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The Sale of Wives In England.

Now-a-days wives are occasionally treated with barbarity. When they are, however the husbands are severely dealt with by law. But at one time wives were considered as a mercenary commodity, and the disposal of them for a certain price was a not uncommon occurrence, being recorded in newspapers as " items of everyday news." During this period of dormant sympathy, it was generally considered as lawful for a husband to sell his spouse by auction to the highest bidder, "provided he delivered her over with a halter round her neck." Strange as it may seem, the wife was frequently found to be in favour of the transaction, probably agreeing with the adage that "changes are lightsome."
In July, 1797, The Times in reference to the price of wives, said "By some mistake in our report of the Smithfield Market, we had not learned the average price of wives for the last week. The increasing value of the fair sex is esteemed by several eminent writers as a certain criterion of increasing civilisation. Smithfield has, on this ground, strong pretensions to refined improvement, as the price of wives has risen in that market from half-a-guinea to three guineas and a-half."
Even in the early years of the 19th. century, cases of the sale of wives in public are recorded.
A few instances of such sales, which appeared in a recent number of "All the Year Round," will be read with considerable interest and amusement:-
In 1750 a man and his wife falling into discourse with a grazier, at Parham, in Norfolk, the husband offered him his wife in exchange for an ox, provided he would let him choose one out of his drove. The grazier accepted the proposal, and the wife readily agreed to it. Accordingly, they met the next day, when the woman was delivered to the grazier, with a new halter round her neck, and the husband received a bullock which he subsequently sold for six guineas.
The first recorded sale after the accession of George III., occurred in the month of March, 1766 in this case a carpenter of Southwark, named Higginson, went into an ale-house for his morning draught: there he met a fellow carpenter, and their conversation turned to wives. The carpenter, whose name, history has not recorded, lamented that he had no wife. Higginson, on the other hand, lamented that he had, and expressed regret there was no way except murder by which he could rid himself of her. The carpenter assured Higginson that there was a way, the old English custom had made it quite lawful for a husband to sell his own rib. " No one would be such a fool as to buy mine," sighed Higginson. "I would do so," the other promptly replied, "and would think I had made a good bargain, too."
"Done!" shouted the delighted husband, who clinched the bargain on the spot. Mrs. Higginson was duly claimed by her new lord, and went willingly enough and lived with him as his wife.
In a few days, however, Higginson either grew tired of his mateless home or suspected that he had not done right, and went to the other carpenter's house, demanding his wife back. Mrs. Higginson strenuously refused to leave her new lord. "A sale is a sale," said she, "and not a joke."
Higginson went again and again, but to no purpose, and after a week or two he ceased calling. His wife had just begun to conclude that he had at last quietly resigned his claim, when she was cited to appear before a coroner's jury and identify her husband who had settled the question by hanging himself. (The price paid for the woman is not recorded.)
Another sale occurred in the summer of 1767. In this case, however, the man selling the "chattel" had no legal right over it, she being simply a wife by courtesy. Her reputed husband was a bricklayer's labourer, residing at Marylebone, and the price at which she was valued was five shillings and three pence and a gallon of beer. Three weeks after the sale, when the lady was duly housed with her new lord, a wealthy uncle of hers, residing in Devonshire, died, and, quite unexpectedly, acknowledged the kinship by leaving her two hundred pounds and a quantity of plate. The new protector at once decided to sanctify the union by a ceremony of the Church, and so became her husband indeed, and of course, the possessor of the legacy, there being no Married Woman's Property
Act in those days.
Edgbaston, Birmingham, was the scene of the next sale of this character which had to be reeorded. It took place in the month of August, 1773, and the facts are these :Three men and three women went into the Bell Inn. Edgbaston-street, Birmingham, and called for the toll-book, which was kept there. In this they made the following extraordinary entry: "August, thirty first, 1773. Samuel Whitehouse, of the parish of Willenhill, in the county of Stafford, this day sold his wife, Mary Whitehouse, in open market, to Thomas Griffiths, of Birmingham. Value one shilling. To take her with all faults. (Signed) Samuel Whitehouse, Mary Whitehouse. (Voucher) Thomas Buckley,
of Birmingham." The parties were said to be well pleased, and the purchase-money and the market toll, demanded for the toll, were both cheerfully paid.
This Ipswich Journal, January 28, 1737, states that : "A farmer of the parish of Stownpland sold his wife to a neighbour for five guineas, and being happy to think he had made a good bargain, presented her with a guinea to buy a new gown. He then went to Stowmarket and gave orders for the bells to he rung on the occasion."
The London Chronicle for the 1st of December, 1787, reported that : "On Monday last a person named Goward led his wife to the market place at Nuneaton, and there sold and delivered her up, with a halter about her, to one White, for the sum of three guineas. On their way Goward asked his wife if she was not ashamed of being brought to open market to be sold ; she said she was not, and was happy to think she was going to have another husband, for she knew well who was going to be her purchaser. When they came to the place Goward embraced his wife and wished her well, upon which she returned the compliment. White declared himself extremely well satisfied, and paid down the money, assuring the quondam husband it was good and full weight. The purchase being completed, White gave the ringers a handsome treat to ring a peal, and they spent the remainder of the day with the greatest joy imaginable."
A Case which occurred in 1790 is slightly different to the foregoing, for it is the record of a girl who
actually bought her husband. She was an Oxfordshire lass, and was on the eve of marriage to a young man of the same county, when the bridegroom elect would not consent to name the day unless her friends would advance fifty pounds for her dowry. Her friends being two poor to comply with this demand, the lass, who evidently thought a mercenary husband better than no husband at all, went to London and sold her hair, which was deli- cately long and light, to a chapman in the Strand for three pounds per ounce. As it weighed just twenty ounces, she returned with joy to Oxfordshire with sufficient money to buy her exacting husband, and ten pounds to boot."
It was not just in England where we have recorded the sale of wives but in New South Wales as late as 1803 we have early settler, Israel Rayner, selling his wife Catherine Carpenter. She walked out on Israel and went to live with her lover, Henry Baldwin and refused to return. When Henry Baldwin paid no heed to Israel's threats of legal action, a deal was struck and Israel sold Catherine to Henry for six bushels of wheat and a pig.


source:
The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser
Tuesday 26 September 1893
Victoriavane Word Press
transcription, janilye 2012


1 comment(s), latest 1 year, 7 months ago

Cock-Fighting, New South Wales.

Any article or series of articles on the "Good Old Days" that
did not treat the sports of that-period would be like a
meat pie without, the meat. I have attempted to give a complete
and comprehensive digest of the manners and customs of the people
of the times of which I write, and as cock fighting was almost an
institution in those days, some attention must be given to it.

Not many will regret the fact this kind of sport is now a thing of
the past, so far as this district is concernedand has been allowed to
fall into oblivion along with other relics of barbarism.

From the 1840s cock-fighting was one of the most popular sports
in the Hawkesbury district of New South Wales, and in those days unless you had a
game rooster that could masacre twenty of your neighbours' domestic chooks in as
many minutes, you might as well be dead, for you were considered nobody.

But now things have changed, the cock-fighting instincts of the people
are dead, though the sleek bird still retains all the combative instincts
of the olden leaven, and would even now fight till he dropped on his own or
some other party's dung-hill. Many residents well remember the old rendezvous
of the enthusiasts of this branch of sportin Holland's paddock,(Windsor)
facing the banks, In this paddock, where there is now a large pond, a pit
existed for many years, and at the trysting-ground large crowds of people
assembled nearly every Saturday to witness a good encounter between two
game cocks.
An edifying spectacle it must have been, truly, yet amongst the votaries of
the sport were many men who were then leading lights of the district.

For years cock-fighting was carried on in public, and was reckoned a legitimate
sport. Then the State stepped in and dubbed it unlawful; yet it was carried on,
almost with impunity, for yearsbut those who participated in the sport met in
some sequestered nook to hold their meetings, the ti-tree swamp on Ham Common
(Richmond) being a favourite resort.

A man named " Jacky" Carr was among the first to introduce cock-fighting into
the Hawkesbury district. He was an Englishman, and always managed to get hold of
some fine imported birds.

Amongst those who followed the game also were Frank Norris, now residing on the
Brickfields,and one of the best pugilists of his day. Also his brothers Paddy and Jim, (sons of Richard NORRIS 1779-1843)
George Cupitt 1808-1875, Charlie Eather, The Charkers,
Gaudry's and Kable's. William Hopkins 1798-1862,
Joseph and William Onus, (sons of Joseph Onus 1782-1835). Ben Richards 1818-1898, and George Bushell were
also admirers of the game-cock, and they all owned good
fighting birds. The second-named is said to have had a magnificent button-comb
bird, which ended the career of many another good one.

The Dargins, Cornwells, Dan Mayne and Jack Cribb also followed the sport.
W. Hopkins was a great breeder of these birds, and he once owned a cookoo-game,
a very rare bird which was responsible for the death of more than one man's pet.

Jim Norris also had a bird which, after winning. fourteen or fifteen successive
battles met its doom when pitted against "Daddy" Baine's in the Richmond Lane,
close to the residence of Mrs. Onus. The birds always fought with steel spurs,
and a small black red bird weighing 6½ lbs, owned by George Cupitt, on one occasion
slaughtered three oponents without having his heels (as the spurs were termed) taken off.

James 'Jack' Cribb 1785-1841 always had a lot of birds, and used to spare no
expense in getting hold of good fighters to take his friends down.
He had been known to pay as much as £10 apiece for them, and once paid that
sum for a big light-grey bird, of which everybody was afraid.

Birds weighing from 6½lbs to 7lbs were always very strong and fast fighters, whilst
they varied in weight from 5½lbs to 8½lbs. The principal breeds were black red,
duck-wing, hen-feather, and the pile. The latter breed was the progeny of two good
distinct strains, and was considered one of the gamest of the game birds.

The fighting generally carried out in what was termed "mains," i.e.,
a number (say 5 or 7) birds of dififerent weights on either side.
The birds of the opposing forces were pitted on as equal terms as possible as
regards weight, and if the result of the " main" was equal, the contest would be
decided by a "turn-out"that is, a match between the heaviest bird of both sides.
The :mains" Comprised a party from Parramatta or Sydney on the one side, and
Windsor on the other.

Phil Williams (Sydney), the Waterhouses (Parramatta), and W. Sparks (Cook's River)
frequently brought their birds to Windsor, and were met in the fray by
Cupitt, Norris and Hopkins.
Matches for £50 or to £100 aside were often made, while a good deal of out
side money was also wagered

Sources:
Windsor and Richmond Gazette
(NSW : 1888 - 1954)
The Good Old Days
Yeldap.
Research and Transcription, Janilye
20 June 2012

New South Wales 1841 Census

SUMMARY:

NEW SOUTH WALES. Census of the Year 1841.
The results of the Census taken, pursuant to the provisions of the
Census Act of 1840, officially published by the government.

The returns consist of five large tables.
It is, impracticable to lay these tables in their original
form.
They are reduced to a form which will be equally accessible and
convenient for reference, at the same time contain all details
which are necessary for general purposes.

The Census includes the population and houses in the different counties,
in the Commissioners districts beyond the bounderies of location,
and in the penal settlements, and the number of persons employed on board
colonial vessels, on the 2nd March, 1841.

The total number of the population is given at 130,856.
The number of houses is given as 16,776,

of which, although 1,447 were unfinished,
there were only 331 uninhabited. Of these houses 6,375 were of stone or brick,
and 10,401 of wood.

The population, as to its civil condition, is stated as follows :
Free males, 61,324 of these 14,819 were born in the colony;
30,745 arrived free;
15,760 are described in the terms of the Act as "other free persons."
Free females, 40,425 of these 14,630 were born in the colony
22,158 arrived free;
and 3,637 are described as "other free persons."
making the total of the free population 101,749 souls.
Bond males, 23,814 of these 5,843 held tickets of leave;
6,658 were in government employment;
and 11,343 in private assignment.
Bond females, 3,133 of these 316 held tickets of leave ;
979 were in government service; and 1,838. in private assignment,
making, the total Bond population 20,977.

In addition to the above it is stated that 2,130 males are employed in colonial vessels
no particular information regarding them could be obtained.

Free population
Males 61,324
Females. 40,425
Bond Males. 23,844
Bond Females. 3,133
- 128,720
Employed in colonial vessels. 2,130
Total.... 130,856

As to religious persuasion or profession the numbers are given as follow :
Church of England - 73,727;
Church of Scotland,- 13,153;
Wesleyan Methodists,- 3,230 ;
Protestant & Dissenters,- 1,857
Roman Catholics, - 35,690;
Jews, - 856
Mahomedans and Pagans, - 207,

The return as to the occupations of the various classes is not very satisfactory,
but it is not materially important. It states that;
4,477 are landed proprietors, merchants, and professional persons
1,774 shopkeepers, and retail dealers;
10,715 mechanics and artificers ;
the remainder are to be divided into shepherds,
agricultural labourers, domestic servants, &c.

The County of Cumberland contains,
according to the Census Returns, 58,108 souls.

The County is divided into thirteen hundreds, viz:
Sydney, Parramatta, Liverpool, Woranora, Southend, Campbelltown, Bringelly,
Evan, Richmond, Windsor, Hardlnge, Dundas, and Packenham.


The Hundred of Sydney again is divided into nine parishes.

St. Phillip is stated to contain 9,838 souls, of whom
5,752 are males, and 4,080 females.
Free Population. Of the males. 1,094 were born in the Colony;
3,797 arrived free, and 564 are described as other free persons.
Of the females, 1,151 were born in the Colony, 2,577 arrived free, and
209 are described as other free persons.
Bond, There were 33 ticket-of-leave holders 100 in Government employment,
and 164 in private assignment.

Females, 8 ticket-of-leave holders, 2 in Government employment,
and 139 in private assignment.
Free Males... 5455
Free - Females .... 3,937
- 9,392
Bond Males... 297
Bond - Females .. 149
- 440
Total......... 9,838
Of these;
Church of England, - 5467
Church of Scotland, - 1,203
Wesleyan Methodists, - 231
Protestant denominations, - 226
Roman Catholics, - 2,527
Jews, - 136
Mahomedans and Pagans. - 48

There are 159 returned as landed proprietors, &c,
244 as shopkeers and dealers,
920 as mechanics and artificers,
the remainder as domestic servants, gardeners, &c, &c.

St. Phillip's parish contains 1,444 houses, of which 1,136 are of brick or stone, and
308 of wood; 1,407 of these were inhabited; 29 were unfinished, and only 37 uninhabited.

The next parish is St. James, which contains 6,081 inhabitants,
3,620 males, and 2,461 females.
Of the former, 608 were born in the Colony
1,924 arrived free ;
295 are classified as other free persons;
44 are ticket-of-leave holders;
626 are in Government employment, and
123 in private assignment. Of the latter,
624 were born in the Colony;
1,574 arrived free,
115 are described as other free persons ;
8 are holding tickets-of-leave,
4 are in Government employment, and
136 are in private assignment thus making the Free
Males ....... 2,827
Females... 2,313
5,140
Bond Males .. 793
Bond - Females .148
- 941
Total.. 6,081

These are divided into
Church of England, - 3,650
Church of Scotland, - 402
Wesleyans, - 155
Protestant & Dissenters, - 164
Roman Catholics, - 1,544
Jews, - 155
Mahomedans and Pagans. - 7
There are 186 returned as landholders, &c.,
200 as shopkeepers and dealers,
702 as mechanics and artificers, and the remainder as
domestic servants, gardeners, &c.
St. James' parish contains 802 houses, of which 645 are stone or brick, and
157 of wood, At the time the Census was taken, 6 of these were unfinished,
and only 7 uninhabited.

St. Lawrence's parish which stands next on the list, has 4,814 inhabitants;
2,707 males, and
2,157 females. Of the males.
2,421 are free, and
286 bond, and of the females,
2,011 are free, and
126 bond ; thus making the
Free Males .. 2,421
Females.... 2,011
4,432
Bond Males ...286
Bond females... . . . 136
412 Total. 4,844
Of these,
Church of England, - 2,633
Church of Scotland, - 422
Wesleyan, - 110
Protestants & Dissenters, - 191
Roman Catholics, - 1,392
Jews, - 88
Mahomedans, - 2

The number is also divided as to occupation, as follows :
70 landed proprietors, &c ;
126 shopkeepers and dealers;
737 mechanics and artificers,
and the remainder domestic servants, &c, &c.
This parish contains 767 houses, of which 550 are of stone or brick,
and 217 of wood; 746 are inhabited, 17 unfinished, and only 21 uninhabited.

The next parish is that of St. Andrew : it contains 6,925 inhabitants
3,827 males, and
3,098 females;
of the males 3,708 are free, and 119 bond;
of the females 2,998 are free, and 100 bond.
Thus making the
Free Males.. 3,708
Free Females .. 2,998 6,706
Bond Males . .. 119
Bond Females ... 100
219 Total.. 6,225
Of these
3,461 belong to the Church of England,
872 to the Church of Scotland,
252 are Wesleyans,
195 other Protestant Dissenters,
2,063 Roman Catholics,
79 Jews, and
3 Mahomedans and Pagans.
As to occupation they are divided into 78 landed proprietors, &c,
189 shopkeepers and dealers,
1,203 mechanics and artificers, and the remainder are described
as domestic servants, gardeners, &c.
The parish contains 1232 houses 867 of stone or brick,
and 365 of wood; of these 1,214 are inhabited.

The parish of Alexandria contains 3,313 inhabitants
1,899 males, and 1,444 females;
of the former 1,493 are free, and 406 bond ;
of the latter 1,372 are free, and 72 bond.
Thus making the
Free Males .. 1,493
Free Females. ...... 1,372 2,865
Bond Males .. 406
Bond Females ..... 72
478 Total.. 3,343

The above are divided into
Church of England, - 1,844
Church of Scotland, - 278
Wesleyans, - 83
Protestants, - 119
Roman Catholics, - 940
Jews, - 4
Mahomedans and Pagans, - 35
There are 98 landed proprietors,
28 shopkeepers,
242 mechnnics, the remainder domestic servants, &c.
The parish contains 475 houses 330 stone or brick, and 145 of wood;
451 are inhabited.

