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Dan Kennedy's Cement

Cement Like Iron.
By Mary Gilmore.

The seepage from Burrinjuck Dam in New South Wales, brings up the subject of cement, and cement recalls to me a secret which has been lost to the world.
Daniel Kennedy was a genius born out of his time. He died a broken man. He was a distant connection of my father, and was married to a Croke.
I knew of this because I recollect hearing father say-and to him a beggar with a long pedigree was more Important than a king with a shorter one- that "though Kennedy had married into a family that was poor, it had
There were three brothers Croke. One was the great Archbishop Croke of Dublin, one that Lord Mayor after whom Croke Park (Dublin) was named, and the third one, apparently without the ability of these two, who was sent out to Australia with an allowance to make a start on his own account.
In Goulburn, about 1920, I met one of the most beautiful girls I have ever seen. Painters seeing her said she might well have been the original of the Sistine Madonna, as hers was so like the face in the picture. She was a daily seamstress, a granddaughter of the original Croke, and knew nothing of her ancestry in Ireland till I told her of it. But if ever beauty, spiritual as well as physical, was made manifest in the flesh, it was in this girl. It was her aunt whom Daniel Kennedy had married.

"Cold"' Bedsteads.
The secret of Daniel Kennedy's discovery was never told and never written. He carried his formula in his head, and certain parts of his work he did himself so that his workmen would not guess itor so he told my father when he came to Wagga Wagga in the middle seventies to ask father to go into partnership
with him.
In Goulburn in the 1920's I saw some of his machinery rusting on the ground at the side of his great Georgian mansion, Clarisville. This building had been erected on the site of and over what was said to be the original Marsden convict-built cottage at Goulburn, the cottage being the kitchen. In it is still the bath that was perhaps the first one over the mountains that was not a wooden one or a tin tub. It looked like an excavation ground out of solid rock.
Clarisville was built three stories high, and with a broad colonnade in front. At the side were the stables and the men's quarters. The men's rooms were furnished with an iron bedstead, a chest of drawers, and a floor mat for each man, "as good as those in his own house," it was said. Kennedy told father that he believed that any man doing his work should be well housed. The iron bedsteads he brought from the U.S.A., where he had gone to buy machinery that he could not then get in Australia.
As he had to bring the bedsteads back with him, they were probably the first iron ones to reach there. They were so alien to the times that people talking of them remarked that they would be cold to sleep in and not warm like cedar. Dan Kennedy's reply was that they might be cold, but that they could be kept free of vermin, for they could be scalded without destroying the polish.

Solid as Iron.
The pillars on the front of Clarisville are of the cement Dan Kennedy made. They are enormously thick, and no ordinary tool will more than mark them; while Goulburn tells a story af a bolting cart that bumped into one, and, though the cart broke, the pillar it hit was not even marked. The flags that floor the colonnade, and also the courtyard between the kitchen and the house, are of the same material; and these flags are as smooth after over fifty years (and perhaps more) as when they were first put down.
I remember my father, about 1882, urging Kennedy to write the formula, as he might get a knock or a fall and forget what it was. "Even if I did," said Kennedy, "it ls so simple that I could rediscover it from the materials of which it is made."
Besides Clarisville, there is a villa in Sloan Street that once belonged to Dr. Sinclair, a well-known medical man of his day, It is a typical Dan Kennedy building of the opposite kind from Clarisville, being as light and graceful in design as the other is massive and heavy. A builder, whose name I have forgotten, bought it in later years. Being at the place one day, I told him that I recognised the style and the substance in the delicate and slender verandah pillars.
"But they are iron" exclaimed the builder-owner. "No cement could be as fine as they are; it would break."
"They are cement," I repeated, laying my hand on one for the reassuring feel of the material. "You get a file or a knife," I added, "and try if they are iron !"
He took out a knife. "You are right" he said, as he filed at an edge, and was as eager as the others to know how the composition was made.

Enduring Water-Way,
In the middle part of Goulburn, or near it, is a subterranean water-way above which was, or is, built one of the old inns of the early' days. When I was a little girl I heard Dan Kennedy describe how he made it; I heard another man describe it in July of this year. A cart can go through it, it is so big; but sixty years of creek water running through it has not made a mark on either the pavement or the walls.
In Sydney at Miller's Point there were slender fluted pillars in what in my young years were still doctors' residences. About 1887, father, wanting to renew his acquaintance with them, took me to have a look at them so that I would know them as Dan Kennedy's work. When, in some rebuilding or resumption, these places were pulled down, they were the wonder of the building trade, because it was not till wrecking took place that it was discovered that the pillars were
not iron.
The only thing that I know of the mixture is that Kennedy used live shell. But, as this was the custom then, this was not singular. I remember it was said that the oysters cried as they went into the furnace, a little thin sound like a wire might make. We drove out once to see the kilns and watched the sacks of oysters being emptied into the furnaces. The only sound I heard (and as a child certain sounds made music for me not apparent to others-frogs in a pond, for instance) was the rhythmic rattle of the shell as it poured in. There was a hiss of steam as the oysters suddenly evaporated in the heat.
"Were the oysters hurt?" I asked, and was not consoled by being told that they were dead before they had time to feel, for I was unable to see how they could not feel.
As I have said, all builders used live shell at one time. Advertisements for tenders always called for live shell to be used, and the makers of lime advertised "made of live shell." So it may be that in the proportion used lay the secret of Dan Kennedy's cement. But having in mind what analysis can do to-day, remembering that examples of his making can still be seen in Goulburn, and realising what cement means to Burrinjuck and other similar reservoirs, it might be well to investigate and perhaps find the secret.
Because anything that might be of national worth has always meant so much to me, it may be that I set too high a value on the Kennedy discovery; but at least the facts speak in the flags and pillars still to be found in Goulburn, and which have never been duplicated by anyone but the original maker.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Saturday 21 August 1937
Page 13
Transcription, janilye 2013

The Extraordinary Breach of Promise Case

These cousin Cousins have confused some, particularly when their names happened to be Richard Young.
The subject of this case was Richard Young Cousins born on the 5 March 1875 in Wellington New South Wales he was the son of William Henry Cousins 1827-1883 and his wife Martha Eliza, nee Blunden 1838-1907.
William Henry being a brother to Richard Young Cousins J.P 1819-1886. Both, along with Walter Cousins 1829-1904 and Mary Anne Chatfield, nee Cousins 1829-1896 were children of Richard Young Cousins 1798-1857 and Kezia, nee Dann 1796-1837.

The breach of promise action in which Richard Young Cousins sued
Mary Louisa Carr, nee M'Nevin, for £5000, in the Supreme Court,
Sydney, on Friday, 14 March 1902 before Mr. Justice Owen and a jury.
No evidence was offered for the defence, and the jury awarded £150 damages

It is not very often that a man sues a woman for breach of promise. Indeed,
it is probable that the number of such cases could be counted on the fingers
of one's two hands. As a rule it is the woman who sues the man, and then the
reasons are such that there is no doubt as to the desirableness of awarding heavy
The case in which Richard Young Cousins sued Mary Louisa M'Nevin, of Molong,
for such a breach was the sensation of Thursday and Friday in the No. 2 Jury Court,
Sydney. Mr. Cousins is a young man with an ambition, and Miss M'Nevin was an
elderly spinster with £50,000. Apparently everything was fixed up for their
wedding, and presumably this would have taken place had not a Mr. Carr appeared
on the scene I before the celebration of the marriage. Mr. Carr was a nice man,
with a genius for entertaining, and Mr. Cousins and he didn't grow fonder of
each other when they both thought of the fair M'Nevin. Eventually Mr. Carr got
ahead in the running as it were, and then, though everything bad been fixed for
the marriage as originally intended, the lady claimed the prerogative of her sex
in changing her mind. Briefly stated, the first intimation that Mr. Cousins had
that he and his fiancee weren't playing 'cousins' any longer, was when he received
the following letter.

"My dear Dick,
As arranged, I am now writing so that you will get this letter
about the 12th. I fear the answer will not be a favorable one. I have given
the matter due consideration, and, considering everything, I think we had
better part.
My feelings towards you are not those one ought to have to pass a life together,
and what would be the use of rendering two lives miserable? I see lots of things
of the past in a light that I did not before, so that the reflection of it
makes a difference. You know I was a bit unsettled, from things I beard before
you came down, but I thought I would let things go, and carry it through ; then
at last I found I could not do that, and the rest you know. As I felt I could not
marry you then, I cannot do so now ; the result would be the same.
I am very sorry that things should have gone like' this as far as you are concerned,
for it has placed you in an awkward position, I must admit ; but better to have
things as they are than find out afterwards we made a mistake. There would be
no undoing it then, while now it can be done.
Very often in the past you were not up to the mark, but I would not let myself
think so then, and as I said, many little items passed over then I have thought
of since, and contrasted with others. I could say more, but of what use?
The result would be the same and it cannot alter matters now. Things will get
back into a groove again, and it is only a nine days' wonder, and you may be
glad it happened so I may be, too, after all, but that remains to be seen.
You will find some one to fill the imaginary gap I have made in your affections,
and then it will be all right for you. I am writing to Alf. to tell him of my
decision, so you may hear from him. Though this breach has occurred, if you
ever need a friend I will not fail you if I possibly can. It is needless to
write more on the subject. This is sufficient; what do you intend doing?
Are you going home ?
I will close now, with best wishes.
I remain, yours affectionately.

