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1. Let every wife be persuaded that there are two ways of governing a family; the first is by the expression of that will which belongs to force; the second by the power of mildness, to which even strength will yield. One is the power of the husband; a wife should never employ any other arms than gentleness. When a woman accustoms herself to say I will, she deserves to lose her empire.

2. Avoid contradicting your husband. When we smell at a rose, it is to imbibe the sweetness of its odour: we likewise look for every thing that is amiable from women. Whoever is often contradicted feels insensibly an aversion for the person who contradicts, which gains strength by time, and, whatever be her good
qualities, is not easily destroyed.

3.Occupy yourself only with household affairs. Wait till your husband confides to you affairs of higher importance, and do not give your advice till he asks it.
4.Never take upon, yourself to be a censor of your husband's morals, and do not read lectures to him. Let your preaching be a good example, and practice virtue yourself to make him in love with it.

5.Command his attentions by being always attentive to him; never exact any thing,
and you will obtain much; appear always flattered by the little he does for you,
which will excite him to perform more.

6.All men are vain ; never wound his vanity, not even in the most trifling instances.
A wife may have more sense than her husband, but she' should never seem to know it.

7.When a man gives wrong counsel, never make him feel that, he has done so, but lead him on by degrees to what is rational, with mildness and gentleness; when he is convinced,
leave him all the merit of having found out what was just and reasonable.

8.When a husband is out of temper, behave obligingly to him; if he is abusive, never retort;
and never prevail over him to humble him.

9.Choose well your female friends: have but few, and be careful of following their advice in all matters.

10. Cherish neatness without luxury, and pleasure without excess; dress with taste,
and particularly with modesty; vary the fashions of your dress, especially in regard to colours.
It gives a change to the ideas, and recalls pleasing recollections. Such things may appear trifling, but they are of more importance than is imagined.

11.Never be, - curious to pry into your husband's concerns, but obtain his confidence
by that which, at all times, you repose in him. Always preserve order and economy;
avoid being out of temper, and be careful never to scold.
By these means he will find his own house more pleasant than any other.

12. Seem always to obtain information from him, especially before company,
though you may pass yourself for a simpleton. Never forget that a wife owes all her importance
to that of her husband; Leave him entirely master of his actions, to go or come whenever he thinks fit.
A wife ought to make her company so amiable to her husband that he could not exist without it;
then he will not seek for any pleasure abroad if she does not partake of it with him.

transcribed from The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848) issue Friday 1 August 1828, by janilye on the 29 January 2012

Still happily living by the code in 1900 in Dungog, New South Wales just as her mother and grandmother did.