The parish of Botany is returned as containing 554 inhabitants,
319 males and 235 females.
Of the males
248 are free and 71 bond;
of the females
225 are free and 10 bond,
Thus
Free Males ........ 248
Free Females ... ..225
473
Bond Males .. ..71
Bond Females .... 10
81
Total.. 554
Of these
Church of England, - 385
Church of Scotland, - 60
Wesleyans, - 26
Protestants, - 6
Roman Catholics, - 77
Of landed proprietors there are 36, mechanics and artificers 32 ;
the remainder servants, gardeners, farm labourers, &c.
There are 112 houses; 28 of stone or brick, and 84 of wood ; 99 are inhabited.

The parish of Petersham contains 1903 inhabitants,
1201 males and
702 females. Of the former 791 are free and 410 bond ; of the latter 764 are free and 38 bond.
Thus
Free Males .. 791
Free Females .. 664 1,455
Bond Males ... 410
Bond Females ... 38
448 - Total.. 1,903
Of these
Church of England, - 1,151
Church of Scotland, - 157
Wesleyans, - 50
Protestants, - 59
Roman Catholics, - 475
Jews, - 9
Mahomedans, - 2
There are 35 landed proprietors, 7 shopkeepers, and 120 mechanics ;
the remainder are domestics, gardeners, farm servants, &c.
There are 274 houses in the parish, 107 of stone or brick and 167 of wood;
273 inhabited.

In the Parish of St. George there are 453 in habitants,
288 males and 165 females;
of the males 238 are free and 50 bond ;
of the females 154 are free and 11 bond.
Of these
Church of England, - 305
Church of Scotland, - 38
Wesleyan, - 1
Protestant, - 1
Roman Catholics, - 107
Pagan, - 1
There are 10 landed proprietors, 53 mechanics,
the remainder servants, gardeners, &c. &c.
There are 87 houses, 10 of stone or brick and 77 of wood ; 83 are inhabited.

Concord has 884 inhabitants, 548 males and 336 females,
of the males 411 are free and 137 bond;
of the females 311 are free and 25 bond.
Church of England, - 607,
Church of Scotland, - 32
Wesleyans, - 2
Protestants, - 9
Roman Catholics, - 234

There are 32 landed proprietors, 7 shopkeepers, and 83 mechanics,
the remainder are servants, gardeners, &c. &c.
Concord has 145 houses, 30 of stone or brick, and 115 of wood;
136 are inhabited.

Having thus disposed of the Hundred of Sydney, we next come to that of Parramatta,
which is divided into six parishes, viz. :

Hunter's Hill, Field of Mars, Castle Hill, Prospect, St. John, and Liberty Plains.

This hundred contains 8,808 inhabitants, of whom
4,645 are males, and 4,163 females.
Of the males 3,599 are free and 1,046 bond;
of the females 3,073 are free and 1,390 bond.
(This includes 804 in Government employment or Factory.)
Liverpool is divided into four parishes,

Bankstown which contains 217 inhabitants, 95 males and 64 females;

Saint Luke which contains 1,242 inhabitants, 795 males and 447 females;

Minto which contains 278 inhabitants, 169 males and 169 females; and

Holsworthy which contains 184 inhabitants, 110 males and 74 females.

Woranora is divided into four parishes, which together contains 63 Inhabitants,

Southend is divided into three parishes, containing 120 Inhabitants,

Campbelltown is divided into four parishes, containing 2,442 inhabitants,

Bringelly is divided Into three parishes, containing 966 inhabitants.

Evan is divided into three parishes, containing altogether 1,293 inhabitants.

Richmond is divided into four parishes containing altogether 2,610 inhabitants,

Windsor is divided into four parishes containing 2,736 inhabitants.

Hardinge is divided into 3 parishes, containing 460 inhabitants.

Dundas is divided into five parishes, containing 360 inhabitants.

Packenham is divided into five parishes, which contain 1,502 inhabitants.

The County of Cumberland is stated to contain, as
will be remembered, 58,108 inhabitants;
and these are divided as to their civil condition in the following manner:
Free Males, .... 27,997
Females, .... 22,203 50,200
Bond Males ....5,766
Bond - Females ..2,142
7,908 Total,. 58,108

The county of Argyle contains 3,397 inhabitants ;
of these 2,434 are males and 963 females. Of the males 1,436 are free,
and of the females 899. The bond males amount to 998 ;
of these 316 are ticket-of-leave holders, 145 in Government employment,
and 537 in private assignment; the bond females amount only to 64,
Thus the population of Argyle, as to its civil condition stands thus :
Free Males ...... 1,436
Free Females .... 899 2,335
Bond Males 998
Bond - Females .... 64
1,062
Total.. 3,397
Of these
1,799 belong to the Church of England,
451 to the Church of Scotland,
4 Wesleyans,
21 other Protestants,
1,087 Roman Catholics,
30 Jews, and
5 Mahomedans and Pagans.
As to occupation, 102 are returned as landed proprietors, &c,
24 as shopkeepers and dealers, 157 as mechanics and artificers,
the remainder are left to be divided between domestic servants, shepherds, farm-labourers, &c,
The number of houses are returned at 295,
94 of stone or brick and 201 of wood, all in habited except 4.

The next county on the list is Bathurst, the inhabitants are stated to be 2,465 ;
1,793 males, and 672 females. Of the males 1,089 are free, and of the females 628 are free.
The bond males number 704, of these 243 are tlcket-of-leave holders,
42 are in Government employment and 419 in private assignment;
the bond females amount only to 44.
Thus the population as to civil condition stands as follows :
Free Males, 1,089
Free - Females .... 628
1,717 .
Bond Males, 704
Bond - Females. . . . 44
743
Total .. 3,465
Of these
1,416 belong to the Church of England,
247 to the Church of Scotland,
124 are Wesleyans,
3 other Protestants,
671 Roman Catholics, and
4 Jews.
As to occupation, 89 are returned as landed proprietors, &c.,
27 as shopkeepers and dealers, 133 as mechanics and artificers,
the remainder are servants, shepherds, agricultural labourers, &c.
The district is said to contain 257 houses; 125 of stone or brick and 132 of wood,
all inhabited.

We next come to county Bligh, the population of which is returned at 546.
473 males and 73 females.
Of the males 212 are free, and of the females 72 are free.
The bond males are 261 in number, viz., 80 holding tickcts-of-leave,
2 in Government employment, and 179 in private as signment;
there is only 1 bond female.
Thus as to civil condition the population of Bligh stands.
Free Males, 212
Free - Females...... 72
284
Bond Males, ...261
Bond - Females, 262
Total. ... 546
As to Religion,
320 belong to the Church of England,
54 to the Church of Scotland,
1 is a dissenter,
200 are Roman Catholics, and
1 a Jew.
As to occupation, 18 are stated to be landed proprietors, 3 shopkeepers and dealers,
18 mechanics and artificers, the remainder to be divided amongst servants, shepherds, &c, &c.
The number of houses is stated to be 31, 4 of brick or stone, and 27 of wood.
Thirty of these are stated to be inhabited.

Brisbane, the next county on the list, is stated to contain 1,560 inhabitants,
1,210 males and 350 females ; of the males 685 are free, and of the females 334.
The Bond males number 625 ; of these 200 hold tickets-of-leave,
2 are in government employment, and 423 in private assignment; there are 16 bond females.
The civil condition may be thus stated :
Free Males, 585
Free - Females.... 334
919
Bond Males, 625
Bond - Females.. . 16
641
Total, 1,560
The religious classification is as follows;
Church of England 899,
Scotland 203,
Wesleyan 1,
other Protestants 10,
Roman Catholics 445,
Jew 1,
Mahomedan 1.
Of landed proprietors there are 30, shopkeepers 5, mechanics 99,
the remainder to be taken as shepherds, farm labourers, &c., &c.
The number of houses is stated at 94, 18 of stone or brick, and 76 of wood,
all inhabited except I,

Camden, the next on the Returns, is stated to possess a population of 6,286 souls;
4,114 males and 2,172 females. Of the males 2,862 are free, and of the females 2,058 are free.
There are 1,252 bond males, consisting of 372 tlcket-of-leave holders,
263 in government employment, and 617 in private assignment.
There are 114 bond females.
So the civil condition of the population of Camden is as follows:
Free Males, 2,862
Free - Females .... 2,058
4,920
Bond Males, 1,963
Bond - Females .... 114
1,306
Total.. 6,880
The religious denominations are thus given;
3,359 Church of England,
749 Church of Scotland,
164 Wesleyans,
49 other Protestants,
1,929 Roman Catholics,
86 Jews.
1 Mahomedan.
The occupations are given thus; landed proprietors, &c, 450,
shopkeepers 80, mechanics 549,
the remainder to be divided as stated with regard to previous counties.
There are also stated to be 933 houses, 137 of brick or stone,
and 796 of wood, of which 927 are Inhabited.

Cook, the next county on our list, is returned as having a population of 2,892 souls ;
1,854 , males and 1,036 females; of the males 1,411 are free,
and of the females 1,010 are free.
The bond males number 443 ; of these 162 hold tickets-of-leave,
155 are in government employment, and 126 in private assignment.
The number of bond females 1s 28, thus the population stands :
Free Males, 1,411
Free - Females .... 1,010
2,421
Bond Males, 443
Bond - Females .... 28
471
Total.. 2,892
Of these the Church of England claims 1,796,
the Church of Scotland 211 ;
83 are stated to be Wesleyans,
22 other Protestants,
770 Roman Catholics,
6 Jews,
4 Mahomedans or Pagans.
The occupations are set out as follow :
landed proprietors, 152, shopkeepers, 32, mechanics, 113 ;
the remainder of the population to be divided as in other counties.
Of houses there are stated to be 480; 61 of stone or brick, 419 of wood ;
478 inhabited.

Cumberland is the next on the list of Counties.
We have before given a lengthened abstract of the return for the county,
and therefore shall not repeat it here.
'Durham, County, has 6,238 inhabitants, 4,287 males, and 1,951 females.
Of the males, 2,754 are free, and of the females, 1,839 are free.
The bond males number, 1,033 ; of these, 421. hold tickets-Of-leave,
22 are in Government employ ment, and 1,090 in private assignment.
The bond, females amount to 112. The population as to civil condition, will be found to stand thus:
Free Males, 2,754
Free - Females..., 1,839
4,593
Bond Males, 1,533
Bond - Females .... 112
1,645
Total ..6,238.
The division of the populatlon as to religion is given in the following manner :
Church of England, 3,568,
Church of Scotland,- 1,024,
Wesleyans, 96,
other Protestants, 65,
Roman Catholics, 1,440,
Jews, 21,
Mahomedans or Pagans, 19.
The number of landed proprietors, &c. is given at 255,
shopkeepers, 45, mechanics, 413,
leaving the remainder to be divided as stated with regard to previous counties.
The number of houses is stated to be 764 ; 52 of stone or brick, and 712 of wood;
757 inhabited.

Georgiana is stated to contain a population of 749 souls ; 563 males, and 186 females.
Of the former, 375 are free, and of the latter, 112,
The number of bond males is 188 ; 64 of these hold tickets-of-leave,
8 are in Government employment, and 116 in, private assignment;
the bond Females are only 6 in number.
Thus the population as to civil condition is :
Free Males, 375
Free - Females .... 180
555
Bond Males, 188
Bond - Females .... 6 .
194
Total .. 749
Of these,
429 are stated to be of the Church of England,
46 of the Church of Scotland,
1 Protestant Dissenter,
273 Roman Catholics.
Their occupations are stated as follows :
35 landed proprietors, 1 shopkeeper, 22 mechanics ;
the remaining number to be divided as stated with regard to other counties.
There are stated to be 64 houses ; 7 of brick or stone, and 57 of wood, all inhabited.

Gloucester, the next County on the list, is stated to contain a population of 1,424 souls;
1,051 males, and 373 females. Of the males, 506 are free, and of the females, 354 are free.
The bond males 545 ; of these 101 hold tickets of-leave, 1 is in Government employment,
and 443 are in private assignment ; the bond females are 19 in number.
The civil condition of the population consequently stands thus:-
Free Males, 506
Free - Females, 354
860
Bond Males, 545
Bond - Females, 19
564
Total.. 1,424
The religious classification is as follows :
Church of England, 907,
Church of Scotland, 133,
Wesleyans, 33,
other Protestants, 15,
Roman Catholics, 327,
Jews, 4,
Mahomedans and Pagans, 5.
The occupations are stated as 46 landed proprietors,
7 shopkeepers, 169 mechanics; the remainder to be divided Into the various other basics,
The number of houses is given at 274 ; 39 of of brick or stone, and 235 of wood;
261 in habited.

Hunter, the next county in the returns, is returned as having a population of 999 souls,
655 males and 344 females. Of the males 614 are free, and of the females 337.
The bond males number 141, and the females 7.
Thus the civil condition of the population of county Hunter is:
Free Males, 514
Free - Females, 337
851
Bond Males, 141
Bond - Females .... 7
148
Total .... 999
To the Church of England belong 733,
Church of Scotland 46,
14 are Wesleyans,
201 Roman Catholics,
3 Jews,
2 Mahomedans.
There are 75 landed proprietors and shop keepers and 47 mechanics, the remainder divided into the various classes not mentioned as in other counties.
The number of houses is stated to be 174 ; 11 of brick and stone and 163 of wood;
172 in habited.

King county is returned as containing a population of 598 souls,
433 males and 165 females.
Of the males 260 are free, and of the females 147.
The bond males are 171, 69 holding tickets-of-leave, and 104 being in private assignment;
the bond females number 18.
Thus the civil condition stands as under :
Free Males,. 260
Free - Females, 147
407
Bond Males ...... 173
Bond - Females .... 18.
191
Total .... 598
Of these 368 belong to the Church of England,
14 to the Chureh of Scotland,
1 Wesleyan,
2 other dissenters,
213 Roman Catholics.
Landed proprietors are 23 in number, shopkeepers 4, mechanics 31,
the other classes occupying the remainder of the population.
There are 64 houses, 7 of stone or brick, and 57 of wood, 63 inhabited.

Macquarie, the next county, is stated to have a population of 3,409 souls,
1,919 males and 490 females. Of the males 837 are free, and of the females 381.
The bond males number 1,082, of these 150 hold tickets-of-leave,
691 are in Government employment, and 341 in private assignment.
The bond females amount to 109.
Thus the civil condition of the population may be stated as follows: -
Free Males, 337
Free - Females, 981
1,318
Bond Males .... 1,082 ,
Bond - Females,... 109
1,191
Total 2,409
Of these 1,361 are returned as belonging to the Church of England,
290 to the Church of Scotland,
37 Wesleyans,
39 other Protestants,
709 Roman Catholics,
89 Jews,
4 Mahomedans or Pagans,
Of landed proprietors there are 89, shopkeepers 16, mechanics 336,
the remainder may be divided in the same way as stated in previous counties,
The number of houses is 121, 47 of brick or stone and 74 of wood, 120 inhabited.

Murray County is returned as containing a population of 2,111 souls.
1,562 males and 549 females; of the males 896 are free, and of the females 535;
the bond males number 666, of these 186 hold tickets-of-leave, 34 are in government employment,
and 446 are in private assignment ;
the bond females amount to 24.
Thus the civil condition may be recapitulated as
Free Males ..... 896
Free - Females .... 525
1,421
Bond Males... 666
Bond - Females,.....24
690
Total .. 2,111
Of these 1,024 belong the Church of England
238 to the Church of Scotland,
6 are Wesleyans'
26 other Dissenters,
806 Roman Catholics
11 Jews.
Landed proprietors 105, shopkeepers 18, mechanics 127,
the remainder to be divided amongst the other classes.
The houses are said to be 274 in number, 31 of brick or stone, and 143 of wood 172 inhabited.

Northumberland County is returned as containing a population of 9,975 souls.
6,567 males and 3,408 females ; of the males 4,362 are free and of the females 3,125.
The bond males number 2,205; of these 632 hold tickets-of-leave, 618 are in government employment,
and 955 are in private assignment.
The bond females amount to 283.
The population as to civil condition will stand thus :
Free Males, 4,362
Free - Females.... 3,125
7,487
Bond Males .... 2,205
Bond - Females .... 283
2,488
Total . 9,975
The Church of England claims 6,291,
Church of Scotland 835,
160 are Wesleyans,
63 other Protestants,
2,566 Roman Catholic,
46 Jews,
14 Mahomedans or Pagans. ;
The landed proprietors are stated at 442
shopkeepers, at 203, and mechanics at 1,085.
There are stated to be 1,272 houses, 338 of stone or brick, and 934 of wood,
1,261 inhabited.

Phillip County is stated to contain 453 inhabitants, 363 males and 90 females ;
of the males 195 are free, and of the females 85.
The bond males number 168, of whom 43 hold tickets-of-leave, 9 are in government employment,
and 116 in private assignment. The bond females are only 5.
Thus the civil condition may be recapitulated as
Free Males, 195
Free - Females ,.... 85
280
Bond Males ...... 168
Bond - Females .... 5
173
Total ..463
Of these 259 are of the Church of England,
37 of the Church of Scotland,
3 Wesleyans,
153 Roman Catholics,
2 Jews.
Landed proprietors are put down as 19, shopkeepers 1, mechanics 13.
There are 23 houses, 5 of stone or brick and 18 of wood, all inhabited.

Roxburgh, the next county on the list, contains 1,520 inhabitants, 1,074 males and 446 females.
Of the males 700 are free,and of the females 406.
Of bond males there are 374. 159 holding tickets-of-leave, 5 in Government em ployment,
and 210 in private assignment; the bond females are 40 in number.
The civil con dition of the inhabitants of Roxburgh will show then ;
Free Males, 700
Free - Females . .. 406
1,106
Bond Males, 374
Bond - Females .... 40
414
Total .. 1,520
These are divided as to religion into the following classes:
Church of England 919,
Church of Scotland 159,
Wesleyans 40,
other Protestants 5,
Roman Catholics 388,
Jews 9.
Landed proprietors are numbered at 67, shopkeepers at 13, and mechanics at 89.
There are 137 houses, 69 of stone or brick and 68 of wood, all inhabited.