Subsequently Miss McNevin became Mrs. Carr, and then there was bitterness,
deep reflection, and, finally, the present action. Only the plaintiff gave
evidence, that is, so far as the two chief parties were concerned, and the whole
thing turned on the question of damages, as when he had been cross examined by
Mr. Wise the "breach" was tacitly allowed. In the cross-examination, various things
came out, the most amusing being in regard to the way Mr. Cousins relied on
Mr. Stockwell, a friendly solicitor.
On Mr. Wise asking, "After the thing was broken off, did you still retain an
affection for Miss McNevin?
The plaintiff replied " Yes, acting on Mr. Stockwell's advice,"
which brought down the house, and even made the Judge smile.
In the next breath he confessed to referring to three people as "d--d animals,"
and the lady was one, but this was under much provocation. When the judge summed up,
he said that the plaintiff was entitled to a verdict-that was a matter, of course;
As to damages, they would have to consider the circumstances. The lady was rich,
and plaintiff was to get a fourth of her estate, and on her decease the whole of it.
This he lost, because the marriage didn't come off, and, naturally, he must have been
annoyed to lose so much just as it was at his lips.
The jury considered that the plaintiff was 144,000 times as much injured as the
defendant alleged he was. That is, the latter, through her counsel, thought a farthing
sufficient compensation, but the jury found for £150, which, of course, will carry the
usual costs.

After the case described above, Richard Young Cousins 1875-1953 went on to marry Agnes Annie Smith in Wollongong in 1908. They had two daughters Lila Clair born 1909 in Ashfield Sydney, who married Francis J McEncroe in 1934 and Silvia Young born 1912 in Ashfield, Sydney who married Desmond Coleman Trainor in 1944.

Australian Electoral Commission
Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915
Tuesday 11 March 1902 Page 4
Transcription, janilye, 2012

Francis Stephen Norris

Frank Norris, as he was familiarly called, was one of the best known men
in the Hawkesbury, and one whose life was linked with the 'good' old days
of Windsor.
He was a native of Cornwallis, and a fine specimen of Hawkesbury native.
Even to the end he showed that hardy constitution that characterised the
old Hawkesburyites. He had attained the age or four score years, the greater
part of which he had spent at Cornwallis and Windsor, and for a livelihood
followed agricultural pursuits.
He reared a large family, the majority of whom have gone the way of all flesh.
Those living are Mr. Chris Norris, who in the old man's latter days kept
and cared for him ; Mrs Streeter, of Newtown (Windsor) ; Mrs Marshall, Sydney;
and Patrick Norris, who some years ago left the district, and has never since
been heard of.
Mrs Norris, widow of deceased, is still living, and is a month older than her
late husband. The old lady, in spite of her advanced years, is well and hearty,
with the exception of being attacked periodically with rheumatism.
Mrs Frazer, of Kurrajong, is a twin sister of the late Frank Norris.
In the bitter election contests in the Hawkesbury years ago, the late
Mr. Norris took a keen interest, and was a hard and fast supporter of the
Hon. W Walker, M L C.
He was a man whose cast iron constitution defied infirmity, and during his
long life he experienced very little sickness. A few weeks prior to his death
he was attacked with influenza, and then contracted pneumonia, which was the
immediate cause of death.
Death took place on Thursday, 1oth inst, and on Friday, the 11th, the remains
were interred in the Windsor R.C. Cemetery, in the presence of a large number
of friends and relatives. The Rev. Father Power officiated at the grave, and
the funeral arrangements were carried out by Mr. Thomas Collison.

ln the early days Frank Norris was a famous pugilist, and the following
particulars of his career are taken from Mr. J, C. L Fitzpatrick's book
'Good old Days' :
Frank Norris was regarded as the champion pugilist of these days.
He fought only a few battles, but won them with great ease, and without
even getting so much as a scratch. He was a much heavier man than the Teales,
and of course they were outclassed. Though they never met in an organised fight,
Harry Teale and Norris once had a rough-and-tumble, the affair being the
outcome of a personal grievance between them, but they were separated before
any damage was done.
Norris fought Hunt, but the affair ended in a general row, and the fight was
never finished ; whilst he polished off Bill Graham in two or three rounds.
A famous fight was that arranged between Frank Norris and Dick Hunt.
The meeting had been anxiously looked forward to as one which would
determine the disputed question of supeiority between the Sydney and
Hawkesbury 'fancy.' It came off, without let or hindrance, on Tuesday,
21st December, 1858.
The blue bottles, as not infrequently happens, were all the morning buzzing
about in every direction but the right one. The old adage,
'Where there's a will there's a way,' was signally illustrated on this
occasion, each man being ready and willing, and resolved to, if possible,
baffle any and every attempt on the part of the authorities at interference.
For some considerable time before, the Hawkesbury boys had had their eye on
Norris as their chosen representative in the ring should opportunity present
itself and the pretensions of Hunt were by them regarded so lightly that they
eagerly sought to conclude negotiations with his backers, and hence the speedy
settlement of preliminaries and the signing of articles two months before.
The stakes were £200 aside. Hunt immediately placed himself under the tutelage
of Bill Sparkes, while Cupitt undertook the training of the Windsor pet.
Subsequently Sparkes, in a fit of spleen, and without any sufficiently apparent
cause, threw up his office, and Hunt was then handed over to the care of Saunders,
who brought his man to the ground in most creditable condition.
The betting, from the clinching of the Contract to the convincing day, was
entirely in favour of Norris, whose advantages in weight, height, strength
and constitutional habits, fully justified the expectations indulged in by his
friends. Hunt was a long way from being a rigid disciplinarian, and the
consideration naturally weakened the confidence 0f many who, under more
favourable circumstances, would have stood 'a few' on him.
The difference in the ages of the two men was too little to have any
material effct. Hunt owned to the ripe figures of 36, while Norris acknowledged
having passed 39 summers, Their respective weights, as nearly as could be
ascertained, were: Hunt, 11st 7lbs; Norris. 11st 10lbs.
On Monday evening, December 30, the Sportsman's Arms was crowded by eager
enquirers after the locals, and it was determined the meet should be at the
Fox under the Hill, near Prospect. Betting was unusually brisk, 6 to 5 being
taken and offered on Norris, and even bets of 100 and 60 were made and always
available, that the Hawkesbury champion would lick his man within the half hour.
The rendezvous presented a most animated scene. Windsor and his neighbourhood
poured forth hundreds, and the procession of equestrians exceeded any muster
ever seen on a similar occasion. But the 'office' was suddenly given that
the 'blues' were on the alert, and, a council of war being held instanter,
it was resolved to make a move up the Blacktown Road as far as Bosh's old place,
within ten mile of Windsor. Here the ring was pitched, and the arrangements
rapidly and efficiently perfected. The huge mass of spectators seconded
the P R, officials in the preservation of order, and the affair throughout
was conducted in a most unexceptional and sasisfactory manner.
The umpires and referees having been duly chosen, at 10 min past 12 o'clock
Norris shied his cabbage-tree into the ring, an example which Hunt was not
slow to follow, and the men straighaway commenced their toilette.
Norris waited upon by Cupitt and Bill Sparkes, and Hunt esquired by
Bitton and Saunders.
Each man had stripped in tip-top condition. Norris' fine form, towering over
that of his opponent, was all that could be desired ; but, compared with Hunt,
his deficiency in breadth of bust and shoulder, and general symmetery of person,
was not conspicuous. Hunt's strength evidently lay in the right places, while
Norris exhibited a disproportionate development of power and muscle to his
height and length of limb. Wagering at this juncture was 5 to 4 on Norris,
and an even bet of £20 was made between the men themselves.
All being in readiness, the Officials took up their positions, the men advanced
and exchanged the customary grasp of courtesy, and precisely at 20 min after noon
The battle was a long one. and several calls of 'foul' were made on behalf
of Hunt,the fight being eventually declared in his favour, on an alleged foul,
after 1 hour and 17 minutes hard work. This untoward result naturally
occasioned bitter disappointment to the Hawkesbury party, but the act was too
glaring to be passed over, and the referee, having twice previously cautioned
Norris, only did his duty in awarding victory to Hunt.
Norris, all unprejudiced onlookers admitted, must have succumbed in the next
few rounds had the foul not occurred.
Though by no means so conspicuously marked as his opponent, Hunt's mug was
very artistically painted, and bore striking proof of the severity of the
struggle, The stakes were paid over on the following Wednesday.

Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954)
Saturday 26 October 1901
Transcription, janilye 2012

Alfred Smith 1831-1917

It certainly pays to take the time to ask the old locals "What was it like?"
These are the recollections of Alfred Smith of Richmond in New South Wales, which hold a wealth of valuable family history.
Alfred was born in Hobartville, New South Wales (when old William Cox owned it), on the 13 July 1831 to John Smith 1798-1833 a convict who drowned in a river near Liverpool in 1833 and Adelaide Eliza De La Thoreza 1808-1877 she had been born in Madrid. After John Smith died, at 15 months of age, Alfred was adopted by George JAMES 1768-1862 and his wife Ann Kelly 1789-1864. They had only one girl, Eliza JAMES 1824-1862 ( the mother of Ann ONUS 1841-1927) Alfred died on 24 December 1917.
On the 11 October 1854 at St.Matthew's Catholic Church, Windsor, Alfred married Ann Amelia KINSELA 1838-1917 the daughter of Martin KINSELA 1793-1860 and Ellen, nee HENDLING 1794-1862. Alfred had many jobs throughout his lifetime, including Town Stockman, running The Punt across the river and a Drover, droving throughout New South Wales and as far down as Victoria.

