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The Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners Bill adopted by Lord Stanley, for the amendment and enlargement of the then existing Passengers Act was issued and published in The Australian on Monday 25 July 1842. The following is an abridgement of the Bill.

1. The first clause repeals former acts, 5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 53, and 3 and 4 Vic. c.21.

2. The number of passengers to be carried in each vessel is limited: vessels proceeding from the United Kingdom or the Channel Islands to any place out of Europe, not being within the Mediterranean Sea, shall carry no more than one. passenger for every two tons of the registered tonnage. In the lower deck or platform ten clear superficial feet are to be allowed for each passenger; or if the ships pass within the Tropics, the voyage not being computed at more than twelve weeks, twelve feet are to be allowed; at more than twelve weeks, fifteen feet. One passenger may be carried under the poop for every thirty passengers. The master incurs a penalty of ?5 for every possenger in access of the proper number

3. Every ship must have a lower deck or platform above or level with the top of the lower beams, properly secured to them, and of an inch and a half in thickness.

4. There must be a height of at least six feet between the upper and lower decks.

5. There must be only two tiers of berths; the lower, six inches from the deck.

6. A supply of not less than three quarts of water must be issued to each passenger per day, and seven pounds of bread stuff per week; of the latter, one third may consist of potatoes, reckoned at the rate of five pounds for one of bread stuffs. No ship to be cleared out without having on board sufficient supplies of provisions and water.

7 Regulations for securing the supply of water and for its preservation on the voyage.

8. The length of voyages, is to be computed according to the following rule: to North America, ten weeks; West Indies, ten weeks; Central or South America, twelve weeks; West Coast of Africa, twelve weeks; Cape of Good Hope or the Falkland Islands, fifteen weeks; Mauritius, eighteen weeks; Western Australia, twenty weeks; other Australian Colonies, twenty two weeks; New Zealand, twenty four weeks.

9. Two children under fourteen years of age to be reckoned as one adult passenger.

10. The Emigration Agent at the port which the vessel leaves, or in the absence of such a functionary, the officers of the Customs, are to examine the provisions and water as to quantity and quality, and the allotment of space; and to ascertain that there is an ample supply of water and stores for the crew of the ship or other persons on board, over and above what Is provided for the passengers.

11. Provides for the rigid survey of the ship, as to its sea worthiness; and gives the Commissioner of Customs or the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners power to detain vessels until rendered seaworthy.

12. Every ship of 150 and under 250 tons must carry two boats; under 500 tons three boats; more than that, four boats.

13. Masters to carry two copies of the act, open to the perusal of passengers.

14. With every ship carrying one hundred passengers a medical practitioner is to sail; in every ship carrying a smaller number, medicines of sufficient amount and of proper kind to be carried

15. Spirits are not to be laden on board by way of stores, except for the master and crew and cabin passengers, or as medical comforts; but the sale of spirits to any passenger during the voyage is absolutely prohibited, under a penalty of not less than ?50, nor more than ?200.

16. The masters are to keep a list of passengers according to a given form, to be countersigned by the officers of Customs at the port of clearance, and deposited with the officers of Customs or Consul at the port of discharge.

17. A like list is to be kept of additional passengers who may be taken on board during the voyage.

18. Written receipts for passage money to any place in North America are to be given to steerage passengers, according to a given form, under a penalty of ?2.

19. Passage brokers contracting for passages to North America are to be licensed by Justices in the Petit or Quarter Sessions of their district; and will incur a penalty of ?10 for every passage contracted without a license.

20. All brokers who contract for a passage, without due authority from the parties to whom the vessel belongs, incur a penalty not exceeding ?5; with the liability on the part of the licensed broker to have the license taken away.

21. If a contract for a passage is broken, the aggrieved parties, unless maintained at the expense of the con tractors, shall recover the amount of passage money with a sum not exceeding ?5 for each passage, by way of compensation

22. In case vessels are detained beyond the appointed day of departure, lodgings and rations are to be provided for each passenger, or he is allowed one shilling a day as subsistence money.

23. At the close of the voyage persons are to be entitled to remain on board for forty eight hours after the arrival in port; and are to be provided for in the same manner as during the voyage; unless, in the ulterior prosecution of her voyage, any such ship shall quit any such port or place within the said period of forty eight hours.

24. The master of the vessel is to afford every facility to the proper officers for the inspection of the ship.

25. This clause enumerates many of the foregoing regulations to the breach of which special penalties have not been affixed, and enforces them under a penalty of not less than ?5 nor more than ?50.

26. The right is reserved to passengers to proceed at law for any breach of contract.

27. The mode of recovering penalties is directed.

28. Owners or charterers and masters of vessels carrying more than fifty passengers, are to enter into bond, without stamp, for the due performance of the regulations prescribed by the act.

29. Vessels not carrying more than twenty passengers, and ships in the service of the Admiralty or East India Company, ships of war, or transports, are exempted from the operation of the act.

30. The act is extended to the carriage of passengers by sea from any of the British West Indies (in which term, are included the British West India Islands, the Bahamas, and British Guiana,) from Malta, British possessions on the West coast of Africa, and from Mauritius, to any other place whatsoever.

31. Governors of colonies not already enumerated may adopt this act by proclamation.

32. Those Governors are empowered to declare the computed length of voyages from their own colony to any other place for the purposes of the act; but short voyages of less than three weeks are reserved for particular enactment below.

33. The Governor may substitute different articles of provisions from those specified in the act.

34. The proclamation is to be transmitted to the Queen in Council for confirmation or disallowance; but until disallowed, it is to be in force.

35. Governors are to possess the powers vested in Customs-officers for determining the sea worthiness of vessels.

36. Bonds are not required in respect of voyages from colonies.

37. And such voyages are exempted from the regulations as to the keeping: copies of the act, the form of receipts for passage-money , the licensing of passage-brokers, the return of passage-money and compensation, and the payment of subsistence money.