Saint Vincent, County, has a population of 1,762 souls;
1,308 males and 454 females. Of the males 686 are free, and of the females, 434.
The bond males are 622 in number, of them 175 hold Tickets-of-Leave, 22 are in Government employment,
and 425 in private assignment.
The bond females are 20 in number.
Thus the civil condition of the population of Roxburgh may be stated as follows :
Free Males, 686
Free - Females .... 434
1,120
Bond Males, 622
Bond - Females .... 20
642
Total .. 1,763
Of these
262 belong to the Church of England,
259 to the Church of Scotland,
6 are Wesleyans,
6 other dissenters, 5
26 Roman Catholics,
3 Jews.
Landed proprietors are returned as 48, shop keepers 6, and mechanics 89.
There 137 houses; 9 of brick or stone and 128 of wood; 136 inhabited.

Wellington, the next County, contains 510 in habitants, 390 males and 120 females.
Of the males 236 are free and of the females 113. The number of bond males is 164;
52 holding tickets-of-leave and 102 in private assignment; the number of bond females is 7.
The civil condition stands thus:
Free Males, 236
Free - Females .... 113
349
Bond Males, 154
Females .... 7
161
Total ....
510 Of these 331 belong to the Church of England,
40 to the Church of Scotland,
3 are Wesleyans and 136 Roman Catholics.
There are 10 landed proprietors, 6 shopkeepers and 25 mechanics.
There are 37 houses; 12 of brick or stone, and 25 of wood; all inhabited.

Westmoreland has a population of 619 souls; 435 males and 184 females.
Of the males 312 are free and of the females 179.
The bond males number 123, of whom 50 hold tickets-of-leave, and 73 are in private assignment.
There are 5 bond females.
The civil condition of this population is therefore as follows:
Free Males ...... 312
Free - Females .... 179
491
Bond - Males, 123
Bond - Females .... 5
128
Total .... 619
Of these, 200 are of the Church of England,
46 of the Church of Scotland,
9 Wesleyans,
7 other protestants,
267 Roman Catholics.
There are 37 landed proprietors and 15 mechanics.
There are 90 houses; 7 of brick or stone, and 83 of wood; 88 are inhabited,

We now come to tho Commissioners' District beyond the boundaries, These are nine in number, namely Wellington, Bligh, Lachlan, Monaroo, Murrumbidgee. Peel's River, New England, Clarence River, M'Leay River

Wellington has a population of 935 souls, 837 males and 98 females.
The free males are 466 in number and the free females 95.
The bond males are 371 in number; of them 128 hold tickets-of-leave.
9 are in Government employment, and 234 in private assignment.
There are 3 bond females.

Bligh has 672 inhabitants; 577 males and 95 females.
Of the males 339 are free and of the females 94.
The bond males are 238 in number; 71 hold tlckets-of-leave, 5 are in Government employment,
and 162 in private assignment.

Lachlan has a population of 1,345 souls; 994 males, and 251 females,
Of the males 649 are free and of the females 244.
There are 345 bond males; 121 hold tickets-of-leave, 9 are in Government employment,
and 315 in private assignment.

Monaroo has a population of 1833 souls; 1509 males and 374 females.
Of the males 1041 are free, and of the females 370.
The bond males are 498 in number; 198 hold tickets-of-leave, 6 are in Government employment, and 294 in private assignment.

Murrumbidgee has 1639 inhabitants; 1208 males and 261 females.
Of the males 782 are free and 272 females are free.
The bond males are 476 in number; 104 hold tickets-of-leave,
35 are in Government employment, and 277 in private assignment.
There are 9 bond females.

Peel's River District has 1591 inhabitants ; 1424 males and 167 females.
Of the males 795 are free, and of the females 158. The bond males number 629;
of these 178 have tickets-of-leave, 17 are in Government employment, and 445 in private assignment.
There are 9 bond females.

New England has 1115 inhabitants; 1003 males and 112 females.
Of the males 536 are free, and of the females 107.
The bond males are 467 in number; 76 hold tickets-of-leave, 11 are in Government employment,
and 380 in private assignment. There are 5 bond females.

Clarence River District has 416 inhabitants, 343 males, and 73 females.
Of the males, 237 are free, and of the females 71.
The bond males number 106; 11 hold tlckets-of-leave, 10 are in Government employment,
and 85 in private assignment. There are 2 bond females.

M'Leay River District has 584 inhabitants ; 443 males, and 141 females.
Of the males, 229 are free, and of the females, 123.
The bond males number 214 ; 60 hold tickets-of-leave, and 154 are in private assignment.
There are 18 bond women.

At Moreton Bay there are 200 souls ; 176 males, and 24 females.
Of the. males, 45 are free, and of the females 22.
The bond males number 131 ; 1 holds a ticket-of-leave, and 130 are in Government employment.
There are two bond females.

Norfolk Island here there are 1,288 bond males, and 3 bond females.
There are 254 free males, and 102 free females.

district of Port Phillip, which according to the census contains 11,738 inhabitants.
Of these 8,274 are males, and 3,454 females.
Of the males 8274 are free, and 518 bond ; of the females only 6 are bond.
We have thus concluded our synopsis, which may be resumed as follows :
Free Males .. 61,324
Females, 40,425
101,749
Bond Males .. 23,844
Bond - Females, 3,133
26,977
Employed in Colonial Vessels 2,130
Total 130,856





Sources
New South Wales State Records
The Australian
(Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848)
Saturday 4 September 1841
Tuesday 7 September 1841
Transcription, ©janilye
4 June 2012


Land Grants 1821

These 1821 Land Grants listed below appeared in three(3) Sydney Gazettes, rather than lump them all together I have copied them as they appeared.


The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842)
Saturday 28 April 1821


THE following LIST of NAMES of NEW SETTLERS, who are to receive GRANTS of LAND,
and of OLD SETTLERS, who are to have additional LANDS located for them
in the Year 1821,
is published for general Information :

James Atkinson, Thos. Arkell, Edw. Alcorn, Robt. Aull, Jas. Arndell, Thos. Allen,
George Alleburn, Samuel Arndell, Richad Adams, Francis Allen, Jos. Atkins, Wm Alsop,
J. Aiken, Francis Able, Michael Ansell, Edw. Allen, Thos. Asplin, Thomas Ashford,
Charles Armitage, Pat. Allen, J. Andrew, J Agland, Alex Berry, Geo. Barber, Wm. Baker,
David Brown, Wm Bradbury, Robert Bateman. Geo. Best, sen. Bryan Byrne, Mich. Bryan,
J. Brown, Noah Bryan, Charles Beasley, Timothy Brophy, J. Brown, John Bryan,
Wm. Bruce, Thos. Byrne, John Booth, N. Boon, Wm. Beaumont, Thos Bowers, Thos. Bates,
Wm. Beggs, Dennis Bigley, Jas Bolsover, J. Brown, J. Brackfield, George Bradley,
Wm. Bannister, Thos. Bowning, Sam. Barber, Thos. Bird, Michael Byrne, Jas Brackenry,
J. Bent, Thos. Bates, Thos. Baker, J. Barker, J. Byrne, Thos. Biggen, Andrew Biggen,
Jas. Beckett, J. Bell, Thos. Benson, Bursella Bensley, Edw. Burke, Brien Bagnall,
Jos Bullock, Jas. Badgery, H. Batman, Owen Byrne, Jas. Butler, Richard Bryan, H. Butler,
Aaron Burt, J. Burrell, Daniel Brown, J. Bentley, Stephen Burr, Wm. Britain, J. Bradford,
Jon. Broker, J. Bowman, Wm. Barron, Jas. Byrne, Martin Burke, Geo Best, jun. James Barker,
Jas. Brailey, Jas. Burgess, H. Bray, Thomas Byrne, Robert Brodie, Jas. Burke, Thos. Brown,
J. Brown, Thos Brian, Wm. Burridge, D. Burne, Wm. Briant, Eber. Bunker, James Butler,
Silvester Butler, Owen Boyne, J. Bennett, D. Brown, John Bayley, Edward Bailes,
John Bull, John Bailes, jun. Daniel Bisex, Michael Boland, Thos. Cowper, James Cobb,
Donald Cameron, George Cutter, Adam Clink, Isaac Cornwall, William Chadworth,
Timothy Connor, James Carroll, John Cahill, John Cheers, Benj. Carver Owen Connor,
Peter Cooney, John Crawley, Thomas Campbell, Richard Cavanagh, Jas. Cavanagh,
James Cox, George Clarke, Samuel Craft, Thomas Cross, John Cribb, Peter Carrol,
Roger Connor, John Cowley, John Craft, John Colcroft, William Craig, Farrell Cufie,
John Cromen, Dennis Connolly,James Connell, Michael Cartwell, Peter Carroll,
John Collins, Hugh Crabtree, Abraham Champray, Thos. Cowling, John D. Campbell.
Richard Carr, Dennis Conway, John Cummins, William Cheshire, Thos. Clarke,
Edward Churchill, John Chaseling, James Connelly, Thomas Chesbie, John Day,
John Dight, Andrew Doyle, William Davis, Edward Doyle, Thos. Dutton.
Jas. Donnelly, Jas Duffey, Wm. Douglas, Jas. Devlin, Jas. Daly, Jas Dempsey,
Pat. Downey, Thos. Davy, Peter Dunn, Edmund Doyle, Cyrus Doyle, Jas. Donahar,
Stephen Dunn, Pat. Devoy, Pat Dacey, Michael Doran, Nicholas Dukes,
Thos. Downes, Charles Dodding, Geo. Dowling, J. Dell, Francis Dalton,
Jas. Dearing, Wm Dockrell, Michael Duggin, Richard Donelly,
J. Darrah, Isaac Dowse, Garrett Donally, John Dewhurst, Christopher Downes,
John Dogharty, Walter Duggan, Joseph Dargon, George Davis, Shady Davey,
Samuel Davis, John Davis, Thomas Davis, William Davis, John Dalton, Patrick Downey,
Edward Dillon, John Dunn, John Eyre, John England, James Eldridge, Eliker Everitt,
Joseph Eades, Charles Eather, Thomas Eather, Thomas Eather, sen. Joseph Emm,
Joseph Earles, Daniel Eaton, Joseph Eyles, Henry Early, William Edney, John Edney,
Wm. Edwards, Wm. Eagleton, Wm. Etsell, John Ellison, John Wm. Fulton, Wm. John Fitz,
Henry Fleming, Bernard Fitzpatick, John Frazier, Samuel Fry, George Freeman, Wm. Field,
Bernard Fitzpatrick, Robert Farlow, James Frazier, Edward Field, sen. John Finch,
Wm. Fulford, John Freebody, S. Foley; James Freeman, Thomas Frost, Geo.Fieldhouse,
Francis Frendard, John Floyd, and J. Forster.

Settlers, who may have received separate Orders for Land, and whose Names are not inserted in the above general List, are requested to bring their Orders to this Office, that the same may be entered.

JOHN OXLEY, Surveyor General To be continued in our next Gazette

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842)Saturday 5 May 1821

SURVEYOR GENERAL'S OFFICE, SYDNEY,
28 th April, 1821.
THE; following LIST of NAMES of NEW SETTLERS, who are to receive GRANTS of LAND,
and of OLD SETTLERS, who are to have additional LANDS located for them in the Year
1821, is published for general Information :

Robert Forrester, Wm. Forrester, John Farrell, John Fowler, Richard Friar,
John Foley, Edward Franks, Edward Fletcher, William Flynn, Thomas Francis, jun.,
Patrick Flynn, Peter Fitzpatrick, John Ferguson, J. Golledge, Wm Guise,
J. Galvin, Jas. Gooding, jun., James Goddard, Benj. Grimshaw, P. Garey,
J. Grono, George Graves, Jas. Greenslade, J. Grant, Mich. Geary, Robt. Gray,
Henry Gaskin, Mich. Gavagan, Robt. Garratt, Benjamin Goddard, Wm. Gwillim,
Jas. Griffiths, Dennis Green, Wm. Goodere, Wm. Galvin, Dennis Guinny, John Glade,
Val. Goodwin, Richard Guise, J. Goodwin, Thomas Galvin, Thos. Gilbert,
J. Gosport, Joseph Gosport, J. Gardner, Joseph Gilbert, Isaac Gorrick,
John Higgins, George Howe, J. Howe, Wm. Holmes, Wm. Hayes, Wm. Hardman,
Joseph Hately, Pat. Harper, Francis Hainsworth, William Hearn, Henry Howell,
Mich. Hogan, Richard Haviland, Philip Hogan, J. Harris, J. Harris, William Hawkins,
John Hanabus, Charles Herbert, Thos. Hinton, Pat. Hand, Lawrence Harvey,
David Horton, jun., J. Hope, Thomas Hall, Wm. Hill, Peter Hough, Joseph Hunt,
Henry Hunt, Samuel Harding, D. Hawkins, George Hambridge, Jas. Henry,
Maurice Hallihan. Edw. Harrigan, Thos. Howell, George Hill, Christopher Harris,
Joshua Holt, Tim. Hoy, Wm. Harrington, John Hodges, Mich. Hughes, John Hoile,
Henry Hoile, Joshua Heap, Abraham Herne, Lawrence Halfpenny, James Harper,
John Herbert, jun., J. Hazard, Jas. Higgins. Robt. Higgins, Enoch Hutchinson,
Thos. Higgins, PeteirHibbs, jun., J Holden, Wm. Hewitt, Edw. Hobbs, J. Hearn,
Thos. Hansey, Hugh Hughes, jun., Jas. Hall, Henry Huff, George Hughes, J Holt,
George Higginson, Peter Hibbs, J. Holden, Thos. Hooton, Wm. Howell,
Francis R. Hume, J. Hendle, Jas. Hayden, Jesse Hudson, David Horton sen.,
Robt. Johnston, George James, John Johnston, John Jacklin, Thomas John,
George Johnstone, Wm. Jones, Wm. lkin, Joseph Inch, Wm. Jacklyn, Charles Ivory,
Edward Jones, Mich. Joyce, Thos. Jones, George Jubb, jun., Thos. Jones,
John Innes, John Johnson, Richard Johnson, Charles Jackson, John Joyce,
James Kay, William Klen endorlff, Pat. Kirk, John Kennedy, Wm. Kearns,
J. Keighran, Thos. Keane, J. Kirlaghan, R. Kibble, Cornelius Keoe,
Donald Kennedy, jun., John Kelly, Joseph Lendall, Jas. Kavannagh,
Duncan Kennedy, John Kennedy, Wm. Kellow, Wm. Kenney, Thomas Kelly,
Archibald Kane, Daniel Kelly, Thos. Kelly, D. Knowland, Thos. Kendall,
James Kelly, James Kenney, J. H. Lawson, Walker Lawry, Wm. Lilly,
Francis Lawless, Samuel Leverton, Henry Lendon.

Settlers, who may have received separate Orders for Land, and whose Names are not inserted in the above general List, are requested to bring their Orders to this Office, that the same may be entered.

JOHN OXLEY, Surveyor General. *** To be concluded in our next Gazette.