Below is part of Alfred SMITH's recollections which were Chronicled by Robert FARLOW, which began when Alfred was 78, in November 1909 and published in The Windsor Richmond Gazette, under the heading,
Some Ups and Downs of an old Richmondite, Mr. Alfred Smith

"Adjoining old Mr Roberts' place, at the back, was Wiltshirehurst. Here Mr Wiltshire lived for a while when I first went to the punt. Then George Case rented it. He farmed a little, and dealt largely in sheet stringy bark.Coming along we had Peter Hornery living. He owned the place he lived on. He had been a bricklayer, but could not follow the trade on account of being a cripple for many years. William Maughan bought the land from Peter Hornery, except the little piece on which Hornery lived. Maughan lived there for some time while he was droving. Next was William John, father of Mrs Robert Pitt and Mrs John McQuade. Mrs John was a great butter maker. Next to Mr John's was Mr Kingswood. He owned the property. Richard Gow (father of the popular Frank, who was a large produce dealer in Richmond years ago) lived with the Kingswood's, was married to the only daughter. He grew a great quantity of maize. The Kingswoods and Gows left Kurrajong a good while before I left the punt, and went to live down on Griffiths' old farm. A man named Rich went to live in the place at Kurrajong. He was a shoemaker but didn't work at the trade in Kurrajong, though I remember him working at it in Richmond. He grew potatoes and vegetables and took them to Richmond and Windsor. Ad joining this property was Tom Jones' "Kingswood's Tom " as he was generally known. He was father to Mrs Thomas Stanford and Mrs Thomas Brown. He grew a lot of fine oaten hay. Mrs Jones would never ride in a cart, and I often wondered why. One day I asked her, and she told me Mrs Stanford, mother of Mr Tom Stanford, and herself were driving home in a cart once and capsized in the rough road and Mrs Stanford was killed. The next farm belonged to the Gilligans. James Leavers, father of Harry, rented it, and lived there. He did some farming, and with his two horses and dray took his produce and wattle bark to town. Leavers met with an accident by his horse running into a tree which stood in the road opposite Thomas John's place. Leavers was well liked. Harry was born some three weeks after his father's death. Old Mrs Leavers left there after her husband's death, and went to Richmond to live. Edward Mitchell, father of the present Robert in Kurrajong, lived on the Comleroy and owned the property he lived on He had six bullocks and a dray and drew a considerable quantity of wattle bark to town. Mrs Mitchell made a lot of butter. She was a sister to John Lord, who lived many years in Yarramundi. She was a great step-dancer, Mr Mitchell was coming home from Penrith one night, and told me he got a great fright coming down Crowley's lane. He declared he saw Andy Farrell's wife, who had been dead some time. He was perfectly sober, and whether it was imagination or a reality, he was quite upset over it. _ Close to Mitchell's, Denny McCabe lived. He married a daughter of Edward Mitchell. Denny McCabe was a king among bark. He was a jolly fellow and a great step-dancer. The last time I saw him was at Mr. A Towns station, near Boggabri, where he was fencing. It was Christmas time, and we spent a good time together. Some of his sons are still in the Kurrajong. Below Mitchell's property George Turner lived on some property belonging to Thomas John. He did a little farming and made grass-tree brooms. Then we had Mr Parker living on the Comleroy Road somewhere handy to the present Methodist Church. He did some farming, and with his one horse and cart took his maize and potatoes to town. There were some old hands scattered about the locality worthy of mention. John Williams"Blackjack" they used to call him lived by himself, being a single man. He was a hard working man and took bark, etc., to town with his one horse and cart. George Turner was another great man among the bark. He married Sarah, a daughter of Edward Mitchell.
Robert Eather, father of the late Abe Eather who lived many years in Richmond, lived on the Comleroy. He owned a station on the Narran. The four sons were Thomas, Robert, James and Abe. Mr and Mrs Robert Eather died at Comleroy. After their death Jim lived there for some time. Mr and Mrs John Norris lived close by the Eather's. Norris was killed on the property. Mr Coleman lived near the Norris family. He was a fencer, but did a little farming. Cornelius McMahon can be reckoned among the old hands. He married a daughter of John Norris. I knew them both before they thought of getting married. Then we had Bill London ' Bill the native,' as they used to call him. Some of his children are still in the Kurra jong. Mr Murray was another old hand. Richard Skuthorp, father of our present Richard, was another I knew well. His wife was a daughter of John Ezzy. It was old Mr Skuthorp who first brought the racehorse Veno to the district, having purchased him from Mr William Clarke, who managed Bomera for years for Mr A. Town. Mr and Mrs Lamrock, parents of the late William and John, lived up Kurrajong, and I don't think they ever missed a fine Sunday going to the Presbyterian Church in Richmond. Having had a fair say about the old hands in Kurrajong we will now proceed to Colo. There wasn't a very great number of people living there in my early times, but among them were some who should not be forgotten. Colo has seen the time when it could boast of its police man. I knew two that were stationed at Colo. Curry was one. He used to visit George James. He was a tall man with sandy hair. He used to look very well in his black "bell topper". Jim Hunt was another policeman there. He was a short man and dark complexion. Mr and Mrs Cavanough kept a boarding-house down there for many years. The house was noted for its good table, and as it stood. on the Kurrajong side of the river Mr Cavanough used to help the drovers with their sheep and cattle up "the rock." Cavanough did some farming, and grew a lot of maize. They both died at Colo, the old man dying first. I knew their sons Tom, George and Jim very well. Tom was on the railway for some years in Richmond and was very popular. The last time I saw Jim was at Jerry's Plains, many years ago. William Penton, the blacksmith, who is still alive, living at North Richmond, lived for many years in Colo and I believe his family are natives of there. He lived up under the mountain on the other side of the river. He worked at his trade and did good business. There were plenty of drover's horses to be shod. He became a road contractor and carried out some big jobs on the Bulga road. His wife, was Miss Lucy Lord, but in no way related to John Lord, of Yarra mundi, There were a lot of the Gospers at Colo. Mrs Cavanough and Mrs Ivery were Gospers. I knew Robert Gosper. The late John Gosper, of Windsor, was, I believe, a native of Colo, also Henry. He kept an accommodation house at "The Gibber," It was a good place to stay at. Harry Gosper was a real friend of the drovers. If ever they lost a beast and it was to be found, Harry would get it for them. I have often heard him spoken of hundreds of miles up country, and always referred to as honest Harry Gosper. Of course there were others living up the river, but as I never went far off the road I didn't see much of them. Among them I knew Mr Caterson. I knew his son, the present Thomas, and his wife, who was Miss Grace Richardson, before they were married. Getting along from "The Gibber ' we soon get to Putty. Among the good old sorts out there were Mr Robert Ridge and his wife, He grew a lot of maize, and did droving. Mrs Ridge was post mistress, and kept an accommodation house. You could also get rations there. Mr Ridge had a mill and ground his own flour. Mrs Ridge was a sister to Mrs George Pitt and Mrs. John Crowley. Then we had Thomas Laycock and his wife. Mrs Laycock was a sister to George and Robert Pitt. I knew their sons Thomas, Andrew, Henry, George and Robert. They were always great cattle men. Andrew for many years before his death was a noted breeder of stud cattle, and was always a prominent exhibitor at the Sydney show. The eldest boy was a great pig raiser and used to drive his flocks of swine to market. Bob was killed from his horse. Thomas Laycock did a lot of droving, and bought stock for Sydney men. He was a horse fancier as well, and owned some well bred mares. At Bourawell we had Charles Sympton managing the place belonging to Mr William Farlow, senr., of Yarramundi, and also looking after Boggy swamp for the same man. I remember Mr Farlow giving me £40 to pay Davy Hayman who was fencing out there for him. Charley was there a good while. Mr Farlow did some cultivation out there. Mr and Mrs Chapman lived at Putty on a place they bought from old Stephen Tuckerman, Their son George is still out there and seems to be doing well.
The first gaoler I remember in Windsor was a Mr Steele. He was a tall man. Mr North was the first police magistrate, and lived at old Government House, Windsor, in my early days. How I came to know a little about early Windsor, was by going with my foster father, then a policeman, on court days. What I will say about Windsor must be taken as Meaning my early recollections of that place. There was what we always knew as the watch box. This stood between the court house and the gaol wall. It was a little movable place of weatherboards. The watch box, I believe, used to be occupied by soldiers in turn, to prevent any prisoners escaping out of gaol. Then we had the flogging period in Windsor, and I knew Reuben Bullock who administered the lash. When flogging was done away with in the Haw kesbury Bullock, kept a public house. Reuben was a thin man of medium height, and although his former occu pation was not the pleasantest, he was well liked. He was of a pleasant disposition and very obliging. He was generally called "Little Bullock."

