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Georgiana McCrae had been told by 1851 by Charles Latrobe that a township was planned for the coastal strip on the west of Arthurs Seat. Fear that the homestead area of the Arthur's Seat would be swallowed by this township was a factor in Andrew McCrae deciding to relinquish the Run, which was taken up by the Burrells.
The very fact that a township was planned is an indication that the timber on Arthurs Seat was already being exploited. It would be a miracle if there were any details in The Argus about the early timber-getters so the assertion that many of them were Irish will have to be accepted for now. Drom is the Gaelic word for hill or ridge (Droim (ridge, hillock) Drum-, Drim-, Drom- Drumcree, Drumanoo, Drumcondra).
The connection between our Dromana and the one in Ireland was illustrated by Cr Pittock's recent visit to the latter. See the following:
Off to Dromana House in Ireland, to be sure | MPNEWS…/.../off-to-dromana-house-in-ireland-to-be-…/

For decades after Dromana was officially named, the location of properties in a huge area near Arthurs Seat was specified as (Rosebud,Main Creek etc) NEAR DROMANA. In 1855, Alexander Cains and R.AMOS (not Airley) bought Menstrie Mains on the north west corner of Boneo and Browns Rd and G.Warren obtained the grant for c/a 18 bounded by today's beach road, Adams Avenue, Eastbourne Rd and Jetty Rd. Dromana had obviously not been named, Arthurs Seat being used to indicate location.
At Arthur's Seat, eastern shores of Port Phillip Bay.
13 143a 2r l6p, per 3, A Cairns and R Airey, 20 s. (per acre)
28 152a 2r 16p, G. W. Warren, 21s (per acre.)

It was at about this time that a gold-mining area was officially named Sandhurst, provoking much opposition (for which I have no time to find examples), the miners preferring the commonly used name of Bendigo. The following explanation involving two pioneering families on the peninsula. The name GRICE was associated with Sunnyside etc. near Mornington and William MYERS,a descendant of a squatter near Bendigo bought the Journeaux estate in Balnarring; hence the name of Myers Rd between Junction Rd and the Bittern railway station.)

The origin of the name "Bendigo" has, time after time, led to much controversy. Now, the origin of the name is thus accounted for. A few old residents are yet in existence who will remember that Messrs.Heap and Grice occupied as a station run the country now forming the Sandhurst district. On this question, says the INDEPENDENT, we have been shown an extract from a letter received by Dr. Pounds from Mr. Grice which should put the matter at rest for ever. Mr. Grice writes:—"Tell your friends who want to know the origin of Bendigo, that it was named by Tom Myers, Heap and Grice's overseer, in 1841. Tom himself was a bit of a dab with his fists, and a great admirer of the boxer Bendigo: hence the name." From "Tom Myers" those well-known localities Myers' Flat and Myers' Creek take their names.
(P.17, Australian Town and Country Journal, 21-9-1878.)

Perhaps this opposition led to the realisation by the government that Aussies no longer wanted the names they had bestowed on areas changed to honour big nobs. Not much later, Dromana had an official name!
At Arthur's Seat, on the eastern shore of Port Phillip Bay, county of Mornington, parish of Kangerong. (Grantees listed.)
P.6, Argus, 19-8-1856.)

There is no reason to doubt Charles Gavan Duffy's claim to have christened the Sorrento area. You can bet your bottom dollar that if there was another explanation for the origin of the name, PUNCH would have delivered the KNOCKOUT PUNCH. There were many papers which lampooned Duffy and if Punch or these other papers had any evidence to counter his claim, they would have rejoiced in doing so. Another grantee before the village of Sorrento existed, indeed the reason for its birth, William Allison Blair, would have taken any opportunity to bring his foe down a peg or two if Duffy's claim was not true.

Sorrento's Papa.
MR.PUNCH.—DEAR SIR.—You are sometimes hard upon me, but I know you will do me justice.I am the paternal parent of Sorrento, and I christened it into the bargain.Coppin is an innovation, quite a recent importation. I invented Sorrento, and made a pretty penny by it; and didn't Kerferd, Anderson, Casey, and a lot more go into the spec. and profit by it?
Yours, C.G.D. (P.7, Melbourne Punch, 25-1-1877.)
Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1924) Thursday 31 December 1874 p 3 Article
Some years ago Mr (now Sir Charles) Duffy paid a visit to Dr Callan, his brother-in-law, medical officer of the sanitary station, and was much struck with the beauty of this locality. He conceived it would become a favourite watering place for Melbourne residents, and selected a large area of land which he christened Sorrento, probably being struck with its natural features, much resembling Italian scenery.

Unfortunately, most of Duffy's grants near Sorrento do not bear the date on which each was issued. Some that do were purchased after the village was declared but crown allotment 60, Nepean, of 28 acres, on the north east corner of Hughes and Melbourne Rds (occupied today by Hester, Kay and Rowland Sts and most of Derrick St) was granted on 23-10-1868, proof that Duffy was there prior to the village.

In looking for the first mention of the village of Sorrento, I discovered a perfect example of the constant lampooning of Charle Gavan Duffy.
The Village of Sorrento.—Mr. Charles Gavan Duffy, has his eye on the sweet little village of Sorrento, which for the information of the ignorant we may state is not a thousand miles by water from Queenscliffe nor is it a hundred by land from the sanitary station, at Point Nepean. Mr. Duffy is solicitous about the Somersetshire passengers.Unfortunate ladies and gentleman, they have been vaccinated and fumigated and what not; and-now they are cut off from all communication with the civilised world. Would it not be well,.asks Mr. Duffy, to connect them by telegraph. The electric flash can't possibly infect Melbourne, and then there's Sorrento.
—shrewd Mr, Duffy! (P.3, Bendigo Advertiser, 5-6-1871.)

Strangely the subdivision sale of Williamson's Paddock in Toorak confirms the Italian origin of Sorrento's name.
Note.-The most splendid views are really to be obtained from this property. Away to the westward, over the bay and Williamstown, the You Yangs and the Anakies rise like the outline of the Forshireth, near Suez, sweeping a course N.B. and S., round to the Heads again, and carrying with them the heights of Mounts Martha, Eliza, Dromana, and Arthur's Seat, and passing the now " new Italiano" of Victoria, known as tho pretty village of Sorrento. (P.2, Argus, 29-1-1872.)
And this is the first instance I have found of the official use of Sorrento as a place name in Victoria. Any earlier reference to village of Sorrento concerns the place in Italy.

A SALE of CROWN LANDS, by public auction, will be held at 2 o'clock of Friday, 7th January, 1870, at the Government auctioneers rooms, Melbourne. The following lots will be offered :
Sorrento, county of Mornington, parish of Nepean, on Port Phillip Bay, at Sorrento Point. Upset price,£8 per acre. Allotments 1, 2,3 and 4, 5 and 0,7 and .8, 0 and 10,11, sec, 1 ; 1 and 2, 8, 4,5 and 0, 7 and 8,
0,10,11 and 12, seo. 2, 2r. 10 0 10p. to la. 26p.
County of Mornington, parish of Nepean, on Port Phillip Bay, adjoining the village of Sorrento. Upset prices £2 10s to £3 per acre. Allotments 1 to 16 la. Sr/ Jfp. to Sa 3r. 27p. (P.7, Argus, 20-12-1869.)

Sidney Smith Crispo should not have listened to the Italian. This was on the end of his letter about the creation of the village of Sorrento. I spent a week trying to find any connection between DROMANA and Italy or Crispi/Crispo.
Dromana was named after a town in Italy, where Signor Crispi has a large house, I used to think it an aboriginal name till an Italian put me right.
(P.3, Mornington Standard, 1-6-1899.)


George Mitchell, of Tootgarook, county of Mornington, lime-burner. Causes of insolvency--Depression in business, and pressure of creditors. Liabilities, £213 1s. 11 1/2d. ; assets, £44 7s.4 1/2d, ; deficiency, £168 14s, 7d. Mr. Jacomb,
official assignee.(P.7, Argus, 18-1-1861.)
The circumstances attending the death of a little girl, named Jane Mitchell, aged five years, the daughter of a lime-burner living at Rye, Point Nepean, formed the subject of inquiry by Mr Candler, district coroner, on Sunday. From the evidence of the mother of the deceased, it appeared that, last Thursday, she mixed a teaspoonful of strychnine with a handful of sugar, part of which she placed on an ant-hill for the purpose of killing some rats. The remainder she left in a basin ; and it was supposed that the deceased got to it, and took what was left, as, on looking at the basin afterwards, the contents were missing. The deceased was taken with convulsions shortly afterwards, and died within an hour. The medical evidence showed death to have resulted from poisoning by strychnine ; and the jury returned a verdict that the poison was accidentally taken by herself.
(P.5, The Age, 25-9-1866.)
A terribly sudden death took place at the Sorrento court on Wednesday. Mr George Mitchell, the postmaster at Rye, was appearing in a small case, and had just been sworn, when he suddenly fell back, striking the floor heavily with the back of his head. Several persons rushed to his aid, but death must have been instantaneous, for he never moved or spoke again. Mr Mitchell, who was 70 years of age and much respected in the district, was known to be subject to heart disease.
(P. 2, The Yackandandah Times, 13-3-1896.)
Mrs Mitchell, a very old resident, died here on the 21st ult. She was the widow of the late Mr George Mitchell,. who was post-master here
for a number of years.(P.5, Mornington Standard, 9-1-1904.)



NOTICE OF APPLICATION for a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE.-To the Licensing Magistrates in and for the District of Dromana.-I, GEORGE TRUEMAN, of the townshlp of Rye near Dromana, in the colony of Victoria, limeburner, do hereby give notice, that I desire to obtain, and will at the next licensing meeting APPLY for, a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE for a house situate at the township of Rye, In the colony of Victoria, and fronting Hobson's Bay, containing seven rooms, exclusive of those required for the use of the family. The 14th day of February, A.D. 1872. GEORGE TRUEMAN. (P.2s., Argus, 17-2-1872.)

George Trueman was the second child of James Trueman and Jane (nee Cook) born on 2-3-1852 in Maddington,Wiltshire, who came out with his parents on the Sabrina in 1857 and died on 10-10-1932 in Prahran. As his older sister Annie had died in 1850 aged just over a month, George was the oldest surviving child. (Genealogy provided by Heather Spunner of Berrigan,N.S.W.)

As George's "house" was in the township, and he didn't seem to be much involved on the Truemans Rd grants, it would be interesting to compare his description with that of Cottier, who was insolvent in 1870 and had obviously turned to lime burning on his land at Fingal by the time he received his certificate of discharge in 1871.(Certificate Meetings.
Certificates of discharge from their debts were granted to the following insolvents :....... ; John Blair, of Melbourne, surgeon*; ....... William Cottier, of Rye, limeburner ; F. W. Wilks, of Collingwood, commission agent. (P.6, Argus, 10-6-1871.)

NOTICE of APPLICATION for a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE.-To the Bench of Magistrates. at Mornington.-I, WILLIAM COTTIER, farmer, now residing in Rye, in the colony of Victoria, do hereby give notice that it is my intention to APPLY to the justices, sitting at the Court of Petty Sessions to be holden at Mornington, In the said colony, on tho 20th day of June next, for a CERTIFICATE authorising the issuing of a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE for a house situated at Rye aforesaid. The house Is built of wood, consisting of two slttlng rooms and six bedrooms exclusive of those required for the use of the family; occupied and owned by me. It is not licensed. To be known as the Tootgarook Hotel.
The 14th day of June, A.D. 1867,
(Signed) . WILLIAM COTTIER. (P.8 Argus, 21-6-1867.)
Campbell's grants comprised the land occupied in October 2015 by shops including Ray White Real Estate, the former board shop, former bike shop until late August,now vacant, on the east side of the Shark Shack fish and chip shop and shops in between.

It should be fairly easy to ascertain whether George Trueman had been leasing the Tootgarook Hotel from John Campbell. It is possible that George had a lease of the hotel that William Cottier appears to have established in 1867 but this theory would destroyed if John Campbell had been running the hotel in 1872.

NOTICE.— I, JOHN CAMPBELL, of Rye, Contractor, do hereby give notice that I desire to obtain,and will at the next Licensing Meeting APPLY for, a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE for a home situated at Rye,containing 8 rooms exclusive of those required for the use of the family.
The 25th day November, 1875.
JOHN CAMPBELL. (P.1,The Age, 29-11-1875.)