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842) Saturday 12 May 1821

SURVEYOR GENERAL'S OFFICE, SYDNEY,
28th April 1821.
THE following LIST of NAMES of NEW
SETTLERS, who are to receive GRANTS of LAND, and of OLD SETTLERS,
who are to have additional LANDS located for them in the Year 1821,
is published for general Information :

J. Holmes, J. Lynch, Samuel Leverton, jun. Jas. Lewis, Richard Lillis,
Thos. Lawrence, J. Leadbeater, sen. J. Larken, Peter Lawry, George Lilley,
James Lyons, Wm. Land ron, Miles Leary, John Lavis, Jas. Layton, Nicholas Lacy,
William Lees, Peter Lillis, Elijah Lane, Wm. Lawrence, J. Lapish, Mich. Lamb,
J. Lees, J. Lacey, Owen Lenaghan, John Longford, Wm. Lovegrove,, H. Lamb,
J. Lyons, Hannibal M'Arthur, Jas. M'Arthur, Wm. M'Arthur, Charles M'Arthur,
Andrew M'Dougal, J. M' Henry, Henry Marr, Wm. Minchin, Wat Mobbs,
J. Mobbs, George Mobbs, Isaac Mobbs, J. M'Loughlin, Fred. Meurant,
Jos. Meyrick, Tristram Moore, Cornelius M'Arthy, P.Moore, Pat. Mernan,
J. Madden, Mich. Maloney, Wm. Morgan, John Mills, Jas. M'Arty, jun.
Thomas Martin, jun. Jas. M'Arty, J. Mackey, Thos. Miller, Christopher M'Guire,
Thos Mortimer, J. May, Pat. Mason, Put. Moore, Thos. Maloney, Jas. M'Guire,
Matthias Miller, Jas. M'Arty. John M'Arty, William Makepiece, Thos. Moran,
Fred. Murphy, Patrick Mulhall, Thos. M'Caffery, George Maginnis,
Edw Merrick, Thos. M'Kenna, Robert Maxwell, Henry M'AIlister, James M'Manis,
John Murphy, George Marley, Kennedy Murphy, Patrick M'Hall, George Murphy,
Thos. Mustagh, Owen Martin, jun. George Mortimer, Thos Murray, Charles M'Carty,
William Mobbs jun. Jas. Mosely, H. Morton, J. Merzagora, J. M'Peake,
Isaac Mills, Jas. Macdonald, Jas. Milson, Dennis M'Neary, Jas. M'Aloney,
Brian M'Cormic, John Moss Wm. Mannix, Mich. Macdonald, John M'Donald,
Joseph Mason, John. M'Guigan, Joseph Ma'ckinley, Thos. M'Guire, Jas. Marshall,
Thomas Moakson, Andrew' M'Dougall, Jame« M'Dougall, J. M'Dougall, J. Moss,
Alexander M'Guigan, Patrick Mahar, Thomas McVitie, Simon Moulds,
Edward Meurant, jun, J. Matthews, Robt. Marshall, William M'Haslan,
Alexander M'Donald, Hugh M'Avoy, J. Murphy, Mich. Minton, Jas. M'Donald,
Patrick Naughton, Richard Norris, J. Nash, Thos. Nugent, Thos. Newman,
Andrew Nash, Jas. Nugent, James Nowlan, Wm. Newport, J Norris, John Nowland,
George Nash. J. Neil, J. Nicholds, Walter Noy, F. O'Meara, J. O'Meara,
p. Oakes, Jas. O'Brian, Chas. O'Brien, James Owen, Thos Owens, Wm. Osburne,
Saml. Owen, Jas. O'Harra, Wm. Olds, Mark Opong, Brien O'Brien, Wm. Oliver,
Jos. Onus, Terence O'Brien, Chas. Pennon, G. T. Palmer, George Panton,
Wm. Pithers, Mr Parmeter, J. Price, Wm. Parkins F. Pendergral, J. Pike,
J. Pike, Morgan Poor, N. Payton, J. Pitcher, Saml. Paine, Wm. Page,
John J. Peacock, Robt. Plumb, J. Patfield, Thos. Prentice, J.
Phillips, Mich. Parker, George Pinkerton, F. Peisley, George Phillips,
J Pendergrast, Wm. Paris, J. Pye, jun. Wm. Pritchard, Daniel Pegg,
Saml. Perkins George Plummer, H. Pullen, R. Partridge, Joseph Pashley,
Mich. Power, J Pugh Deison Post, Tim Poor, F. Piper, Wm. Piper, H. Paul,
J. Pender, Jas. Pender, Edwin Rouse, Edw. Riley, Thos. Rose, Edw. Redmond,
J. Robinson, Chas. Rushton, John Riley, Malachi Ryan, Thos Riley, J. Ready,
J. Redmond, Wm. Reynolds, J. Ross, Barnabas Rix, Wm Rafter, Mark Russell,
Wm. Rose, Wm. Roberts, Joseph Rye, jun. Mich. Rourke, Alex. Routledge,
J. Riley, Nich. Ryan, Wm. Rixon, Robt. Ray, Owen Riley, Thos. Rudd, J. Rudd,
J. Rentwell, Richard Ruff. H. Rochester, Barnabas Rix, Chas. Smith, Wm. Smith.
Mich. Stack, Jas. Stack, Jas. Shepherd, sen. G. Smith, Wm. Scott, Jas. Shepherd,
jun. F. Spencer, Andrew Scott, J. Sunderland, Martin Sweeney, Dennis Shield,
Dan. Smallwood, George Sewell, Edw. Stinton, Jos. Smith, H. Styles, Jas. Smithers,
Wm. Skinn, Joseph Smith, jun. Wm. Smith, Wm. Stenson, Jas. Smith, Edw. Shipley,
Wm. Speers, Hugh Scott, W. Scott, Wm. Smith, J. Smith, Jas. Smallwood,
Roger Shea, J. Scully, J. Stone, Thos. Stevens, Jos. Stubbs, Jas. Speers,
Wm. Stubbs, Wm Simms, Thos. Stone, Thos. Stack, Jos. Smith, Jas. Smith,
F. Stafford, Jas. Smith, Dennis Stacey, Chas, Summerell, Stephen Smith,
J. Smith, Edw. Stowers, Dan. Step, Thos. Smith, Dan. Sweeney, Thos. Sanders,
jun. J. Smith, J. Stanbury, jun. Robt. Smith, George Scott, Murty Shields,
Wm. Sherries, J. Sewell, Wm. Stabler, Chas. Throsby, jun. Robt. Turnbull,
Chas. Thompson, Wm. Tuckwell, J. Tindell, J. Tarlington, Edw. Tompson,
J. Turnbull, Jas. Thompson, Chas. Thomas, Bishop Thompson, Thos. Thompson,
J.Tague, J.Taylor, H. Fretheway, Jas. Toucher, S. Tuckman, Chas. Tunks,
H. Thorn, jun. J. Thorm, jun. Jos. Tuzo, Jeon Francois Theon, J. Town,
Jas. Turner, Wm Thorn, jun. Jas. Thomas, D.^Thompson, J. Taylor, Thos. Trotter,
Jas. Turner, George Tuckwell, Wm. Tyson, Philip Tully, George Trace,
Owen Tierney, Wm. Tompson, Thos. Turner, Jas. Vaughan, J. Vardy, R. Virgin,
Thos. Vardy, J. Voildes, Thos. Upton, Edw. Wollstonecraft, Wm. Walker,
George Woodhouse, G. P. Wood, George Ward, J. Whalan, Wm. Welsh, Thos. Woolley,
J. Williams, Edmund Wright, Robt. Wilkinson, Daniel Wellings, J. Wright,
J. Walker, Jas. Williams, Wm. Wright, Chas. Wilson, Thos. Warner, P. Workman
Aaron Walkers, Job Wilson, Wm. Williams, Robert Wells, Thos. Wilson,
Thos. Wood, J. K. Williamson J. D. Wood, Wm. White, Chas. Watson, J. Williams,
Jas. Walbourn, J,. Weevers, Chris. Ward, H. Wells, Wm. Walker, J. Warby,
J. Warby, jun. J. Wood, James Wright. Wm. White, Wm. Wakeman, James Whalan,
Jas. Were, J. Wright, Wm. Wall, Jos. Walker and Charles Yorke.

Settlers, who may have received separate Orders for Land, and whose Names are not inserted in the above general List, are requested to bring their Orders to this Office, that the same may be entered.
JOHN OXLEY, Surveyor General.

LABOURS AND SUFFERINGS OF THE EARLY CONVICTS

Early Australian History.
A series of Historical Sketches, bearing upon Australian Colonization and
Convict Life in New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land.

The state of things thus feebly depicted continued until the middle of May, when the Sirius returned from the Cape with a four months' supply of provisions for the settlement. Her arrival was hailed with great joy, and those convicts who had almost given themselves up to despair and the recklessness attendant upon such a condition of mind and feeling, at once became orderly, industrious, and well-behaved.
Full rations produced contentment and even hilarity, and the convicts went so far in this direction as even to indulge in dramatic entertainments, permission to do so having first been obtained from his Excellency.

The 4th of June 1789 was the King's birthday, and free and bond joined in its celebration, rendering the occasion remarkable as the data of the first performance of a play in Australia.
The play produced was George Farquhar's comedy of 'The Recruiting Officer,' and the theatre was a hut fitted up for the occasion, the actors being all convicts. Concerning the merits of this early performance no information has been handed down to us ; but Collins says, ' they (the players) professed no higher aim than 'humbly to excite a smile,' and their efforts 'to please' were not unattended with applause.'

The chief work upon which the prisoners had up to this time been employed was in procuring building materials, erecting houses and stores, building boats and wharves, and in farming operations, 250 of them being engaged, mostly at Parramatta, in clearing the ground and cultivating the soil. The discovery of the Hawkesbury River by the Governor, who spent a large portion of his time in exploring the country in this direction in search of better land for cultivation, furnished a wider scope for operations, and parties of convicts were soon sent further afield to work.
The fine deep soil on the banks of the river was admirably adapted for raising grain, and shortly after its discovery portions of it were allotted to settlers. But another season of distress being feared, in November the people were again placed on short allowance, for although the first crop had been garnered at Parramatta, amounting to upwards of 200 bushels of wheat, with small portions of maize, barley and oats, it was deemed advisable to save the whole for seed for the ensuing year ; and the rats had committed great havoc among the provisions in the public store at the settlement. The rations now served out were barely sufficient to preserve life, the weekly allowance for adults being 2lbs. flour, 2lbs. pork, 1 pint peas, and 1lb. rice, the Governor and the officers again receiving equal measure with the convicts.

And right in the midst of this trouble there came intelligence which intensified the gloom.
The Sirius frigate, which had been sent to Norfolk Island, had been wrecked there, and although two years had elapsed since the foundation of the colony, no intelligence had been received from England, and for all the people knew no fresh supplies had yet started from headquarters.
And again want bred discontent and disorder ; again were issued and enforced stringent regulations against waste; again there followed insubordination, floggings and executions.

The tender Supply was despatched to Batavia, the commander carrying instructions to charter a vessel there and load her as well as the Supply with a full cargo of provisions.
Two months of deepest misery intervened, and then one morning early in June a sail was sighted from the South Head. The vessel proved to be the Lady Juliana, from London, which had been eleven months on her passage, having started in July of the previous year.
The ship Guardian had been dispatched from England about the same time, with a large quantity of live stock and other supplies, but having struck on a rock she was compelled to put into the Cape of Good Hope, almost in a sinking state ; and the Lady Juliana, a much smaller vessel, had come on with a part of her cargo and passengers.
The provisions which thus came to hand at such an opportune time enabled the Governor to increase, but only to a small extent, the scale of provisions, it being thought that the stock would last until the return of the Supply from Batavia.

Then other surprises quickly followed. Three ships from London, transports, put in their appearance, bringing ,out a large number of convicts, and detachments of the New South Wales Corps.
More mouths to feed and very little to feed them ! the outlook was indeed dark and gruesome.

The character of the New South Wales Corps afterwards embodied in the 102nd Regiment has already been dwelt upon in Part I of this history ('The Story of the Ten Governors'), but the subject was not then exhausted, and it is necessary that something more should be said concerning a set of men whose actions proved them to have been cast in the coarsest mould of genteel viciousness.

Concerning the formation of the Corps : A Major Grose had made a proposal to the Secretary of State to enlist a force for service in the penal settlement of Botany Bay, on condition that he received certain emoluments and honours, and his offer being accepted he set his recruiting officers to work, and soon succeeded in raising the requisite number to form the first detachments. Not from the ranks of tried soldiers did he raise his force, and not from the ranks of reputable men. They were to do duty in a land of convicts ; who better for such service than convicts themselves? An Irish political prisoner named Holt, who was transported to the colony some years later than the period here referred to, and whose peculiar experiences will be narrated in a subsequent chapter, describes, the. officers-of this Corps as ' old tailors and shoemakers, stay-makers, man-milliners, tobacconists and pedlars, that were called- captains and lieutenants.' Likely men for the service were sought in the hulks of the prisons of the old land ; soldiers under punishment were taken. from the navy hulk; and those who had been condemned to service in India were reprieved on enlisting in the New South Wales Corps.
-Says Governor Hunter, who found them more, troublesome than the convicts,'Characters who have been disgraced in every other regiment in his Majesty's. service have been thought fit and proper recuits , for the New South Wales Corps. We find among these, men capable of corrupting the hearts of the best disposed, and often superior in every species of infamy to the most expert in wickedness among the convicts !'
And these are only fine lines in the picture.
Those who have read what has already been written of these men, and who read what follows and after all is said the whole truth will not have , been told will share in the astonishment of the writer of this story that every element of goodness in the young colony was not swallowed up in this sink of corruption called a Corps.

The vessels which brought to the colony the first contingent of Major Grose's army also brought about : 2,000 male and 250 female convicts. The voyage out was full of horrors to the unfortunate prisoners.
The vessels were not, regular transports, but private ships, whose owners had contracted with the Government to embark prisoners at £17/7/6 per head, without any agreement being made for sufficient accommodation or proper control ; nor were they even liable for any deduction for those who died on the voyage hence, the greater number of deaths, the more profit to the contractors. Will the reader be astonished to learn that the sharks were well fed on human flesh during the passage. Nearly 300 of the wretched creatures on board in chains perished before the vessels reached Port Jackson, in consequence of the close and improper way in which they had been confined.
Driven to desperation by the treatment they were receiving, some of the convicts made an attempt to overpower the guards and get possession of the ships. They failed, and failure brought increased suffering.
The convicts were after this attempt all heavily ironed : and the bodies of those who died under the hatches were permitted to remain there and putrefy for weeks !
Is there in all the records of the time when slave ships sailed the sea, a story more horrible and horrifying than this?
Some of those who survived the voyage died when being conveyed to the land in boats, and many of the others landed only to die.
No record has been preserved of the number that died after they were landed, but Colonel David Collins makes this grim report : All possible expedition was used in getting the sick on shore, for even while they remained on board many died. The total number of sick on the last day of June was three hundred and forty-nine.

The melancholy which closed the month of June appeared unchanged in the beginning of July. The morning generally opened with depositing in the burying ground the miserable victims of the night !'But the officers and men of the New South Wales Corps lived through it all, and on their arrival they began to shew their superiority as soldiers wearing the King of England's uniform.

Let Governor Phillip speak. He says : "They were observed to be very intimate with the convicts, living in their huts, eating, drinking and gambling with them, and perpetually enticing the women to leave the men."

The whole detachment, we are told, with the exception of the non-commissioned officers and five or six of the privates, took an oath to stand by each other, and not to suffer a soldier to be punished for whatever crime he might commit against an inhabitant ; and so we hear Governor Hunter complaining that they had destroyed the dwelling house of one resident, for sport, no doubt, and that the greatest part of the detachment on one occasion left their barracks with their bayonets 'to attack an unarmed people,' continuing for four days in open and avowed mutiny.' The officers did not, certainly, transgress so openly after the fashion of their inferiors, but they committed outrages of another character, as fully detailed in Part I ; and they gave the sanction of silence to the 'innocent pranks' of the privates in the Regiment.

Governor John Hunter it was who wrote to one of the commanding officers (Lieut.Colonel Paterson)- in the following strain, his anger somewhat interfering with his grammar : "I must declare to you, sir, that the conduct of this part of the New South Wales Corps has been, in my opinion, the most violent and outrageous that was ever heard of by any British Regiment whatever!"
Major Grose and Captain Paterson each served as Lieutenant-Governor during the interregnum, between the departure of Governor Phillip in December, 1792, and the arrival of Governor Hunter in September, 1795 the former acting two years, and the latter for about nine months.
And here let us drop the: New South Wales Corps. I do not care to handle vice too long.

Again taking up the thread of the narrative proper, we learn that in October (just six months after leaving on her foraging mission) the Supply returned to the colony from Batavia, with a full cargo of provisions, and the captain reported that he had chartered a Dutch ship, which was following, also laden with provisions. This was joyful news, and the whole settlement was immediately put on full allowance.
The action of the Governor in limiting the ration of himself and the officers to that served out-to the soldiers and convicts, while it prevented any expression of discontent, gave the latter the clearest proof that could be offered of Phillip's desire to deal fairly with them ; and when the fresh provisions arrived there was general rejoicing. The frequent recurrence of times of scarcity, however, and the slow growth of internal production, made the convicts very unsettled, and there was a wide-spread desire to escape from a condition where starvation appeared to be a contingency not very remote at any time.

Early in 1791, several daring and successful attempts were made by prisoners to escape from the colony, by means of boats stolen from the settlers on the banks of the Parramatta and Hawkesbury Rivers, and with a view of preventing this an order was issued by the Governor limiting all boats to be built in future to a size so small that none but the most foolhardy would think of escaping in them. Nevertheless, the attempts continued to be made, but in the majority of cases the boats were so small and weak that they were swamped almost before they had cleared the Heads.

It was in August of this year that the convicts whose sentences had expired, and who desired to remain in the colony, were allowed to select small parcels of land to clear and cultivate for their own use. The first party, twelve in number, made selections of land about four miles from Parramatta, at the foot of Prospect Hill. From this time forward grants of land to emancipists continued to be made with more or less liberality, and some of the large estates in the colony at the present day, if traced back for little over
half,a century, will be found to have had their beginning under the rule which extended the system of land grants to convicts whose sentences had expired and whose conduct had been good.
And many of the prisoners had earned all that was given to them, for their services to the colony, apart altogether from the 'labour' which the Government extracted from them as a penalty attaching to crime, were really very valuable which is more than can be said of the services rendered by the crowds of non-commissioned officers to whom the public estate was served out in such large slices at this and at subsequent periods.

The real pioneers of the country were, not the retired officers or free settlers, but their assigned servants; for these were the men who braved the dangers of the bush, withstood the assaults of the justly incensed aborigines, cleared the land, cultivated it and made it habitable, and developed the resources of the country while their masters, during the greater portion of the time, took their ease in what was then the only centre of civilization in the colony.
It does not detract at all from the merit of the work in which these men engaged that their labours were not voluntary. It is to their credit that they performed their duties faithfully and well under circumstances of the most discouraging kind; and they deserved all the reward that came to them.


As this story proceeds it will be seen that, as a rule, the men who laid the foundation upon which the industrial prosperity of the colony has been raised more often received kicks than half-pence as a reward for their labours. Many of the more successful of the First Fleeters dwelt on the Hawkesbury and its tributaries, where the first agricultural settlers were planted, and from them, even to a date near the fifties could be obtained reliable reminiscences of the olden time.