The first chief constable I have any recollections of was a Mr Hodgins. He had son Benjamin, who used to knock about Charlie Eather's over at Enfield. 'He had a daughter Ann. She was a tall, buxom young woman, and married a man named Bill Allsop. She has been dead many years. The next chief constable was Moses Chapman, a Jew I believe. He was mostly known as "Mo the Jew." He was a short stout man and a smart little chap at his work. He was well liked. Then I mind George Jilks, another chief constable, and his wife, one son, and two daughters. He was a man who was highly respected. The daughters, Kitty and Jane, would take it in turns and come and stay a few days with the James' at Richmond. His son George was then but a lad going to school. Mr Jilks lived where Mr W. McQuade is living. George Shirley was another chief constable. He was a stout man, with a very flushed face. After him was William Hobbs, who was the last chief constable in charge of Windsor before we got our sergeants. We start our sergeants with a Mr Frewin. He was an Irishman. He wasn't in Windsor a great while. The first lockup keeper I knew there was John Horan. This was when the lockup was where the Council Chambers stand. I remember one day, in Horan's time, we had been into court, and were starting for home in the cart when I happened to look round and noticed two men with a man on the ground. I told James about it and he drove up to them. It was two police men with a prisoner who wouldn't get up and they couldn't make him move. As soon as James came up it was "Here George give us a hand.'" James had a quince stick in his hand and gave him a few smart cuts with it on a portion of his body, which made him jump up quickly enough. The first C.P.S. I knew there was a Mr Wyatt, in Mr North's time. He was a tall man. Then as a C.P.S. there we had Mr Callaway, "little Callaway" they used to call him. Then there was Mr G. A. Gordon, who was C.P.S. for many years. Mr Gordon was father of Mrs Brinsley Hall, and died recently. He was a Police Magistrate up country for a few years when he retired. Then there was old Mr J. J. Fitzpatrick, father of Mr J. C. L Fitzpatrick, M.LA., who spent many years in old Windsor. In the corner by the old Fitzroy bridge there was a large two storey place which was kept as a pub by a man named Thomas Cross. He was a very big man. I remember this same pub being kept by Mrs. Aspery, who was mother to the late Mrs M. Nowland. Her son, Thomas, who was killed at Denman by lightning, used to serve in the bar. Nearly opposite the barracks there was a pub kept by John Shearin "Jack the baker," as he was called. He left there and built the two storey place opposite the court house where he kept a pub for a long while. Jack died there, and his widow kept the business on for some time after his death. I remember ihe 26th, 50th, 8oth and 99th regiments being in the old Windsor barracks at different times. The present Royal Hotel used to be what we always knew as the mess house. Robert Fitzgerald lived there for a long time, and was living there at the time of the first election when he was a candidate against William Bowman Quite close to the barracks, only in Macquarie-street, there was the old "Jim Crow" inn. It was kept by Henry Hudson. He dealt a lot in horses. He had two stallions, Jim Crow, a trotter, and Clinker, a draught. He imported both of them. He died there. His widow kept the pub a while after his death, and then married James Lane. Lane kept the pub for a while. She was a native of Richmond, a sister of our Henry Silk, and I knew her before she was married to Henry Hudson, who came from Birmingham. Somewhere about where the late William Gosper lived there once lived a man named O'Dell who kept the post office, and this was the first post office I remember in Windsor. Going along Macquarie-street we come to the big house, part of which is pulled down, and the remainder occupied by Edward Day. The father of the popular mailman. Tom Thompson, kept a pub there. The hospital was built before my time. At that time it was an hospital only. The poor house, as we called it, was where the old people's quarters are at present A man named Williams, was overseer of the poor house then. He was a brother to Fred Williams, the constable who was stationed at Enfield once. I have mentioned that Reuben Bullock kept a pub. Near where the "Jim Crow " stood, and on the same side, he kept the pub. I think his sign was "The hole in the wall". John Rafter kept a pub there also. Mick Hagon kept a pub there. Mick was a big Irishman, and his wife was no small woman. Mrs Hagon kept the pub for a while. At Moses' corner I remember Mrs Moses, William's mother, having a baking business. William and Henry were only lads then. Henry used to drive his mother's bread cart. He was always a smart business chap, and to-day he is reaping the reward in wealth and honor.
The first bailiff I remember in Windsor was Richard Sheriff He was a short stout man with a very red face, and a a great horseman. The earliest mounted police I recollect were Sergeant Lane and Trooper Joseph Levy. Levy shot Armstrong, the bushranger, on a Good Friday morning. Windsor has had its bellmen, and I remember the 0ld bellman Oliver. He had a very strong voice and could be heard a long way off. He was a comical old chap and after he had finished 'crying' his business was always wound up with "God save the Queen." The attached residences of Dr. Callaghan and the late Dr. Gibson in my earliest days in Windsor was an hotel kept by Mr Coffey. He was a tall man of fair complexion. I recollect also that James Ridge kept an hotel in a two-storey house between the Royal Hotel and where Coffey kept the hotel. Where our member, Mr Brinsley Hall, lives was once occupied by Dr. Dow. He was coroner for a long while. Robert and James Dick lived up the top end of the town facing the main street. They kept the post office and a store. In the bouse where the late Ben Richards lived for years, and which is now owned by Mr Daniel Holland, I remember old Mr. Thomas Dargin living. Mr Dargin died there. In the course of time Laban White married his widow and lived there.
He was auctioneer and coroner at Windsor.
Somewhere about where Mr. R. A. Pye has his business, stood a pub kept by a man named Weller. The sign was painted by Tom Masters' father, and represented a blackfellow with a big nugget of gold in his hand. Where the Bank of New South Wales is, belonged to James Hale. He lived there for a long while, and when he left he went to live at "Fairfield," which he had bought. He died there. About where Pulsford's shop is, Mr Fox kept a general store, and about where the post office is Mr Crew had a large ironmonger's shop. Adjoining Mr Crew lived the father ot Peter Beveridge. He was in business as a confectioner. Fitzgerald-street we always knew as Hangman's Row. In this street old Mr Chandler had a furniture store on the left hand side between the post office and Macquarie street. At the time of the big fire, when the Barraba Hotel was burnt down, the shop was saved. The first I remember keeping the Barraba Hotel was Charles Blanchard. I was in the Barraba the day before it was burnt down and had a glass of beer with John Grono of Pitt Town. Miss Isabella Bushell kept it at that time. Not far away, on the same side as the Barraba, lived old Mr Gallaway, a tailor. Then handy we had Mr. Watt, a shoemaker, with whom George Eather served his apprenticeship. His son, Edward, lived about Windsor for a long while, and a daughter married George Eather's eldest brother, Charles Eather.
Mrs. O'Donovan kept a draper's shop where W. H. O'Brien lives. She owned the place. She had two daughters, the last dying some little time ago, unmarried. Where W. H. O'Brien's shop is William Gaudry and his brother Charles lived, William was a great sporting man, and was clerk of the course at the old Dargin track. Old Mrs Cope lived in the house where Mrs. Brancker lives. She. owned the property and died there. Where the Commercial Bank stands old Mr Richard Ridge kept a pub. He built the Fitzroy Hotel and kept it for a good while. Ridge was a great mail contractor in conjunction with a man named Hill. Old Harry Martineer used to drive for them in the days when the train only came as far as Parramatts. I am not likely to forget those days, as I came from Sydney one day, and when I got out of the train at Parramatta Harry Martineer couldn't take me as he had too many on board. I had to put 7000 sheep over the river in the punt next day and to Richmond I had to get so I walked going by the Blacktown road. Mr Richard Ridge had the mail contract when the train came on to Black town. Paddy Doyle was the driver of the mail. After Ridge went to the "Fitzroy" old Mr Broderick had a watch maker's shop in the place Ridge left. Sometimes I brought watches down to him from up-country for repairs while I was droving. Close to Broderick's was another watchmaker named Stewart. The house where Mr William Primrose had a saddler's shop for many years, was built by Mr Mumford, the chemist. He was thrown off his horse out Magrath's Hill way, which proved fatal. He had only insured his life some nine months before for £500. Not far from where the "Fitzroy" stands and in the direction of the railway, old Mr Thomas Tebbutt kept a store. At the present day I have a pair of old fashioned brass candle sticks which George James bought off Mr Tebbutt while in was in business there. A daughter of mine in Sydney has a small, extension table which James purchased at Mr Tebbutt's shop. George Freeman kept the Cricketer's Arms on the corner where Miss Bushell conducted the Royal Exchange Hotel for so many years. In connection with this pub I had a funny experience once which I must tell. Up stairs the Oddfellows held their meetings, and I had been proposed by Mr Peebles. How I came to be proposed was, Peebles used to draw the grog to the pubs over the river, and I used to put him over in the punt. Anyhow I had been proposed, so I mounted my horse and rode in. Dr.Day was the medical officer and when he examined me he wouldn't pass me. He told me to come again next meeting night, in a fortnight, and in I went. Again he wouldn't pass me, and wanted me to come again in another fortnight, but I told him I wouldn't come any more. Dr.Day thought I had heart disease, but here I am battling well in my 80th year, while the doctor went to his rest many years ago.
A little further in the direction of the railway Thomas Freeman kept the St. Patrick's Hotel. About opposite the Salvation Army barracks Frank McDonald kept a pub in a two-storey house. He did a good business. I knew both him and his wife well. McDonald was a great man with the late Hon. William Walker in election time. Hon. William Walker's father kept a school in the cross street close by. I knew the, Hon. William's brothers, George, Robert, and John. The last time I saw George was when he was a storekeeper on a large sheep station near Coonamble. Some time after he was an auctioneer in Mudgee. The first time I saw William was on Dargin's old race course. He was pointed out to me as the young chap who was learning to be a lawyer under Mr Beddick."

Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954)
Saturday 17 September 1910
Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954)
Saturday 24 September 1910
Transcription, janilye, 2012

The photograph below of Windsor,
the Royal Hotel on the right
was taken around 1880

Hawkesbury New South Wales before 1800

In these days, when we hear so much about the cost of living and the
Government have found it necessary to appoint a commission to enquire
into it. It would be as well for those now living in the Hawkesbury to
know how their forefathers fared in that respect.

Prior to the year 1800, almost all business was carried on by barter,
based chiefly on the value of the grain grown by the farming community,
and the value of that grain was fixed by the Governor and was paid
at the Government store, not in cash, but in other goods, or else on a
Government draft payable in cash in London.
The merchants gathered these drafts and sent them home in payment of goods
they imported, but the basis of all transactions depended on the price fixed
for wheat and maize at the Government store, Sydney.
The price of wheat had been fixed at 10/- per bushel and maize at 5/- per bushel,
and the home authorities in England had written Governor Hunter to say
they thought this 'too much'

He replied : '
"The immense expense of labour upon the ground will show your Grace what a
farmer's situation, with that of his family, would have been, had I persisted
in the endeavour of reducing the price under the present misfortunes of the
people, many of which are the effect of the want, of these public supplies
from Europe, which alone can ease the heavy expenses of this colony to the
Government and encourage the exertions of industry."

It is quite apparent that the merchants and dealers took all sorts of
advantages of the unfortunate farmers for it was only through the merchants
the farmer could get his draft cashed, so Governor Hunter, early in
January, 1800, did what the present Government have done.
He appointed a commission to enquire into the cost of living and sent
their report to England to show he was right in fixing the price of grain.

I attach a copy of that report so that the farmers now living on the
Hawkesbury can think the matter over.

"At a meeting held at the Hawkesbury this 14th day of January, 1800,
by the undersigned inhabitants from the different districts of the
settlement (Hawkesbury) the following average prices for labour and other
necessaries of life were considered and concluded by them in a fair and
impartial manner to have been as follows:

'To wit, for the cultivation of one acre of wheat as by average computation,
to produce twenty-five bushels.

Cutting down and clearing weeds ... ... £1 0 0
Breaking up and tilling the ground ... £1 6 8
Chipping and covering the wheat and sowing ... ... £1 2 0
Reaping ... ... £3 0 0
Carrying home, stacking and thatching ... ... £2 0 0
Thrashing and carrying in the barn ... ... ... £2 2 6
Carriage to His Majesty's store, porterage, etc. ... £1 19 7
One bushel and a half of seed ... ... 15/-
TOTAL. £13 5 9

'There. is no allowance for first clearing the land in the above estimation,
which is per acre, £6.'