38. With those exceptions, the act is extended to voyages from the West Indies of less than three weeks but, not less than three days duration, except as relates to the construction or thickness of the lower deck, the height between decks,the surgeon and medicine chests, and the maintenance of passengers for forty eight hours. In such short voyages from the West Indies the owner or charterer may contract with passengers to provide themselves with food, not including water; but nevertheless the proper officer must ascertain that the passengers have provided an adequate quantity of food.

39. Governors of colonies other than West Indies may adopt these regulations respecting short voyages.

40. This act is not to prevent local legislatures in the West Indies, the Bahama Islands, and Bermuda, or the Queen in Council, from establishing necessary rules and regulations, unless counter to the provisions of the act.

41. The Governor-General of India is empowered to extend the act from time to time to any ports or places within his jurisdiction.

42. Foreign vessels engaged in any voyages specified in the act are to be subject to its provisions.

43. The term "passengers" in the act is not held to include cabin passengers.

44. In all proceedings it shall be sufficient to cite the act by the title of "The Passengers Act."

NOTE:This act remained in force until October 1849 when because of so called "Ocean Hells and Death Ships" the new Consolidated Passenger Act was brought in. This Act covered both British and foreign vessels and empowered Colonial Governors effectually to interfere on behalf of the passenger, so as to secure for him a clearly defined modicum of sustenance and comfort during the voyage. I shall deliver a copy of this New Consolidated Passenger Act on a future journal.

Electronically translated text taken from The Australian newspaper issued on Wednesday 25 July 1842. Transcribed and corrected on the 8 January 2012 by janilye

1 comment(s), latest 6 years, 5 months ago

The Workhouse

Although the workhouse is no more; poverty and homelessness are still very much with us. Please support the charities and other organisations that work to help those for whom this Christmas may not be all that merry

Above is an appeal on one of the most interesting internet sites I have come across, titled The Workhouse I wanted to share with you.

The photograph below
Child Labour

Primary and Secondary Sources

Many people have asked me about sources and the difference. There is a lot of information about sources on the internet but some people are still confused.

Primary Sources
A primary source is something that comes from the time that the historian is studying.
For instance if a historian is studying the First World War, then letters and diaries written by the soldiers, the uniforms and the weapons are the primary sources. If a soldier who fought in the trenches wrote his memories of the war a long time after the war it is still a primary source.

Secondary Sources
Secondary sources are sources which do not come from the time the historian is studying. These sources have got their information from other sources. Books about the first world war by historians or school textbooks about the First World War, are examples of secondary sources.

with the exception of the 1911 census, returns are not primary sources, they are secondary sources. The information they contain may have been transferred through several people. The individual's details given to head of the house; the head of the house who wrote out the Householder?s Schedule which was then handed to the enumerator, who then transferred it to the CEB, which itself was subjected to the rules of the census particularly over the classification of occupations. Finally the Census Office clerks may have made alterations. There were mistakes.

I think the diagram shown below, of the various sources historians can use, will make it easier to understand.

Central Goldfields, Victoria, Australia-Lookups

I will be in The Maldon and Castlemaine area from the 16th September till the 27th September.

I will be visiting the Maldon Cemetery .
So if you need a photograph or confirmation of a death, let me know
If you have a request for anything at any of the other towns in the central goldfields area, ask and I will do my best to get there.

For 3 days during this time I will be at the Goldfields Research Centre in Bendigo.
If any member has look-ups they would like carried out whilst I'm there. Please contact me or post them on this page. I will notify you whether or not a favourable result is achieved.

After this trip, I will not be returning till 7th October

2 comment(s), latest 5 years, 3 months ago

FRIIS Deaths- Registered in Queensland, Australia

21 matches from search 1840-1964

1952/B39463 Andrea Darling Friis Ole Hojland Hansina Frederikke Wittendorff
1886/C4051 Heinrich Friis Heinrich Friis Wilhelmina Yax
1908/C2380 Gladys Mary Ellen Friis - Mary Ann Dillworth ** now Friis
1890/C4013 August Friis Henrich Friis Wilhelmina Yax
1930/B12934 Edna Maude Friis Andrew Peter Friis Edith Maude Brooks
1957/B22380 Lucy Friis Henry Gilbert Costin Emily Baldwin
1948/B17901 Robert William Friis Ole Hyland Hansine Frederikke Wittendorf
1878/B12122 Carl Christina Friis Christian Friis Ingar Maria Neilson
1878/B12023 Margaret Darling Friis Ole Hojland Friis Hansine Frederikke Withendorff
1954/B1996 Edith Maude Friis George Brooks Maude Lowry
1928/B3969 Robert William Friis William Friis Emily May Tucker
1943/B60149 Nellie Evelena Friis William Davidson Ross Emma Andrews
1936/B31936 James Andrew Friis Andrew Darling Ellen Lindsay
1954/B1943 William Friis William Ellen Andersen ** then Stephensen
1927/B319 Betty Friis Andrew Peter Friis Edith Maude Brooks
1934/B24269 Ellen Friis John Lindsay Hannah McIlloy
1928/B3371 William Friis - - ** born Denmark aged 78 years
1939/B44581 William George Friis Andrew Peter Edith Maude Brooks
1883/B15604 Margaret Darling Friis Ole Hojland Friis Hansine Frederikke Wittendorff
1937/C2745 John Harold Friis Andrew Darling Ellen Lindsay
1906/C2761 Margaret Friis