One of these settlers,a Mr. S - , who was in well-to-do circumstances, and who had been freed shortly after arriving in the colony, told the following thrilling story ,in the year 1845 :
"I arrived in the colony fifty-six years since; it was Governor Phillip's time and I was fourteen years old ; there were only eight houses in the colony then. I know that myself and eighteen others laid in a hollow tree for seventeen weeks, and cooked out of a kettle with a wooden bottom; we used to stick it in a hole in the ground and make a fire round it. I was seven years in service (bond) and then started working for a living wherever I could get it. There was plenty of hardship then. I have often taken grass and pounded it, and made soup from a native dog. I would eat anything then. For seventeen weeks I had only five ounces of flour a day. We never got a full ration except when the ship was in harbour. The motto was 'kill them or work them ; their provision will be in store'.
Many a time have I been yoked like a bullock with twenty or thirty others to drag along timber. About eight hundred died in about six months at a place called Toongabbie, or Constitution Hill. I knew a man so weak he was thrown into the grave; when he said, 'Don't cover me up; I'm not dead; for God's sake don't cover me up!'The overseer answered 'D- your eyes, you'll die tonight, and we shall have the trouble to come back again!
The man recovered; his name is James and he is now alive at Richmond.
They used to have a large hole for the dead; 0nce a day men were sent down to collect the corpses of prisoners, and throw them in without any ceremony or service. The native dogs used to come down at night and fight and howl in packs, gnawing the poor dead bodies.
The Governor would order the lash at the rate of 500, 600, or 800 ; and if the men could have stood it they would have had more. I knew a man hung time and then for having stolen a few biscuits, and another for stealing a duck frock. A man was condemned no time take him to a tree, and hang him. The overseers were allowed to flog the men in the fields, Often have the men been taken from the gangs, had fifty, and been sent back to work. Any man would, have committed murder for a month's provisions ; I would have committed three (murders) for a week's provision ! I was chained seven weeks on my back for being out getting greens, wild herbs. The *Rev. used to come it tightly to force some confession. Men were obliged to tell lies to prevent their bowels being cut out with the lash!
Old - (an overseer) killed three men at the saw in a fortnight by overwork. We used to be taken in large 'parties to raise a tree; when the body of the tree was raised he (old - ) would. call some of 'the men away then more ; the men were bent double they could not bear it they fell the tree on one or two, killed on the spot. 'Take him away; put him in the ground!' There was no more about it.
After seven years I got my liberty and then started about working for a living where I could get it. I stowed myself away on board the 'Barrington, bound for Norfolk Island, with eighteen others ; it was not a penal settlement then. Governor King was there. I had food, in plenty. I was overseer of the Governor's garden. Afterwards I went to live with old D'Arcy Wentworth and a better master never lived in the world. Little Billy, the great lawyer, has often been carried in my arms. Old D'Arcy wanted, me to take charge of Homebush station, but I took to the river (Hawkesbury), worked up and down till I saved, enough money to buy old B-'s farm at Pitt Town. No man worked harder than I have done. I have by me about £1000 ready cash. I have given that farm of forty acres to my son Joseph, and three other farms and about 500 head of cattle ; and about the same to my other son. I have also got 80 acres besides my house, and some fine cattle. We are never without a chest of tea in the house ; we use two in the year. I have paid £40 for a chest of tea in this colony. Tea is a great comfort."


This old man was described as large-featured, handsome, military sort of face, of a red-brown complexion, clean shaved, and his dress a flannel shirt with black bandanna, tied sailor fashion, exposing his strong neck, and a pair of fustian trousers. A coat to him was like a prison, and he kept religiously away from that article of dress. He was as rough-mannered as he was honest, and a story is told of his meeting with Dr. -, who had the reputation among the prison population of never having spared any man in his anger or any woman in his lust. It was during the flogging days, and the Dr. met him in Sydney coming out of the bank. Holding out his hand the medico said, "Come Mr. S -, shake hands, let bygones be bygones; I am glad to see you looking so well." The old man put his hands behind him, and bawled out "I suppose because I have got a velvet waistcoat, and money in the bank, you want to shake hands; but no! Dr. - , it would take a second resurrection to save such as thee!"
The Dr.-- did not wait to hear any more.

The old man's wife was blind, but had a good memory, and she told the following story with tears :
"I have seen Dr. - take a woman who was in the family way, with a rope round her, and duck her in the water at Queen's Wharf. The laws were bad then. If a gentleman wanted a man's wife he would send the husband to Norfolk Island. I have seen a man flogged for pulling six turnips instead of five. One was overseer, the biggest villain that ever lived delighted in torment. He used to walk up and down and rub his hands when the blood ran. When he walked out the flogger walked behind him. He died a miserable death ; maggots ate him up, and not a man could be found to bury him. I have seen six men executed for stealing 21 lbs of flour. I have seen a man struck when at work with a handspike, and killed on the spot. I have seen men in tears round Governor , begging for food. He would mock them with 'Yes, yes, gentlemen; I'll make you comfortable; give you a nightcap and a pair of stockings!"

Another man in the same year gave this account ;
"I arrived in the third fleet on the 16th October, 1791; it was on a Sunday we landed. The ship's name was Barrington, Captain March. I was sent to Toongabbie. For nine months there I was on five ounces of flour when weighed out barely four; served daily. In those days we were yoked to draw timber, twenty-five in gang. The sticks were six feet long, six men abreast. We held the stick behind us, and dragged with our hands. One man came ashore in the Pitt; his name was Dixon ; he was a gentleman. He was put to the drag, but it soon done for him. He began on a Thursday and died on a Saturday, as he was dragging a load down Constitution Hill. There were thirteen hundred died there in six months. Men used to carry trees on their shoulders. How they used to die ! The men were weak dreadfully weak through want of food. A man named Gibraltar was hung for stealing a loaf out of the Governor's kitchen. He got down the chimney, stole the loaf, had a trial, and was hung the next day at sunrise. At this time a full ration was allowed to the Governor's dog. I have seen seventy men flogged at night, twenty-five lashes each. On Sunday evening they used to read the laws. If any man was found out of the camp he got 25. The women used to he punished with iron collars. In Governor King's time they used to douse them overboard. They killed one.
Dr. - was a great tyrant. Mine is a life-grant from Governor Bourke fourteen acres. I grow tobacco, wheat, and corn ; just enough to make a living."


A story was current to the following effect, shewing the arbitrary rule of 1816:
Governor Bligh having heard from his cowkeeper that the servant of an officer of the staff had made some impertinent remarks because disappointed of the customary supply of milk for his master, on the following morning sent for the disappointed delinquent. Wondering and trembling he was ushered into the presence of His Excellency, who received him with a condescending smile, and told him that as the chief constable's house was on his way home, he (the Governor,) had simply sent for him to save a dragoon the trouble of going there with a letter. The letter was handed to the somewhat bewildered servant, who straightway delivered it to 'the chief constable, and as a reward was immediately tied to the triangles and treated to 25 lashes the letter, having contained the Governor's warrant for the payment of the reward.

This chapter (5) transcribed from
Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (NSW : 1851 - 1904)
Published, Saturday 5 January 1889
Written by Charles White (1845-1922), editor and author,
Under his pseudonym, 'The Chatterer'
White was born at Bathurst, New South Wales,
the eldest son of John Charles White, bank clerk and Methodist lay preacher,
and his wife Myra, née Oakey, of Demerara, West Indies.
In October 1859 his father bought the Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal
The family owned this paper until 1904.
©janilye, 2012


Notes: Production history of The Recruiting Officer.
It opened at Drury Lane in 1706. It was an immediate hit and went on to become one of the most frequently performed plays of the 18th century. The part of the foppish Brazen proved a notable role for the renowned actor-manager Colley Cibber. The Recruiting Officer was also the first play to be staged in the Colony of New South Wales, which is now Australia, by the convicts of the First Fleet in 1789 under the governance of Captain Arthur Phillip RN (also Commodore of the First Fleet) as well as the first performance of the original Dock Street Theatre in Historic downtown Charleston, SC in 1736. The most famous modern revival was staged at the National Theatre (when at the Old Vic) in 1963 its inaugural season. Directed by William Gaskill, it had an extremely strong cast which included Laurence Olivier as Brazen, Robert Stephens as Plume, Colin Blakely as Kite, Derek Jacobi as Worthy, Maggie Smith as Silvia and Mary Miller as Melinda.[citation needed] The National Theatre staged the play again in 1991 with Desmond Barrit as Brazen, Alex Jennings as Plume and Ken Stott as Kite. It was directed by Nicholas Hytner.

There have been two television adaptations of the play. The first for Australian television in 1965, the second a BBC Play of the Month in 1973. The latter, directed by David Giles, starred Ian McKellen as Plume, Prunella Ransome as his sweetheart Silvia, Jane Asher as Melinda, John Moffatt as Brazen, and Brian Blessed as Sergeant Kite.

* Rev. Samuel Marsden
The flogging Parson, He was appointed a magistrate in 1796; however, his reputation plummeted as his cruelty and harsh sentences became the stuff of legend. He was removed from the magistracy twice, by Governor Macquarie in 1818 and by Governor Brisbane in 1822-his picture below and depicted in this episode of the highly popular 1978 Australian Television series Against The Wind which may be watched here.


Herald of the Morning

OF LIVERPOOL, built in 1855 at St. John New Brunswick. Captain G RUDOLPH, MASTER, BURTHEN 1291 TONS Surgeon onboard Dr. G.F.Hatch
Departing the PORT OF LIVERPOOL on the 10 March 1858, arriving in SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, 25TH JUNE 1858

IMMIGRANTS per ship HERALD OF THE MORNING- Notice is hereby given, that the undermentioned persons, for whom passages were provided to this colony. In pursuance of deposits made under the Remittance Regulations, have arrived in the ship Herald of the Morning, and that they will be prepared to join their friends, the single females from the Institution, Hyde Park Barracks on and after their arrival there, and the married families and single men from the ship, THIS DAY, at 4 p.m.The Sydney Morning Herald Friday 25 June 1858.

Crew
RUDOLPH G CAPTAIN
BROWN W CHIEF OFFICER 32 BRITISH
BLACK A 2ND OFFICER 29 BRITISH
GONDGE T 3RD OFFICER 21 US
CARLISLE A CARPENTER 26 BRITISH
MCBRIDE W CARPENTERS MATE 25 BRITISH
ROBINSON H BOATSWAIN 22 BRITISH
STEPHENSON W SAILS 22 BRITISH
MURRAY G J STEWARD 34 BRITISH
FLEMMING P COOK 32 BRITISH
MILLER F A. B. 28 BRITISH
NEWTON J A. B. 33 BRITISH
BROWN P A. B. 22 FOREIGN
MCFARLANE J A. B. 25 BRITISH
DAVIS J A. B. 24 BRITISH
WILLIAMS J A. B. 26 BRITISH
SMITH F A. B. 23 BRITISH
MCGEE A A. B. 23 BRITISH
WILLIAMS R A. B. 22 FOREIGN
MARRIER J A. B. 23 BRITISH
LAING J A. B. 28 BRITISH
RATCLIFFE W A. B. 23 BRITISH
FLEETWOOD E A. B. 27 BRITISH
WILSON J A. B. 22 BRITISH
ORR J A. B. 40 BRITISH
FRANK J A. B. 21 BRITISH
ANGEL H A. B. 26 BRITISH
ATKINSON J A. B. 23 BRITISH
WEST T A. B. 24 BRITISH
FREWIN D A. B. 28 BRITISH
JAGHAM J ORDY 22 BRITISH
MORGAN J ORDY 19 BRITISH
MARTIN T ORDY 20 BRITISH
JOHNSTON W ORDY 18 BRITISH
BURRY B BAKER 36 BRITISH
LEWIS T BOY 18 BRITISH
WILLIAMS E BOY 15 BRITISH
GEORGE J A. B. 30 FOREIGN
SEYLAND N A. B. 28 FOREIGN
CARTER P A. B. 32 BRITISH
OLIVER G A. B. 29 GREECE
ROWORTH W A. B. 28 BRITISH
GEORGE N A. B. 29 FOREIGN
GROSS N A. B. 27 FOREIGN
NICHOLOVICK J A. B. 26 FOREIGN
D'SILVA M A. B. 27 FOREIGN
JONES J A. B. 22 FOREIGN
BROWN J A. B. 33 BRITISH
CONNEL J A. B. 25 BRITISH
CONDERRY N A. B. 28 BRITISH
TEMPLETON B A. B. 22 BRITISH
FISHER J A. B. 20 BRITISH
SARAHAN J PASS COOK 55 BRITISH
SPERE W PASS COOK 35 BRITISH
WILDIE J ? ? BRITISH


Name of Immigrant. - From what county selected.
BECKLEY, John - Surrey
Sophia
Elizabeth,
Hannah
John T.
BONE. Robert - Middlesex
Sophia
Augusta
Robert W.
CAHILL, Thomas - Tipperary
Judy
Mary
CANE, Thomas - Surrey
Catherine
Catherine E.
Ann
DALY. Thomas - Clare
Bridget
DEVETT, John - Clare
Honora
DYNAN, Thomas - Clare
Mary
FADDEN, Richard - Mayo
Mary
Ellen
FLOOD, Thomas - Tipperary
Margaret
GIBBS, Thomas - Middlesex
Sophia
HAGERTY, James - Derry
Mary
John
Susan
Robert
HASWELL, Archibald - Surrey
Mary
HEAR. John - Down
Jane
John
Sarah
Ann
HEFFERNAN, Dennis - Tipperary
Mary
HILL, John - Queen's
Ellen
KIRK, Armour - Renfrew
Mary
Ann
LUMSDEN, John - Linlithgow
Ann
Elisabeth
John
Marion
PACKHAM, Richard - Kent
Mary
Horace
John
PEARCE, James - Middlesex
Anne
James C.
Henry J.
William T.
QUEAN, Patrick - Limerick
Judith
Thomas
William
Patrick
Johanna
REEDY, Thomas - Limerick
Johanna
Mary
Johanna
REGAN, John - Galway
Ann
Patrick
STAPLETON, Alfred - Middlesex
Louisa
Harriett
STEWART, James - Donegal
Catherine
James
WILLOUGHBY, Joseph - Sussex
Elizsbeth Jane
John
WRIGHT, Ephraim - Leicester
Martha
Alfred

ARDLAM, William - King's County
BALLINGER, Michael - Clare
BARNES, Elephteria - Surrey
BARRETT, William - Cork
BRENNAND, James - Mayo
BR?DY, John - Down
BR?DY, James - Down
BURKE. James - Tipperary
BURKE, Thomas - Mouth
BURKE, Ralph - Mouth
BUTLER. Richard - Tipperary
CARR, Edward - Tipperary
Clugston, Samuel - Armagh
CONNOLLY, Bartholomew - Galway
CONNOLLY, John - Galway
CORLEY, Patrick - Louth
CORBY, Francis - Louth
DALY, Michael - Clare
DOHERTY, Robert - Londonderry
DONAGHUE, Michael - Limerick
DUFFY, John - Clare
DUNN, John Tipperary
EGAN, John - Clare
ENRIGHT, John - Limerick
FADDEW, Edward - Lancaster
FENELY, James - Tipperary
FLANNERY. Patrick - Clare
FLOOD, Thomas - Tipperary
FLOOD, Patrick - Tipperary
FLYNN, John - Mayo
GLEESON, John - Tipperary
GRAHAM, Robert - Fermanagh
GRALTON, Cornelius - Mayo
GRALTON, Ann - Mayo
GROVER, George - Sussex
HAGARTY, Charles - Derry
HAGARTY, Richard - Derry
HANLIHAN, John - Kerry
HARTIGAN, James - Monaghan
HEAR, Hugh - Down
HICKEY, John - Clare
HIND, John - Clare
HUDSON, Michael - Kilkenny
HUDSON, James - Kilkenny
KEDDLE, William - Linlithgow
KENNA, Patrick - Queen's County
KENNA, Thomas - Queen's County
KEOGH, John - Clare
Knox, John - Wigton
LIMPHIER, Joseph - Tipperary
LINGARD, William - Tipperary
LITTLE, James - Dublin
LUMSDEN, Alexander - Linlithgow
Mc MULLEN, Charles - Antrim
MADDEN, Thomas - Mayo
MURPHY, Thomas - Cork
MURRAY, Stephen - Clare
MURRAY, James - Clare
NAY, Benjamin - Middlesex
NOONAN, John - Limerick
NOONEN, David - Limerick
O'BYRNE, Garrett - Wicklow
PACKHAM, William - Kent
QUIGLEY, John - Clare
REARDY, Patrick - Clare
REEDY, John - Limerick
REEDY, Thomas - Limerick
REEDY, James - Limerick
REYNOLDS. Martin - Clare
SMITH, Michael - Cavan
TAYLOR, John - Kilkenny
WALSH, Edmund - Clare
WOODLAND, John - Sligo
Ardlam Mary - Kings County

BALLINGER, Bridget - Clare
BALLINGER, Elisabeth - Clare
BARNES, Susannah - Surrey
BARNES, Julia - Surrey
BECKLEY, Laura - Surrey
BENTLEY, Eliza - Stafford
BENTLEY, Eliza Christian - Stafford
BRADY, Elizabeth - Down
BRYAN, Catherine - Tipperary
BURKE, Judy - Kilkenny
BUTLER, Mary - Tipperary
BUTLER, Margaret - Tipperary
BUTLER, Judith - Tipperary
CORLEY, Eliza - Louth
CORLEY, Margaret - Louth
CORLEY, Ellen - Louth
CUPPLES, Ann Eliza - Armagh
CUPPLES, John - Armagh
DALY, Ellen - Clare
DENAN, Bridget - Clare
FLANNERY, Susan - Clare
GEARY, Mary - Cork
GEARY, Bridget - Cork
GOULD, Ellen - Cork
SAUNDERS Marianne - Cork
HAGARTY, Susan - Derry
HARRIS, Harriet - Somerset
HARRIS, Anne - Somerset
HARRIS, Emma - Somerset
HARRIS, Henry - Somerset
HEAR, Jane - Down
HEAR, Elizabeth - Down
HEFFERNAN, Catherine - Tipperary
HEFFERNAN, Bridget - Tipperary
SHANNAHAN Patrick - Tipperary
HOGAN, Ann - Galway
HOGAN, Honorah - Tipperary
HUDSON, Mary - Kilkenny
HUGHES, Margaret - Monaghan
KEATING, Johanna - Tipperary
KIRK, Catherine - Renfrew
LELLIS, Mary - Galway
LOADER, Hannah - Surrey
LUMSDEN, Ann - Linlithgow
LUMSDEN, Agnes , j . -Linlithgow
M'CABE, Margaret - Monaghan
MADDEN, Honora - Lancaster
MOSS, Sarah - Tyrone
MOSS, Mary - Tyrone
MURPHY, Catherine - Cork
MURRAY, Honora - Tipperary
MURRAY, Bridget - Clare
MUSGRAVE, Catherine - Lancaster
MUSGRAVE, George K. - Lancaster
MUSGRAVE, John - Lancaster
MUSGRAVE, Agnes - Westmoreland
O'MARA, Bridget - Kilkenny
QUEAN, Mary - Limerick
QUEAN, Bridget - Limerick
QUEAN, Sarah - Limerick
QUIN, Johanna - Cork
REAVES, Elizabeth - Somerset
REAVES, Janet - Somerset
REDDY, Bridget - Limerick
REYNOLDS, Mary - Clare
ROYCE, Eliza - Lincolnshire
ROYCE, Martha - Lincolnshire
SHINE, Catherine - Athlone
SMITH, Elisabeth - Northampton
STEWART, Martha - Tyrone
SYMONS, Dorcas - Wilts
TAYLOR. Elisabeth - Kilkenny
WALPOLE, Ann - Kilkenny
WOODLAND, Ellen - Sligo.