NOTICE of APPLICATION for a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE.— To tho Licensing Magistrates at Dromana.--I, JOHN CAMPBELL, of
Rye, county Mornington, do hereby glvo notice that I desire to obtain, and will, at the next Licensing Meeting, APPLY for a PUBLICAN'S LICENCE for a house situate at Rye, county Mornington, to be known as the RYE Hotel, containing eight rooms, exclusive of those required for tho use of the family.
Tho seventh day of June, A.D., 1873. JOHN CAMPBELL. (P.2, Leader, Melbourne, 14-6-1873.)

N.B. THE ABOVE TWO NOTICES WERE THE ONLY RESULTS ON TROVE FOR "JOHN CAMPBELL, RYE" DURING THE DECADE 1870-1879.My next step was going to be a check to see if George Trueman had in 1872 been leasing another hotel in Rye, such as Patrick Sullivan's GRACEFIELD HOTEL, which I think was said to have been established in 1877. I don't really need to because of the 1873 notice. But I'll do it anyway! "hotel,rye" 1872. This search produced not one result,illustrating one problem with Rye; George Trueman's notice was published in 1872 but did not use the word HOTEL, instead referring to a licence for a house. I substituted "license, house,rye" in 1872,again getting no result but when I deleted the inverted commas, I obtained George's notice and 50 other results,none of the latter referring to Rye, except forthe sale of town lots in 1872. "Hotel, Rye" 1870-1879 showed a flurry of advertisements for Sullivan's, or the Gracefield, six miles from Sorrento from about 1877 and that Rye had only one hotel before this, the second TOOTGAROOK Hotel established by Cottier 1867,lost by him when the partnership with Campbell was dissolved just prior to Cottier's insolvency, leased by George Trueman in 1872, and operated from 1873 by the grantee of the land on which it stood, John Campbell.

C.N.Hollinshed stated in LIME LAND LEISURE that the Cottier family had gained a licence for a "house" in Dromana called the Rye Hotel and that this licence had been transferred to Tootgarook,thus giving the town its present name. This was proven wrong in my journal about William Cottier, whose aim was to confirm Hollinshed's claim. However the author had stated that the FIRST RYE HOTEL IN RYE was east of Lyons St and produced a map of historic sites in Rye showing Campbell's Hotel precisely on Campbell's grants (as indicated by the Rye Township map.) Because of lack of detail in rate records for about the first five decades of municipal government,it cannot be stated without dispute that Cottier's 1867 TOOTGAROOK HOTEL was on Campbell's grants but the following makes it very likely.

NOTICE.-The PARTNERSHIP hitherto subsisting between WILLIAM COTTIER and JOHN CAMPBELL, trading as " Wm. Cottier and Campbell," at Tootgarook, has this day been DISSOLVED by mutual consent.All liabilities will be paid and all moneys received by William Cottier.
JOHN CAMPBELL. WM. COTTIER., Melbourne 18th April, 1870. (P.3, Argus, 14-4-1870.)

Charles Hollinshed was right about the original RYE HOTEL being associated with Cottier (although the given name he used was James). The second Rye Hotel, the present one, was built in art deco style by Mrs Hunt (who demolished the Gracefield Hotel in the late 1920's) as detailed on the foundation stone. But the partnership's name for the 1867 establishment was the Tootgarook Hotel and it would appear to be John Campbell,now the sole owner, who renamed it the Rye Hotel in 1873. It is not known what name George Trueman had given it in 1872.

4 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago


A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOOTGAROOK FOR JUSTIN. Justin is not a member of family tree circles but is primarily responsible for my ability to post and is interested in local history, so when he asked for some information about Tootgarook’s past, how could I refuse?

Great confusion has been caused by the name of George Smith's homestead on his run being thought to be a separate run, whose location was never specified. The Tootgarook Run itself, and the area it occupied has also been described by a variety of names.

Edward Hobson was one of the earliest Southern Peninsula pioneers. He was on the Kanjeering (Kangerong) run by 1837 but “Before the close of June 1837, he moved down the bay past Arthurs Seat and took up the country between the present day townships of Dromana and Rye. His run (was) known to Henry Meyrick as Packomedurrawurra..” (P.25, A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA.)
By 1844, after some time near the Tarwin River, Edward moved to the location of present day Traralgon to manage the run of his brother, Dr. Edmund Hobson:
An Historical Account of Traralgon
• When Edward Hobson reached here in 1844,
It must have been the Hobsons who gave the Traralgon run its name. The name comes from the aboriginal words "Tarra", meaning a river, and "Algon" meaning little fish, and that is why I have called this story "The River of Little Fish". It was probably Edward Hobson who spelt the name as we spell it today, for the Doctor, who did not come up to see the run for three years, spelt it "Tralgon" when he was writing a letter to his wife in Melbourne while he was here.
George Smith, who supposedly married the mother of Edward and Edmund Hobson, had a run called Wooloowoolooboolook (which had various spellings); when Sarah Ann Cain went missing and was eventually found; she was taken to George’s homestead where Mrs Smith nursed her back to health.
" October 26.—News from Arthur's Seat of the discovery and safety of Sarah Ann Cain, the child of the lime-burner. She was only four years old, and had been lost for four days and five nights in the bush. Some of the nights were very severe, with heavy rain. She had heard the men cooeying, but did not answer, fearing they were blacks. When found, she was warding the attacks of the crows on her face with her hands, and was all but exhausted. A warm bath and the administration of food in small quantities brought her completely round ; and she afterwards grew up a fine young woman. (Georgiana McCrae’s Journal.)
Smith’s run probably adjoined Hobson’s run and was known to include the foreshore land near the McCrae lighthouse. It might have been Hobson’s run! It is likely that Smith managed Hobson’s run when the latter departed for Gippsland. In 1850, according to C.N.Hollinshed in LIME LAND LEISURE, Edward Hobson bought Smith’s lease and requested that both be transferred to James Purves. Purves obviously had a business relationship with Edward and by 1855 bought “The Rosebud” from him and insured it for 700 pounds before it was stranded at you know where.James Purves, an architect and businessman, retained the run and bought the Pre-emptive Right.
But he was not really a pioneer of Tootgarook! It was his brother, Peter, who applied for a licence for the Tootgarook Inn in 1857, the tap room in Leonard St, Rye that the shire recently allowed to be demolished. It was Peter Purves who in 1859, with James Ford, persuaded practically all their neighbours to oppose a proposed fence from White Cliff to the back beach. Peter, who probably gave the run its new name of Tootgarook, died in 1860 and his son, James, took over the management of Tootgarook Station. The homestead was named Broomielaw and the greatest indication that his uncle, who owned the station, spent little time there was the 1877 report of a sale that stated, “At Tootgarook, which, at this late date in the history of Victoria, is not famous for a very imposing homestead-or indeed in any building that does not require demolishing and rebuilding –“
Because of the run, the area became known as Tootgarook and though the village to the west was called Rye, the first school, on the site of Rye’s present Anglican Church and the post office were officially described as Tootgarook. In 1867 when former Dromana resident William Cottier applied for a licence for a “house” built on the grants of his partner and fellow ex-Dromana resident, John Campbell, who built the first stage of the Rye Pier in that year, he called it the TOOTGAROOK Hotel* (not the Rye Hotel as claimed in LIME LAND LEISURE.) It was in Cottier’s hotel that doomed Rosebud fisherman, Patrick Tolmut Wee Wee, a Maori, met the four doomed quarrymen and arranged to take them to the Quarantine Station.

(*There have been two Tootgarook Hotels and two Rye Hotels.The first licence for a Tootgarook Hotel was by Peter Purves in 1857; this hotel was almost certainly the tap room on the Tootgarook pre-emptive right. In 1867, William Cottier applied for a licence for the Tootgarook Hotel which was almost certainly on the grants of his partner, John Campbell, between today's Ray White Real Estate and the shop on the east side of Shark Shack fish and chips (inclusive of both.) In 1870, Cottier became insolvent and the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent, the hotel's ownership probably passing to Campbell who applied for a licence in 1873, now calling it the Rye Hotel. George Trueman probably ran it in 1872 but did not specify a name for the hotel. The second Rye Hotel was on part of its present location. Its forerunner was built in about 1877 by Patrick Sullivan on land granted to William Grace and named the Gracefield Hotel. In about 1927,Mrs Hunt demolished the Gracefield and built the art deco core of the present Rye Hotel. Remarkably William Cottier, John Campbell and William Grace were all former Dromana pioneers. For more details about the hotels and the Trueman family, see my journals:
by itellya on 2015-10-04 03:29:39. page views: 108, comments: 4
by itellya on 2015-10-04 20:16:38. page views: 63, comments: 0)

I stated before that George Smith may have been on Tootgarook.On page 4 of The Argus of 21-5-1850,a government notice lists occupants and other details of runs for which the occupants were to submit applications for 12 month leases from 1-1-1851. In the County of Mornington,No. 17 of 19 was George Smith (occupant), 20 square miles (extent), Tootgarook (name of run), Port Phillip Bay.
"Contrary to what is widely asserted, he did not hold a licence for Wul-Wul-a-Bulluk on the Mornington Peninsula: a thorough search of the original Pastoral Run Papers produced no papers for Wul-Wul-a-Bulluk in the box which holds all the original ‘W’ Pastoral Run Papers.50 Wul-Wul-a-Bulluk is not a pastoral run; it is the name of the house at Capel Sound where he lived in the 1840s.51"
I also mentioned that George was supposedly married to the mother of Edward and Edmund Hobson. A Tootgarook 1850's search on trove brought up Marie Hansen Fels' explanation of the relationship, as well as some new information about Tootgarook, in I SUCCEEDED ONCE.
"The simple, though for the time, extraordinary explanation* is that George Smith lived with Malvina Hobson nee Lutterell, mother of Edward and Edmund at Capel Sound. George Gordon McCrae devotes pages to describing their lovely house and garden and view, and Mrs Smith’s culinary achievements and her kindness to the McCrae boys. But there is no record of a divorce from Edward Hobson senior and she died as Malvina Hobson, as indicated earlier.
(* of the lack of detail re George Smith's family.)
The biographer of the Lutterell family57 tells an amazing story of Malvina’s life. Baptised in Tonbridge Kent in 1799, one of ten children in the family, she was brought to New South Wales by her father Dr Edward Luttrell who received a land grant and an appointment as assistant colonial surgeon at Parramatta. She was married as a child-bride to Edward Hobson senior in 1813, and produced her two sons Edmund and Edward quite quickly. They are alleged to have been born in Parramatta, but New South Wales has no record of this and their baptisms are recorded in VDL, and Edmund at least was raised by his grandparents in Hobart. Edward Hobson senior is last picked up in the records running a school in Clarence Plains, VDL.
By 1823 Malvina was living openly with a convicted man named Bartholomew Broughton: Broughton’s offence is unspecified but he was a gentleman, formerly a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. Malvina’s parents must have approved of Broughton because when he died, he was buried with Dr Lutterell in the Lutterell family vault. But Dr Lutterell definitely did not approve of Malvina – in his will, in which he left his estate to his sons and to his dearly beloved grandson Edmund, he noted that Edmund was a poor unfortunate orphan whose parents did not love him and who left him without any provision or patrimony.
Malvina Lutterell/Hobson/Broughton/Smith was a practical woman it seems. In 1844, when Sarah Anne Cain, a lime burner’s four year old daughter was found, exhausted, keeping crows off her face with her hand, having been missing for four days and five nights, it was Mrs Smith who had the knowledge and the presence of mind to put the child in a warm bath, then feed her a teaspoon of food at a time until the little girl recovered.58 She was generous as well. In the winter of 1845 Georgiana McCrae sent one of the men working for the McCraes to Mrs Smith to borrow some beef because the McCraes had run out, and the contract with their workers Henry Tuck and Lanty Cheney specified a ration of ten lbs of beef per week; Mrs Smith sent back not only the requested beef but a ham and greens as well.59
The Smiths were living at Capel Sound in July 1846 when George Smith’s blackfellows called in en route from Melbourne with the bag which Georgiana McCrae’s servant raided for onions, but which contained daffodil bulbs.60 The McCrae’s tutor Mr John McLure was a visitor to George Smith’s station along the beach in 1848, as was Mr Liardet.61 However they managed it, Mrs Smith was acknowledged in polite society, and George Smith remained connected to her sons and grandsons, though not to her. She was buried in Brighton after her death in 1866 with a neighbour as informant, ignorant of her living son’s name and whereabouts, aware only that she had a son who was a doctor.62 There is a letter in the Hobson Papers from George Smith by this time, 1867, resident in Sydney, addressed to Dr Hobson’s son, dealing with the issue of 125 acres of land in Sydney granted to Malvina Luttrell the mother of Edward and Edmund Hobson.63
It was George Smith and Edward Hobson who established the fame of the cups country for horse breeding, not James Purves who purchased the run as a going concern with an already established reputation. George Gordon McCrae mentions Smith’s horses well before Purves came to the district, ‘It was always a pleasant tramp for us from Arthur’s Seat [to Boniong] through Hobson’s flat with its little knots of horses and browsing cows’.64
James Purves purchased the 640 acre (square mile) Tootgarook Pre-emptive right on 22-10-1855. There was no real need for him to buy it so early because as long as he paid the yearly rent to the crown, nobody else could buy it. It was bounded by the beach road,Government Rd/Weeroona St,Brights Drive (roughly) and the Kevin St/Morris St midline.
The parish of Wanneue is divided into Section A and section B, the former consisting of the former Tootgarook Run and the latter of the Arthurs Seat Run. As the land west of Elizabeth Avenue to Truemans Rd was later referred to as Tootgarook later, I will include it in our discussion.Lime merchant, William Allison Blair, bought c/a 53 of 60 acres between the beach road and the westernmost 694 metres of Eastbourne Rd and another 75 metres east of Ned Williams' Chinamans Creek channel.He also bought crown allotments 51, 49 and 45,a total of 419 acres fronting the east side of Truemans Rd from the beach road to Hiscock Rd.
This was bought by the Woinarski family which built the heritage listed "Woyna" at 9-11 Terry St and was eventually subdivided as the Woyna Estate,hence Woyna Ave. For details see my journal on family tree circles entitled:
On the west side of Truemans Rd, three of our pioneers bought land from the beach road to the freeway reservation. On 16-8-1865, Sam Stenniken bought c/a 48 of 108 acres extending 833 metres to the Kevin /Morris midline (and the Tootgarook P.R.) and nearly 744 metres south to he Bona/Ronald St midline.) Sam Stenniken married the older sister of Sam Sherlock, who did a horseback mail run between Rye and Cheltenham and worked for Barker near Cape Schanck before becoming a pioneer at Green Island between Mornington and Mt Martha.The Stennikens had a daughter named Maria who married Godfrey Burdett Wilson. Burdett St recalls Godfrey and the maiden name of his mother, Thamer (nee Burdett.)
James Trueman bought 112 acres between Ronald St and Guest St (both inclusive) on 5-7-1877.
COOK-TRUEMAN.— On the 1st October, at the Church of England, Rye. by the Rev. C. Chase, Henry John Cook,of Granville station, New South Wales, eldest son of the late Mr. George Cook, of Union-street, Brunswick, to
Ellen, second daughter of Mr. James Trueman, farmer,Wensaw, Rye, Victoria.(P.44, Leader, 26-10-1889.)