Average price of the necessary articles of life bought at;
Sydney by us :
Tea, per pound ... ... £4 0 0
Sugar, per pound ... ... 2/6
Spirits per gallon, from £1/10/ to £4/0/0
Soap, per pound... ... ... 6/-
Tobacco, per pound ... ... 10/-
Butter, per pound ... ... 4/-
Cheese, per pound ... ... 3/-
Duck cloth, per yard ..... 5/-
Woollen cloth, per yard... £2 0 0
Irish linen, per yard ... . 5/-
Calico, per yard ... ... .. 4/-
Silk handkerchiefs, each ... 10/-
Linen and cotton checks, per yard. ... 6/-
Hats, each ... ... ... £2 0 0
Flannels, blankets, and all sorts of bedding much wanted, and none for sale.
"N.B. All other European goods equally dear, though not mentioned in the
above list."


Giles William Mower
Edward Robinson
John Fraser Molloy
Thomas Aker
Thomas Tyler
Matthew Lock
Andrew Thompson
William Roberts
Daniel Smallwood
Roger Foyfield
James Malee
Joseph Wright
Jonas Archer
William Aspinall

I would remind readers, that at that time there was
no plough, horse or bullock in the district, and all farming work of
every description had to be done by hand, and I shall have something
to say on this subject in a future issue, showing the great industry
of those pioneers of the Hawkesbury.

Pictured below;
The bronze, 3.5 metre (about 11½ feet) monument commemorating our
women pioneers of New South Wales.
Living a life of tremendous hardship. They were certanly expert
in making the pennies go further.
situated in the Jessie Street Gardens, Loftus St, Sydney

Licensed Publicans Hawkesbury District 1834-1837

The following is a correct list of licensed publicans,
compiled from the records of persons holding licenses
in the Hawkesbury District of New South Wales:

General Darling (Upper Richmond), Robert Aull 1789-1817
Union Inn, Thomas Eather 1800-1886
Plough. Thomas Mortimer xxxx-1875
Welcome Inn, Christopher Moniz 1809-1865
Packhorse, (Ferry), Thomas Parnell 1765-1853
Black Horse, Paul Randall 1752-1834
Woolpack, (North Richmond), John Town junr. 1806-1883
George the 4th, John Town, senr. 1769-1846

Bird-in-Hand, William Thomas Bayliss 1794-1849
Settlers' Hall (Windsor), Richard Lynch
Governor's Arms, (Windsor), Alfred Smith

Macquarie Arms, William Johnstone
Bird-in-Hand, Daniel Smallwood 1761-1839

Bird-in-Hand, Hugh Kelly 1770-1835
Lamb and Lark, John Pye 1809-1892
George and Dragon, John Cobcroft 1797-1881
Union Inn, James Connolly
Steam Packet, Joseph Fleming
Cottage of Content, Anne Leeson.

Australian, Henry Beasley
White Heart, John Baker
Currency Lass, Thomas Cullen
Windsor Hotel, William Cross
Red Lion, Mary Dargin 1798-1881 nee Howe
St. Patrick, Joseph Delandre 1799-1853
Cross Keys, Daniel Dickens 1792-1852
White Swan, George Freeman 1806-1867
Currency Lad, Charles Gaundry
William the 4th, Thomas Greaves
King's Arms, Andrew Johnstone.
Plough, Edward Robinson
Barley Mow, Robert Smith.

Upper Nelson
White Heart, Daniel Coulton xxx-1864

Travellers' Inn, John Eaton 1811-1904

Macquarie Arms, James Roberts 1805-1874

Lower Branch Hawkesbury
Industrious Settler, Aaron Walters

Fox under the Hill, Francis Peisler
King's Head, Adam Taylor.

Windsor and Richmond Gazette
Transcription, janilye

The Photograph below taken in 1908 is The Black Horse Hotel. The licence was first issued on 15 February 1819 to Paul Randall to keep an inn at his dwelling. For many years the sign of the black horse in full gallop announced its services.
This sign is now on exhibition in the Hawkesbury Historical Society's Museum at Windsor, New South Wales.
It closed in 1927 when the licence was transferred to the Kurrajong Heights Hotel.

2 comment(s), latest 3 years, 1 month ago

St Matthew's Catholic Burial Register 1845 - 1854

S/name. F/names. Abode. deathdate. burialdate. Age. Ship. Occupation. Clergyman.