H. H. BROWNE. Agent for Immigration. Government Immigration Office,
Sydney, 25th Jane, 1858.


This list is not a complete list of all who sailed on the Herald Of The Morning. This is the Agent's List which was published in the Sydney Morning Herald on arrival.

Below is the number onboard according to the official immigration list:-

Married Males 65
Married Females 65
Single Males 14 and upwards 113
Single Females 14 and upwards 118
Males 7-14 16
Females 7-14 10
Males 4-7 10
Females 4-7 11
Males 1-4 12
Females 1-4 22
Males under 1 year 1
Females under 1 year 4
Births on voyage 1 male 2 Female
Deaths on voyage 3 Male 3 Female

Source for Crew List Source: State Records Authority of New South Wales: Shipping Master's Office; Passengers Arriving 1855 - 1922; NRS13278, [X98-100] reel 406. Transcribed by Gloria Sheehan, 2005.
Source Citation: State Records Authority of New South Wales; Kingswood New South Wales, Australia; Persons on bounty ships to Sydney, Newcastle, and Moreton Bay (Board's Immigrant Lists); Series: 5317; Reel: 2477; New South Wales Government. Passengers arriving at Sydney 1846 (Agent's Immigrant Lists). Series 5326, Reel 2457. State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales.
Source for Agents List The Sydney Morning Herald Friday 25 June 1858.
Transcribed by janilye, 2012




NOTE: The Herald of the Morning made a second voyage to Australia arriving in Hobson's Bay from Liverpool on 5 November 1859 with 419 government immigrants.
Ten days later, around midnight, whilst tied up at the dock she caught fire. Attempts to scuttle her by cutting holes in her bow were unsuccessful, so she was towed to Sandridge ( Port Melbourne) and left to burn. janilye


Coffs Harbour Historic Cemetery

Coffs Harbour Historic Cemetery
Address: Coff Street, Coffs Harbour
and
Coffs Harbour Lawn Cemetery
Also known as Karangi Lawn.
Address: Coramba Road, Karangi, New South Wales, Australia



Note: A spate of thefts of bronze plaques from cemeteries in this region was reported in July 2011.
Thieves, when removing the markers, have also caused damage to the stones on which they were mounted.
If you have family graves in the Coffs Harbour cemetery, and you have not already checked, it is advisable that you check on their integrity.


More information
Coffs Harbour Lawn Cemetery is administered by Coffs Harbour City Council. For further information, contact Council at Locked Bag 155, Coffs Harbour NSW 2450; phone 02 6648 4000; email: coffs.council@chcc.nsw.gov.au


2 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago

Hawkesbury Settlers Welcome Governor Macquarie 1810

There is no doubt, that the establishment of the township of Windsor, was, certainly, a notable event in the early history of New South Wales. The following article, refers to some of the circumstances relative to the foundation of that town.



The Hawkesbury River was discovered during the governorship of Captain Phillip, and the first settlement was made on its banks, in the year 1794. Up to the year 1810, the spot now occupied by the town of Windsor, was known as The Green Hills. From the time of the first settlement on the Hawkesbury, down to the arrival of Governor Macquarie in the colony, frequent floods had devastated the homes, farms, and crops of the colonists settled there. Shortly after Governor Macquarie entered upon his Government, he recognized the importance of the Hawkesbury district as "the granary of the colony," and decided, that some effort should be immediately made to protect, as far as possible, the homes, farms, and crops, of the settlers. Accordingly "in order to guard as far as human foresight could against such calamities," he decided to fix upon several sites where townships could be erected, which would be high and dry during flood time. He chose, among other places, the site upon which the town of Windsor now stands, and granted allotments of land in the newly-formed township to those settlers whose farms were so situated as to come within the influence of the waters of the Hawkesbury during an inundation.
These grants of land within the town were made an 'inseparable part' of those farms with out the town which were esposed to the ravages of the floods. Therefore, those town grants could not be disposed of or sold as separate properties.
The allotment of land given to each settler was proportioned to the size of his farm, and was given to him as a place of refuge for his family, his crops, and his stock; and he was expected to erect thereon a house, a corn yard, and a stockyard. It was decreed that those persons who thus obtained land under the foregoing provisions should build their houses either of brick or weatherboard ; and it was also necessary that every house so built should have a brick chimney and a shingle roof. No house was to be built lower than nine feet high, and each settler had to lodge a plan of his building with the district constable. To give the settlers in the vicinity some place of refuge during flood time, therefore, was the direct cause of the establishment of the town of Windsor
The Hawkesbury settlers from time immemorial have always been loyal subjects.
Even so far back as Governor Bligh's time, when the military deposed Bligh, the Hawkesbury settlers, almost to a man, remained loyal to him.
Bligh stated at the trial of Major Johnston, in England, that had he been able to escape from Sydney to the Hawkesbury, he would have been safe from the attacks of his enemies.
It was natural that after the appointment of a new Governor (Macquarie), the Hawkesbury settlers should exhibit the same loyalty to Bligh's successor, and this feeling was warmly continued throughout the long period of Macquarie's governorship,

The following is from the records, and whilst exhibiting loyalty, at the same time shows
the high opinion the settlers had of William Cox, the founder of the well-known family of that name, and, what is still more interesting, gives the names of the pioneer Hawkesbury settlers who helped to develop the resources, not only of this grand district, but of the then unknown interior.
Many, of their names are familiar to us, and descendents of some are still with us.
Quite an interesting chapter could be written of these old identities would time and space permit.
However, it is interesting to keep a record of the names of these pioneers who first, with axe and fire, prepared the way for agriculture, making the Hawkesbury the first granary of the colony, from which all its food supplies came.

It should. be remembered that only 16 years prior to the address being handed Macquarie,
Governor Phillip had placed the first Hawkesbury settlers - 22 in number on the banks of the Hawkesbury and at the mouth of South Creek.

Strange to say, none of the first settlers' names appear on the address.

HAWKESBURY SETTLERS' ADDRESS.

The following address from the settlers of the Hawkesbnry was presented on the
1st instant (Dec. 1810) to His Excellency the Governor Macquarie at Windsor (formerly the Green Hills),
by Thomas Arndell, Esq.

"1st December, 1810.
We, the undersigned settlers, residents of the Hawkesbuiy and its. vicinity, beg
leave respectfully to congratulate your Excellency on your arrival at this settlement,
and earnestly hope your Excellency will be pleased with the agricultural improvements and
industry that prevails here, and trust that the continuance of our exertions
Will ever merit your Excellency's approbation. We also beg leave to return our unfeigned thanks
for your Excellency's recent appointment of William Cox, Esq., as a magistrate at this
place-a gentleman who for many years has resided among us, possessing our esteem and confidence,
who, from his local knowledge of this settlement, combined with his many other good qualities,
will, we are convinced, promote your Excellency's benign intention of distributing justice and
happiness to all.

-Thomas Arndell,Thomas Hobby, Benjamin Carver, George Hall, Lawrence May, Robert Masters,
James Richards, Henry Baldwin, Paul Bushell, Robert Farlow, William Baker, John Yoel,
Thos. Matcham Pitt, James Blackman, John Merritt, John Cobcroft, John Gregory, Richard Norris,
William Heydon, Thomas Hampson, Daniel McKay, Daniel Fane, John Lyoner, Henry Murray,
John Jones, James Milaman, R. Fitzgerald, John Stevenson, Robert Wilson, Jonathan Griffiths,
Elizabeth Earl, G. Evans, John Bowman, Hugh Devlin, John Watts, William Eaton, David Bell,
James Welsh, Patrick Closhel, William Carlisle, Thomas Gordon, Caleb Wilson, Thomas Markwell,
Thomas Winston, William Baxter, Thomas Hagger, John Baylis, Donald Kennedy, Patrick Murphy,
Owen Tierney, William Shaw, John Dight, Roger Connor, Matthew Lock, Edward Pugh, William Small,
James Wall, William Faithful, William Simpson, Thomas Arkell, Charles Palmer, Thomas Weyham,
Elias Bishop, Thomas Spencer, Joseph McCoulding, Benjamin Baits, John Ryan. Robert Smith,
Paul Randall, John Wild, Benjamin South, William Etrel, Henry Lamb, Martin Mentz, Robert Guy,
John Harris, Thomas Cheshire, Stephen Smith, Thomas Lambley, Edward Field, Rowland Edwards,
George Collis, James Portsmouth, Pierce Collett, Jacob Russell, Thomas Appledore, William Dye,
R. Carr, John Leese, Thomas Cowling, John Embrey, John Benson, John Boulton, William Ezzy.


To which His Excellency, in a letter, on 5th December, 1810, was pleased to make the following answer.

Sir,-I beg you will make known to those respectable settlers of the Hawkesbury who signed the
address presented by you to me that I am much pleased with the sentiments it conveys,
and to assure them that it will always be an object of the greatest interest to me to promote
their prosperity by every means in my power. With this view I have fixed on ground for your
different townships (Windsor, Richmond, Wilberforce, Pitt Town) for the accommodation of
the settlers who have suffered so severely by the floods of the river; and by a
speedy removal to those situations of security, I hope they will enjoy the fruits
of that labor which, I am happy to observe, promises this season to be rewarded;
with one of the finest crops I ever beheld in any country.
I hope on my return to this part of the colony to find the new habitations built on an
improved and enlarged plan to those hitherto erected on the banks of the Hawkesbury.
I am very glad to find that my appointment of Mr.Cox has met with the satisfaction of
the settlers, and I have every reason to believe that he will fulfil the duties of his
office so as to gain the goodwill of all.
-I have, etc.,
LACHLAN MACQUARIE.

Macquarie foresaw shortly after his arrival in the colony, that it was immediately necessary to assist the settlers to ensure regular supplies of food; it was a fortunate thing for Australia that they were assisted and encouraged by him at that period, for as the Hawkesbury district was the ' granary of the colony,' it is morally certain, that the destruction, by floods, of homes and farms, stocks and crops, would have precipitated famines, similar in nature, to that experienced at Port Jackson in 1792. The recurrence, of these famines must have impeded the progress of the colony. If, then, the progress of the colony had, at that time, been retarded, the opening up of Australia would never have proceeded so rapidly as it did. Therefore, in referring to the first days of Windsor, it will be seen, that the circumstances surrounding its foundation, not only proves Macquarie a prudent man, but also shows us that the Hawkesbury settlers, by supplying the colony with the means of its existence food helped very materially to promote the rapid growth of English colonization in Australia.




NOTE:
William Cox was appointed Magistrate after the death of Andrew Thompson.

Sources:
Yeldap
Frank J. Brewer,1905
Windsor and Richmond Gazette
Windsor, NSW :1902-1945)
Friday 16 October 1903 Page 9
Transcription, ©Janilye, 2012


Hotel Licenses Melbourne1856

The applications for licenses for the 2nd quarter in 1856 were held over three days the 15th April and the 27 May the district licenses were granted and the city Licenses on the 23 April. These are not all the licenses for the whole of Victoria. In this list I have combined Melbourne City and the surrounding districts.

A

Abraham, Joseph, Collingwood Hotel, Collingwood. Granted
Allen, J. W. Sandridge Inn, Sandridge. Granted
Amos, J. J. South Yarra Club Hotel, South Yarra. Granted

B

Balch, W. Australia Fellix-Bourke street. Granted
Banfield, Thomas, Eagle Hotel, Swanston Street. Granted
Barnes,C.W, St. Kilda Family Hotel, St.Kilda.Granted
Barry, D. Butchers' Arms, Elizabeth street. Granted
Barry, J. Harvest Home, Flinders street.Granted
Bartholomew, J. Bull and Mouth, Bourke street.
Bastings,William. Peacock Inn, Northcote.Granted.
Batt, Thos, Commercial Inn, Little Bourke street. Granted
Baxter, Chas. Star and Garter, Robe street, St. Kilda. Granted
Bickerton, Thomas. Australian Hotel, Brighton. Granted.
Bignell,William. Commercial Hotel, Victoria street.
Black, Jas. Andrew's Hotel, Nicholson street. Granted
Bloomfield,J. Merrijig Hotel Elizabeth street. Granted
Bonalface, B.,Manchester Inn, Queen street. Granted
Bourke, J., Western Port Hotel, Queen street. Granted
Bourke, Michael. La Trobe Inn, Western Port. Granted.
Bourke,Patrick. Travellers' Home, Darebin Creek. Granted.
Bourke, Pat. Freemasons' Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Bourke, Thos, Royal Arch Hotel, Gore street, Collingwood. Granted
Bowles, Jeremiah. Military Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Brandt, W. Black Eagle, Lonsdale street. Granted
Broad, Samuel. The Greyhound, St. Kilda. Granted,
Brown, H. D., Corkscrew Hotel, King steet. Granted
Brown, Edward, Chusan Hotel, Sandridge.Granted
Bowen, T.C. Marine Hotel, Brighton.Granted.
Bowman, David. Gipps Land Hotel, Cardinia. Granted.
Burke, Michael Travellers' Home, Darebin Creek. Granted.
Butler, Tobias, Castle Inn, Webb street. Granted
Butterworth. J., Exchange Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Butterworth, W.H. Golden Cross Hotel,King street. Withdrawn
Boyle, S. Mazeppa Hotel Spring street. Granted
Byng, J. Digby Hotel, Stephen street. Granted


C

Camron, John. Balmoral Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Cantwell, Richard, Glenmore Family Hotel, Spencer street. Granted
Carchan, Thomas, Ayrshire Hotel, Chetwynd street. Granted
Carpenter, H. G. North Star Inn, Howard street. Granted
Carter, Benjamin. Prahran Inn, Prahran. Granted.
Cartwright, William W. Union Hotel, Prahran.Granted
Corcoran, Jeremiah. Dove Hotel, Richmond. No appearance.
Censick, Paul. Boundary Inn, Flemington. Granted.
Coates, C. E., Royal Hotel, Flemington road. Granted
Cooper, R. A., Treasury Hotel, Queen-street. Granted
Corbin, James. Bee Hive. Hawthorne. Granted.
Chadwick, Thomas. Broadmeadows Hotel, Broadmeadows. Granted.
Chambers, James. New Bridge Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Cameron, Hugh. Victoria Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Chamberlain, Benjamin. Mount Erica Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Chinhall, J., La Trobe -Inn. Fitzroy street. With a caution that the house
was to be kept in better order for the future.
Clancy, T., Duke of Wellington Hotel, Flinders street. Granted
Clark, B. D., Union Hotel, Bourke-street. Granted
Clarke, Maryann, Waterman's Arms, Little Collins-street,Granted
Clarke, John. Stanley Arms, Footscray. Granted.
Cleary, Win., Noah's Ark Hotel, Victoria street. Granted
Clifford, H. Railway Refreshment Rooms, Flinders-street. Granted
Clift, Edward. Prince of Wales Hotel, Prahran.Granted
Clinton, Jas., White Hart Inn, Little Bourke street. Granted
Clinton, William. Brunswick Hotel, Brunswick. Granted.
Colls, S., Clarendon Hotel, Collins-street. Granted
Connell, James. Bridge Inn, Hawthorne. Granted,
Connell, John. Hawthorne Hotel, Hawthorne. Granted.
Connolly, P., Carlow Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted
Connor, David. Bunyip Inn, Bunyip, Western Port. Granted.
Conron, John. Governor Hotham HotelHawthorne. Granted.
Cosgrave, J., FitzRoy Arms, King-street. Granted
Coverlid, John. Gipsy Village, Church steet, Richmond. Granted.
Cox, G,, Lightning Hotel. Bourke street. Granted
Crosbie, Wm, Albert Hotel, Stephen-street. Granted
Cronin, D., Black Boy Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Crowie, Thomas, Victoria Hotel, Little Bourke-street. Granted
Crook, Thos., Birmingham Hotel, Smith street. Granted
Crowley, J., Royal Exchange, Gertrude street. Granted
Cumings, J. W., Royal Highlander Hotel, Flinders street. Granted

D

Davidson, S.J, Royal Hotel, Victoria street. Granted
Davis, T. Sarsfield Inn, Little Bourke street. Granted
Davies, J. New Imperial Hotel, Elizabeth Street. Granted
Delaney, Dennis. Royal Hotel, Nunawading. Granted.
De Moulder, J. B. Sandridge Coffee House, Sandridge. Granted
Devine. John. Belmount, near Darebin Creek. Granted.
Dick, J. Builders' Arms, Gertrude street. Granted
Dickins, W. Mount Gambier Hotel, Palmer street. Granted
Disher. W.J. Tattersalls Hotel, Lonsdale street. Granted
Dolan, P. Olive Branch, Little Collins street Granted
Donovan, C. Travellers' Home, Swanston Street. Granted
Dowling, R. Farmers' Arms, Little Collins street. Granted
Downing, R. Newmarket Hotel, Bourke street. Granted
Doyle, A. Ship Hotel, Sandridge. Granted
Drewery.B. Olive Branch Hotel, LaTrobe street. Granted
Dunbar, George. Dandenong Hotel, Dandenong. Postponed to Friday to investigate
a charge of misconduct against the occupier.
Dunnon, W. Builders' Arms, Cardigan street. Granted
Dwyer, Matthew. Yarra Hotel, Richmond.Granted.