In 1857, James Trueman and his wife, Jane (nee Cook) sailed to Melbourne on the "Sabrina" and probably went immediately to Purves' station. The birth of his daughter, Sarah, was registered at Pt Nepean in 1857 and that of Emma was registered at Tootgarook in 1858; a registrar had probably been appointed in between the births, most likely the teacher at the Church of England school in what would become Rye. James is said to have built and operated a tap room on the Purves' property. (Peter Purves applied for a licence in 1857.)
Tootgarook basically consists of the Tootgarook Station and four blocks between it and Truemans Rd. The Stennikens received the grant of 108 acres which extended south from the beach road almost to Ronald St. It was auctioned on 4-2-1920. Burdett St recalls Godfrey Burdett Wilson, a son in law of Ben Stenniken. Probably one of the first buildings on the subdivision was Birkdale House, which still stands on the east corner of Carmichael St.
James Trueman was granted 112 acres which was later two 56 acre farms owned by his sons, Thomas and William. Thomas had the part west of Darvall St, which was bought by Raymond Guest in 1948. Ray was a hairdresser who looked after the grooming of T.V. stars such as Graeme Kennedy's barrel girl, Panda.Guest St and Alma St were named after himself and his wife and the other east-west streets (except Ronald St) were named after his brother, Russell, and his sons. The subdivision was called the ALMARAY ESTATE. The portion fronting Truemans Rd was bought by poultry farmer, Harry Doig, in 1939 after Fred Trueman and his first wife had left the farm. Ronald Doig was one of the foundation pupils at Tootgarook State school when it opened in 1950.Harry Doig had become a friend of Wilfred Rowley in the Mallee and when he came to Birkdale to visit him, he met Dot Rowley, whom he later married. As the ALMARAY ESTATE was subdivided before Harry's land, the street names applied there were given to the continuations west and east into Bright and Doig land. Harry's land was subdivided as the OCEANAIRES ESTATE in the mid 1950's. Ronald St and Doig Ave are named after family members but Harry Doig was responsible for another name.
From just south of Guest St to the northern boundary of the Truemans Rd tip (or the proposed freeway)two allotments totalling 117 acres were granted to Robert Rowley, one of the peninsula's first permanent pioneers.Robert's wife Christine (Edwards) was from Longford in Tasmania. Their farmhouse was at the end of Carboor St.
Tootgarook was at first the official name for Rye as well as the Purves' station. After the Purves sold out, the area was variously described as Rosebud, Rye, and Birkdale (the most prominent feature being Birkdale House.) Harry Doig agitated successfully for the old name of Tootgarook to be used once again. (Whittaker's busline had advertised Dromana, Rosebud, Birkdale and Rye as drop off and pick up places for their tourist runs from Melbourne.)(Sources:Memoirs of a Larrikin,Rye:A Book of Memories, Ron Doig, Ray Guest and subdivision plans, Heather Spunner (Trueman genealogy), Parish maps, rate records, The Argus)
The Tootgarook station was sold in about 1920 and most of it became Rye Park of 519 acres, leased by Ern Jennings as a dairy farm until 1939. Between there and Morris St lived the Bright family. Frank Bright was the first captain of the Tootgarook Rural Fire Brigade. The Bright house was James Trueman's old tap room.Brights Drive is named after the family.
Like Rosebud West and Rye, Tootgarook had abundant limestone: the Stennikens supplied the stone for the original C of E school in Rye and James Trueman supplied additional limestone when this was demolished and the present front section of the church was built. (Sources: Lime Land Leisure, Rye: A Book of Memories.)
In the same suburb, but extending to neighbouring suburbs, is the Tootgarook Wetland. This wetland is about 300 hectares in size and supports many rare and endangered species of flora and fauna. Most of the wetland is in private ownership and some is vulnerable to development.
The local school in the area is Tootgarook Primary School, which currently has 203 students.
(Suburb Description for Tootgarook - Apartments Australia ...…/3941/tootgarook/more)

I had the same opinion of swamps as the pioneers, that they were a nuisance causing detours for travellers and a waste of valuable land. Buckley St in West Essendon used to be called Braybrook Rd because it led to the closest early crossing of the Saltwater River to Melbourne, Solomon's Ford,the aboriginal fish trap which had stopped Grimes' progress upriver by boat in 1803. The West Melbourne swamp prevented travel towards today's Footscray and Dynon Rd was originally called Swamp Rd.

Paul Dillon's children's book about frogs forced to flee the Balnarring swamp*, Cameron Brown's efforts to save the Tootgarook swamp, and the following, certainly changed my mind.
(*The Author — The Symphony by Paul Dillon

Wetlands, swamps 'hold great potential' to store carbon, fight ...
Feb 15, 2015 - "Wetlands can store approximately 50 times as much carbon as quite high carbon sequestration ecosystems such as tropical rainforests.

The suspension of the standing orders was moved by Cr Clark in order to hear the views of a deputation from landowners, Boneo, re the danger of swamp. Ex-Cr Cain, Messrs Jensen;-Woinarski and Crichton spoke in support of request for assistance in forming one road and the widening of three besides -Cr Rudduck supported the request, and stated that they should certainly help the progressive spirit., Here they had landowners who were prepared to put their hands into their pockets to improve their holdings, which would be beneficial to the. council. (P.2, Mornington Standard, 3-2-1912.)
N.B. John Cain's land was east of the swamp, his historic limestone house still standing just south of Bunnings, Woinarski was on Woyna between Elizabeth Ave and Truemans Rd south to Hiscock Rd and Alex Crichton was for many decades on John Lovie's grants south of Eastbourne and Woyna,Hiscock Rd being his northern boundary except for the southern 30 acres of the original Eastbourne that he farmed.

The lime deposits were not a startling discovery, most early pioneers from Boneo Rd to Portsea being engaged in the lime burning industry. It is interesting that the swamp area had been home to grass trees which remain in the Betty Clift Conservation Reserve (Melway 170 E6) in some numbers.

On a health trip to Europe, Mr .W.Cochrane Robertson, the supervising analyst of the Victorian Department of
Agriculture passed through Fremantle yesterday on the mail steamer Osterley. Combining business with pleasure, Mr.Robertson is taking to England for analysis a number of deposits amongst which is a unique organic substance from the Boneo swamp on the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria, which, it is claimed, will be of great commercial value. The treatment of a parcel of 50 tons, which is being conveyed to England by the s.s.Boorara, will be supervised by Mr.Robertson.

Discussing the potentialities of the deposit with a "West Australian" representative, Mr. Robertson explained that it was composed of a species of sedge grass or Zanthaema--a grass tree. The deposit was about five feet in depth and covered an area of 800 acres. Preliminary tests, which he had conducted in the destructive distillation of the substance, had resulted in an excellent return of sulphate of ammonia, light solvent oils and methyl alcohol, all of which are essentials in commerce particularly for the generation of power in its many forms. 'My particular mission," said Mr. Robertson, "is to determine the most suitable retort in which to conduct the distillations. To assist me, the department has arranged for the parcel of the deposit to be treated in several different ways and the results will guide me in my choice. If the success is as great as I anticipate these apparently useless swamp lands will become a valuable asset and will revolutionise the
vicinity in which they are situated." Mr.Robertson added that apart from the byproducts it would be made possible to provide power at an extremely small cost, and as there would be a large surplus
for disposal, considerable encouragement would be given to the establishment of industries. The deposit was superimposed upon a stratum of whiting which was eminently suited to the production of high-grade cement and the surrounding country was largely made up of lime deposits.
"'You will think I am expecting too much from 800 acres of swamp land," Mr.Robertson concluded, with a smile. "but if Western Australia could find a similar deposit-and there is no reason why there should not be one tucked away in this great State of yours--your agriculturists and scientists would find it equally beneficial to exploit as we shall." (etc.)(P.8, The West Australian, 24-3-1921.)

(P.38,The Australasian,2-10-1920. PHOTO.)

It is said that there is a large deposit of material useful as a fertiliser in the Boneo swamps. If this deposit is valuable and extensive, the goods traffic on the railway will eventually be great enough, perhaps, to pay for operation. Baldry's is five miles from Red Hill, and Boneo is five miles farther on. No request has been, or is likely to be made by the Railway Department for the extension of the railway, but interests are at work which may compel attention. (P.3, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 9-12-1921.)

The Cicada, a wooden auxiliary ketch of 35 tons, belonging to tho Tootgarook Estate proprietary, Limited, and which trades in Port Phillip, was blown ashore at Dromana, Victoria, by a strong wind. A heavy sea was running, and by means of a line, which was made fast ashore,the crew of three landed safely. The vessel was laden with timber. (P.4,The Newcastle Sun, 11-8-1922.)

The Cicada had obviously been purchased to transport the fertiliser to Little Dock in Melbourne but between these trips,perhaps some of the 2 ft 6 inch lengths of ti tree provided by Ben Stenniken and James Sullivan were carried from Rye to Melbourne for the bakers' ovens. However the voyage above proved to be a disaster and may have been the reason there had been the difficulties associated with transport mentioned on 28-10-1922.

THIS DAY. At Twelve O'clock Noon. At the Rooms, 15 Queen Street Under Instructions from the Tootgarook Estates
Pty. Ltd., as Owner.
SALE by PUBLIC AUCTION of the AUXILIARY KETCH CICADA, As She Now Lies at the Entrance to Dromana, Together with all her Gear, including Gardiner Motor Engine (4-cylinder, Oin. stroke, 30-li.p.)and Winch Engine.
The vessel was built in 1877 at Huon, Tasmania, and measures 67 3-10th feet, breadth 18ft., depth in hold from tonnage deck to ceiling, 5ft. and two-tenths; gross tonnage, 35 and eight-tenths. She was refitted in December, 1920, and all her sails, &c., are practically new. CHARLES FORRESTER and Co. (P.2,Argus, 12-9-1922.)

Mornington Peat Deposits.
Fertiliser Plant to be Installed.
LONDON, Oct. 27.
Mr Walter Hiscock, of Melbourne, in conjunction with Mr E Lloyd Pease, of Stockton-on -Tees chemical works, has arranged to establish a plant at Mornington Peninsula for the production of a new fertiliser from Mornington's unique peat deposits.