247 Bourke John Windsor 9 Jan 1845 40 Labourer Thos Slattery
248 Fitzgerald Michl Windsor 23 Jan 1845 67 Pauper Thos Slattery
249 Pendergast Mary Cornwallis 16 Feb 1845 10 weeks Native of the Colony Thos Slattery
250 Breach George Windsor 20 Feb 1845 12 months Native of the Colony John Kenny
251 White James Richmond 21 Mar 1845 50 Farmer Thos Slattery
252 Turner Ann Wilberforce 26 Mar 1845 42 John Kenny
253 Cullen Edward Vinegar Hill 4 Apr 1845 Farmer Thos Slattery
254 Norris James Cornwallis 10 May 1845 5 Native of the Colony Thos Slattery
255 Dempsey John Richmond 11 May 1845 69 Farmer Thos Slattery
256 Slater or Donohoe Mary Clarendon 11 May 1845 22 Margaret 2 Servant Thos Slattery
257 Fogerty Michl Currajong 24 May 1845 37 Labourer Thos Slattery
258 Kenna Patk Currajong 30 May 1845 80 Tilly Sherry Labourer Thos Slattery
259 Kough William Windsor 8 Jun 1845 Labourer Thos Slattery
260 Tighe Anne Windsor 4 Jul 1845 58 Elizabeth Servant Thos Slattery
261 Holt William Currajong 15 Jul 1845 14 weeks Native of the Colony Thos Slattery
262 Collins Patrick Wollombi 31 Jul 1845 5 Native of the Colony John Kenny
263 Pendergast John Windsor 30 Nov 1845 37 Native of the Colony Mr McGrath
264 Brady Thomas Windsor 17 Jan 1846 58 Native of Ireland Mr McGrath
265 Fitzpatrick James Penrith 4 Apr 1846 7 Mr McGrath
266 Fitzpatrick Mary Windsor 14 Apr 1846 15 weeks Mr McGrath
267 McGoven Peter Wilberforce ? 15 Apr 1846 26 Captain Cook Mr McGrath
268 Gaham or Graham Hugh Freemans Reach 13 May 1846 51 Mr McGrath
269 Darey or Doney Thomas Freemans Reach 14 Jul 1846 41 Mr McGrath
270 Davies Mathew Poor House 28 Jul 1846 70 Mr McGrath
271 Keating G Poor House 14 Aug 1846 67 Mr McGrath
272 Foley Catherine Poor House 19 Aug 1846 35 Mr McGrath
273 O'Donnell Patk Poor House 23 Aug 1846 80 Mr McGrath
274 Perkins ? Windsor 18 Oct 1846 43 Mr McGrath
275 Byrne Patk Windsor 15 Nov 1846 32 Mr McGrath
276 Humphreys Ann Wilberforce 18 Nov 1846 6 Mr McGrath
277 Walsh Ann Windsor 28 Jan 1847 58 Mr McGrath
278 Connor Charles Asylum 10 Feb 1847 50 Mr McGrath
279 Cassidy James Windsor 30 Apr 1847 54 Schoolmaster Mr McGrath
280 Curran Mrs Rebecca Richmond 19 May 1847 19
281 Cusack Patrick Windsor 23 Aug 1847 32 Labourer John Joseph Therry
282 Dormer John Windsor 11 Sep 1847 His body was found in the Hawkesbury River How he came by his death the Coroners Jury could not obtain evidence John Joseph Therry
283 Kennedy Patrick Asylum 17 Sep 1847 63 John Joseph Therry
284 Smith Ann Asylum 13 Oct 1847 48 John Joseph Therry
285 Daley Patrick Richmond 25 Oct 1847 28 John Joseph Therry
286 Riley Mary Ann Richmond 12 Nov 1847 20 months John Joseph Therry
287 O'Brien Michael Windsor 12 Nov 1847 one day John Joseph Therry
288 Power or Poore Mary Ann Clarendon 23 Nov 1847 eleven days John Joseph Therry
289 Collins Thomas Windsor late of Wiseman's establishment at Windsor Hospital 24 Nov 1847 about 46 Herdsman John Joseph Therry
290 Maguire Edward McDonald River, died in Windsor Hospital 21 Dec 1847 66 Labourer John Joseph Therry
291 Riley John Cornwallis 24 Dec 1847 78 Labourer John Joseph Therry
292 Cuffe Farrell Richmond 5 Jan 1848 73 Schoolmaster John Joseph Therry
293 McKeon Hugh Windsor 6 Jan 1848 86 Labourer John Joseph Therry
294 Duffy James Kurrajong 13 Jan 1848 75 Farmer John Joseph Therry
295 Connor Bridget Vinegar Hill 15 Jan 1848 45 John Joseph Therry
296 Donelly Thomas Asylum Windsor 7 Feb 1848 72 Labourer John Joseph Therry
297 McDonogh Patrick North Rocks near Windsor 7 Feb 1848 62 Labourer John Joseph Therry
298 O'Grady Thomas Richmond 8 Mar 1848 22 months John Joseph Therry
299 Peible George Windsor 5 Apr 1848 4 1/2 John Joseph Therry
300 McCormick John Windsor 18 Apr 1848 40 Pauper Asylum John Joseph Therry
301 Murphy Samuel Windsor 19 Apr 1848 41 Pauper Asylum John Joseph Therry
302 Elliott Catherine Windsor 24 Apr 1848 63 Pauper Asylum John Joseph Therry
303 Holmes William Windsor May 1848 46 Pauper Asylum John Joseph Therry
304 Cullen Ellen Caddie Creek 28 May 1848 7 John Joseph Therry
305 Carthy Denis Windsor 29 May 1848 84 Pauper Asylum John Joseph Therry
306 Byrnes Patrick Cornwallis 6 Jun 1848 77 Farmer John Joseph Therry
307 Connelly James Windsor 8 Jun 1848 69 Atlas Shepherd John Joseph Therry
308 Carney Rebecca Eastern Creek 7 Jul 1848 84 Atlas Farmer Rev M Stephens
309 Kean Charles Windsor 22 Jul 1848 82 Pauper Asylum Rev E Luckie
310 Kelly James Lakeville 23 Jul 1848 75 Farmer Rev E Luckie
311 Landres James Richmond Aug 1848 88 Haldo 2nd Farmer Rev E Luckie
312 Gribbon Hugh Windsor 15 Aug 1848 78 Pauper Asylum Rev E Luckie
313 Good Arthur Windsor 2 Sep 1848 57 Pauper Asylum Rev M Stephens
314 Mahan John Windsor Sep 1848 36 Shop Keeper Rev M Stephens
315 Keane Peter Kurrajong Sep 1848 30
316 Spinks John Windsor 12 Oct 1848 42 Lady Melville Bricklayer John Grant
317 Barry Thos 26 Nov 1848 61 Dafiesta 1st Pauper Asylum John Grant
318 Haleroft Mary 5 Dec 1848 35 Pyramus Pauper Asylum John Grant
319 Huston Catherine 10 Dec 1848 43 Hooghley Pauper Asylum John Grant
320 Byrnes Walter 12 Dec 1848 38 Lady Harwood John Grant
321 Lynch ? 26 Dec 1848 48 Charles Forbes John Grant
322 unreadable 10 months John Grant
323 Braywood Henry Windsor 31 Dec 1848 14 months Native child John Grant
324 Turner Anne 14 Jan 1849 51 John Grant
325 Cullen James 4 Feb 1849 40 John Grant
326 C? Maria 12 Feb 1849 40 John Grant
327 Hayward Jane 16 Feb 1849 4 days John Grant
328 Spinks Mary 4 Mar 1849 46 Asylum John Grant
329 Harper ? 22 Mar 1849 53 Unreadable John Grant
330 McKeene Mary Richmond 24 Mar 1849 60 unreadable John Grant
331 Foley John Windsor 14 Apr 1849 54 Elizabeth [3] Asylum John Grant
332 McKibbett Bridget 14 Apr 1849 61 John Grant
333 Trodden Henry 24 Apr 1849 12 days John Grant
334 Costigan William 29 Apr 1849 45 Labourer John Grant
335 Doyle George 3 Jun 1849 70 Asylum John Grant
336 Herring Thos 11 Jun 1849 50 John Grant
337 Brennan John 22 Jun 1849 66 unreadable John Grant
338 Connor Timothy Windsor 24 Jun 1849 76 Unreadable Pauper John Grant
339 Riley Patrick Windsor 1 Jul 1849 59 Unreadable John Grant
340 Clifford Fredk ? Windsor 5 Jul 1849 70 Patra John Grant
341 Coffey Isabel Windsor 10 Jul 1849 38 John Grant
342 Davis Margt Colo 10 Aug 1849 44 Fourth John Grant
343 Donohue Patrick Windsor 19 Aug 1849 49 Andromeda Pauper John Grant
344 McDonald Richd Windsor 21 Aug 1849 10 months John Grant
345 Sullivan Mary Windsor 14 Sep 1849 44 John Grant
346 Baker Margaret Richmond 15 Sep 1849 31 Isabella John Grant
347 Woods James Richmond 6 Oct 1849 8 months John Grant
348 Savage Patrick Richmond 16 Oct 1849 57 Labourer John Grant
349 Pendergast Thos Richard Pitt Town 4 Nov 1849 4 months Native of the Colony John Grant
350 Byrne Maryanne Windsor 11 Nov 1849 5 Native John Grant
351 Maguire Joseph Windsor 12 Nov 1849 2 months Native John Grant
352 *bridge or Petherbridge unreadable Windsor 18 Nov 1849 4 months Native John Grant
353 Carney Edwd Prospect 11 Dec 1849 75 Farmer John Grant
354 Connors Charlotte 14 Dec 1849 60 Maria 2nd Pauper Asylum John Grant
355 Murray Mary Kurrajong 20 Dec 1849 12 months Native of the Colony John Grant
356 Henright Jane Windsor 7 Mar 1850 6 months Native of the Colony John Grant
357 Davis William Tumbledon Barn District of Windsor 7 Mar 1850 14 days Native of the Colony John Grant
358 Colrenny Bridget Windsor 20 Mar 1850 15 Anglia John Grant
359 Rafter Catherine Windsor 7 May 1850 14 months Native of the Colony John Grant
360 Mills Mathew Richmond 17 May 1850 16 months Native of the Colony John Grant
361 Heany Mary Windsor 1 Jun 1850 40 Elizabeth House Servant John Grant
362 Keenan William Windsor 12 Jun 1850 85 Martha Pauper Asylum John Grant
363 Hefferan Patrick Wilberforce 21 Jun 1850 60 Labourer John Grant
364 McAlpin Ellen Richmond 1 Aug 1850 69 Farmer John Grant
365 Timmins Michael Yellowmanday 20 Sep 1850 42 Native of the Colony John Grant
366 Mullens James Windsor 6 Oct 1850 40 Labourer John Grant
367 Ives Mary Richmond 28 Oct 1850 50 Henry Walsh John Grant
368 Reily Francis Richmond 2 Nov 1850 63 Edward Farmer John Grant
369 Smith Henry North Rocks 16 Dec 1850 25 John Grant
370 Gardoll Anton Richmond 21 Dec 1850 12 Weeks John Grant
371 Ahearn James Windsor 25 Dec 1850 8 ? John Grant
372 Brants Mary Windsor 19 Jan 1851 7 days John Grant
373 Wright Johanna Richmond 6 Mar 1851 33 Farmer John Grant
374 Clynes John Windsor 19 Mar 1851 28 Labourer John Grant
375 Pigeon Bridget South Creek 12 Apr 1851 8
376 Mason Mary Buried at Kurrajong 4 May 1851 68
377 Ray David Richmond 10 May 1851 1
378 Redman Martin Windsor 11 May 1851 30 Ogley Pauper Rev N J Coffey
379 Neil Patrick Richmond 1 Jun 1851 37 Farmer Rev N J Coffey
380 Cormack Patrick Cornwallis 10 Jun 1851 47 Labourer Rev N J Coffey
381 Doyle William Windsor 25 Jun 1851 55 Henry Porcher Pauper Rev N J Coffey
382 Egan Michl Windsor 30 Aug 1851 34 Inn Keeper Rev N J Coffey
383 Guthrie John Wilberforce 7 Sep 1851 70 Labourer Rev N J Coffey
384 Kelly Michael Richmond 11 Sep 1851 3 Rev N J Coffey
385 Connor Roger Nepean 1 Oct 1851 77 Neptune Farmer ?
386 Lynch Thomas Windsor 8 Oct 1851 91 Farmer Rev N J Coffey
387 Doyle Bridget Windsor 9 Oct 1851 55 Elizabeth 4th Pauper Rev N J Coffey
388 Collins Thomas Windsor 18 Oct 1851 88 Ann Pauper Rev N J Coffey
389 Ray Alexander Windsor 20 Oct 1851 50 Isabella Pauper Rev N J Coffey
390 Moloney Sarah Buried at Kurrajong 13 Nov 1851 52 Rev N J Coffey
391 Callum James Pitt Town 1 Dec 1851 5 months Rev N J Coffey
392 Smith Patrick Pitt Town 8 Dec 1851 2 months Rev N J Coffey
393 Glasgow Henry Pitt Town 8 Jan 1852 9 Rev N J Coffey
394 Molloy Mary Pitt Town 21 Jan 1852 7 months Rev N J Coffey
394 Mangin Martin Windsor 30 Jan 1852 40 Labourer Rev N J Coffey
395 Fair Richard Calai Creek 1 Feb 1852 2 Rev N J Coffey
396 Heaney Thomas Windsor 4 Feb 1852 61 Pauper Rev N J Coffey
397 McCabe Catherine Buried at Kurrajong 10 Feb 1852 64 Rev N J Coffey
398 Costello Jeremiah Windsor 8 Feb 1852 67 Black Smith Rev N J Coffey
399 Harper Patrick South Creek 16 Feb 1852 72 Farmer Rev N J Coffey
400 Bullok Catherine Windsor 19 Feb 1852 32 Inn Keeper Rev N J Coffey
401 Pendergast Thomas Pitt Town 25 Feb 1852 6 months Rev N J Coffey
402 Higgens Michael Sydney 3 Mar 1852 35 Rev N J Coffey Buried at Kurrajong
403 Dunn Ellen Windsor 4 Mar 1852 72 Labourer's wife Rev N J Coffey
404 Hadden John Kurrajong 11 Mar1852 86 Labourer Rev N J Coffey
405 Sullivan Ellen Windsor 4 Apr 1852 14 months Rev N J Coffey
406 Harris Mary unreadable 22 Apr 1852
407 Maguire Thomas Cornwallis 19 May 1852 62 Farmer Rev P Hallinan
408 Ring John Windsor 20 May 1852 70 Meadicant Rev P Hallinan
409 Broderick Daniel Windsor 31 May 1852 55 Pauper Rev P Hallinan
410 Connely Patrick Cliften 21 Jun 1852 60 Labourer Rev P Hallinan
411 unreadable unreadable Vinegar Hill 13 Jul 1852 58 Labourer Rev P Hallinan
412 unreadable John Michael Windsor 16 Jul 1852 1 day Rev P Hallinan
413 O'Brien Agnes Josephine Windsor 22 Jul 1852 3 weeks Rev P Hallinan
414 Mulhern William McGraths Hill 6 Sep 1852 78 Labourer Rev P Hallinan
415 Davis Margaret South Creek Windsor 15 Sep 1852 70 Rev P Hallinan
416 Kempster James Nepean District 19 Sep 1852 2 yrs 8 mths Rev P Hallinan
417 Day Bridget Cornwallis 29 Sep 1852 55 Widow Rev P Hallinan
418 Leary Mary Windsor 6 Oct 1852 44 Pauper Rev P Hallinan
419 Davies Richd Richmond 14 Oct 1852 34 Labourer Rev P Hallinan
420 Bourke Ellen Windsor 26 Oct 1852 29 Labourer's wife Rev P Hallinan
421 Keogh Walter Windsor 28 Oct 1852 56 John Bayer? Pauper Rev P Hallinan
422 Hamilton John Windsor 12 Nov 1852 75 Rev P Hallinan
423 Sullivan Cornelius Windsor 19 Nov 1852 - Atlas Pauper Rev P Hallinan
424 Cunningham Mary Windsor 20 Nov 1852 Farmer Rev P Hallinan
425 Woods Robert Richmond 21 Nov 1852 18 months Rev P Hallinan
426 Reedy Bridget Windsor 21 Nov 1852 2 Rev P Hallinan
427 Beans Mary unreadable 26 Nov 1852 74 unreadable Rev P Hallinan
428 Hynds Charles Box Hill 1 Dec 1852 18 Farmer Rev P Hallinan
429 McCarthy Thomas Windsor 4 Dec 1852 58 Rev P Hallinan
430 Whelan John Windsor 15 Dec 1852 73 Portland Rev P Hallinan
431 Doyle Patrick Windsor 17 Dec 1852 81 Hodbro? Rev P Hallinan
432 Carthy Mary Windsor 12 Dec 1852 60 Rev P Hallinan
433 Gabon Patrick Windsor 19 Dec 1852 72 Earl of St Vincent Rev P Hallinan
434 Brennan John Windsor 1 Jan 1853 60 Atlas [3] Pauper Rev P Hallinan
435 Cunningham Robert Windsor 6 Jan 1853 30 Royal Saxon Rev P Hallinan
436 King Patrick Windsor 3 Feb 1853 74 Rev P Hallinan
437 Egan Edward Windsor 18 Feb 1853 55 Rev P Hallinan
438 Gaunt Michael Kurrajong 1 Jan 1853 2 months Rev P Hallinan
439 Finley John Windsor 14 Apr 1853 64 Pauper Rev P Hallinan
440 Moffitt Mary Windsor 16 Apr 1853 30 Rev P Hallinan
441 Murray Anne Sally's Bottoms 13 May 1853 33 Rev P Hallinan
442 Goodwin Mary Freemans Reach 15 May 1853 75 Rev P Hallinan
443 McCabe Owen Kurrajong 22 May 1853 27 Rev P Hallinan
444 Norris Mary Ann Cornwallis 27 May 1853 40 Rev P Hallinan
445 Connors Michael Windsor 22 May 1853 80 Rev P Hallinan
446 Harrison Catherine Windsor 24 May 1853 67 Rev P Hallinan
447 Hayes Mary Jane Freemans Reach 2 Jun 1853 37 Rev P Hallinan
448 Barton Stephen Cliften 2 Jun 1853 5 Rev P Hallinan
449 Byrns Peter Windsor 9 Jun 1853 10 Rev P Hallinan
450 Eather Mrs Mary Kurrajong 11 Jun 1853 50 Rev P Hallinan
451 Hanly Jane Richmond 14 Jun 1853 4 months Rev P Hallinan
452 Wayburn Bridget Pitt Town 19 Jun 1853 52 Rev P Hallinan
453 Moore William Pitt Town 21 Jun 1853 50 Rev P Hallinan
454 Read Laurence Windsor 15 Jul 1853 60 Rev P Hallinan
455 Mahon Patrick Windsor 15 Jul 1853 77 Rev P Hallinan
456 Murphy John Hospital Windsor 17 Jul 1853 60 Rev P Hallinan
457 unreadable Mrs Richmond 5 Aug 1853 26 Rev P Hallinan
458 Parkland Mary Windsor 3 Aug 1853 61 Rev P Hallinan
459 Moran Michael Pitt Town 13 Aug 1853 62 Rev P Hallinan
460 Norris Elizabeth Richmond Bottoms 21 Aug 1853 23 Rev P Hallinan
461 Kelly Daniel Pitt Town 3 Sep 1853 79 Rev P Hallinan
462 Gunan Michael Richmond 13 Sep 1853 55 Rev P Hallinan
463 Mellish Maria Sydney 13 Sep 1853 36 Rev P Hallinan
464 Hill Elizabeth Windsor 18 Sep 1853 60 Rev P Hallinan
465 Clarke Thomas Pitt Town 22 Sep 1853 3 Rev P Hallinan
466 Gatton Thomas Windsor 2 Oct 1853 77 Rev P Hallinan
467 Riely John Penrith District 8 Oct 1853 45 Rev P Hallinan
468 Murray Thomas Sally's Bottoms 31 Oct 1853 7 Rev P Hallinan
469 Waddle Thomas Richmond 16 Nov 1853 60 Rev P Hallinan
470 Jones unreadable Windsor 17 Nov 1853 63 Rev P Hallinan
471 Slater unreadable Fairfield 22 Nov 1853 54 Rev P Hallinan
472 Sharry Mary Windsor 23 Nov 1853 19 Rev P Hallinan
473 Dockin John Richmond Bottoms 26 Nov 1853 7 Rev P Hallinan
474 Crawley John Windsor 1 Dec 1853 67 Rev P Hallinan
475 Connors Charles Box Hill 11 Dec 1853 74 Rev P Hallinan
476 Sharry Mary Ann Windsor 12 Dec 1853 1 month Rev P Hallinan
477 nil Rev P Hallinan
478 Buttersworth Bridget Pitt Town Bottoms 2 Jan 1854 26 Rev P Hallinan
479 Buttersworth Bridget Pitt Town Bottoms 12 Jan 1854 17 days Rev P Hallinan
480 Mellish Mary Sydney 26 Jan 1854 6 months Rev P Hallinan Age crossed out
481 Kilduf John Pitt Town 8 Feb 1854 60 Rev P Hallinan
482 Walsh John Windsor 7 Feb 1854 48 Rev P Hallinan
483 Brennan John Windsor 8 Feb 1854 70 Rev P Hallinan
484 Whitford Mary Windsor 18 Feb 1854 60 Rev P Hallinan
485 Power Michael Wilberforce 24 Mar 1854 63 Rev P Hallinan
486 Davies Henry Wilberforce 27 Mar 1854 53 Rev P Hallinan
487 Cavanagh Michael Windsor 10 Apr 1854 78 Rev P Hallinan
488 Pender [gast] Thomas Pitt Town 29 Apr 1854 14 months Rev P Hallinan
489 McQuade Charles Hale Windsor 29 Jun 1854 1 month Rev H Johnson
490 Kenny Anne Richmond 9 Jul 1854 77 Rev P Hallinan
491 Dempsey Denis Richmond 7 Aug 1854 62 Rev P Hallinan
492 Doyle Peter Wilberforce 12 Aug 1854 70 Rev P Hallinan
493 Riley Elizabeth Windsor 17 Sep 1854 63 Rev P Hallinan
494 Norris Michael Cornwallis 28 Sep 1854 30 Rev P Hallinan
495 Doyle Timothy Windsor 17 Oct 1854 80 Rev P Hallinan
496 Hewson Henry North Richmond 24 Oct 1854 11 Rev P Hallinan
497 Tierney Mary Windsor 5 Nov 1854 4 Rev P Hallinan
498 O'Keefe Mary Jane Windsor 13 Nov 1854 7 weeks Rev P Hallinan
499 Tait John Pitt Town 26 Nov 1854 3 Rev P Hallinan
500 Kelly John Richmond Bottoms 28 Dec 1854 2 Rev P Hallinan
501 Gahan Hugh Freemans Reach 31 Dec 1854 1yr 9 months Rev P Hallinan
502 unreadable Thomas Windsor 27 Dec 1854 80 Rev P Hallinan