E

Edmonds. E. Carlton Inn Restaurant, Pelham street. Granted
Edwards, William. Frankston Hotel, Snapper Point. Granted.
Ellis, J. European Hotel, Fitzroy street. Granted
Embden, Chas. Spread Eagle, Richmond. Granted.
Empson, W. Duke of York, Collins street. Collins

F

Finnerty, James. Dublin Inn, Little Brighton. Granted.
Fleming, James. Elsternwick Hotel, Elsternwick. Granted.
Forbes, George Whittlesea Inn, Upper Plenty. Granted.
Farrell, R., South Melbourne Hotel, South Melbourne. Granted
Fahy, T. Terminus Hotel. Elizabeth street. Granted
Farner, Jas. Britannia Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Fitzgerald, M., Hibernian Hotel, Little Lonsdale street. Granted
Feehan, B. City Arms Hotel, Elizabeth street. Granted
Feehan, M. Friend in Hand Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Filmore, E. J. Royal Mail Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Fitzgerald, J Empire Hotel, Errol street. Granted
Fisher, W. Rochester Castle Hotel, Johnston street. Granted
Finlay, W. Council Club Hotel, Lonsdale street. Granted
Fitzgerald, M. Hare and Hounds Hotel, Grey street. St. Kilda. Granted
Flamer W. Old White Hart Inn, Bourke street. Granted
Forman, P. Elephant and Castle Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted
Fraser, A. Frazer's Family Hotel, William street. Granted
Frencham, J. Original Scottish Hotel, Bourke street. Granted

G


Gallagher, M., Rose of Australia Hotel, King street. Granted
Gallagher, Robert. Carriers' Arms, Windsor.Granted.
Garton, J. Pier Hotel, Sandridge. Granted
Geraghty, Patrick. Richmond Hotel, Richmond. Granted,
Gibson, Joseph. Oakleigh Hotel, Oakleigh. Granted.
Gildea, John. The Young Queen, Pascoe vale. Refused.
Gillespie, James. Village Belle, Prahran. Granted.
Glasgow, T., Bird in Hand Hotel, Flinders lane. Granted
Glover, James. Royal Hotel, Richmond. Granted.
Glynn, Edward. Harp of Erin, Boroondara.Granted.
Graham, Samuel. Gardiner's Creek Hotel. Gardiner's Creek road. Granted.
Gregory. E.H. Hall of Commerce Restaurant. Granted
Griffiths, Thomas. Wattle-Tree Inn, Prahran. Granted.

H

Haidhans, Alfred. Prince Albert Hotel,Brighton. Granted.
Halfpenny, Daniel. Phillips Town Hotel,Phillips Town. Granted.
Halliday, Wm., George Hotel, Victoria street. Granted
Hallett, G., Freemasons' Hotel, Smith street.Granted
Hamilton, D., Cross Keys Hotel, Lonsdale street.Granted
Harrison, D.J. Punt Inn, Saltwater River. Granted.
Harris, E.L. Admiral Napier Hotel, Richmond. Granted.
Harding, William. Kingston Hotel, Richmond.Granted
Haslitt, Ellen. National Hotel, Moonee Ponds. Granted.
Hastie, W., Tankerville Arms, Nicholson street. Granted
Hauger, Samuel Spencer. Sir Robert Nickle Hotel, Hawthorne. Granted.
Hawkins, W. J., Queen's Arms, Swanston street. Granted
Hayward, G., Supreme Court Hotel, Russell street, Granted
Heaton, John. White Horse Inn, Richmond. Granted.
Hayes, Dennis. Shannon Hotel, Northcote. Granted.
Heath, H., Buck's Head Hotel, Condell street. Granted
Heir, 0. E., Star Inn, Swanston-street. Granted
Henry, W., Blue Bell Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Heffernan, M., Governor Bourke Hotel Little Lonsdale street. Granted
Heffernan, Rody, Melbourne Tavern, Lonsdale street. Granted
Heffernan, William. River Plenty Inn, Upper Plenty. Granted.
Henessy, Michael Paul. Victoria Hotel. Broadmeadows. Granted.
Henessy, Michael. Squatters' Rest. Dandenong. Granted
Hickey, Ellen, Limerick Castle Hotel, Elizabeth street. Granted
Hinds, W. Ulster Family Hotel, Little Collins street.Granted
Hill, R. G. Great Britain Hotel, Flinders street. Granted
Hockin, W., Commercial Hotel, Elizabeth Street. Granted
Holland, J. Globe Inn, Swanston street. Granted
Holmes, John. Epping Hotel, Epping. Granted
Hoole, William. Bridge Inn, Flemington. Granted.
House, G. W. Parade Hotel, Richmond road. Granted
Hunter, W. Tam o' Shanter Hotel, Lothian street. Granted
Hyde, Geo., Labor in Vain Hotel, Brunswick street. Granted
Howe, John. Royal Hotel, Richmond. Granted. Granted
Hutchinson, W. National Hotel, Bourke street. In this application the Bench said the reason of the postponement on the annual day was the objection to the connection which existed between
the pastry cooks shop next door and the Athenaeum Assembly rooms behind
License granted on condition of both these connections being cut off.

I


Irving, Thomas. Mulgrave Arms, Mulgrave. Granted.

J

Jelf, T. Ship Inn, Flinders lane. Granted
Jenkins, H. Jenkins's Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Jenkins, Hy. Cheltenham Hotel, Cheltenham. Granted.
Jones, C. Colonial Bank Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Jordan, J. Rainbow Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Johnston, W. Clarence Hotel, Collins street. Granted
Jones, E. B. Black Bull Hotel, Bourke street. Granted
Jones, J. Yarra Family Hotel, Flinders street. Granted
Jones, Robert. Junction Inn, Footscray.Granted.

K

Kenny, U.A. Caledonian Hotel, Prahran. Postponed.
Kelly, William. Black Horse, Prahran.Granted.
Kelly, P. Galway Family Hotel, Flinders lane. Granted
Keddie, R. Rob Roy Hotel, Flinders lane. Granted
Keeley, M. Australasian Family Hotel, Spring-street.Granted
Kennedy, J. Lalla Rookh Hotel, Queensberry street. Granted
Kennedy, T. Black Prince Hotel, Curzon Street. Granted
Keppel, M. Old Governor Bourke Hotel, Spring street. Granted
Keys, Robert. Little Brighton Hotel, Little Brighton. Granted.
King, A.P. Crown Hotel, Prahran. Refused.

L

Laffan, J. King's Arms Hotel, Madeline street. Granted
Lamtle, Robert. Wellington Hotel, Richmond. Granted.
Lane, T. Foundry Hotel, King street. Granted
Lang. W., Turf Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Lauders, Sarah. Fletcher's Hotel, Hawthorne. Granted.
Lawlor James. Royal Oak, Queen street. Granted
Lefoe. Levi. Canada Hotel, Madeline street. Granted
Leitchford, R., Seven Stars Hotel, Madeline street. Granted
Letchford, C,, Crown and Anchor Hotel, Charles street. Granted
Lewis, W. jun. Bridge Inn, Flinders lane. Granted
Lewis, William. Darebin Hotel, Darebin Creek.Granted.
Libby, G. Royal Hotel, St. Kilda. Granted
Liddy, J. Adam and Eve, Little Collins street. Granted
Light, William F. Gardiner's Hotel, Gardiner.Granted.
Louchet, H. Central City Hotel, Collins street. Granted
Loughnan, C, London Hotel, Market square. Granted
Lowe, S. Shakespeare Hotel, Collins street Granted
Lowe, T. Bush Inn, Elizabeth-street. Granted
Lusher, E., Brunswick Hotel, Brunswick street. Granted
Lynch, Jno. Golden Age Hotel, La Trobe street. Granted


M

Macdonald, Alex. Wardy Yallock Hotel, Windy Yallock. Granted.
Macnamara, William. Pilgrim Inn, Plenty road. Granted
Maher, James. Footscray Punt Hotel, Footscray. Granted.
Mallett. D. Botanical Hotel, Domain road. Granted
Manallock,Thomas. Cornish Arms, Brunswick, Granted.
McCarthy, T. Kerry Hotel, King street. Granted
M'Clellan, T. Belvidere Hotel, Victoria rarade. Granted
M'Donald, A. Northcote Arms, Northcote, Granted
McDonogh. W. Mercantile Hotel, Flinders street. Refused
McDougall, Charles. Upper Plenty Hotel, Upper Plenty road. Granted
McGirr, W. P., Railway Refreshment Rooms, Sandridge. Granted
M'Gregor, J. Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock Hotel, Elizabeth-street. Granted
M'Gregor, A. Buck's Head, Little Lonsdale street. Granted
McIntosh, D. British Hotel, Queen street. Granted
M'Kee, J. M., Duke- of Kent Hotel, Latrobe street. Granted
M'Keown, Patrick. Armagh Hotel, Moorabbin.Granted.
M'Kinnon, E., Robert Burns Hotel, Lonsdale street. Granted
McKnight, George. Plough Inn, Plenty road.Granted.
M'Lean, J. Scotch Thistle Hotel, Northcote. Granted
Manuel, H. W., Misletoe Hotel, Mackenzie street. Granted
M'Micking, Robert. Grange Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Meaney, Daniel. Boroondara Family Hotel,Hawthorne. Granted.
Menzies, A. Menzies' Hotel, La Trobe street. Granted
Merritt, James. Prince Albert Hotel, Prahran.Granted.
Michel, F. Beehive Hotel, Blackwood street. Granted
Midgely, J. Liverpool Arms, Brunswick street. Granted
Moore, T.J. Bay View Hotel, St. Kilda. Granted.
Moore, William. the Welcome Home Hotel,Prahran. Refused.
Moreland, William. Bridge Inn, Richmond Bridge. Granted.
Mornane, P. Clare Castle Hotel, Stephen street. Granted
Morris, T. Lincoln Inn, Cardigan street. Granted
Morrow, Thomas. Morrow's Hotel, Prahran. Granted.
Muir, M. Mac's Hotel, Franklyn street. Granted
Mulcahoy, James. Kangaroo Inn, Eumemmerring. Granted.
Mullins, John. Park Hotel, Oakleigh. Granted.
Murphy, M. Royal Oak, Swanston street. Granted
Murray, M. Railway Hotel, Sandridge. Granted
Murray, J. New Constitution Hotel, North Melbourne. Granted
Murray, J. J. Southern Cross Hotel, Bourke street. Granted
Murray, Edward. Rose and Crown, Flemington. Granted.
Murray, Matthew. Prince Albert Hotel, Flemington. Granted.
Murphy, Richard. Vine Hotel, Richmond. Refused.
Murphy, Patrick. Fitzpatrick Hotel, Richmond. Granted
Myers, William. Sarah Sands Hotel, Brunswick. Granted.


N

Nealor, J. Railway Hotel, Swanston street. Granted
Neck, W. Cornwall Arms, Bourke street. Granted
Newstead, R. Parkside Hotel, Flemington road. Granted
Neylan, P. Farmers' Arms, Swanston street. Granted
Nicholson, B, Tattersalls Hotel Withdrawn
Nolan, J. North Melbourne Hotel, Howard street. Granted
North, J. Mechanics' Arms, Little Collins street.Granted
Nottley, William. Toorak Hotel, Toorak. Granted. The Bench remarked on the high charges made at this hotel!
Nunn, Thomas. Olympic Hotel, Lonsdale street. Granted

O


Oakley, C, Temple Court Hotel, Queen street. Granted
O'Callaghan, 0., Woolpack Inn, Queen Street.Granted
O'connell, D. Horse and Jockey Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted
O'Connor, John. Picnic Hotel, Gypsy Village. Granted.
O'Halloran, D., Royal Railway Hotel, Elizabeth street. Granted
Oliver, William. Windsor Hotel, Windsor.Granted.
Ollis, O, Apollo Inn, Flinders lane. Granted
O'Reilly, D., Sportsman's Arms, Little Bourke street.Granted
Orkney, J., Sir Charles Hotham Hotel,Flinders street. Granted
O'Shanassy, Patrick. Kew Hotel, Kew. Granted.
O'Shea, Michael. Grand Junction Hotel,Windsor. Granted.
O'sullivan. J.v.Telegraph Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted

P


Packham, Samuel. Frankston Hotel, Frankston. Granted.
Pachley, George. Lemon Tree Inn, Richmond. No appearance. Granted
Painter, Ezekiah. Myall Hotel, Prahran.Granted.
Parsons, George. Brighton Hotel, Brighton Granted.
Parsons, T.G. Brighton Hotel, Brighton. No appearance. Granted.
Passfield, J. Sydney Hotel, William street. Granted
Paterson, J. Glasgow Arms, Elizabeth street. Granted
Payne, J. Red Lion Hotel, Lonsdale street. Granted
Pearce, E. British Queen Hotel, Nicholson street. Granted
Pemberton, T. IL, Ship Inn, Sandridge. Granted
Perrin, William. Greyhound Inn, Richmond. Granted.
Plummer, Edward Sheldrake. Preston Arms, Preston, Plenty road. Granted.
Poole, F. Drewery's Family Hotel, Gertrude street. Granted
Powell, William H. Railway Hotel, Footscray. No appearance.
Poynton, George. Oxford and Cambridge Hotel,Richmond. Granted.
Prevot, E. J. Queensberry Hotel, Madeline street. Granted
Price, John. Edinburgh Castle, Brunswick. Granted
Price, T. Crystal Palace Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted
Purnell, Thos. Plough Inn, Bourke street. Granted
Punch, R. Leinster Anns, Lonsdale street. Granted

R


Rees, F. Pembroke Family Hotel, St. Kilda. Granted
Rennie, Robert. Tookarook Inn, Tookarook, near Arthur's Seat. Granted.
Rennison, Thomas. Lord Raglan, Richmond.Granted.
Reynolds, W. Queen's Head, Queen street. Granted
Richards, Thomas. Star and Garter, Richmond. Granted.
Rigby, W. H. British Hotel, St. Kilda. Granted
Ring. P. Old Ship Inn, Russell street. Granted
Robinson, Thomas. Hawksburn Hotel, Prahran No appearance. No notice affixed to the door.
Rose, William. Devonshire Arms Hotel, Brighton. Granted.
Rourke, Hugh. Bushy Creek Hotel, Bushy Creek. Granted.
Ryan, A. Britannia Inn, Queen street.Granted
Ryan, Michael. Windsor Castle, Windsor. Granted.
Ryan, T. Lamb Inn, Elizabeth-street. Granted
Ryan, W. Carriers' Arms, Elizabeth street. Granted
Ryan, W., Rising Sun Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted

S

Salisbury, R. B. Cavan Hotel, Queensberry street.
Scuffam, Charles. Red Lion, Hawthorne. Granted.
Scott, E. Port Phillip Club Hotel, Flinders street. Granted
Scott, John. East Brighton Hotel, Brighton.Granted
Scott, Percival. Cremorne Gardens, Richmond. Granted.
Shehan, T. Bouverie Hotel, Bouverie street. Granted
Shelton, H. Paddington Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Short, H. Australian Hotel, Bourke street. Granted
Sinclair, Hugh. Bridge Inn, Plenty road, Granted.
Slattery. J. Lightning Hotel, North Melbourne. Granted conditionally on improve ments
being completed on the 1st July.
Smart, A. Golden Fleece Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted
Smith, George. Mount View Hotel, Gardiner.Granted.
Smith, James. Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, Plenty road. Granted.
Spiers F.W. Royal Hotel, Bourke street. Granted. The premises only to extend to
the division wall between the Concert room and the theatre. ( see note 1)
Stanway, William. Red Lion, Hawthorne Granted.
Stephen, J. Great Western Hotel, Queen street. Granted
Stephens, William. Swan Hotel, Richmond. Granted. The landlord cautioned as to his conduct,
several complaints having been made. Applicant also directed to clean his house out,
and keep himself sober.
Sterck, C, FitzRoy Hotel Napier street. Granted
Stevens, Thomas. Railway Hotel, Windham. Granted.
Stone, Thomas P. Bush Inn, Prahran. Granted.
Sullivan, W. Harp of Erin Hotel, King street. Granted
Sutcliffe, R. Governor Arthur Hotel, Little Bourke street. Granted

T

Tatchell, T., St. John's Hotel, Queen street. Granted
Terry, Thomas. Racecourse Hotel. Granted.
Thomas, M., City Hotel, Madeline street. Granted
Threlkeld, AV. Saracen's Head Hotel, Bourke street. Granted
Tilke, W., Tilke's City Hotel, Bourke-street. Granted
Tobin, M.Devonshire Arms, FitzRoy street. Granted
Toohey, P. Kilkenny Inn, Lónsdale street. Granted
Trainer, Patrick. White Horse Inn, Nunawading. Granted.

V

Vallance, W. Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street. Granted
Vinson, James. Royal George, Prahran. Granted.

W

Wälder, G. Golden City Hotel, Cecil-street. Wallace, R., Prince Albert Hotel, Little Argyle-street.
Walters, J. Marine Family Hotel, Sand ridge.
Warley, G. Argus Hotel. Collins-street.
Watson. J. Albion Hotel, Bourke street.
Wedel, Ch. Criterion Hotel, Collins-street.
Webber, James. Royal Hotel, Richmond (Sheedy's). Granted.
Whitby, Woodcock Hotel, Darebin Creek. Granted.
White, James. Burwood Hotel, Hawthorne. This application was opposed on the ground of the misconduct of the landlord.The misconduct alleged was of a grievous character, and there was also stated to be a charge of felony against him, but which it was alleged had been abandoned. Refused.
Whitehead, Ed., Crown iHotel, Queen street.
Whiteman, William. Prahran Hotel, Prahran. Postponed.
Wicks, R., Waterloo Hotel, Little Collins street. Granted
Williams, C, Williams's hotel and Dining Rooms, Elizabeth street. Granted
Wills. H. C, Odd Fellows' Hotel, Little Lonsdale street.
Wilson, R., Metropolitan Hotel, William street.
Wilson, R., Carlton Club Hotel, Gertrude street.
Wilson, Robert. Doncaster Castle, Doncaster. Granted.
Wilson, Samuel. Flemington Hotel, Flemington. Granted.
Wolfe, H. Travellers' Rest Hotel, Collingwood. Granted
Wood, J. W. Swan Hotel, Gertrude street. Granted
Wood, J. Wood's Hotel, Brunswick street. Granted
Wood, Jacob, Shepherds' Arms, Smith street. Granted
Wood. T.F. Yarra Club Hotel. Granted.
Woodward, G. Leicester hotel, Leicester street. Granted
Worley, Jessie. Plough and Harrow, Brighton.Granted.
H.Wyse Golden Cross, King street, (see note2 below) Granted


Y

Yeend, H., Derwent Hotel, Lonsdale-street. The following were postponed.