The site selected by Mr Hiscock lies between Rosebud and Rye, in what is known as Boneo Swamp, on the Mornington Peninsula. In the district there is an immense deposit of valuable peat composed of decayed vegetable matter, guano and sea shells, which tests have shown to be of a great value, after a process of destructive distillation as a fertiliser The deposit is from 1ft to 8ft in depth, and extends towards Cape Schanck. In places it is exposed on the surface. Up to the present the output has been limited owing to the
difficulty of handling and transport. It is expected that within 12 months the works will be established.
(P.29, Argus,28-10-1922.)

Transport to the site of the "works" (now occupied by the motel on the east corner of Truemans Rd) was provided by a tramline that ran up the east side of Truemans Rd. The tramline is shown on an early map posted on the HISTORY OF DROMANA TO PORTSEA Facebook group page by Ron Doig.

Proposal to Minister
With the object of making available for settlement the area of 1,200 acres covered by the Tootgarook swamp, a mile and a half from Rosebud, a deputation from the Flinders Shire Council yesterday requested the Minister for Public Works (Mr.Goudie) to provide £750 from unemployment relief funds for the regrading of the Boneo drain. The council, it was stated,was willing to contribute £250, and it was claimed that the soil, if properly
drained and sweetened for a few years, would be equal to the best in Victoria.Mr. Goudie said that if the residents were willing to form a drainage trust to ensure the proper maintenance of the drain he would inquire into the practicability of effectively draining the swamp. (P.10, Argus,22-7-1937.)

Rosebud West did not have its own name and an early foreshore committee actually decided to call the area Eastbourne after Crispo's property which comprised the Village Glen and land westwards to the line of Elizabeth Avenue. The swamp extended into the southern portion of Eastbourne,being fed by the Drum Drum Alloc Creek alongside which an imaginary government road ran from the junction of (Old) Cape Schanck and Jetty Rds to Truemans Rd through an area described as Boneo. It's easy for a surveyor to draw a road on a parish map but much harder (and expensive) to make a road THROUGH A SWAMP.

As you will see below,the swamp was referred to as the Boneo Swamp but it is now known as the Tootgarook swamp which is not in reference to the suburb (west of Truemans Rd)but the TOOTGAROOK RUN which extended east near the foreshore to the rocks (Anthonys Nose) until George Smith generously transferred the easternmost portion near the lighthouse) to Andrew McCrae's Arthurs Seat Run so the latter could have beach access. (I SUCCEEDED ONCE, Marie Hansen Fels.) Despite not being in the suburb of Tootgarook, the swamp's present name is correct because it was part of the TOOTGAROOK RUN. The same applies to the Truemans Rd Reserve and an early description of the location of Woyna.

The swamp area was usually under water in winter but probably provided good grazing later in the year as the water trickled out through Chinamans Creek. But the "vibe*" of Woyna had changed, a fertiliser plant at the north west corner and quarrying at the south west,linked by a noisy tram, meant no more "tranquility*" and reduced grazing for the cows. No wonder the dairy plant was being sold.(*Couldn't help using iconic words from THE CASTLE.)

Extensive Sale
DAIRY CATTLE AND PLANT ROSEBUD ROSEBUD WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 5, 1925 ALEX. SCOTT & Co. Pty, Ltd. have received instructions from the WOYNA DAIRY Co., "Tootgarook" Estate, 1 1/2 miles from Rosebud, 5 from Dromana, and 15 from Mornington, to sell by Public Auction, without reserve, on the Property, at 12 o'clock sharp on the above date
20 MILKERS 40 SPRINGERS 25 HEIFERS, 2 to 3 years. Jersey Bull, 2 years; Ayrshire Bull, 4 years; 3 Dt. Mares splendid workers; 5 Milk Cart Horses, good sorts; 31 h.p. Bartram Engine; 2 De Laval Separators (I steam); 4 Churns; 2 Coolers; 10 Milk Cans; etc. (P.2, Frankston and Somerville Standard, 31-7-1925.)

When tenders for road work were advertised the location was usually given as so many chains between A's and B's (names of property owners. Few roads bore official names, hence the description of Truemans Rd as in the title. This could easily be interpreted as the road from Rosebud to Rye! Ben Stenniken had died and his land at Rye was being offered for sale along with the north eastern 108 acres of today's Tootgarook which was described as being at ROSEBUD.

LOT 3, on main road to Sorrento, corner of Government-road between Rosebud and Rye, Crown allotment 48, parish of Wannaeue, containing 103 acres 1 rood 23 perches, adjoining part of "Tootgarook Estate," and J. Trueman's property, a suitable block for subdivision into seaside allotments,having over half mile frontage to main road, with only the narrow Government reserve dividing it from the beach. (P.2, The Age, 24-1-1920.)

The Stenniken family had been associated with the Williamstown area* for some time and it is possible that they had named their grant,as described above, after a barque** operating since the 1880's and damaged by fire at Williamstown's Railway pier in 1923.
* Hobson's Bay Yacht Club. THE ANNUAL MEETING.
Williamstown Chronicle (Vic. : 1856 - 1954) Saturday 5 October 1907 p 3 Article
... . J. Drunmmond's Fidana, B. Stenniken's S.J.S. and A. Knight's Britannia being most successful.
The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954) Monday 19 March 1923 p 15 Article

When I discovered that Whitakers had christened the area on the west side of Truemans Rd as Birkdale*, I assumed that this was because of Birkdale House on the east corner of Carmichael St,but perhaps the guest house was so- named because it was AT Birkdale! But an early advertisement does specify BIRKDALE HOUSE** as a stop rather than just BIRKDALE.
* DROMANA Rosebud Birkdale House Rye -Whitakers leave Whight's 116 Flinders st twice dally X4650
(P.30, Argus, 4-12-1937.)
** LEIGH. --- On the 4th March, at his daughter's residence, 13 Baxter street, Coburg, William Henry, beloved husband of Sarah Ann Leigh, loved father of Frank, Percy (Karkoak,N.Z.), Elsie (Mrs. Sinclair), Myrtle (Mrs.
Wiles), late Victorian Railways and Birkdale House, Rye. (No flowers. by request.) (P.8,Argus,6-3-1940.)

ROSEBUD: Birkdale House.Nepean Highway, cafe and apartments, 8 rooms, V.r., land 62 x160, walk-in. walk-out, passed In , £3,900, res. £5.200. (Eric Weber and Co. Pty. Ltd.) (P.11, Argus,11-10-1954.)

Obviously nobody else, apart from Whitakers,described today's Tootgarook as Birkdale and above it was called Rosebud and then Rye. Weber and Co. were obviously not locals and hadn't caught on that Birkdale House was now in TOOTGAROOK.

Mr. C. Gibbons
Mr. Claude Gibbons, who died at the week end, was a well-known land and estate agent at Tootgarook, near Rosebud. He was active in many moves for the advancement of Tootgarook, which is a new area between Rosebud
and Rye. Mr. Gibbons was a past president of Tootgarook Progress Association. (P.2, The Age, 12-10-1949.)

It is hard to be sure when the land on the west side of Truemans Rd was first called Tootgarook. No report of a Tootgarook Progress Association meeting mentions requests for the name to be adopted or even those in attendance (but I'll bet that Harry Doig was involved.) The name was mentioned in 1944 re a toilet block on the foreshore but since W.G.Hiscock who was the manager of the Tootgarook estate (with a house near the Broadway if I remember correctly)was reported in stock sales as being of Tootgarook,Rosebud,it is unclear whether the toilet block was to be east or west of Truemans Rd.

Claude Gibbons (as above) and Raymond Guest were in no doubt in 1948 about where the western half of James Trueman's grants was.

SATURDAY, NOV. 30. At 3.30 pm. On the Property,ALMARAY ESTATE, TOOTGAROOK.(Between Rosebud and Rye.)
GLORIOUS BEACH ALLOTMENTS each 64 Ft x 193 Ft, 4 Minutes from shops and Beach.
CLAUDE GIBBONS, Auctioneer. Rosebud, Tootgarook and Rye. Phone p u2914 and Ryt» 4.(P.5, The Age, 18-11-1948.)

I seem to remember that Claude Gibbons' office at Tootgarook was right near bus stop 25. Had he bought Birkdale House?

AUCTION, WEDNESDAY. 16th. at 1 o'clock sharp, on the property BIRKDALE HOUSE, Nepean Highway,- TOOTGAROOK (Between Rosebud and Rye. Right at Bus Stop 25).
CLAUDE GIBBONS, R.E.S.I. Auctioneer and Land Agent. Nepean Highway; TOOTGAROOK. Phone Rye 4.
(P.8, The Age,16-3-1949.)

You'll have to take my word on this. The brigade was not mentioned on trove. I believe the source was Nell Arnold's history.

John was a pioneer of the Tootgarook area that I'm sure nobody knew about. The only thing I knew about him was that he was not Lord (or Baron) Clyde's brother but that in 1869,it was assumed by the press that he would inherit the prize money won by Colin Campbell,who was born Colin M'Liver. The surname was actually McLiver but often appeared in newspapers with the apostrophe. He must have been related in some way to Baron Clyde whose father's name was John McLiver. The following is my attempt to provide details about John before and after the widespread publicity in 1869 but I can't guarantee that all references are to the same person.

DAVID HOWELL and Thomas B. Young will hear of imports I have by sending their address to John M'Liver, Williamstown Post Office.(P.1, Argus, 5-10-1853.)

Sir,- Allow us to draw your attention to proceedings that took place at the Police Court,Swanston-street, this afternoon. We attended there to obtain a form of application for a carrier's licence, when a police officer
informed us there were no printed forms to be had. We were leaving, when a carrier, Edward Rowland, of Preston, came out to get change to pay for a form the police officer had written out for him at a charge of 2s. 6d. We told Edward Rowland the charge was only 1s. He stated to the officer the charge was only 1s, when the
officer said; "You may go and get one where you can." We then applied at tho office on tho left hand side of the entrance, and there obtained the printed forms at 1s. each.
We are, Sir, your humble servants, JNO. MARRIOTT,JOHN M'LIVER. 251 Elizabeth-street, Melbourne.
(P.6, Argus, 23-5-1859.)

FOR SALE, a young HORSE, three years old, from Van Dieman's Land. John M'Liver, Armstrong's Stables.
(P.8, Argus, 20-6-1859.)

FOUR-ROOMED verandah COTTAGE, newly built, quarter-acre garden, to LET, at Benevolent Asylum, foot Spencer-Street, rent low. John M'Liver,251 Elizabeth-street.(P.1, Argus, 24-9-1859.)

Contract Accepted. — Extras on John M'Liver's contract, No. 817 of 1860, for fencing batteries at Sandridge, £20, John M'Liver. (P.5,The Age, 7-11-1860.)

...; Sydney and Heathcote roads, erection of mile-posts,£24, John M'Liver; Melbourne district, erection
of mile-posts, £43 15s., John M'Liver ; (P.5,Argus,26-1-1861.)

erection of mile-posts, £52 8s, John M'Liver. Melbourne to Ballaarat :(P.7,The Age, 1-1-1862.)

Mr John M'Liver entered a protest against the selection , Ellen Cecil of lots 4 of sec. 2, and 1 2 of sec. 8, she being under age. (P.25,Leader, 6-4-1867.)

M'LIVER-MAHONY.-On thE 4th ult., at St. Francis',John M'Liver, Kingston, Canada West, to Mary Mahony, Killcommon, Tipperary, Ireland. (P.4,Argus, 3-3-1868.)

The Herald of Saturday states:—"At the present moment a tiller of the soil is about to proceed to Europe to enforce his claim as next of kin to the late Lord Clyde, better known as Sir Colin Campbell. M'Liver, the free selector on Boneo, in the district of Tootgarook, who for some time has been, content to earn his bread by the sweat of his brow, bursts suddenly upon us as the heir-presumptive to the son of Mr John M'Liver, of Glasgow, and; who entered the army as Ensign Campbell in 1808, and who in 1858 was created a peer by the title of Lord Clyde. From what we hear it seems probable that the Australian M'Liver, who until now has been satisfied with the benefits conferred upon him under the 42nd clause of the Land Act, will be able to substantiate his claim to the accumulated prize-money of the hero of Chillianwallah; Alma, and Lucknow.
(P.2s, The Ballarat Star, 30-8-1869.)

Richard Dwyer, a somewhat elderly man, was charged with having stolen a £l note from the dwellinghouse of John
M'Liver, residing near Dromana. He had taken the money during the absence of the prosecutor from his house, and concealed it in his necktie, where it was found upon his being arrested. The note was fully identified by the prosecutor. The prisoner was convicted and sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment. (P.4, Argus, 2-3-1870.)