SMITH burial Index for combined SINGLETON district of New South Wales

SMITH Ada 14th Jan 1952 87 years Female 30 31b Whittingham
SMITH Ada Elizabeth 9th July 1974 82 years Female 29 37b Whittingham
SMITH Ada Jane 8th July 1968 Female 9 28 Whittingham Mother
SMITH Agnes Catherine 26 years Female 10 23b Whittingham
SMITH Alan 17/07/1979 55 years Male 2 40 All Saints, High Street Wall 2 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Alfred 14th Nov 1938 80 years Male 1 24b Whittingham Father
SMITH Alfred Flood 27th Aug 1977 84 years Male 2 17c Whittingham Brother
SMITH Alfred Gordon 23rd Oct 1955 68 years Male 29 37a Whittingham
SMITH Alfred H.D 15th June 1956 52 years Male 11 10a Whittingham Husband & Father
SMITH Allan 26th April 1931 38 years Male 26 50 Whittingham Accidentally killed
SMITH Ann E 9th March 1868 18 years Female 14 27b Whittingham
SMITH Annie 20th Aug 1941 72 years Female 31 37 Whittingham
SMITH Annie 25th May 1923 67 years Female 25 13a Whittingham
SMITH Anthony John 11th Aug 1977 20 years Male 7 10 Sedgefield Roman Catholic Section 4
SMITH Arthur 14th Jan 1952 33 years Male 3 14 Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH Athol 22nd Sept 1937 46 years Male 22 28 Whittingham
SMITH Barbara Louise 10/12/1975 7 weeks Female 1 8 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Bertie Eric 9th July 1945 60 years Male 17 17b Whittingham Husband of Elizabeth Mary Smith
SMITH Beryl Eileen 26th Apr 1997 88 years Female 16 38b Whittingham
SMITH Caroline 25/01/1980 79 years Female 1 4 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Caroline 7th July 1969 84 years Female 3 16b Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH Caroline Mary 6th Jan 1979 81 years Female 17 46a Whittingham Wife, Mother & Grandmother
SMITH Cecil William 16th July 1979 57 years Male 4 12 Sedgefield Anglican 2
SMITH Charles 15th Nov 1887 61 years Male 24 25 Whittingham Late of Bundaberg, Qld
SMITH Charles Edward 26th Feb 1932 55 years Male 25 13b Whittingham
SMITH Clara 27th Feb 1943 74 years Female 25 13d Whittingham Vase from Elsie.
SMITH Clifford Gregory 28th April 1976 68 years Male 3 7 Sedgefield Uniting Church Columbarium No 1
SMITH Clyde McGregor 7th Dec 1967 58 years Male 2 1 Sedgefield Christian Israelite Section
SMITH D. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph, Returned Servicemen 1914-1918. This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.

SMITH Don 17th Dec 1953 77 years Male 3 11a Sedgefield Uniting 1
SMITH Don 5th July 1949 56 years Male 6 3a Queen St 3rd Catholic
SMITH Dorothy 29th June 1973 79 years Female 2 11a Quenn St 4th Catholic
SMITH DOUGLAS Male Carrowbrook Roll of Honour This Roll of Honour is held in the Singleton Historical Societies Museum
SMITH Druce Allen 21st March 1954 85 years Male 18 42b Whittingham Husband of Mary Smith
SMITH Druce Harold Wallace 11/09/1992 70 years Male 3 5 All Saints, High Street Wall 2 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH E.J. Bulga Memorial Gates World War II 1939-1945
SMITH Edith Mary 2nd May 1957 80 years Female 6 3b Whittingham Mother, Wife of Green William Smith
SMITH Edward 18th Sept 1862 10 years Male 159 Queen St 1st Catholic Son of Martin and Catherine
SMITH Edward James 3rd Nov 1971 91 years Male 2 17b Whittingham
SMITH Elizabeth 28th Sept 1925 71 years Female 1 24a Whittingham Mother
SMITH Elizabeth (Betty) 22nd Nov 1979 54 years Female 7 11 Sedgefield Roman Catholic Section 4
SMITH Elizabeth E 24th Oct 1887 14 years Female 30 14 Whittingham
SMITH Elizabeth Ivy 7/10/1992 82 years Female 5 6 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Elizabeth Lucy 7th Sep 1965 79 4 12b Branxton Catholic
SMITH Elizabeth Mary 11th April 1921 34 years Female 17 17a Whittingham Wife of Bertie E Smith
SMITH Ellen 31st July 1922 64 yers Female 48c St Clements Wife of Samuel Smith.
SMITH Emma 14th Jan 1965 92 years Female 16 33 Whittingham Mother
SMITH Emma Maria Female 18b Glenridding Cemetery Free Presbyterian This vault is very worn and hard to read.
SMITH Esther 14th Dec 1902 53 yrs 17 13a Branxton General w of Richard
SMITH Ethel Alice 9th May 1955 68 yrs 19 4b Branxton General dear parents & grandparents
SMITH Ethel Evelyn 5th Sept 1956 76 years Female 3 11b Sedgefield Uniting 1
SMITH Ethel Georgina 29th Dec 1971 79 years Female 17 47b Whittingham
SMITH Eva 14th March 1984 70 years Female 6 3e Whittingham Wife of Thomas
SMITH Eva Janet 2nd Jan 1980 83 years Female 58b St Clements
SMITH Evelyn P 13th Apr 1980 96 yrs 15 6b Branxton General wife & mother
SMITH Flora Maria 28th April 1938 81 years Female 17 18a Whittingham
SMITH Forbes Marcus 2nd June 1970 81 years Male 17 47a Whittingham
SMITH Frank 29 37c Whittingham Infant Son of Alfred & Ada Smith
SMITH George 15th July 1935 58 years Male 3 16a Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH George 19th Jan 1930 59 years Male 28 31a Whittingham
SMITH George 28th June 1904 79 years Male 146a Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Husband of Mary
SMITH George 28th June 1904 79 years Male 146a Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Husband of Mary
SMITH George Henry Thomas 8th May 1986 89 years Male 2 17d Whittingham Our dear Brother
SMITH George Herbert 18th Dec 1967 79 years Male 58a St Clements
SMITH Gertrude May 25/03/1990 85 years Female 2 12 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Gordon 9th Sept 1986 67 years Male 7 12 Sedgefield Roman Catholic Section 4
SMITH Gordon Horace 28/07/1981 69 years Male 3 35 All Saints, High Street Wall 2 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Gordon James 12th Oct 1961 42 years Male 31 40 Whittingham
SMITH Gordon Roy 24th Aug 1899 15 years Male 44 Warkworth Church of England accidently drowned at Denman, 4th Son of J.J. & Alice Smith.
SMITH Graham Herbert 26th Nov 1976 31 years Male 59 St Clements Father of Lynne and Robyn.
SMITH Green William 11th Feb 1946 72 years Female 6 3a Whittingham Husband & Father
SMITH H.G 8th June 1947 81 years 7b Glenridding Cemetery Uniting Church
SMITH H.H. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph Honoured Dead This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.
SMITH H.H. Carrowbrook Roll of Honour This Roll of Honour is held in the Singleton Historical Societies Museum