Note 1. Felix Spiers license application was granted on the 23 April. Luckily a month before this hearing before His Honour Judge Pohlman at the County Court, on the 20 May 1856.


Note: 2 H.Wyse Golden Cross, King street; Mr. Frank Stephen supported the application
Mr. Inspector Cooke opposed the application on the ground of the general bad character of the applicant.
The charges against him were that he formerly kept a sly-grog shop, and was now
conducting a public house -the Golden Cross King street- in the name of Mr Bowern the former
landlord of the hotel.
Mr. Inspector Smith (detective force stated that he knew Wyse to be the keeper of a sly-grog shop in New South Wales. His character was very bad. He stated this from the information which had come to
his knowledge as a police officer and from personal knowlege of him
Mr. Bowern formerly landlord of the Golden Cross, was called.
Mr Stephen advised the witness not to give evidence, as his statements might tend to eliminate himself, but Mr Bowern stated that he had no reluctance to tell the truth and eventually entered the box.
Mr. Bowern then stated that he was formerly landlord of the Golden Cross Hotel,
but in consequence of the house being condemned he took the Marine Hotel, St Kilda
and sold the license of the Golden Cross to Mr Whitehead. He believed that Wyse
lent Whitehead the purchase money (£70) He owned no stock in the hotel, but from observation
believed it to be properly managed He could not say whose property was in the house. If he had not believed
Wyse to be a respectable person he should not have allowed his name to be left over the door.
Cross-examined: He did not appear to obtain the magistrates consent to a transfer of the license.
He sold it openly, and obtained another license for another house. His name was over the door
up to the annual licensing day.

Mr Frank Stephen produced testimonials of Wyse's good character from Beechworth, signed by Mr Cameron, M L C, and several magistrates and other persons; also from several of the wine and spirit merchants of the city, and numerous others from other places.

The Bench granted the application.

a case of my magistrates trump your coppers.




Lithograph by Clarence Woodhouse 1852-1931, below, shows The Pier Hotel at Frankston owned by Mark Young with Young's Baths in the background. The Colonial Bank of Australasia is to the right of the image. A coach and horses careers down the street in front of the hotel, watched by five men on horses. The bay is visible behind the hotel, with a steamer and yachts on a calm sea.
It isn't dated, but it is 1888, well after the licenses above were granted.


8 comment(s), latest 2 years, 10 months ago

William Glas MCALPIN 1810-1902

William Glas McALPIN, the son of Peter MCALPIN 1768-1850 and Elizabeth, nee ELTON 1778-1817 was born on 6 October 1810 in Stirling, Perthshire, Scotland, died on 2 Feb 1902 in Bulga, NSW, Australia. He died on the 2 February 1902 at the age of 91. He was buried on 5 February 1902 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW, Australia.

William Glas McALPIN arrived age 18 months with his parents and 2 siblings, Peter and Sarah, arrived from London as free settlers on the ship "General Graham" 29 January 1812.

William was known generally in life as 'Billy Mack' and When Archibald BELL and his party discovered the alternate route over the Blue Mountains (Bells Line of Road) William Glas McALPIN was a member of his party.

William married Susannah ONUS, daughter of Joseph ONUS 1781-1835 and Ann EATHER 1793-1865, on 1 February 1833 in Christ Church, Church of England, Castlereagh, New South Wales.

Susannah was born on 28 October 1815 in Cornwallis, NSW. died on 10 August 1882 in Bulga, NSW. at age 66, and was buried on 12 August 1882 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
William McALPIN built a brick home in 1834 in the main street of Richmond, NSW with financial help from Joseph ONUS (the father of his wife) and set up a blacksmiths shop at the rear.

Their first 3 children all died within 3 years

The children of William Glas MCALPIN and Susannah, nee ONUS were:-


1.Elizabeth McALPIN was born on 25 October 1833 in Richmond, NSW. died on 11 March 1835 in Richmond, NSW, at age 1, and was buried on 1 April 1835 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.

2.Ann McALPIN was born on 21 January 1836 in Richmond, NSW, and died on 6 February 1838 in Richmond, NSW, at age 2, and was buried on 8 February 1838 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.

3.Peter McALPIN was born on 16 November 1838 in Richmond, NSW, died on 25 November 1838 in Richmond, NSW and was buried on 26 November 1838 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.


4.William McALPIN was born on 19 February 1840 in Richmond, NSW. died on 12 August 1923 in Bulga, NSW, at age 83, and was buried in 1923 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.

William married (1)Eva Mary PEBERDY b: 1846, d: 15 October 1868.
on 10 September 1867 in St Matthew's Church, Mount Dangar, NSW.

William next married (2)Elizabeth CHAPMAN b: 4 December 1850, d:29 July 1933 on 29 April 1874 in Burrowell, Howes Valley, NSW.


5.Susannah McALPIN was born on 13 May 1842 in Richmond, NSW, Australia, died on 18 January 1882 in "Oreel" Station, Narrabri, NSW, at age 39, and was buried on 19 January 1882 in "Oreel" Station, Narrabri, NSW.
Susannah married MacDonald CLARK b: 20 September 1836, d: 10 February 1918. on 2 Apr 1863 in St Mark's, Church of England, Bulga, NSW.

6.Sarah McALPIN was born on 28 July 1845 in Richmond, NSW. and died on 3 July 1922 in Singleton, NSW. at age 76.
Sarah married William WOODS b: 4 March 1844, d: 7 May 1933.
on 16 Sep 1868 in St Mark's, Church of England, Bulga, NSW, Australia.


7.Joseph McALPIN was born on 31 January 1849 in Bulga, NSW, Australia, died on 12 February 1913 in Bulga, NSW, Australia at age 64, and was buried in 1913 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
Joseph married (1)Elizabeth Jane DAWES b: 1849, d: 19 April 1884.
on 25 June 1873 in All Saint's, Church of England, Patricks Plains, NSW. Joseph next married (2)Amelia Therese ROGERS b:20 September 1861, d:8 September 1945.
on 15 July 1886 in Roman Catholic Church, Patricks Plains, NSW.

8. Mary McALPIN was born on 12 January 1852 in Bulga, NSW. died on 3 January 1915 in Bulga, NSW at age 62, and was buried in 1915 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
Mary married Edward ROSER b: 13 March 1848, d: 9 November 1930 on 14 December 1870 in All Saint's, Church of England, Singleton, NSW.


At the end of 1841 the family moved to Bulga - they settled close to their relatives on Wollombi Brook.
William's life long hobby and interest was the breeding and showing of Clydesdale horses - showing horses at many shows including Maitland, Mudgee and Sydney - and acting as a judge at many country shows.

In 1871 William Glas McALPIN, purchased 465 acres of land at Bulga. It was land that had been Thomas TAILBY's and George EATON's grants, along with land that Joseph ONUS had owned and willed to his sons. William had purchased the land from Thomas Alexander ONUS 1849-1934, the son of his sister Elizabeth 1825-1884., which had been left to him by his father.

From then on William and his family resided on this land, which he named "Glen Alpin", and were next-door neighbours to Thomas Eather 1824-1909 and his wife Eliza, nee CROWLEY at 'Meerea'


William Glas McALPIN and His wife Susannah are both buried in the Anglican Cemetery at Bulga their epitaph reads;

"Kind Hearts are More than Coronets".
-----

*Extracts from "Among the Pastoralists and Producers," an account from the roving reporter, Harold M MacKENZIE.

1895.
"On leaving Mr THORLEY's property intending to shape a course for Warkworth, I was persuaded to alter it, upon learning from that gentleman that one of the oldest and best men for recounting events of the past lived at Bulga, in the person of Mr. William Glass [sic] McALPIN, so hither I hied myself without delay".

At the time, 1895/1896, the road between Singleton and Bulga was in good condition and the weather was hot. Bulga, an Aboriginal name for "Mountain," had a Public School, Church of England, a Wesleyan Chapel and a School of Arts. The "Band of Hope" numbered from 300 to 400 people, with William Glas McALPIN taking a leading role. Bulga was a sober place and publicans and sly groggers got short shift: "Young man, we wouldn't have 'em near us" said William Glas, who MacKENZIE found enjoyed fishing and was a fit 85-year-old. Getting produce to market was a problem and William sent his wheat to Maitland over a bad road. However cattle were no problem -they were driven over the Putty to the Hawkesbury, thence to the stock markets at Homebush.

William Glas McALPIN related that he arrived in Sydney on the ship "General Graham" in January 1812, which carried stores for the colony and a small number of passengers, who were all free settlers with a trade. His father he said was a blacksmith and he had been a smithy at Windsor. William Glas learnt the trade there. He bought a piece of land from George BOWMAN and moved to Richmond where he lived to 1841. He made his first droving trip to Bulga on Mr ONUS's account, the first in 1826 and he finally settled there in 1841. He said droving wasn't a bad life, people were very honest and he never had any problem getting paid.

William related that his sister, Sarah McALPIN, was the first white woman at Bulga and that he and his brother-in-law Mr ONUS had 1,200 acres between them at Bulga.

Between Bulga and Warkworth.
The first week of January 1896.
"The first week in January will be remembered as one of the hottest, if not the hottest, I have ever experienced." After leaving John HAYES' "Rock View," MacKENZIE journeyed to fellow orchardist George PARTRIDGE. George's 80-acre property was considered to be better than HAYES for it had two good creeks on both sides. While at PARTRIDGE's place MacKENZIE was shown a huge apricot tree which bore 1,700 dozen apricots in 1895 - plus many that fell to the ground in wind storms. He had very little problem with disease and pests but the 12 acres planted with oranges of Mr ETHER [sic] who lived thereabout was almost entirely destroyed by caterpillars. His pumpkin crop went the same way "even though a very determined Mr EATHER re-planted the crop three times, the thirty acres were ravaged on each occasion."

In The Bulga District. Among the Pastoralists and Producers.
By Harold M MacKENZIE.
15th February 1896
"In {one of my past articles} it will be remembered, I dealt chiefly with reminiscences of Bulga when Mr William McALPIN came to the place as far back as 1826 - a man of whom it may be said landed with the proverbial half-crown in his pocket, apprenticed himself to a trade, bought land, and so with thrift and perseverance gradually worked himself to the front-and stayed there. Now, in his declining years, he has the pleasure of seeing his grandchildren around him with peace and comfort reigning in the household. Can a man be expected to do more in a general way?
Amongst the various stock which this old gentleman has concerned himself through life his "hobby" seems to have been breeding draughts. Without any undue flattery, it may be stated that Mr McALPIN has taken more prizes at populous centres, such as Mudgee, Maitland, Sydney etc, than any one else in the same line. Conversing in reference to the different breeds, Mr McALPIN's experience has been solely with the Clydesdale, and as compared with the Suffolk Punch, from what he has seen, he would not be inclined to make a change. To give one instance of his success as a prize taker, it may be stated that a Clydesdale filly, now a two year old, obtained when a yearling no less than three prizes in succession. Talking of horses, concerning which the old gentleman made more pertinent remarks, he said nothing more to the point than when he exclaimed, "I don't believe in breeding mules, my friend." Latterly, of course, Mr McALPIN has not concerned himself much with horse breeding, being content to take a rod and wander forth to enjoy the pursuit that old Isaak (sic) loved.


[Research Notes: The Discovery of (St) Patrick's Plains.
(Editor).
John HOWE, with his party, discovered a route from Windsor to the Hunter River in March 1820 which varies little to the present day Putty Road. During 1887 several letters were published in the Maitland Mercury pertaining to the discovery.

The correspondents were "Jus Sanguinis" (anonymous) William Glas McALPIN, George Thomas LODER, Elizabeth YEOMANS (Mrs.) and William COLLINS. William Glas McALPIN's first letter of July 5, 1887, "trusting that "Jus Sanguinis" would not feel aggrieved at {his} correction "brought forth a response on July 16, to both prior letters from George Thomas LODER. Four days later, July 20, Benjamin SINGLETON's daughter, Elizabeth YEOMANS entered the dispute then she was followed by William COLLINS. The following letter, written by William G McALPIN, was his reply to two articles published in the Maitland Mercury that originated from George T LODER and Elizabeth YEOMANS.

July 26, 1887.
To the Editor of the Maitland Mercury.
"Sir - I observe that my letter to you on the subject of the discovery of Patrick's Plains has called forth, - first, a reply from Mr G T LODER, and secondly, from Mrs E YEOMANS. Both of whom seem to think I have been misinformed on the subject, and as I have good reason to believe that the information which I conveyed was perfectly correct, I beg that you will again allow me space in your valuable columns to make reply. Now, as Mr LODER was the first to take exception to what I had written, I purpose to deal with him first. In confirmation of his information he has sent you various extracts on the subject from the journal of the late Mr John HOWE, but strange to say, he has not given one date; and not a word is said about the journey from the point at which the party crossed the branch at TURNBULL's farm, till they reached a point some forty miles further on, namely, "Puttee". The extract then states that they were unable to proceed further, on account of the numerous lagoons and creeks in the way. Now although I have travelled the road many times, (and my first trip dates back as far as 1826), I have never seen anything in the shape of creeks or lagoons to impede my progress. I have travelled the road in company with two of the party who first found it, namely, the late Messrs G LODER and T DARGAN (sic), and although we often conversed on the subject, I have never heard of either of them state that they met with any such difficulties, or that they went by any other but that known as the Bulga. I am not therefore much inclined to place much confidence in what is supposed to be Mr HOWE's journal. The information I afforded you in my last was collected from the late Mr Phillip THORLEY just about a year before his decease, and as that gentleman was noted for his sterling truth and integrity, I do not see why I should doubt that which he told me with his own lips. So much for Mr LODER: now for Mrs YEOMANS".
"The lady states that her father was the first white man who ever set foot upon Patrick Plains, and discovered the grand country that it comprises, but I can tell Mrs YEOMANS that the Government were well aware already of the fertility of the Hunter River valley, and were only endeavouring to find an overland route to it. Regarding any desire on my part to cast a slur upon the memory of the late Mr B SINGLETON on account of his determination to return when his blackfellow told him how close he was to the river, I must state that far from any such thought entering my head, I rather, on the other hand, commend him for his common sense. For undoubtedly, had he gone on with PARR he would never have received any compensation for his discovery (having no appointment in the expedition) and that the honour of the discovery should have been his, had he gone on, has been proved by the fact that PARR failed in finding a road. As to Mrs YEOMANS ignorance of PARR, I must inform her that she has not studied Australian history very closely, or she would know that PARR was a mineralogist in the service of the Government, and that previous to the expedition which I mentioned in my last (of which he was the head), he had been with OXLEY in his exploring excursions in the east. With reference to the Randel PARR of whom Mrs YEOMANS speaks, I may say that I probably knew him as well, if not better than she did. This lady also says that her mother, the wife of the late Mr B SINGLETON, and Mrs Phillip THORLEY were the first white women who set foot on Patrick's Plains. But though her memory is so green, I must yet refresh it by asking her if another white woman by the name of * HOYLE did not accompany them? Mrs YEOMANS also states that her father was the leader of the expedition, who found the track over the Bulga; but if such was the case it is singular that the Government in granting members of the party compensation awarded Mr SINGLETON only 200 acres, and Mr HOWE 700 acres. Another significant fact regarding this matter is that not one place along the route bears the name SINGLETON, while no less than three were named after Mr HOWE - namely Howe's Waterhole, Howe's Valley, and Howe's Mountain - all of which names have been retained to the present day. In my opinion, it is evident that Mr HOWE was the leader of the party, though Mr SINGLETON, no doubt, rendered valuable assistance as a guide".

"In conclusion, I may state that I have no wish to enter a controversy on the subject, but I am fully convinced that neither * Mr HOWE nor Mr SINGLETON ever stood on Patrick's Plains till they did so together when they crossed the Bulga in the expedition mentioned in my last". (* The date given by William in his prior letter was 1818. Ed.).

"Apologising for again trespassing upon your space - I am, etc.,"

W G M'ALPIN.
Glen Alpin, Bulga, 26th July, 1887.

* In a published answer (Maitland Mercury) to William G McALPIN's question about the woman named HOYLE, Elizabeth YEOMANS replied:-
"She was the wife of the man who brought Mr H BALDWIN's sheep over. She was a nurse, and came to attend my mother at the birth of a ** son in January 1823 and she returned with her husband shortly after.

** This son would have been John SINGLETON who married in 1844 Jane Ann ROTTON and died of dysentery in 1849 whence returning to NSW from the Californian Gold Fields. (according to our other records John SINGLETON died at sea during the voyage to the Californian Gold Fields !!!). The later would be correct as John SINGLETON & Jane Ann ROTTON had 3 daughters born between 1845 and 1850.


PIONEERS.
Now, at this time their shadows fall
Across the intervening years,
Bringing remembrance that stirs
The blood; let memory call
Back, back from out the shadowy past These men who tilled the virgin soil,
Blazoned new trails; by dint of toil
Gave us our heritage, so that at last
We who follow on may reap
The harvest sown by those who gave
E'en of life's blood; yet, o'er their graves
Do monumental stones that mark their sleep
Give greater tribute than this land,
Primeval yet-but for their hands.
-Thomas Wentworth.
janilye©