Letters received-; From Mr..E. M. T. O'Halloran, solicitor,Queen-street, Melbourne forwarding a second application on behalf of Mr. John M'Liver for payment of £283 3s 6d., balance due for work and labour, and intimating that unless the amount with costs was paid within one week proceedings would be instituted against the council.-Cr. Johnston explained that M'Liver had entered into a contract to complete certain work for a
certain sum; the work had not been completed to the satisfaction of the borough inspector, and fresh tenders haIl been invited at his (M'Liver's) risk. He moved that the balance of the contract, less the amount paid to the Second contractor, be paid to Mr. M'Liver. (ST KILDA COUNCIL.The Telegraph, St Kilda, Prahran and South Yarra Guardian (Vic. : 1866 - 1888) Saturday 23 December 1871 p 3 Article)

John M'Liver, farmer, of Villiers-street, Hotham. Causes of insolvency : High rent and bad crops. Liabilities, £92 5s.; assets, £51 ; deficiency, £41 5s.(P.3,The Age,22-9-1875.)

Tbe following forfeited lands will be open
for selection on and after Friday, Nov. 19 Wanraue-John McLiver, 140 acres.

Friday, 6th October.(Before Judge Noel.) Certificates (of discharge from insolvency)were granted to ...; John M'Liver,Hotham, farmer;etc. (P.6, The Age, 7-10-1876.)

Benalla, 9th December.— .. Shepparton. llth December.— John M'Liver, 192a.,Arcadia.(P.9, Leader,6-12-1884.)

At the Hawthorn Court on Tuesday, before Messrs. Walsh (chairman), Wallis(mayor),Harbison, Nichol, and Stackpole, a man named John M'Liver was charged with assaulting Ann M'Ewen and trespassing on her premises. He was also sued for £12 rent. According to the complainant's story, the defendant, who resided formerly at Malvern, came to her house at Glen Iris, and asked permission to place cattle in her paddock for a fortnight, promising to pay £12. He made proposals to lease her farm, but on referring to her landlord's agents she was refused permission to sub-let. Defendant had meanwhile taken up his abode with her. When requested to leave he not only refused to do so, but broke into the house, assaulted thecomplainant, and turned her furniture out.

In cross-examination by Mr. Gillott for the defence, Mrs. M'Ewen swore that she did not put her mark to a document produced, which proported to be a receipt for a payment by M'Liver on account of improvements purchased from her, and which it was represented would alter the aspect of the case.The point-blank denial of the complainant resulted in the case being adjourned, in order to allow of a witness being brought who, it
was alleged, saw her make her mark upon it. (P.10,Argus,1-4-1885.)

IMPOUNDED at Williamstown, June 10th, 1886, by John M'Liver. Trespass, ld. each.N.B.John was not the poundkeeper. (P.3, Williamstown Chronicle,19-6-1886.)

1 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago



"The force of his own merit makes his way."
--Henry VIII.

"Well, I am, not fair; and therefore I pray the gods to make me honest."
--As You Like It.

"He's honest, on mine honour."
--Henry VIII.

"He hath a heart as sound as a bell, and his tongue is the clapper; for
what his heart thinks, his tongue speaks."
--Much Ado About Nothing.

"For now he lives in fame, though not in life."
--Richard III.

If circumstances won't make a poet, as genius contemptuously asserts,
nor make up for blood in a horse, as even the stable boy swears to, they
are at times marvellously effective in making, and, for the matter of
that, also in unmaking men. So might we say with regard to the
well-known subject of this sketch, who, arriving amongst us with the
earliest, and within the repellent surrounding of an evil repute, yet
under different surroundings and favouring circumstances outlived all
traducements, whether true or otherwise, and after a long, practical,
and singularly useful career, died in the full regard of his adopted
country. The unanimity of dislike and moral depreciation with which he
was regarded by his Tasmanian fellows was not indeed without a certain
share of reason or excuse. That he was the son of a convict ought not,
of course, to prejudice him in these Christian days, when the sins of
the fathers are not to be visited upon the sons even to the first
generation. His father arrived with Collins's prisoner party, and the
boy, John Pascoe, then eleven years old, was sent with his parent--for
not seldom were wives or children thus sent with the convicts, to
ameliorate by such a touch of nature the hard features of a society of
adult vice, much as Hogarth, in some of his masterpieces of the human
woes or vices of his time, gives, in striking contrast, a foreground of
maternal affection, or of children at play in the artless innocence of
their looks and ways.

But he was probably neither a pretty nor an interesting boy; for as a
man he was of the very plainest, with a short figure, always negligently
"put on," a rough, mannerless way, and a voice husky and hoarse,
although redeemed at times into an approach to commanding an audience,
when he was strongly stirred in some exciting cause. Some people have no
patience to subdue natural antipathies in such cases, and these people
would, as well-known scripture (with some transposition of the idea)
tells us, be apt to be most plentiful "in his own country." But, again,
Fawkner was himself a convict. Yes, but for what? Certainly if a man so
notorious in after life had committed any very disparaging crime it must
have been as notorious as his name. But I never heard anything
distinctive beyond that he had, for something or other, passed under the
Caudine Forks of the Van Diemen's Land Criminal Courts. Inevitably his
early upbringing was in low associations, where, probably, ties of
friendly feeling survived, as to which he might have said with the bard
of Avon--"I am not of that feather to shake off my friend when he must
need me" (Timon of Athens). My impression was that he had been convicted
of harbouring, or aiding to escape, some who had broken the law,
whatever more that may have meant, for, with his pluck, he was probably
little troubled about niceties of fine feeling, and, thus accoutred,
Providence dropped the man amongst altogether different circumstances
and associations in his new location.

I had much to do with Fawkner, especially after he and I met in our
young colony's first Legislature, and after I sufficiently knew him, so
as to allow for the rough exterior of his nature, I never had but one
opinion of the man. That opinion was, that throughout every condition of
the considerable space of his later life, whether in health or sickness,
strength or weakness, prosperity or adversity--for, at first at least,
he, like many others, was not prosperous in golden-fleeced and golden
Victoria--he toiled, late and early, for what, in his honest judgment,
was for the good of his colony; and with a singleness of purpose which
was not excelled--was not, I think, equalled, to my knowledge at
least--by any other in that colony.

He seemed to make an ascent under the exhilarating circumstances of his
new and increasingly responsible position, and to have the consciousness
of a great mission, which nerved him to surmount all that was dubious in
his earlier career. Nor was he behind in less pretentious ways. I never
once heard of any mean or over-reaching act of his, even in the smallest
matters. He once told me, in his prosperous days, with much becoming
feeling, and as an incident he could never forget, that when quite
broken in fortune, he had received, as unasked as unexpected, a most
timely pecuniary help from Mr. Henry Moor, the well-known solicitor. The
two were, I think, at hearty variance across the political hedge; the
more honour to both.

We have seen that he showed pluck in his earlier life, even in bad
associations; and he displayed the same under better auspices later on.
His action with a certain gravely suspected Commissioner of Crown Lands
was a good illustration. This high functionary, who, in those
pre-constitutional times, was practically an irresponsible Caesar over a
vast estate of dependent Crown tenants, whose interests might in any
case be seriously jeopardized by any unfairness, and who, therefore,
like the wife of his prototype, should be even above suspicion, was
accused by rumours, of no slight noise or breadth, of unfaithfulness to
his charge, and in the grossest and most mercenary of forms. Even with
the clearest case it was anything but assuring to attack such a man in
those days of authority. But Fawkner's bite was too deep for any laissez
faire cure, and so, nolens volens, the Commissioner had to defend or
retrieve his character. The verdict of a farthing damages, at which
amount the jury estimated that character in the case, was complete
justification to Fawkner, and laid the whole Province under lasting
obligation to him for a most important public service.

Another of his more prominent services was upon the first Gold
Commission, 1854-5, summoned hastily together by the Governor, Sir
Charles Hotham, under the surprise, not unmixed with consternation,
caused by the Ballarat riot, an incident which, in some of its aspects,
such as the stockade structure, deserved rather the graver name of
rebellion. Already in his 63rd year, in broken health, and certainly the
weakest physically of the membership, he was the most active of all,
ever running full tilt into every abuse or fault or complaint that might
help to explain this unwonted, and, indeed, utterly purposeless and
stupid incident of a British community. In my capacity as chairman, I
appreciated Fawkner's untiring, or more properly, unyielding spirit, and
under travelling fatigues, too, of no mean trial even to younger men.
For the Colossus of Rhodes, as my energetic friend, Dr. (now Sir
Francis) Murphy, was humorously called, on accepting, recently before,
the charge of the rutty and miry ways of golden Victoria, had as yet
made but feeble progress in his most urgent mission. We learned enough
to explain, at least, if not to excuse the miners; and were thus guided
to a reconstruction of goldfields administration. This was chiefly in
that national element, hitherto utterly absent there, of local
representative institutions; and the change has since assured the future
from even John Bull's proverbial growling. General McArthur, with a few
troops, promptly, but not without considerable bloodshed, ended the sad
farce. In view of the very exceptional features of an incident extremely
unlikely to occur again, Fawkner and most others of the commission were
most decided for a general condonance; and this was agreed to in the
report by all except the Official Commissioner, Mr. Wright, who,
excusably enough, sided with his official superiors for a treason trial.
But the jury, as might have been anticipated, acquitted the prisoners.
One of their leaders, Mr. Peter Lalor, who lost one of his arms in the
cause, has since been for many years Speaker of the Victorian Assembly,
and as loyal to his Queen as he is genial to his many friends.

When we wound up the Commission's inquiry at Castlemaine, and on the
morning of a hot midsummer day embarked upon one of the springless "Cobb
and Co's" of the time, with the prospect of ten or twelve hours of
terrible jolting before us, poor old Fawkner seemed so much enfeebled
that I was in some doubt as to his being landed alive at Melbourne. But,
game to the last, he rode uncomplainingly through all; and he lived even
a goodly number of years after, but only to do more and more work. Old
General Anderson, of early colonial memory, had a habit, quite his own,
of saying to the face of anyone whose conduct gave him satisfaction, and
in his blunt soldierly way, "Sir, I have a great respect for you." Such
an accrediting and not unacceptable declaration he addressed, times
more, I think, than once, to Fawkner. Indeed, all classes of the colony,
from the highest, in which the gallant colonel moved, to the humblest,
now alike recognized the veteran who had so long and so well fought for
them all. When at last the spirit quitted the worn-out frame, and its
well-known form, possibly, even to the last, keeping up still, amongst
some few, the lingering dislike of the long past, was to be no more seen
amongst us, there seemed but one impulse for the occasion, which
fittingly expressed itself in a funeral procession entirely
unprecedented in its every aspect. This was not less to the colony's
honour than to that of Fawkner. He died on 4th September, 1869. Not the
least impressive feature of the funeral, perhaps the most, was the
remarkable prayer offered up at the grave by the Reverend Dr. Cairns.
Victoria's most eloquent preacher, in giving the true setting to the
life and character of the man, thanked God, in the name of the colony,
for such a life, the influence and example of which could not but be for
good to all who were to follow. He has fought bravely for the R.I.P. of
the tomb. He rests from his labours, and his works do follow him.

1 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago


IN ABOUT 1845,WILLIAM WESTGARTH WAS TOURING AUSTRALIA FELIX AS MAJOR MITCHELL CALLED IT. His pen pictures of the Hentys rival those of Harry Huntington Peck about pioneers in MEMOIRS OF A STOCKMAN.


"Let the end try the man."
--2nd Part Henry IV.

"Great world! Victoria brings thee meat and corn and wine,
With richly veined woods, and glittering gold from mine,
Fairy web of silken thread, soft thick snowy fleece;
Wide room for smiling homes of industry and peace."
--Mrs. H.N. Baker.

The founder of to-day's great colony of Victoria was Mr. Edward Henty,
who landed at Portland Bay from Launceston, with live stock and stores,
for the purpose of settlement, on the 19th November, 1834. But in regard
to that notable event I prefer to speak of "The Henty Family," because,
in their colonizing efforts they seem to have acted so much with mutual
family purpose and in mutual help, and because there was a preparatory
work in which the family were all more or less engaged, all leading up
to this settlement at Portland, a site which had been selected after
more than two years of previous adventurous excursions and observations
along the coasts of Western Victoria and of South Australia.