SMITH H.T. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph, Returned Servicemen 1914-1918. This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.

SMITH Hamilton 9th Aug 1898 39 years Male 19 31a Whittingham
SMITH Harold James 26th July 1970 52 years Male 18 48b Whittingham A.I.F.
SMITH Harry James 22nd Sept 1915 44 years Male 1 13a Sedgefield Uniting 1
SMITH Henry 19th July 1891 64 years Male 14 27a Whittingham
SMITH Henry 18th Apr 1957 62 years Male 47a St Clements
SMITH Henry James 21st Jun 1944 75 yrs 19 4a Branxton General
SMITH Henry William 12th Aug 1937 68 years Male 30 1a Whittingham rememberd by Grandsons Don & Doug
SMITH Henry William 13th Dec 1937 80 years Male 6 20a Whittingham
SMITH Herbert Andrew 2/11/1961 73 years Male Western Side Row 1 13 St Andrew's United Church Singleton Columbarium
SMITH Herbert C.C 1st Aug 1883 5th Dec 1884 1 year 4 moths Male 29 30c Whittingham
SMITH Hilda Amy 16th April 1959 Female 10 43a Whittingham
SMITH Hilda Mary 3rd Nov 1973 49 years Female 18 48a Whittingham
SMITH Ida Isabel 2nd Sept 1996 84 years Female 3 8 Sedgefield Uniting Church Columbarium No 1
SMITH Isabella Alice 23rd Feb 1961 84 years Female 28 31b Whittingham Mother

SMITH J. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph, Returned Servicemen 1914-1918. This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.

