about the Somerville Station. Leila Shaw's THE WAY WE WERE contains two pieces of information that I recall off-hand. Firstly that the station was not built near Lower Somerville Rd which was the centre of population at the time. Secondly that one of the station masters had a family of about 13 children and the book has a photograph of the large family.

Graf Rd at Somerville provides a link with these two snippets, the Premier of Victoria and his father in law (Red Hill's first recorded settler), the Mechanics' Institute, the famous Fruitgrowers' Show, the Somerville Hotel, another station master and the Australian Test Team.

After I started my campaign to make Dromana and Rosebud's history more accessible in August 2010, I spent the rest of that year transcribing rate records and making notes from every relevant local history. Mentally tired and eyes strained, I borrowed Leila's book to read just for enjoyment. I'd only read to page 6 when my curiosity led to a marathon research project. Henry Gomm was assessed on the Jetty's cafe site near the Rosebud jetty in 1900 and 1910 but Leila had him as a Somerville pioneer. As I discovered, the two were completely unrelated but Somerville Henry's 1888 biography in VICTORIA AND ITSMETROPOLIS contained a wrong claim (as it turned out) which was probably a lie. This would have been to back up a family legend he'd created that he came out on the same ship as Tommy Bent.

Henry Gomm of Rosebud was the son of a convict of the same name. He died at Cheltenham Benevolent Home in 1915, his brother William, who owned the Rosebud Fishing Village block, married a Flinders woman and, well past middle age, deserted her for a20 year old whom he married after his wife's death. William died at about the same time as Henry, still at Hastings, and it appeared that some members of the Somerville Fruitgrowers' Association offered condolences to the Somerville Gomms. Another brother, Thomas, died at Dromana in 1896 not long after giving evidence in the inquiry into Alf Downward's disputed election to State Parliament.

Tommy Bent didn't sail out in 1839; that was when he was born in Penrith, N.S.W. Somerville Henry didn't sail to Australia in 1839; he came with his father, George, in 1843 at the age of 4. However by the 1850's both Gomm families were living in the parish of Moorabbin and were to remain near-neighbours for over half a century. (See the story about their earlier days on Graham Whitehead's CITY OF KINGSTON HERITAGE WEBSITE.) Not long after,the Bent family moved into the Moorabbin parish and as Henry,son of George, was the same age as Tommy Bent, it was not surprising that they became great friends. As well as market gardening, Tommy Bent launched into subdividing land and Bentleigh is named after him.

John Huntley and his wife were pioneers of the Dromana district, having arrived in 1851 according to the pioneer Pathway. Bill Huntley told me while we were on our road tour, 91 year old Bill at the wheel, that John had been granted the 208 acres on the west side of Red Hill Rd between Station St and the conservation reserve on the south corner of McIlroys Rd. This land was granted to John Holmes (no relation of the present Red Hill family) and his partner Lawrence Waddeson,who was killed in an accident. Therefore, John Huntley seems to have held a depasturing licence until the government alienated the Mt McMahon Agricultural District.

Tommy Bent lived at Brighton, where the Huntleys were pioneers, John Huntley senior was basically a Brighton resident, and (relevant to a journal about railways)was almost killed at a level crossing there, having returned full time after the alienation of his Red hill lease. Tommy Bent married Miss Huntley who unfortunately did not live long but his relationship to Bill is shown by the huge portrait of Sir Thomas in full regalia that graces his Safety Beach lounge room. John Huntley Jnr bought the southern half of his father's former lease and established "Hillside Orchard". When John died, his widow, Mary (nee Hope) married Cr John Shand, known to his friends as Peter and while Mary's sisters in law farmed Hillside Orchard, John and Mary Shand farmed Kent Orchard (south corner of the west end of Kentucky Rd) and then Kentucky and Rosslyn, (whose homesteads are now 214 and 212 Dromana-Bittern Rd.)

As stated earlier, Tommy Bent and Henry Gomm were longtime friends. Henry had bought "Glenhoya" and after making all ready for his family from 1861, living almost entirely on kangaroo meat, he settled his family there in about 1867. The railway had reached Frankston by 1882 and surveying would have started for any extension soon afterwards. The minister for railways was..........Tommy Bent! Now, it could be that the minister of Railways had suggested that the route they survey should head to the point where the boundaries of the parishes of Frankston, Moorooduc and Tyabb met at the Jones Rd/ Eramosa Rd corner, an easily defined point. But I suspect that the man in charge was, as a biography about him was called:bent by name; bent by nature. There is plenty of evidence of this in the Maribyrnong, Melbourne Airport and North Essendon areas,the Huntley name also associated with the third land speculation which attracted much suspicion.

I consulted Melway to see if there was an obvious deviation from a sensible route such as the Mt Alexander and Murray River Railway crossing the Calder Highway at Diggers Rest to travel past Rupertswood and Clarkfield in 1858 for the benefit of Big Clarke. The Langwarrin Estate had been carved up and Langwarrin Township established by the 1880's. If the line had gone straight down Golf Links Rd, feeding directly into Lower Somerville Rd,it would have gone close to Langwarrin township and passed directly through Somerville's centre of population. However it headed almost due east to today's Langwarrin Flora and Fauna Park, probably the pre-emptive right of the Langwarrin Estate, whose owner might have been another of Tommy Bent's friends. Naturally the township that sprang up near the station became known as Langwarrin Township. Because of the 1890's depression and the distancefrom the railway, the original township became a ghost town, but in about 1896, Nathaniel Pearce brought it back to life and it was renamed in his honour.