The successful settlement of the noble Port Phillip Harbour the
following year by Batman and Fawkner caused such general attention and
such a tide of colonization, that remote Portland was comparatively
overlooked. For many years, therefore, much less was heard of the Hentys
than of those who had merely followed their steps. In fact, there can be
but little doubt that these latter were first aroused to the colonizing
of the vast areas, the all but terra incognita, across the Straits by
the vigorous example set by the Henty family almost from the moment of
their arrival in Launceston in 1831, and by the reports which they
brought back from time to time of the lands of promise they were opening
to public notice in South-Eastern Australia. But now that rail and
telegraph have virtually abolished distance, and familiarized the
central colonists with the value and beauty of the earliest occupied
Western areas--the Australia Felix of Mitchell--the Messrs. Henty's
position has passed more to the front, and their priority been
universally acknowledged.

I was not personally very intimate with any of the Henty family,
otherwise I might have had more to say in this sketch. But I have met
most of the brothers repeatedly, and frequently I met James, the
Melbourne merchant, who was the eldest, and also William, the lawyer and
ex-Premier of Tasmania, a most amiable and gentlemanly man, who latterly
resided at Home, where he died, and who often attended the lectures and
discussions at the Royal Colonial Institute of London. Both of these
brothers were rather grave and quiet, while Edward and Stephen were
energetic and lively even beyond most colonists. Francis, now the only
survivor of the large family, I met only once, about forty-three years
ago, in the Western District. He was then a handsome and rather slim
young man, not of the Henty mould, which was rather of the full John
Bull kind, as "Punch" gives him, minus the obesity. But if I may credit
the Melbourne "Illustrateds" in a recent likeness of the last of the
Victorian founders, he must have consented, in later life, to drop more
into the family mould. They were a family of eight sons and one
daughter. Seven of the sons emigrated with their father. They were all
men of mark, above average in mind and physique--men of a presence, who
would have been prominent in any society; altogether, in numbers, in
appearance, in circumstances, and in events, quite a remarkable family.

As I am not writing for history, so as to study completeness in my
account, but only of personal observations and recollections, I shall
not do more than give a very slight sketch of the emigratory particulars
of this family, and my excuse is that these data are so far personal as
having been told me direct by one or other of the family. The story is
striking, and our descendants may look back with surpassing interest to
the Romulus and Remus of a future Rome which, in the possibilities of
modern progress, may exceed that of the past. The father, Mr. Thomas
Henty, of Sussex, England, took the resolution to emigrate, with his
family, to the "Swan River," as the present Western Australia was then
called. In 1829 he sent his eldest and two younger sons there, with
suitable servants and supplies, intending to follow with the rest. These
pioneers declared against the Swan, and advised their father to go to
Launceston instead, to which place they themselves also went. Arrived
all there in 1831, a new disappointment awaited the family. No grant of
land could be had, as in the case of the Swan, where they had 84,000
acres. This grant system had been abolished only a fortnight before
their arrival. They had now to rent their farms, and the prospects,
therefore, were discouraging. They were unable even to effect an
exchange for their Swan River grant.

This disappointment led to a search, begun in 1832, under the lead of
Edward, the second son, who twice traversed the seas between Portland
and Spencer Gulf, examining the aspect and promise of the country. The
result was always in favour of Portland, where he landed on one
occasion, confirming all impressions by actual inspection ashore. He,
therefore, resolved on a settlement here. In his second expedition he
took his father with him, as the latter had expressed the wish to see
for himself the Swan River grant before finally abandoning it. The
party, having reached the Swan, found that what they had got was "sand,
not land," and so it was finally given up.

Edward, who was the prime adventurer of the party, now got ready to
settle at Portland Bay. He chartered a small schooner, "The Thistle",
loading her with stores and live stock, and with selections of seed,
fruit trees, vegetables, etc., part of them bought from Fawkner, who had
then a market garden on Windmill Hill, near Launceston, besides keeping
the Cornwall Hotel there; and with these he sailed in October, 1834. In
two days they were within twenty-five miles of their destination, when a
storm drove them back to King's Island. Six times successively they were
thus driven back, losing a good many of their live stock, and it was
only after thirty-four days that they effected their landing. The work
of colonization began at once. "The Thistle" returned to Launceston for
fresh supplies and additional colonists, and returned this second time
with Francis Henty, the youngest of the family, who landed at Portland
on 13th December, within twenty-four days of his brother. Edward was
then twenty-four years of age, and his brother only eighteen. This is
the brief but momentous story of the founding of Victoria.

Mr. Francis Henty has given a most amusing account of the meeting
between his party and that of Major (afterwards Sir Thomas) Mitchell,
who, in exploring "Australia Felix," in 1836, came, in great surprise,
upon the Henty settlement at Portland. The story reads now like the
highest romance of adventurous exploration. The Mitchell intruders, five
in number, were at once regarded as bushrangers, and a defence promptly
organized. The fire-arms were limited to an old musket, which was loaded
to the very muzzle, to be ready for a grand discharge. Then as to the
Mitchell party, even after they were relieved of their first fears, for
they too had taken the others to be "no better than they should be,"
they exercised a measure of reserve, as though doubtful of their new
friends' respectability. Mutual suspicions, however, being at last
dismissed, the travellers were supplied with the stores they much
wanted, and, in return, they gave such a favourable account of the
pastures of the Wannon Valley as to induce Mr. Edward Henty subsequently
to remove a part of the flocks there, and to establish the homestead
where, as I have already stated, I enjoyed in my Western Victorian
travels the squatting hospitalities.

Let me add just one more incident of the Henty family, one personal to
myself, but in quite a different direction from the above. Once, on a
special occasion, I met the banker, Charles, who had stuck to his
profession at Launceston, instead of adventuring across the Straits with
his brothers. Besides his quiet banking vocation, he was, I think, the
portliest of the family, which may be the explanation. The occasion was
a public dinner to the Anti-Transportation League delegation, sent from
Melbourne, in 1852, to stir up the cause at the Van Diemen's Land
fountain head of the common evil, and of which delegation my lately
deceased old friend Lauchlan Mackinnon and myself were regarded as the
heads. Mackinnon, like many another such vigorous Highlander, as he then
was, could never take a subject of deep interest to himself quietly. We
had had a sample of him already at Hobart, where the feeling as to our
mission was by no means clear, both from the natural touchiness of
convict connection or descent, and from that still considerable section
of colonial employers and traders who thought that the ledger and its
profit and loss account had at least an equal right to be heard in the
question as any other so-called higher interest. The ground, slippery
enough at Hobart, was supposed to be still more treacherous at
Launceston. Had not Edward Wilson, of the thoroughly Mackinnonized
Melbourne "Argus", been but a little before nearly mobbed by the furious
Anti-Antis of this place, to his utter surprise and astonishment at his
own importance, and been only saved, in life or limb perhaps, by old
Jock Sinclair, who was timely on the spot, and who dexterously led him,
by a roundabout, to safety within the departing steamer for Melbourne?
In short, a row was more than half expected from the Mackinnon speech,
and as this was undesirable, for good reasons to all sides of Launceston
society, Mr. Henty resolved to prevent it, and did so most successfully
by a very adroit but not unworthy trick. He took occasion to speak just
before the Mackinnon avalanche was to come on. Introducing Mackinnon and
commending his straightforward honesty in this matter, and so on, he
said that some such people could not take even a good cause in
moderation; but that these defects, if he might so call them, were more
easily seen than remedied, and that all kindly consideration must be
made in the case. I fear I am not literal as to the identical words,
although I heard them, but I have given the purport. Poor Mackinnon, as
he afterwards laughingly pleaded, what could he do under the cold douche
of such a wet blanket? He made the smallest and quietest speech of his
life upon a great and stirring subject.

1 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago


I had never heard of Yering until I wrote my journal about George and Ollie Johnstone of Purves Rd near Dromana. William wrote his memories of Early Melbourne while sailing back to visit his old haunt. They included his visit to Yering and the effect of the 1843 depression which ruined many squatters. Strange to think that the Ryries' misfortune gave rise to a Yering product even more famous than the acclaimed wine, marathon champion, Robert de Castella! Perhaps descendants of pioneering Yering families might like to provide information about their families' contributions in the early days of the area. I have made a start in the first comment box with a tribute by the Yering correspondent to the area's pioneers and mention of the departure of the teacher, Mr Lohan (who obviously had been at the Yering school for some time.) As people add their stories, I will include their ancestors' surnames to the surnames list as I have done with Mr Lohans.


Another pleasant trip about this time was to Yering, the Ryries'
station, situated nearly half-way up to the cool mountainous sources of
the River Yarra. This had already been made a charming home to any
contented mind, satisfied to fall back upon country resources. It was a
cattle station, for, in the thickly wooded hills, hollows, and flats
about sheep could not live--at least, to any purpose--and the homestead
had the importance of a little straggling street, with the main dwelling
at the top, as the end of a cul-de-sac, and the dairy and what not in
marshalled line below. We revelled in pastoral abundance. I wandered
into the adjacent woods, experiencing the sense of overpowering grandeur
amidst their vast solitudes, with the gum-trees rising straight above me
with colossal stems, not seldom 300 feet and more in height, and 100
feet, or even much more, from the ground without a branch. When this
"redgum" has elbow room, it expands in all variety of form, attaining in
favouring circumstances vast dimensions, as in one example met with in
the Dandenong Ranges, which measured 480 feet in height. But in this
Yering case, crowded as they were impoverishingly together upon flats of
the river, they did not bulk out into such dimensions, but they shot up
side by side, straight as arrows, rivals en route to the clouds. Sad
changes came to Yering's happy and hospitable owners since, for, like
many others, they had to "realize" in the bad times, and to quit a most
pleasant home. But Yering itself has thriven, and has since advanced
into a great wine-producing district, whose wines Mr. De Castella, its
later owner, has made to carry prizes even at European Exhibitions.

2 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago


The Brokil Estate was the northern 1000 or so acres of Jamieson's Special Survey with its north east corner being the corner of Bulldog Creek and Foxeys Rds in Melway 151K11. LIME LAND LEISURE gives much detail about the purchase of the Survey in three parts by William John Turner "Big" Clarke and his sale of the northern part to John Vans Agnew Bruce. The following court case shows that Bruce owned the Brokil Estate by 1861 and that he had leased it by 1861 to tenants named Atkins and Ekins. In A DREAMTIME OF DROMANA, Colin McLear stated that Edwin Louis Tassell had settled on the Survey in 1861, which is now obviously incorrect. Tassell was not the first lessee of Bruce's estate but was the first to pay rates on it. Tassells Creek, originally called Bruce's Creek in a lease advertisement following Tassell's death (see my journal SAFETY BEACH AND THE SURVEY) was the Port Phillip Bay end of Brokil Creek. It is not clear when Atkins and Ekins commenced their lease but the purpose of this journal is to make clear that they were leasing the property from Bruce before Tassell.

Leslie Moorhead stated in OSBORNE STATE SCHOOL that Henry Dunn had leased the Mount Martha Sheep Station, which had consisted of James Hearn's extensive grants (between Ellerina Rd and Watsons Drive)and the survey. Colin McLear stated that Dunn had leased the survey from 1846 to 1851. Bruce calls his estate the Mt Martha Sheep Station in his testimony.

A motion on behalf of tho plaintiff, a lessor, to restrain the defendants, lessees, from cutting timber trees on land leased to them for five yoars on tbe Mount Martha Station, at Dromana. Mr, J. W. Stephen for the plaintiff, Mr.Abraham for Atkins, Mr, Billing for Ekins.

The case mado for the motion was substantially that the plaintiff had purchased about 1,100 acres of land, much covered with timber and scrub ; that he had improved the land by clearing about fifty acres, and putting up a hut and buildings, by fencing in 800 acres, and by cutting down somo portions of the timber, and preserving other portions of it, in such a way as at once to increaso the capability of the land for pasturage, to leave sufficient shade for cattle, and to increaso the beauty and ornamental value of the property ; that ho had let to Atkins, for five years, at £100, for pastoral purposes, and that Atkins and Ekins had, in partnership, begun to waste the estate by stripping it of its timber, in such a manner as to diminish its value for pastoral purposes, and as an ornamental estate.

The case for the defendants was, that they had leased the property as a farm, and for cultivation purposes ; that it was no waste of a farm to cut down the wood which they bad cut down ; that no wood properly called timber trees had been cut down, but only such wood as sheoak, swamp oak, cherry, honeysuckle, snd underwood-no
stringybark, or other wood fit for building purposes. The authorities cited were-Brooks v. Bedford, Viet. Law T., 101 ; Turner v. Jackson, Viet. Law T., 127; Duke of St. Albans v. -, 8 Beav.,354 ; Micklethwaite v. same, 1 De G. and J., 504 ; and Woodfall's L. and T.