SMITH J.D 19th Dec 1901 84 years 25 1 Whittingham
SMITH James Irwin 8th Dec 1928 73 years Male 31 Glenridding Cemetery Uniting Church
SMITH Jane 76 years Female 10 23c Whittingham Mother of Agnes Catherine Smith
SMITH Jane 12th Aug 1907 72 years Female 14 27d Whittingham Wife of Henry Smith
SMITH Jessie 1st June 1937 69 years 7a Glenridding Cemetery Uniting Church
SMITH John 10th June 1933 82 years Male 26 51a Whittingham Father
SMITH John 16th March 1841 24 years Male 14 27c Whittingham
SMITH John 25th June 1885 85 years Male 22 26 Whittingham Late of Brixton, Surrey, England
SMITH John 27th April 1927 65 years Male 30 31a Whittingham
SMITH John 3 or 5 Mar 1851 61 years Male 18a Glenridding Cemetery Free Presbyterian This vault is very worn and hard to read.
SMITH John 30th May 1922 60 years Male 1 7a Whittingham
SMITH John 4th Aug 1898 69 years Male 19 31c Whittingham
SMITH John 4th Aug 1899 77 years Male 27 5a Whittingham
SMITH John Alexander 7th Sept 1981 68 years Male 6 9 Sedgefield Uniting Church Columbarium No 1
SMITH John Louis 21st April 1975 80 years Male 17 46b Whittingham
SMITH Joseph L. 4th April 1953 38 years Male 6 3c Whittingham Son & Brother
SMITH Joseph T.R 21st Dec 1880 30 June 1881 6 months Male 29 30b Whittingham
SMITH Juanita 24th Feb 1982 Female 66a Glenridding Cemetery Uniting Church
SMITH Keith Maynard 19th May 1936 2 years Male 66b Glenridding Cemetery Uniting Church Son
SMITH Kenneth 21st June 1942 41 years Male 17 44 Whittingham Husband & Father
SMITH Lachlan Druce 20th Aug 1973 82 years Female 15 55 Whittingham Brother & Uncle
SMITH Leslie Alfred 24th March 1973 44 years Male 12 30a Whittingham Husband, Father, Son & Brother
SMITH Lillian Grace 4/01/1971 62 years Female 4 23 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Lillian M. 24th May 1958 49 years Female 3 12 Sedgefield Uniting 1
SMITH Louisa May 3/03/1975 70 years Female 5 5 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Mabel Olive 26th June 1984 99 years Female 4 8 Sedgefield Uniting Section 2
SMITH Margaret 16th Sept 1943 75 years Female 30 1b Whittingham Plaque on ground.
SMITH Margaret Dorothty 28th Nov 1920 8th Mar 1996 Female 18 37b Whittingham Daughter of Vernice Gertrude Gover
SMITH Margaret Miriam 5th Aug 1942 82 years Female 6 20b Whittingham
SMITH Mark Hunter 9th May 1969 10th May 1969 1 day Male 7 20 Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH Mary 16th May 1936 66 years Female 18 42a Whittingham Wife of Druce Allen Smith
SMITH Mary 21st June 1913 79 years Female 146b Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Wife of George
SMITH Mary 21st June 1913 79 years Female 146b Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Wife of George
SMITH Mary Ann 11th Dec 1898 67 years Female 27 5b Whittingham
SMITH Mary Beatrice 23rd July 1942 71 years Female 25 13c Whittingham
SMITH Maurice Leslie 21/12/1975 44 years Male 1 11 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Mildred May 13th Jul 1987 88 yrs 17 6 Branxton General (Patton)
SMITH Milton Eugene 17/05/1976 72 years Male 2 11 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Muriel 9th Aug 1915 11 months Female 3 16c Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH Nellie Royale 16th July 1995 91 years Female 11 10b Whittingham His dear Wife & Our Mother
SMITH Norma Verle 20 16 Branxton General dau of Elsie & Joseph Smith
SMITH Norman (Wiz) 5th Oct 1991 84 years Male 16 38a Whittingham
SMITH Olga Elizabeth Pauline 4/04/1994 63 years Female 2 3 All Saints, High Street Wall 2 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Oliver C 21st Dec 1880 14 May 1881 4 months Male 29 30a Whittingham
SMITH P.G.C. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph, Returned Servicemen 1914-1918. This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.
SMITH Percy Male 9 8 Whittingham Husband of Grace, Father of Warren & Neville
SMITH Percy F 21st may 1953 77 yrs 15 6a Branxton General
SMITH Phillip John 5th Apr 1946 70 4 12a Branxton Catholic
SMITH R. Burdekin Park, George Street Cenotaph, Returned Servicemen 1914-1918. This memorial was unveiled by-MAJOR General C.H. Brand C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., on 29 Nov 1925. This stone was laid by- Edward Lloyd Jones on 25 Apr 1925. To the Men and Women who enlisted from Singleton and District to serve in the Great War 1914 - 1918.
SMITH Radford Claude "Jim" 6th Nov 1994 80 years Male 30 53b Whittingham A.I.F. badge NX45365
SMITH Rae Estelle 14th May 1993 73 years Female 6 10 Sedgefield Uniting Church Columbarium No 1
SMITH Rebecca 3rd Dec 1935 82 years Female 26 51b Whittingham
SMITH Reginald George Hurnall 8/02/1995 87 years Male 4 24 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 North Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Richard 20th Dec 1914 66 yrs 17 13b Branxton General h of Esther
SMITH Richard 21st Jul 1876 17 13c Branxton General s of richard & Esther
SMITH Robert Alexander Male 18c Glenridding Cemetery Free Presbyterian This vault is very worn and hard to read.
SMITH Robert L 15th Feb 1981 90 years Male 2 11b Quenn St 4th Catholic
SMITH Rupert Stuart 12th Apr 1996 86 years Male 6 10 Sedgefield Uniting Section 2
SMITH Russell Albert 18th Mar 1984 78 years Male 3 34 Sedgefield Roman Catholic Section 7
SMITH Samuel 30th Aug 1935 81 years Male 48a St Clements
SMITH Sarah 4th Oct 1919 87 years Female 19 31b Whittingham
SMITH Selina 25th Aug 1935 65 years Female 1 7b Whittingham Wife of above
SMITH Sibina 4th July 1940 74 years Female 19 30b Whittingham Aunt
SMITH Stanley Edward 1/03/1972 76 years Male 1 3 All Saints, High Street Wall 1 South Side Cremation Plaques
SMITH Stephen Robert 15th Oct 1988 15 years Male 6 39 Sedgefield Roman Catholic Section 7
SMITH Thomas G 8th June 1960 49 years Male 6 3d Whittingham Husband of Eva & Father of Shirley
SMITH Voilet May "May" 4th Sept 1967 46 years Female 30 53a Whittingham
SMITH Wallace Allan 17th Jan 1970 69 years Male 10 43b Whittingham
SMITH Walter 17th June 1934 71 years Male 16 32 Whittingham Father
SMITH Walter Gordon 27th Feb 1993 65 years Male 7 33 Sedgefield Anglican 4
SMITH Walter John 28th July 1910 31 years Male 48b St Clements Son of Samuel and Ellen Smith.
SMITH Walter Simpson 3rd May 1970 63 years Male 19 49 Whittingham
SMITH Wilhemina Dorothea 11th Sept 1947 75 years Female 1 13b Sedgefield Uniting 1
SMITH William 1879 17 years Male 146c Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Their Son
SMITH William 14th Oct 1919 66 years Male 17 18b Whittingham
SMITH William 1879 17 years Male 146c Queen St Old Methodist, Now The Uniting Their Son
SMITH William 7th Oct 1924 4 years Male 3 16d Sedgefield Anglican 1
SMITH William 18th July 1856 40 years Male 1a Warkworth Church of England Outside of Church Fence

SMITHURST Marjorie (nee Gray) 11th Nov 1918 11th Dec 1986 68 years Female 1 32b Sedgefield Christian Israelite Section
SMITHURST Sidney William 8th Jan 1923 15th Sept 1994 71 years Male 1 32a Sedgefield Christian Israelite Section
SMYTH Bernard 16th Feb 1950 81 years Male 26 41c Whittingham
SMYTH Elizabeth 3rd Jan 1914 69 years Female 1 20c Queen St 2nd Catholic
SMYTH Emily 24th Nov 1909 36 years Female 1 20a Queen St 2nd Catholic Wife of Phil
SMYTH Emma Jean 4th Aug 1916 74 years Female 26 41b Whittingham Wife of B. Smyth
SMYTH Isabella Ann 24th July 1942 85 years Female 26 41a Whittingham
SMYTH Phillip 9th Aug 1925 91 years Male 1 20d Queen St 2nd Catholic Son
SMYTHE Phillip 26th Dec 1946 76 years Male 1 20b Queen St 2nd Catholic Buried Lismore

THE Telegram

There's very little I can say about this shocking 1907 telegram which was sent by a Charles MORGAN from the Broome Station to Henry PRINCEP, who at the time was, Chief Protector of Aborigines for Western Australia, and based in Perth.