The Gomm family believes that the route through Somerville was a favour from Tommy Bent for Henry Gomm. Glenhoya was at the south west corner of Jones and Eramosa Rds, a stone's throw from the station. There could be some truth in the family legend that it was a favour from Tommy Bent that caused the station to be built right next to Henry Gomm's property. It worked to Somerville's benefit because Henry donated the site for the Mechanics'Institute and offered the Fruitgrowers' Reserve to which special trains brought patrons and exhibitors from all over the state for the famed Somerville Fruitgrowers' Show. It was rare for the Show to be opened by the Premier of Victoria but Tommy did it circa 1907;perhaps a third favour granted to Henry.

The second favour was asked for when Henry's daughter fell in love with the young station master. Henry was a wealthy man and didn't plan to have a railway employee as a son in law.He couldn't get young Graf out of his daughter's heart so the next best thing was to get him out of her life. He was tranferred to Ascot Vale Station but it didn't work and Miss Gomm fled to the city; the lovers were wed at a quiet ceremony. The girl's mother, Margaret (nee Monk) would have been seething but neither she not Henry attended.

Henry would have nothing to do with his disobedient daughter but every time her brothers visited the Vic market or the Newmarket Saleyards they'd take food to help the young couple cope. After Henry's death, his son, William Herbert (Paddy)persuaded the Gomm family to welcome the Grafs back into the fold and in their first year of residence, the Somerville cricket team won the premiership with the help of a Graf. When Frankston real estate agent, George Austin, was subdividing land west of Glenhoya, a fast bowler made the Australian test team. His name was Shaun and the closest he came to playing a test was 12th man. However the Somerville Cricket Club was proud of him and suggested that the tree-studded track being turned into a road should be named Graf Rd. The Gomms nearly lost the Somerville Hotel because Henry's grandson Billy Gomm and a Graf cousin were sprung S.P.bookmaking in the pub and were banned from entering the premises.Billy's brother, George, had to give up his rare metal mining to save the hotel's licence. (Sources: The Way We Were; Murray Gomm; genealogical
websites, The Butcher The Baker The; and trove, such as the following:
Wedding. GRAFGOMM.
Mornington and Dromana Standard (Vic. : 1908 - 1911) Saturday 14 August 1909 p 2 Article
... Wedding. GRAF-GOMM. A wedding of local importance was celebrated quietly at St. Mary's Star of the Sea, West Melbourne, on Wednesday last, the contracting parties being Mr David J. Graf, of Ascot Vale and Miss Beatrice Ethel Gomm, youngest daughter of Mr and Mrs H. Gomm, "Glenhoya" ..

I'm operating under considerable difficulty at the moment because I can't open any of my word files. I knew you wouldn't all be rushing off to borrow Leila's book so I tried to open BETTER DAYS which was a souvenir to celebrate the opening of Rosebud's new netball courts in 2012 and was about the players in the 1936 semi final between Rosebud and Somerville. This was on a USB stick but still wouldn't open. It is available from both football clubs.

If I remember the story, Mrs Currie died and coping with the large family led to Mr Currie's suicide.Do you think I could find any of my sources on trove? I don't know how I managed to find them for BETTER DAYS, whose title reflected the dismal form of both clubs at the time the book was started. Paddy Gomm took Peter Currie into his home and he grew up with Billy and George Gomm, two legends of the Somerville Football Club. By finding the report of the 1936 match and looking at the list of Somerville players, I was 95% sure that the orphan's name was Currie but I found little on trove.

In desperation, I googled "Currie, Somerville" and found this:
Panoramio - Photo of old station master house somerville‎
The website has a photo of the old station masters's house in which the Currie family. It was apparently an Op Shop when it was burnt down in 2009. I have pasted some of the comments posted about the photo.

Sun Hill CID, on November 16, 2009, said:
The old Station masters house burnt down in early September, which is a shame.

tidders, on November 22, 2009, said:
Yes it is a shame. It could have served a purpose rather than let go and become derilect. Apparently September 2009 when it went up in flames.

benje, on January 9, 2010, said:

tidders, on January 12, 2010, said:
benje. I am glad you have commented on the photo of Station Masters House. I did know through reading that the Currie family lived here with a big family. I also have seen a photo taken way back of some of the family at the old house. Do you know much of the Yaringa/ Bembridge area from way back.

benje, on February 1, 2010, said:
im sorry but being a taff (welsh)do not i lived in altona whilst staying in oz but my aunt lived on the sommerville hastings rd her name is peggy martyr was married to horrie martyr she had 5 children joe eldest (deceasd)arleen alice helen and phillip i also have family down at bittern the myers family stumpy gully rd bill dad (deceased)winsome mums sister their children brian julie carmel and john ullask my mum aboutyaringa if she can remember any body?does anyone remember alison her twin was hombre (nickname)he died in a cycling accident in his fifties another brother still living at bairnsdale is sam currie twin to winsome!


Nathodsercha, on February 21, 2010, said:

I was across the road when the old station master's house went on fire. I started running over to it where i saw heaps of smoke but at this point it was near the start of the fire, got my phone out and videod it after i ran across the train line to see it. When i got closs to it i was probably only 5 meters from the back fence were it was very smoky especially when the fire men came about 5-6 mins later. I had to run out the way when it suddenly came at my face and others.


benje, on April 17, 2010, said:



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