Credits: Transcriptions by Kristine Wood - October 2003.

Jane Charlotte Eather 1851-1897

Jane Charlotte, the second child to survive infancy in the family of Thomas EATHER 1824-1909
and Eliza, nee CROWLEY 1822-1897, was born at Bulga on Wollombi Brook on 14 January 1851 and grew up there on her parents' farm. As a child she attended school in the local St Mark's Church, which was used as a school house on week days. At the age of 24 Jane was married on 8 October 1875 to Samuel PARTRIDGE, the 3rd. son of nine children to William PARTRIDGE 1818-1906 and Elizabeth nee RUSSELL 1822-1899 both from Kent, England, who were farming in the Bulga district. Samuel PARTRIDGE was known as Sam. He was very short in stature, being scarcely five feet (152 cm) in height. As a fourteen year-old boy he had been present during the hold-up on Warlands Range, when Peter CLARK 1837-1863 had been killed. It was Sam who had ridden off to Murrurundi to alert the police.
The young couple settled on a farm in the Bulga district and over the years had a family of four sons and one daughter.

1.Edgar Clarihew PARTRIDGE 1875-1960, their eldest son, married Susan Jane METTAM on 2 October 1905. The daughter of James METTAM 1838-1930 and Elizabeth, nee MERCER 1842-1880. They had two sons and five daughters. Both the sons died in childhood. All the five daughters married and four had issue numbering fifteen altogether.
Edgar and Susan both enjoyed long lives. They had been married for 55 years when Edgar died at the age of 85 on 28 November 1960. Susan survived him by over eight years and was 92 when she passed away on 6 July 1969.

2.Vera Caroline PARTRIDGE 1879-1941, the eldest daughter of Jane and Samuel, married Alfred CLARK 1864-1951 on 19 April 1911 when she was 32. He was generally known as Andrew and was about fifteen years older than her. They had two sons and a daughter.