I do not know who Charles MORGAN was. I suppose I could find out, but then I don't really want to know.

Henry PRINCEP, recieved many such requests. What his replies were, I don't know. But he did file them away, perhaps for us to reflect and be ashamed.

For those who have trouble reading the telegram, it reads:-


20 JUL 07

TELEGRAM from Broome Station
Addressed to H. Princep Esq,
prot. of aborigines

Send cask arsenic exterminate aborigines letter will follow

Chas Morgan

letters of note
Aboriginals and Arsenic

18 comment(s), latest 4 months, 3 weeks ago

Frequently asked Questions about Heraldry

Answered by The Heraldry & Genealogy Society of Canberra Inc.

Written by Administrator
Saturday, 04 December 2010 16:38

Q.1 What does the word 'Arms' mean in the context of heraldry?

A. The word 'Arms' in the heraldic context (as in 'coat of Arms') refers to a distinctive design worn on a knight's shield, his banner, and elsewhere on his clothing that enabled him to be identified in battle. A knight in full armor, including a face-covering helmet, was difficult to identify without these distinctive insignia. A coat of Arms is depicted on a shield, referring to the origin of the term.

Q.1 How did the term 'coat of Arms' originate and what does it mean?

A. The term 'coat of Arms' is derived from the cloth garment or surcoat that a knight wore over his armor. On the front and back of the surcoat there would often be displayed the knight's arms. Originally the surcoat was full length, reaching almost to the ankles; it was sleeveless and was split at front and back to allow the material to hang freely when the wearer was riding his horse.

Q.2 What is the connection, if any, among heraldry, genealogy and family history?

A. Heraldry can be regarded as the root from which genealogy and family history grew and developed. This is because genealogical studies developed from the work of Heralds in recording pedigrees in order to determine lines of succession and the rights of individuals to inherit arms. All modern library systems recognise this and regard genealogy and heraldry as two faces of the same genre; and similarly, all booksellers group the two together, usually in the reference section.

Q.3 Is there a family or clan coat of Arms, and can all people with the same surname use the same arms?

A. NO. There is no such thing as a coat of Arms for a family, clan or surname. A coat of Arms is a visual mark of identity of an individual. There is an ancient heraldic principle which states that each person's coat of Arms is unique to that individual and cannot be used by anybody else. In Scotland, a Chief of a Clan has his or her personal coat of Arms that belongs to that individual alone. A member of the clan or a person with the same surname may, with the Lord Lyon's approval, have a variation or a ?differenced? version of the Chief's Arms by way of different tinctures (colours), bordures or other devices to make the Arms unique to the individual seeking Arms. A clan member may also use the clan badge consisting of the Chief's ?crest? (see next Q.4) within a belt and buckle design containing the Chief's motto.

Q.4 Is the crest the same thing as a coat of Arms?

A. No. The word ?crest? is often misused, particularly by the popular press, as a general overall description for a coat of Arms. The word ?crest? has the same meaning in heraldry as in the dictionary, namely ?on the top of? as in ?crest of a wave? or ?crest of the hill? or a Cockatoo's crest. In heraldry it refers to the three-dimensional object on top of the helmet, which itself is on top of the shield on which the Arms are shown. The Arms themselves are depicted on the shield. The shield is the essential part of a coat of Arms. Without it the device may be more correctly called a badge, emblem or a logo.

Q.5 Is the 'Bar Sinister' a mark of illegitimacy?

A. In heraldry there is no such thing as the 'bar sinister'. When people talk about the 'bar sinister' they are referring to the couped (cut of at both ends) bendlet sinister. A bendlet sinister extends from the top left (sinister) to the bottom right of the shield. This is just one of the many marks of cadency to differentiate one coat of arms from another and does not necessarily mean illegitimacy. The origin of the 'bar sinister' may have come from the French 'barre' which is always in the sinister position, so the term 'bar sinister' is incorrect and is an example of heraldic tautology.

Q.6 Why are there marks of illegitimacy?

A. Where marks of illegitimacy were used, they were not used to denote punishment or disgrace. They were used simply to denote that the illegitimate child (particularly if he were a first born male) could not inherit his father's arms unchanged. He could carry his father's arms provided they were so marked to indicate that he was establishing a separate branch of the family without any right of succession to the unchanged arms. Some of the illegitimate sons of King Charles II bore the Royal Arms debruised by a 'baton sinister', as do the illegitimate male descendants of King William IV. (The term 'debruised' indicates a charge in front of or obscuring another).

Q.7 Why is the description of coats of Arms made in what seems to be an arcane or technical language instead of plain English so that everyone can understand it?

A. Blazon, which is the technical term for describing the details of a coat of Arms, evolved so that heralds, in whatever country they may be, could describe a coat of Arms precisely, clearly and briefly. The technical terms in a blazon are in Norman French, reflecting their origin. Although blazon may seem strange to the uninitiated, it performs the same function that musical notation does on a sheet of music enabling the musician to reproduce sounds the way the composer intended. Blazon allows the heraldic artist to reproduce accurately the design on the shield as the herald intended. The use of plain English, by way of contrast, would tend to be verbose and open to widely different interpretations thereby destroying the integrity of the original design.

Q.8 Do you have to pronounce heraldic terms (blazon) with a French accent?

A. No. Blazonry in English is pronounced phonetically. Gules (red) is pronounced with a hard 'G', Argent (silver) is ar-gent and so on.

Q.9 Why do heralds confuse people by calling the right side of the shield sinister, which means left, and the left side dexter which means right?

A. The sides of the shield (arms) are described from the point of the armiger standing behind his shield. Therefore the armiger's right is the viewer's left and his left is the viewer's right.