His HONOUR.-In this case Mr. Bruce seems to have purchased about 1,000 acres of land in a situation and of a sort which in most countries would be called forest land. Ho improved it by fencing in the greater part of it, and-as he himself describes it-by clearing fifty acres of it of timber, and preparing it for crops.
He then leased it to one of the defendants, and the lease contains stipulations as to the " improvements" at the end of tho term. Having thus described what he meant by improving the land, he now seeks to restrain the tenant from doing the very thing which he has called an improvement-namely, the clearing of the land of
timber and preparing it for cultivation and crops.

He says that in cutting down the timber he saved certain trees, which he then, in his own mind,regarded as ornamental timber. Neither he nor they agreed in any way as to what should be preserved, but he alone was anxious in his own mind to preserve certain trees which he regarded as ornamental. He does not say that he communicated to his tenants that ornamental timber was to bo preserved, or what he regarded as ornamental; and we must now go, not by what he thinks or then thought, but by what he communicated to them as ornamental, and as to be preserved, because such. The case, therefore, so far as founded on any possiblo rights arising out of the ornamental timber, seems to be not sustained,and to rest very much on matter of fancy. But then, as between landlord and tenant, in the absence of anything communicated to ihe tenant the case must be considered on the terms of the written agreement itself.

No doubt there is a great difference in the position of the mother country and Victoria in this respect, that in the mother country it is the removal of timber from land which it is most often desired to guard against, whilst here the removal of timber was more often the object to be secured. But that makes it only the more necessary that the real intentions and interests of the landlord should be plainly stated, and guarded by
express stipulations, and not left to mere legal intendment from loose and vague provisions such as were used here. On the whole it will generally bo better here, notwithstanding the difference in this respect between the two countries, that in the construction of such agreements concerning land the same words shall be held to bear the same meaning in instruments in Victoria that those words bear in the mother country, and that parties be left to interpret themselves differently by express provisions where tbey use suoh words with different meanings.

In the mother country, under a lease for five years a tenant would have a right to cut down and romove all wood which does not come under tho denomination of timber, and no right to cut down anything that does. But there
remains the difficult question of what are timber trees here. This question is also left in a very vague condition on the particular facts of this case. I think I am generally to understand by timber trees all trees used for building purposes in the place where the timber is growing.

Some trees are timber in England everywhere; some are timber nowhere there; others are of a mixed nature, and are, according to the custom of the locality, timber in some parts and not timber in other parts of the country. There also the circumstance which determines whether the wood is timber is its use for building purposes only ; not, I believe, its use for fencing purposes, as has been argued here. Now I cannot take
judicial notice of what sorts of wood are timber trees here, either generally or in particular localities. It must be left for the parties to show that by evidence in each case.

The plaintiff has here sought to restrain the defendants from cutting all trees : he has so for certainly asked more than he is entitled to : and it was for him to give evidence in support of his application ; to define
his right, and the extent to which it has suffered, and the remedy which he seeks to enforce. He has not defined what classes of trees are timber,or what timber trees have been cut down. The defendants, on the other hand, do give some information as to one class of trees whioh they seem to admit are timber trees, by saying that only stringybark trees are such in this locality, and none others. That evidence comes, however, from the defendants themselves, and I do not think I ought to take it so as to preclude either party hereafter from better proof.

There are enough materials before me to justify me in granting an injunction confined in its terms to the stringybark trees only. Let an injunction go as to those. Costs of motion to be costs in the cause. By consent, the defendants to have liberty to remove what is already cut ; and [as we understood] to keep an account of all trees cut in future, because it may turn out at the hearing that other than stringybark trees are to be deemed timber-trees there.


PETER.—On the 23rd inst., at her residence, Chandos, Broadmeadows, Mary, relict of the late John Peter,
formerly of Tubbo Station, New South Wales, aged 73 years. R.I.P. (p.1, Argus,25-9-1884.)

Funeral Notices.
The Friends of the late Mrs. MARY PETER are invited to follow her remains to the Spencer-street railway station (en route to Wanga Wagga Cemetery).
The funeral will leave her late residence Chandos,Broadmeadows, THIS DAY (Friday, the 20th inst),at half-past 11 o'clock.(P.1,Argus, 26-9-1884.)

Chandos was one of the street names that I suggested for the Alanbrae Estate,the subdivision of "Willowbank" north of Kenny St and the old Broadmeadows Township, now known as Westmeadows.

John Peter bought "Chandos" from the grantee of sections 6 and 15, parish of Tullamarine, John Carre Riddell, the transaction recorded in the memorial volume 170 folio 2. It was part of Riddell and Hamilton's Camieston Estate. It fronted the west side of today's Mickleham Rd from the midline of Londrew Ct. and Freight Rd.(where it adjoined the Junction Estate) north to the Moonee Ponds Creek. Its western boundaries were Derby St (where it adjoined the one acre blocks in Hamilton Terrace)and Wright St (west of which were blocks of about 6 acres that were consolidated into farms such as Wallis Wright's Sunnyside and Charles Nash's Fairview.)

I had always assumed that Bent St in Broadmeadows Township was named after Tommy Bent, politician, but perhaps it was named after Ann Peter's brother.

BENT - On the 10th inst, at the residence of his sister, Mrs. J. Peters, Broadmeadows, John Bent,aged 68 years, NSW papers please copy. (P.1, Argus, 21-2-1880.)

THE Friends of the late Mr. JOHN BENT, are respectfully invited to follow his remains to the place of interment, Keilor Cemetery. The funeral will move from the residence of Mrs.J Peters, Broadmeadows, THIS DAY, 21st inst., at 3 o'clock. (P.5, Argus, 21-2-1880.)

The children of Broadmeadows Township had a favourite swimming hole on Chandos that they called Peterson's Hole. Rate records revealed that nobody named Peterson occupied Chandos so the hole most likely got its name because Mary Peter's son swam there.

Consisting of 467 acres, Chandos was mainly in section 6. John Cock who was leasing Gladstone (formerly Stewarton and now the northern 777 acres of Gladstone Park) bought Chandos from the Peter Estate and divided it into three farms which became known as Wright's "Strathconan", Bill Lockhart's "Springburn" and Percy Judd's "Chandos Park" of 142, about 188 and 123 acres respectively, Judd's being in section 15.


1 comment(s), latest 2 years, 11 months ago


This journal,like many,arose from a private message. It was originally entitled A CONVERSATION ABOUT JAMES AND LAURENCE WHITE OF THE BALNARRING DISTRICT but as I have found just found much information about the so-called Mr Berriman from the so-called Euroa (who bought 160 acres from James White's estate in 1906) such as Eric Rundle purchasing Warrawee from his estate in 1950 (Balnarring Byways) and the lead he took in introducing agriculture to the district (P.2, Mornington and Dromana Standard, 3-7-1909), Louis is no longer a bit player in the story.

Hi We own Ealing Park which is 13 Turners Road Balnarring and was part of the original 90 acres of James White.
Do you know when it was selected and then freeholded?

Having checked in Melway,it would seem to me that No 13 is just south of the bend in Turners Rd halfway between Myers and Hunts Rds and on the east side of Turners Rd. Your property would probably be the northernmost portion of crown allotment 60A, parish of Bittern, located on the east corner of Myers and Turners Rds and extending north to the aforementioned bend, as does crown allotment 59B on the west corner. The latter was granted to L.White (probably Lawrence) on 27-9-1878. Crown allotment 60A was granted to John White, administrator (executor)of J.White (probably James) on 21-2-1900.

James White had obviously settled in the area by 1874 as the following shows but there is no proof that he was on either of the two crown allotments mentioned.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) Monday 14 September 1874 p 6 Article
I asked the prisoner when he had left "The Plains," meaning Moriarty's place, he said, " Yesterday " (Sunday). I said, "Where were you all night?" He replied, "I stopped with an old man, I got off the track." I asked the old man's name, and he said he could not tell me. I mentioned two men, James White and John McConnell, the only two single men that I knew on the track, and he said it was neither of them.

There is much detail about James and Lawrence White in one of the volumes of Balnarring Byways, available at the Rosebud Library and possibly at your local branch. I can't recall whether it specifies crown allotments or year of settlement but it may. I don't think the books are available for loan and if you will find it hard to access the books, give me a yell.
Regards, me.

Yes, we are on the northern boundary of 60A and are occupants of a very old single storey weatherboard farmhouse, which presumably was built by the Whites, as it is quite a substantial building even now.

The building was probably built of timber milled on site, as it is quarter-sawn and the marks of the big saw are visible both on the structural timbers and the weatherboards. We are currently adding on to the house in the same style, with its ten foot ceilings. There are also two extant chimneys from the old house with hand-made bricks, which are also quite a feature.
Unfortunately the old buttery and cheesery are long gone, but looking for photos


I just found why John White, obviously not a son of James White, was administering the will of James in 1900. The hay might have been grown on 60A or another farm, of 160 acres, near Bittern station.

James White a well known resident of Balnarring, on Monday afternoon fell of a load of hay whilst loading a dray. He fell on his head and was instantaneously killed through the dislocation of his neck. Deceased was a single man. A post-mortem examination was conducted on Tuesday when a verdict of accidental death was returned. (P.3,Mornington Standard, 7-12-1899.)

While hunting for an obituary to find when 60A was settled or a legal notice to find John White's relationship to the deceased James,I found a bit of dirt on Lawrence White and his son,James - a sheep stealing charge.

MORNINGTON. Police Court. Before Mr Smallman P. M. and Messers G. S. Hepburn, W. M. Irvine and W. C. Walker J's P.
Mornington Standard (Vic. : 1889 - 1908) Thursday 15 November 1900 p 3 Article Illustrated
... . Hepburn, W. M. Irvine and W. C Walker J's P. Laurence White of Balnarring and James White his son a lad of ..

James White had another farm, of 160 acres.*.(60A is 95 acres, CORRECTION 90 ACRES!) The article is being digitised apparently.
The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954) Tuesday 8 May 1906 p 6 Article
... closer settlement. In addition, the executors of the late James White's estate have sold 160 acres* at ... Balnarring at £5 5/ per acre to Mr. Berriman, of Beaufort.

* and has also just disposed of 160 acres in the estate of the late Mr James White, situated close to Bittern railway station, (P.2, Mornington Standard, 5-5-1906.)

John White was spending more than just the purchase price of 60A unless his tour was at the expense of the government.
Mr John White, of Balnarring, who has been away on an extended tour through England, South Africa, and several other countries, returned home last Tuesday.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 8-3-1902.)

Mr John White, of Balnarring, who only recently returned from the war,has re-enlisted with the Contingent at present in camp.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 3-5-1902.)

John White,executor of the single James White and grantee of 60A, was the eldest son of Lawrence White. He seemed to have owned a horse called INVESTMENT which stood at 60A.

Family Notices
Kilmore Free Press (Kilmore, Vic. : 1870 - 1954) Thursday 30 May 1912 p 3 Family Notices
... celebrated of Mr b John White, eldest son of the late Mr ti Laurence White, of Balnarring, and Miss

I'll try to have a look at the Flinders Road District rates (1869-1874) tomorrow to find if James White was assessed on 95 (correction,90) acres and if not there, the Shire of Flinders and Kangerong rates from 1875. Net Annual Values usually give an indication of when a homestead was built and extended.

Thanks xxx, very interesting, regards John.

I'm afraid that it's going to be near-impossible to determine the age of any buildings on crown allotment 60A Bittern. Titles information might help but I doubt it because they mainly concern the location and dimensions/ area of the land. I've researched the White land in each year from 1869 to 1907 and then, knowing about Cr Terry's demand for properties to be described properly, in 1911 and 1913.

James White seems to have built a house in between the assessments of 1884 and 1885 when the nett annual value of his property rose from 20 pounds to 25 pounds. There was a further rise in N.A.V. to 28 pounds in the 1888 assessment which could have been caused by an addition to the house or a general increase in the value of farmland as this was the height of the land boom. The value of his land then remained unchanged until 1905 (after 60A Bittern had simply disappeared from the face of the earth.)

In the Flinders Road Board's first assessment of 1869, neither James nor Laurence White was mentioned in the Bittern division (parish.) In 1870, Laurence was leasing 95 acres (N.A.V. 5 pounds 5 shillings) from the Crown. In 1874,the N.A.V. rose to 6 pounds 6 shillings.

The first Flinders and Kangerong Shire assessment in 1875 does not record either of the Whites but the 1876 rates showed that Lawrence was still leasing the 95 acres at Bittern from the Crown,the N.A.V. rising to 9 pounds.As stated previously he received the grant for 59B at the end of 1878 and the rate collector acknowledged his ownership in 1880. The following year "buildings" raised the 10 pounds. In 1905 the value of his property doubled, obviously because of a more substantial BUILDING. His assessment remained the same for the next two years. The disappearance of James White's 60A necessitated a jump to 1911 and I forgot to record Laurence's assessment in that year. In 1913, there was no assessment of Laurence but James White, the former 14 year old student charged with sheep stealing, was rated on 96 acres, c/a 59 B,Bittern, N.A.V. 24 pounds. It would be extremely likely that Laurence had been on 59B by the 1870 assessment.