3.Guy Russell PARTRIDGE 1881-1954, the second son and third child of Jane and Samuel, married Elizabeth Hazel SQUIRE on 2 November 1940 at Singleton. She was the daughter of Victor William SQUIRE 1878-1930 and Annie Felicia, nee CLARK 1891-1970. Annie was a daughter of Jane's sister Sarah Eather 1861-1923 who had married Ashton CLARK. Therefore Guy and Elizabeth were first cousins once removed. He turned 60 in the month that he married. His bride had been born at Quirindi on 29 March 1918 and was 22. They had three sons all born at Singleton.

4.The fourth child of Jane and Samuel Partridge, Oscar EATHER PARTRIDGE 1884-1963, he married Ethel Florence Isolda May MORGAN 1885-1962 in 1911 at Armidale, NSW. She had been born at Armidale 17 September 1885, the daughter of Hananiah MORGAN 1846-1904 and his wife, Jemima Agnes, nee McMICHAEL 1852-1928. They had four sons. Oscar died at Traralgin in Victoria in 1963 at the age of 88.

5.The fourth son and fifth child Darrell PARTRIDGE 1891-1953 married Ada Teresa CALLAGHAN 1893-1979 the daughter of Patrick and Margaret CALLAGHAN from Dungog, New South Wales.

Jane PARTRIDGE who suffered from heart disease, died suddenly whilst doing her housework on 3 June 1897 at the early age of 46, so she did not live to see any of her children married or any of her grandchildren. Samuel survived her by 31 years. Beulah SQUIRE, a sister of Guy PARTRIDGE's wife, lived at her parents' home "Gerale" at Bulga when she was young. In later years she remembered Samuel PARTRIDGE - 'Uncle Sam'. He used to go to "Gerale" every Saturday. He rode a pretty cream horse and tied it up behind the cow bails. When the school van was running, Beulah and her siblings caught it at Bill COOKE's gate. Uncle Sam used to time his arrival from town to be at the gate so that the young ones could open it for him. He then used to give them a lift down to his gate, thereby saving himself from having to open and close three gates. Sam was a small man, as were his two brothers. Sam's brother Peter PARTRIDGE 1859-1918 married Amy Hilton CLARK daughter of Macdonald CLARK 1836-1918 and Susannah, nee MCALPIN 1842-1882 at Patrick's Plain in 1887. Sam was age 72 years when he died on 11 June 1928 - his death was registered at Singleton, New South Wales
Sam and Jane are buried together at St.Mark's Church of England Cemetery, Bulga, New South Wales.

The photo below was taken in 1896, at the side of Thomas EATHER's house 'Meerea' at Bulga, NSW
Standing from left Peter McAlpin, William Glas McAlpin, William Partridge 1817-1906
Sitting Thomas Eather, Eliza Eather, nee Crowley, Elizabeth Partridge, nee Russell 1822-1899 and James Coe 1828-1910
Sitting in front is Elizabeth McDonald relict of James Swales Clark.
There are altogether 12 people in this photograph unfortunately not all are shown here, Mrs Sarah Coe, nee Howard 1828 - 1908 is seated beside her husband; whilst on the left-hand side were Thomas Hayes 1824 - 1914 with his wife Mary Ann , nee Broughton 1826 - 1904 and standing behind them is Mrs. Susannah Holmes, nee Taylor. All are related by marriage except for Mrs. Holmes.


An Old Landmark.
One by one Sydney's old buildings are being demolished, to make room for more up-to-date structures. The latest marked for destruction are the premises on Brickfield Hill, known for over half a century as the 'Dog and Duck Hotel. For the past few years the building has ceased to supply intoxicants, but has still catered for the inner man, a portion being in the occupancy of Mr. Denton, butcher.
Erected early in the thirties and in close proximity to the old cattle markets and the carriers' camping ground, the 'Dog and Duck ' was, in the ante-railway days, the principal resort for farmers and teamsters visiting Sydney on business or pleasure. This fact, in the "old days," naturally attracted to the 'Dog and Duck' not inconsideraide numbers of the sharping fraternity, who considered the countrymen easy prey. Some curious stories are, however, told concerning spoilers on whom the tables were turned.
When the 'Dog and Duck' was erected it was evidently intended to stand for many years, being most substantially built of stone, with enormous iron bark beams, squared soley by the axe. The walls are 2ft. in thickness, and each of the two storeys of which the building consists is remarkable for its paucity of windows and the lowness of the rooms.
Later in its career the 'Dog and Duck' had additional accommodation, in brick, tacked on to the original structure. At the rear of the premises are the remains of an old skittle-alley, wherein, it is stated, considerable money has changed hands.
In the latter days of its existence as an hotel, the 'Dog and Duck' was not identified with the skittle-alley which was sublet, and it was while thus occupied that a police raid was made, and over thirty men arrested on a charge of gambling, the cases, however, all being dismissed at the police court.

Evening News Sydney, NSW
Thursday 8 October 1896

George Leonard Lee 1860-1939

George Leonard LEE the son of John Leonard LEE 1833-1913 and
Mary, nee ECKFORD 1836-1883 was born in Maitland in 1860.
In 1896, George Leonard married Emma Onus TOWN 1867-1948 the
daughter of Andrew TOWN, of Hobartville 1840-1890 and
Emma Susannah ONUS 1843-1941.

This biography below is from the Dictionary of Australian Biography:-
[George Leonard Lee (1860-1939), soldier, was born on 25 June 1860 at West Maitland, New South Wales, son of John Lee, draper and later merchant, and his wife, Mary Ann née Eckford. Educated at Sauchu House School, West Maitland, and Armidale Grammar School, he worked for a while in the family business, John Lee & Sons, West Maitland. He was a well-known horseman and sportsman, keen on polo.

On 4 October 1889 Lee was commissioned in the local troop of the New South Wales Lancers and during the maritime strike of 1890 acted as adjutant of the partially paid cavalry and mounted rifles who were enrolled as special police in Sydney. Next year he was sent to England for training and by October 1892 had qualified in an equitation course at the Cavalry School, Canterbury, at an Army Service Corps school and at the School of Musketry, Hythe; he also trained for several months with the 20th Hussars at Aldershot. After returning home he joined the New South Wales Permanent Military Forces in December 1892 as a captain and from then until June 1902 was adjutant of the New South Wales Lancers. The New South Wales Mounted Brigade's book of confidential reports contains laudatory references to him. During that time he was also acting staff officer, Mounted Brigade, for over two years, and commandant of the Cavalry School. On 2 January 1896 he married Emma Onus Town at St Ann's Anglican Church, Homebush, Sydney; they had no children.

On the outbreak of the South African War in October 1899 the New South Wales Lancers mobilized a draft to go from Sydney to reinforce their squadron which was proceeding to the war from England after training there. Lee, now a major, was in charge of the draft which joined the squadron in South Africa on 6 December. Lee then took command of the Lancer contingent from Captain C. F. Cox. His unit, part of Lieutenant-General French's force, was employed in operations around Colesberg, the relief of Kimberley, and actions at Paardeberg, Poplar Grove, Driefontein, Zand River, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Diamond Hill and in the Transvaal east of Pretoria to 26 October 1900 when the squadron's year of service ended. For his work in South Africa Lee was mentioned in dispatches and awarded the Distinguished Service Order.

Resuming duty with the Australian Military Forces, Lee was assistant adjutant general and chief staff officer in Victoria in 1902-07. Appointed to the Administrative and Instructional Staff in 1904, he became a lieutenant-colonel in 1909, having held brevet rank since 1902. He served in New South Wales from June 1907, and was commandant in Tasmania in 1911-12 and in Queensland in 1912-17. After that he was temporarily in command in New South Wales, with the honorary rank of major general from July 1918 until he was transferred to the retired list on 13 May 1920 as honorary lieutenant-general. He was aide-de-camp to the governor-general in 1915-20, and in 1917 was appointed C.M.G.

Warm tributes to Lee's personality and ability include praise of his fine horsemanship, geniality and ripe judgement; there was 'no hypocrisy in his make up' and he would not tolerate it in anyone under him. In retirement he worked two oyster leases at Port Stephens, New South Wales. He was a member of the Union Club, Sydney. Survived by his wife, he died on 13 April 1939 at Burwood and was cremated with Anglican rites.]

Citation details
Vernon, P. V., 'Lee, George Leonard (18601939)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/lee-george-leonard-7146/text12335, accessed 12 July 2012.
This article was first published in hardcopy in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, (MUP), 1986

Printed in the Sydney Morning Herald,
Saturday 15 April 1939

Lieutenant-General George Leonard Lee, who died on Thursday night,
aged 78, had a distinguished military career.
He received his first commission in the New South Wales Lancers in 1889,
and was subsequently adjutant of the Lancers for 10 years.
After reaching the rank of lieutenant-colonel he was appointed to the
administrative instructional staff of the permanent military forces.
He was Assistant Adjutant General and Chief Staff Officer in Victoria
from 1902 to 1907, Commandant in Tasmania from 1911 to 1912, and
Commandant in Queensland from 1912 to 1917.

He took part in the South African campaign, and was present at the
relief of Kimberley.
He was mentioned in despatches in 1901, and received the
Distinguished Service Order and the Queen's medal with six clasps.
He was created a C.M.G. in 1917.

A well-known sportsman and horseman, in his younger days he won renown
in many cross-country rides, winning more than one.

Before he was appointed to the permanent staff he was a member of the
firm of John Lee and Sons, general providers, West Maitland.
He was at one time Commandant of the Cavalry School of Instruction.
He was granted the rank of lieutenant-general when he retired from the
position of State Commandant in New South Wales 19 years ago."

Lieut.Gen. George Leonard LEE C.M.G D.S.O died on the 13 April 1939 at his residence,
58 Broughton Road, Homebush.
(the former residence of his mother-in-law, Emma Susannah TOWN)
His widow Emma Onus LEE died on the 15 April 1948, also at Broughton Road.