Q.10 Are the colours used in heraldry fixed in any way and do they have any particular significance?

A. No. There are no fixed shades in heraldry. The blazon (description) of a coat of Arms provides the colours (tinctures) as Gules (red), Azure (blue), Sable (black), Vert (green), Purpure (purple). There are two metals, namely Or (gold) and Argent (silver). Other colours are called stains and consist of Murrey (mulberry) , Tenne (orange), and Sanguine (blood red). Sometimes other stains are encountered such as Celestial azure (sky blue) and Carnation ('skin' tone). It is up to the heraldic artist to decide upon the shade he or she thinks is most appropriate for the whole design.

Q.11 Who can have a coat of Arms?

A. In Australia there is no heraldic authority to administer and regulate Arms so there is a legal vacuum as to which individuals or groups are eligible to apply for arms. In practice any adult, male or female, may have a coat of arms granted to them by an officially recognised overseas heraldic authority (which would be authentic), or may self-assume arms (which would not be authentic). (See also below).

Q.12 How and where do I apply for a coat of Arms?

Australians who can prove they are of English descent may apply, by way of a petition, to the English College of Arms in London; those of Scottish ancestry to the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms in Edinburgh; and those of Irish ancestry to the Chief Herald of Ireland in Dublin. Australians may also apply for registration of arms by the South African Bureau of Heraldry.

Q.13 Can a person who is not of English, Scottish or Irish ancestry apply for Arms?

A. Yes, if they are an Australian citizen. They can apply to the English College of Arms for a grant of Arms as that organisation asserts it has the right to grant Arms to any of Her Majesty's subjects where there is no indigenous heraldic body in the Commonwealth country in which they reside and where the Queen is still Head of State.

Q.14 Can anyone who is descended from someone who had a coat of Arms use it?

A. No. A coat of Arms belongs to, and is unique to, an individual at any one time. For a person to have the right to a coat of Arms they must either have it granted to them or be descended in a legitimate line of descent from a person to whom Arms were granted or confirmed in the past. As a general rule the Arms pass from the original grantee to his eldest son and continue on to the next eldest son in each succeeding generation. In Scotland a person, depending on their familial relationship and surname, may apply for a ?differenced? version of a particular coat of Arms. (See Q.3 above).

Q.15 I have located ?my? coat of Arms on the Internet. Can I use it?

A. No. Unfortunately many websites which purport to show Arms belonging to a particular name are misleading and completely unauthentic. Usually the Arms shown are those of prominent people or the Chief of a Clan. To use these Arms as though they are yours is akin to fraud. It is no different to stealing another person's passport or driver's licence and using or passing it off as your own.

Q.16 I have bought ?my? coat of Arms from a heraldic shop. Is it authentic and can I display and use it?

A. NO, in so far as using the Arms as though they are yours (See Q.15 above). However, tt is important to note the distinction between the display of Arms and the use of Arms. A person may purchase a copy of the Arms, for display purposes only, of his or her school, college, university, institution or organisation as a means of showing their association or allegiance. The display of Arms as distinct from using them is perfectly legitimate as it can be regarded as a souvenir.

Q.17 What is the relevance of heraldry in the 21st Century?

A. There are several possible reasons why this question is asked. Many people are completely unaware that heraldry is all around them and continues to be a part of their everyday life. The arms of the Nation, the State or Territory, the local municipal council, schools, universities, commercial concerns and other various organisations and associations are on buildings, on letterheads, legal documents and other artefacts, and help in their respective identification. This public display and use of arms is a manifestation of the various interests and loyalties that interact with one another and make up our pluralist society. The current use of logos by various organisations is an indication that a need for a visual symbol of identity is still important in the 21st Century. Heraldry can meet this need in a more timeless way that transcends quickly outdated fashions like logos, which tend to have short 'flavour of the month' lives.

Q.18 In modern society isn't the display and use of arms pretentious and rather snobbish?

A. No. It is most unfortunate that there is sometimes a suspicion that heraldry is somehow associated with snobbery. This attitude could also be a reason why many armigers (people entitled to bear Arms) are reluctant to openly display their armorial bearings in the belief that to do so would be seen as pretentious. Coats of Arms are visual symbols of identity; the use of Arms can only be considered pretentious if they were used without authority and deliberately used and displayed as if they were legitimate. It is interesting to note that the association of heraldry with snobbery coincided with the rise of the industrialist, merchant and middle classes during the latter part of the 18th Century and in the 19th Century which, in the main, assumed arms in an attempt to raise their social standing.

Q.19 I have a coat of Arms granted by an overseas heraldic authority. Is this protected in Australia?

A. No. At present the only way to obtain legal protection is to register an illustration of the Arms with IP Australia at the federal level and with the relevant state or territory organisation dealing with title deeds etc. This can be an expensive exercise if you want Australia-wide coverage. Creation of an Australian Heraldic Authority would rectify this situation.

Q.20 Is there an official body that administers and regulates heraldry in Australia?

A. No. At present there is no official heraldic organisation in Australia so there is a legal vacuum as to the usage and protection of Arms in Australia. HAGSOC supports the creation of an Australian Heraldic Authority.

Q.21 Why does Australia need its own heraldic authority when coats of Arms can be registered with IP Australia?

A. The staff of IP Australia probably will not have any expertise with the rules of heraldry because they are not responsible for the administration of heraldry in Australia. Consequently when a coat of Arms is submitted to them for registration they will most likely not be concerned whether the Arms are authentic or not. Nor will they check with overseas heraldic authorities as to whether the arms have already been granted to somebody else who is an Australian citizen. Their main concern will be to check that the design of the Arms is not the same as any design (as a logo or a trademark) already entered in their Register. Should the design of the arms prove to be original, in so far as they are concerned, it will most likely be registered as submitted. IP Australia only registers a design for 10 years, after which time the protection must be renewed. Only an Australian Heraldic Authority will be able to protect and maintain the integrity of arms granted to Australian citizens, in perpetuity.