In 1876, James White was rated on 160 acres, Balnarring, N.A.V. 12 pounds and he was recorded as the owner in 1877. The N.A.V. rose to 15 pounds in 1879 and 17 pounds in 1881 when he was rated on 250 acres,Bittern and Balnarring and buildings. Amazing! The addition of 60B Bittern, which James must have settled in late 1880 or early to mid 1881, had only lifted the NAV by 2 pounds. The rise to 20 pounds in 1882 would seem to have been well warranted. In 1885,it rose to 25 pounds and in 1888 to 28 pounds, possibly because of additions to buildings or rising values caused by the 1880's boom. The value of the 160 acres in the parish of Balnarring (near the station as mentioned previously) increased by 2 pounds in 1905.

In 1899, some effort had been made to identify the 160 acres in Balnarring,with 74A,74B being noted. This is nonsense as crown allotment 74 Balnarring is nowhere near the Bittern railway station, and in fact became the Red Hill Village Settlement. This is a problem to be solved at another time,60A Bittern being our focus. By 1901 John White was recorded as the owner of the 250 acres,now specified as 160 acres Balnarring (NAV 18 pounds),and 90 acres Bittern (NAV 10 pounds),still a total of 28 pounds.

In 1902 the executors of James White were assessed on 160 acres Balnarring and "William Myers owner" was written in the assessment for 90 acres, Bittern. I must be blind because I could find no Myers' assessment in 1903! However Mrs Myers was rated on 90 acres Bittern in 1905 and 1906. I wanted proof that Mrs Myers had 60A, so remembering Cr Terry's campaign for proper descriptions of properties, I jumped to 1911. Mrs Myers was assessed on 90 acres,c/a 60A Bittern! The NAV was 10 pounds so James White's supposed house of 1885 must have been on the 160 acres near the Bittern station, or, if it was on 60A, in a fairly dilapidated condition. It would seem that the extant buildings on your property were built by the Myers family.

My next message speculated that the 160 acres might have actually been in the parish of Bittern, one of two blocks of roughly that size to the north / north west of 60A Bittern and granted to William Myers. Further rate research has proved that not to be the case.

THERE WAS NO HOUSE ON 60a BITTERN EVEN IN THE LAST RATE RECORD AVAILABLE ON MICROFICHE, 1919. The Myer family had occupied 60a since 1902 and in every assessment up to 1919,no house was mentioned, as had always been the case. Strangely no house was mentioned in the 1905 advertisement for the 160 acres that Mr Berryman bought many months later in mid 1906.

It as if everyone had conspired to make it impossible to identify the 160 acres, Balnarring (parish)on which James White was rated in the first Flinders Road Board assessment of 1869. If it was not for Westley's 1905 advertisement and the two 1906 sales reports,the location could never have been identified. Berryman was assessed on 206 acres 18b Sub Crown allotment 26 Balnarring from 1906 to 1911 so he had to have owned James White's 160 acres (actually 154 acres, 3 roods 0 perches; 26AB, fronting the west side of Warrawee Rd)and 46 acres of 18B,immediately north, of 54 acres 3 roods and 6 perches.

What doesn't make sense is J.G.Benton was granted 26A, 26 B and 18B,the last on 15-10-1880 and issue dates for the others not stated, while James White was assessed on his 160 acres from 1869,combined with the 90 acre 60A Bittern as 250 acres from 1881. It was not until 1901, with James White's executor,Lawrence White's eldest son, John,listed as the owner of both that the composition of the 250 acres was revealed. It would then appear that James leased the 160 acres from the Crown until 1880 and then leased or bought it from Benton in 1881. A complication is that James Benton was assessed on 151 acres Balnarring NEAR PAUL VANSUYLEN until at least 1870 at the same time as James White was assessed on 160 acres.

From 1912,Louis Joshua Berryman was assessed on 26AB, now described as 155 acres (only 20 metres x 50 metres more than the exact area)and Mrs Annie Jane Berryman on 17AB and 18AB of 177 acres,north to 192 J-K1 fronting Balnarring Rd. In 1919 this remained the same (A.N. 2909 and 2910) but Louis (2911) was alsorted on lots 38-42,46, 47,part crown allotment 27,about 60 acres and buildings,Balnarring. One of the BUILDINGS was the WARRAWEE HOMESTEAD, 27AB being the triangle whose west side is indicated by Warrawee Rd.

Descriptions in 1905 advertisement and 1906 sales reports.
6th OCTOBER, 1905,
At Two O'clock,
MT. ELIZA, FRANKSTON, 1 mile Moorooduc Station; coach from Frankston, nearly EIGHT ACRES. Dairying, Orchard (prize fruits), Grazing, W.B.DWELLING, 6 Rooms, newly renovated, Stabling, Cow-shed, Barn, Tanks. A charming country residence.

BITTERN, Dromana road, *4.5 miles Station, 160 ACRES, 25 Acres cleared and grubbed, balance rung and partly picked up, Chocolate Soil, securely fenced and well watered.

BALNARRING. 308 ACRES. 1 ROOD, 34 PERCHES, " GROUVILLE," about 4 miles Bittern Station, Allotment 15,Parish of Balnarring, known as *JOURNEAUX'S.
H.B. WESTLEY, ? AUCTIONEER and sworn valuer of 63 Queen street, Melbourne; will sell as above. (P.5, Mornington Standard, 23-9-1905.)

The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954) Tuesday 8 May 1906 p 6 Article
... closer settlement. In addition, the executors of the late James White's estate have sold 160 acres* at ... Balnarring at £5 5/ per acre to Mr. Berriman, of Beaufort.

PROPERTY SALES. - Mr H.D.Westley, auctioneer, Melbourne,informs us that he has sold the remaining allotment in the estate of the late Mr Charles Wright, and has also just disposed of 160 acres in the estate of the late Mr James White, situated close to Bittern railway station, and also 308 acres known as "Journeaux." Balnarring.
(P.2, Mornington Standard, 5-5-1906.)

*The Balnarring Station, now Civic Court,did not exist until the Red Hill line was opened in 1921 so the station referred to in 1905 was the Bittern station. Measurement on Melway shows that the south east corner of
26AB (Stanley/Warrawee Rd corner)is four and a half miles from the Bittern Station EXACTLY.

Rate records.


Mornington and Dromana Standard (Vic. : 1908 - 1911) Saturday 3 July 1909 p 2 Article

The Balnarring district, situated on the Southern end of the Mornington peninsula, affords proof that even
rich lands, when held in large areas,may fail to be a beneficial investment. Notwithstanding that the district is within a mile or two of the Bittern railway station, that it is not more than forty miles distant from Melbourne, that the rainfall is ample and well distributed, and that being near the sea ensures an equable and mild climate,yet it is notable that the holders of large estates in Balnarring and neighborhood have not prospered. As compared with smaller holdings of from 100 to 300 acres in area, these large properties do not make a favorable showing. Generally the fences are in disrepair, the ground is covered with fern and scrub, rabbits abound,and there is a general air of down at the heels.

The explanation of this state of affairs is easily stated. Some twenty years ago Balnarring was regarded as
good grazing country. Sheep and cattle flourished on the natural grasses, and those who had large holdings
were able to put them to profitable use. In those days there were no rabbits. About fifteen years ago this
pest made its appearance in the district, and finding the country to its liking rapidly increased in numbers.
Soon the rabbits practically took possession of the whole countryside.

They ate down and destroyed the more succulent grasses, and. with their disappearance went the utility of the
country from a grazing point of view. Then, as the rabbits kept down the more nutritious herbage, coarser
growths began to assert themselves. Bracken and shrubs continued to make headway, until to-day some thousands
of acres of fertile land in Balnarring are thus rendered temporarily valueless to either the individual or the community. Many of the large estate owners have apparently abandoned the fight, and it is the reverse of a
pleasing experience in driving along the main road from Bittern to Flinders to pass mile after mile of beautiful rich land capable of sustaining a large population, but now overgrown with fern and rubbish, practically given over to the rabbits.

Within the past five years some northern farmers have come into the district, and by bringing the plough
into use have demonstrated what the soils of the district will yield under proper treatment. Previous, however, to undertaking any tillage work they have completely wire-netted their holdings in order to keep the rabbits
out. With this immunity secured they have then cleaned up the harbor on their own land, and by ferreting and poisoning have effectually put an end to the rabbit trouble. These newer agriculturists have confined their purchases to areas of from 160 to 300 acres, the conclusions of the more experienced men being that the former
acreage is ample for one man to adequately work. The new settlers hail from the Western plains and the mallee, and all express themselves as well satisfied with the results already obtained.

A typical representative of the new settlers is found in Mr L. J. Berryman, formerly of the Western plains,
his previous home being about eight miles south of Buangor. This settler's holding is within about four miles of the Bittern railway station, and consists of less than 300 acres of average quality land. When he took
possession his first work was to wire net, and then dig out the rabbits. Next he commenced to plough up what has been previously regarded as only fit for grass. This evoked the ridicule of other settlers, and he was
warned that by turning up the sod he would destroy the grass. It was also maintained that his experiences with
cropping would be unsatisfactory, because, as it was asserted, the land was not fit for cultivation. Mr Berryman preferred to find out by actual experience, and he worked the soil on the thorough lines which his previous experience had proved successful. The results turned out exceptionally good, and having now been repeated for four years fully justify the verdict that the Balnarring soils, when properly tilled, will yield regular and remunerative crops.

Mr Berryman's experience has demonstrated that mixed farming easily pays best. Rape thrives especially well in the Balnarring district, and this year there are several hundred acres thus seeded. In every case the plants are vigorous and forward, ranging, on the occasion of the writer's visit (the first week of June), from a
foot to eighteen inches in height. In every case they were easily carrying from 10 to 12 large crossbred sheep
to the acre. The association of sheep raising with grain growing is, in Mr Berryman's experience, the most profitable use to which the land can be put.Last year on 28 acres he obtained a heavy yield of Algerian oats and wheat mixed,thick,well headed and weighty. The average was 4 tons to the acre. The same field was ploughedup again in March, after the sheep had been given a good chance at the stubble.It was again reseeded with 3 lb. of rape to the acre in April, and the resulting growth was so substantial that by the middle of May he was carrying over eight large framed crossbred sheep to the acre. At the same time another 28 acres of new,roughly cleared land was put in with rape, and, although the growth here is not so good as on the stubble, 410 large sheep were being easily carried on this 50 acres.(etc.)

In the 1890's James WHYTE and Laurence WHYTE and their famil(ies?) lived on a property at the top of a hill in Balnarring Rd south of Hunts Rd. It was called the Blue lookout and there were TWO houses on the property. On the 4th December 1899, Jim fell off a load of hay and was killed. He was helping his neighbour,MrTullis, to get in his hay. Dick Oswin,another neighbour helping had to then ride to Schnapper Point for the doctor and then on to Dromana for a policeman,only to find that the policeman had gone to Hastings.He went to Hastings the next day only to find the policeman had gone to Schnapper Point. (Jean mentioned that we take modern communication for granted!)

Larry Whyte and his wife Mary Anne (nee Bourke)had three sons,John (Jack),Patrick, James, and a daughter, Mary Ann. John and Pat,being old enough,went to the Boer War.Jim ran the property consisting of the usual sheep,cows and orchards but mostly the interest lay in horses. Jim bred horses and had a big stud stallion.He was a great horseman and went to Swan Hill and other places showing thoroughbreds for which he had many prizes.He married Elsie (Hinze CHECK, CAN'T READ MY SCRIBBLE)and had a daughter, Joan,and three younger boys. They used to delight in sitting on the corral fence rail and watch their father break in the horses. When Jim took the sheep to the market the family would follow in the jinker. The children went to Bittern West School in Hunt's Rd by pony.

In 1927,Jim was breaking in a circus pony which used to go under low branches to try and dislodge the rider. One night he did not return home and when his wife looked for him next morning she found him already dead. He was only 44 years old. (PHOTO OF ELSIE AND JIM ON THEIR HORSES.) Mrs Whyte had been expecting a baby and he was born on the day of the burial. Michael only lived for 18 months. Because Jim's two brothers were now settled in the city,the property was sold and Elsie took her family to the city too. Joan was eight years old at the time of the tragedy. In later years,she returned to nearby Hastings and with her husband Dick Bryant raised five children.

See comment 1 re Lawrence White's death notice and spelling of the surname.

middle creek, george at Tatura,warrawee, eric rundle


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