Q.22 Will members of the HAGSOC heraldry interest group design arms for me?

A. Some individuals within the group may be prepared to undertake this as a private commission. The group is happy to comment on and make recommendations on the design of any arms.

Q.23 Does the HAGSOC heraldry interest group undertake research?

A. The group undertakes heraldic research at the current HAGSOC scale of research fees.

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INDEX of names Buried at Goudhurst Church, Kent

Index of Names, buried at Goudhurst Church, Kent

Name Index
ALLEN 426, 427
APPS 69, 71, 341-347
Bagshaw 511, 512, 515
BAKER 21, 36, 42, 95,
211, 333, 358-361
BARBER 38, 211, 213, 214

BATHURST 53, 54, 60,129,
135, 493, 494, 495, 496,
498, 503, 504, 517, 522
BEECHING 455, 456
Birchet? 39
BIRD 521
BLUNT 414, 521
BONNICK 280, 294
BROWN 299, 300
BURGESS 65, 66
BURR 222-226
BUSS 296, 297
CAMPION 514, 520
CARTIER 239,240,241,530
CHALKIN 18, 19
CHANTLER 96, 101, 111
CHAR* 385

CLARKE 141, 452-454, 529
CLEMETSON 322,468,469
COLLENS 173, 174, 177,
180, 186, 266, 268
COLLISON 354, 355, 369
COLVILL 251-253, 322
Cordell 520
CROUCH 92, 93
Culpeper 532
CUTBUSH 381, 439
DOUST 10, 102, 286
DOWN 134

DUNN 499
Earl of Shrewsbury 519
Ellis 211
FAGG 281
FIELD 193, 194
FINCH 500, 501
FREELAND 78, 90, 377
FRIEND 118, 280, 281
FRY 275
FUGGLE 157, 185
FULLER 171, 395
GIBB 153
GIBBS 5, 6
GLYN 514
515, 518

C.A.H. 541
M.H. 51
W.H. 541
HAINES 258, 259, 262
HAMMOND 22,199,201,202
HANCOCK 325, 329
HANSON 195, 196, 197
HARRIS 79, 80, 335
HARRISON 428, 511-513, 515, 530, 534, 539, 540
HAWT 519 HAYWARD 40, 89, 91, 319, 329
HAZELDEN 208-210,227
HESELDEN 205, 206
HINDS 531, 535
HOARE 153, 154, 155 HOBBS 20
HODGSKIN 129, 135, 136
HOLINES???? 265
HONESS 317,318,364-366,
368, 387
HOOK 126
HUNT 318
JENNINGS 236, 237, 431
JOHNSON 75, 76
JONES 466, 467
JURY 172
KEMP 301, 470

KING 277
King Charles 495
King Charles the First 514
KINGSMELL 84, 127, 303
KITE 325
Knowlys 175 LAKE 502, 507
LAMBERT 30, 31, 179,
246, 247, 299
LAUSDELL 121, 122,
LAW 238, 530
LEE 504 LEIGH 294
LEWIN 382, 471
LIGHT 160-163, 192
LINGHAM 315, 316
MANWARING 268, 288,
402-407, 410
Marchant 157
MARTIN 124, 415, 519
MASTERS 229-231,302

MESSENGER 328,330-331
MILLER 308-310, 443, 509,
MORRIS 44, 113 MUNK? 47
MYNN 137, 138, 140
NUNN 460
NYE 22 OAKDEN 150, 524
OLLIVE 483, 484
ONGLEY 420-425,433-435,
OSBORNE 108, 156, 290,
PACK 509
PARIS 418, 487, 488, 538
PENFOLD 279, 440-442
POLHILL 486, 505
POOLEY 87, 88
POPE 394, 464, 490
T.R. 16
Rachell 520

RATCLIFFE 140, 158
RIDGWAY 542 543
ROBERTS 2, 413, 521
ROWLES 146, 356, 357
RUDDUCK 477, 478, 482
RUSSELL 11-15, 195, 334
B.S. 50
R.S. 52
SABB 248, 257
Sanderson 453
SCOONES 412,430,436/7 SCOOT 306
SIMS 56, 57, 58
SMART 471, 517
SMITH 74, 118, 152, 289
SMITHE 61, 506
SOUTHON 336, 339, 340
SPRANGE 143, 144
SPRINGETT 474-476, 489,
STANDEN 26, 28, 34, 35,
115-117, 363, 411 STANDING 228
STEPHENS 165, 166, 250,
311, 312, 313
STEVENS 147, 148, 313
STONE 307, 520
STRINGER 62-64,506, 522

TANNER 200, 215-220
THOMPSON 462, 472
THORPE 23, 24, 25

TICKNER 214, 269, 270
TOLHURST 157, 168, 291
TWOPENNY 243, 244
UDALL 233, 234
UPTON 145 USHERWOOD 352, 374,
VOUSDEN 42, 43, 323,
389-393, 407
WAGHORN 100, 228, 232,
Warmington 515
WEBB 83, 464
WELCH 27, 446

WENHAM 304, 305
WEST 81, 138
WESTON 107, 109, 321
WICKHAM 106, 131, 132,
187, 188, 190, 198, 203,
204, 221, 446 Wilkins 175
WILLIAMS 260, 271, 272,
273, 278, 397-401
WILMOT 458, 460
Wilmshurst 349 WOODE 263
WOOLLETT 348-351,
WOOLLVEN 448, 449, 451
Wyment 515

The Monumental Inscriptions in the churchyard of Goudhurst Church Noted by Leland L. Duncan August 1923

Transcribed and typed up by Dawn Weeks for the Kent Archaeoligical Society

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