9 comment(s), latest 4 years, 11 months ago


(Before Septimus Martin, S.M. (chairman), P. Davis, Edward Cohen, Samuel Heape,
Walsh. Bullen, and Vaughan, Esqs., J.P.'s.)
The annual District Licensing Session was held yesterday at the District Police Court,
Little Collins-street, when there were 83 applications to be considered, all of which
were granted with the exception of two and three were withdrawn.
The following is a list of the applications :—
John Abbott, Lamb Inn, Yan Yean: Granted.
James Aram, Retreat Inn, Brunswick: Granted.
Horace Bastings, Quarry Hotel, East Brunswick: Granted.
William Bastings, Peacock Inn, Northcote: Granted.
Thomas Butt, Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, Irishtown: Granted.
Patrick Bourke, Travellers' Home, Darebin Creek: Granted.
Denis Bowes, Roscray Hotel, Northcote: Granted.
Jones Brown, Rose of Brunswick Hotel, Brunswick: Withdrawn.
Charles Burrell, Harkaway Hotel, Nunawadin:. Granted.
John Bryan, Victoria Hotel, Broadmeadows: Granted.
Samuel Boyle, Bowling Green Inn, Hawthorne: Granted.
John Conran, Governor Hotham Hotel, Hawthorne: Granted.
Paul Cansick, Boundary Inn, Flemington: Withdrawn.
John Clarke, Stanley Arms, Footscray. (This application was opposed by
the constable stationed at Footscray, on the ground that the house was
badly conducted. Clarke was delicate in his health, and was consequently
frequently unable to attend to the house himself, and when so ill as to
be absent there was no one fit to take charge. The only person in charge
on a Sunday lately was a woman, who was so drunk that she could not
even tell what time it was. The Bench unanimously refused the application,
believing Clarke to be wholly unfit to have a licence.)
James Colvin, Beehive Hotel, Hawthorne: Granted.
John Connell, Hawthorne Hotel, Hawthorne: Granted.
John Connelly, Flemington Hotel, Flemington: Granted.
William Clinton, Brunswick Hotel, Brunswick: Granted.
Denis Delany, Royal Hotel, Nunawading. Granted.
John Devine, Belmont Hotel, Belmont, Epping-road. Granted.
Charles Dyson, Gardiner Hotel, Gardiner: Granted.
George Eastaway, Camberwell Inn, Camberwell. Cautioned, and granted.
George Forbes, Whittlesea Hotel, Whittlesea. Granted.
John Gisby, Marine Hotel, Brighton. Granted.
Joseph Gibson, Oakleigh Hotel, Oakleigh. Granted.
Peter McLean Ross, Bee Hotel, Elsternwick. (This application was opposed
by Mr. Read, on the ground that the house was not required in the locality.
The house, he said, had been twice previously refused a licence on the
ground that it was not required. Mr. F. Stephen supported the application,
and produced a numerously-signed petition in support of the application.)
The Bench unanimously granted the licence.
William Rose, Devonshire Hotel, Brighto:. Granted.
James Royle, Braybrook Hotel, Keilor Plains: Granted.
William Francis Short, Armagh Hotel, Moorabbin: Granted.
Charles Souffham, Lion Hotel, Hawthorn: Granted.
Hugh Sinclair, Pilgrim Hotel, Plenty-road: Granted.
John Scott, East Brighton Hotel, East Brighton: Granted.
George Self Smith, Malvern Hill Hotel, Malvern Hill. Granted.
John Hill, Thorncombe Hotel, Thorncombe: Granted.
Wm. Heffernan, Plenty Inn, Upper Plenty: Granted.
Cuthbert Joseph Harrison, Rising Sun, Geelong-road: Granted.
Samuel Spencer Hanger, Sir Robert Nickle, Hawthorn. Cautioned. Granted.
Denis Hayes, Shannon Hotel, Plenty-road. Granted.
John Holland, Holland's Hotel, Flemington. Granted.
William Hoole, Bridge Hotel, Flemington. Granted.
Lorenzo Horen, National Hotel, Moonee Ponds. Granted.
William James Irwin, Irwin's Hotel, Boroondara. Granted.
Robert Keys, Brighton Hotel, Little Brighton: Granted.
Matthew Lowry, Punt Inn, Hawthorn: Granted.
Stephen Lindsay, Prince Albert Hotel, Brighton. No objection.
Thomas Little, Cumberland Arms, Brunswick. Granted.
William Lewis, Darebin Creek Hotel, Darebin Creek. Granted.
Murdooh McDonald, Railway Hotel, Footscray. Granted.
Andrew Martin, Werribee Station,Werribee. Granted.
Jesse Morley, Plough and Harrow, Brighton. Granted.
Robert Mills, Harp of Erin, Boroondara. Granted.
Matthew Murray, Prince Albert Hotel, Flemington. Granted.
James Maher, Footscray Punt Hotel, Footscray. Granted.
Thomas Mannallock, Cornish Arms Hotel, Brunswick. Granted.
Francis McGlinn, Bridge Inn, River Plenty. Granted.
John Mullins, Farmers' Home Hotel, Oakleigh. Granted.
Patrick Murphy, Railway Hotel, Wyndham. Granted. Bench complimented
Murphy on the good house he kept.
William Myers, Sarah Sands Hotel, Brunswick. Granted.
Edward Murray, Rose and Crown Inn, Flemington. Granted.
George McKnight, Plough Inn, Plenty-road Granted.
George Gregory Nicholas, Junction Hotel, Footscray.
George Nissen, Boroondara Family Hotel, Hawthorn. Granted.
John Overman, Hunter's Rest, Brighton, Granted.
Michael O'Meara, Phillipstown Hotel, Phillipstown: Granted.
Patrick O'Shanassy, Kew Hotel, Kew. Granted.
John O'Connor, Pic-Nic Hotel, Gipsy Village, Moorabbin. Postponed for inquiry.
John O'Connor objected to by Mr. F. Stephen, on behalf of the proprietor, on the
ground that the house had been allowed by the applicant to fall into a dilapidated
state; and also that the applicant was an uncertificated insolvent. (The Bench adjourned
the case for 14 days for inquiry.)
James Patton, McDougall Hotel, Upper Plenty. Granted.
William Philllppe, Boundary Inn, Flemington. Granted.
John George Parsons, Brighton Hotel, Brighton. Granted.
John Price, Edinburgh Castle Inn, Brunswick. Granted,
Edward Sheldrake Plummer, Preston Arms, Preston. Granted.
Daniel Little Reed, Prospect Hill Hotel, Kew. Granted.
John Strachan, Grange Hotel, East Brighton. Withdrawn.
William Stanway, Retreat Inn, Brunswick, Granted.
Alexander Tulloch, Epping Hotel, Epping. Granted.
Patrick Trainor, White Horse Hotel, Nunawading. Granted.
George Williams, Fletcher's Hotel, Hawthorne. Granted.
Richard Watkin, Scurfield Hotel, Dromana. Postponed for 14 days.
William Wood, Racecourse Hotel, Doutta Galla. Granted.
James Whitty, Governor Barkly Hotel, Woodstock. Granted.
Patrlck Whittey, Woodstock Hotel, Woodstock. Granted.
John James White, Doncaster Hotel, Bulleen. Granted.
Thomas Chadwick, Broadmeadows Hotel, Broadmeadows. Granted,
Donald Steward Laurie, Yan Yean Hotel,Yan Yean. Granted.
Thomas Griffiths, Wattle-Tree Hotel, Gardiner. Granted.
John Fleming, Elsternwick Hotel, Elsternwick. Granted.

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957)
Wednesday 21 April 1858
Page 6.
Transcription, janilye 2013.

"Digger" 1914-1918

Digger, a dark brown and white bulldog accompanied his owner, Sergeant James Harold Martin, during his service overseas and is said to have served three and a half years with the AIF.

Martin, an electrician from Hindmarsh in South Australia enlisted on 18 September 1914, at the age of 22.
Digger seems to have been a stray dog that attached himself to soldiers training at Broadmeadows and followed them down to the troopships.
Martin adopted him as a mascot and he and Digger sailed from Melbourne on 20 October 1914. Martin served initially with 1 Division Signal Company on Gallipoli, but transferred to 2 Division Signal Company in July 1915.
He remained with the company, attached to the Engineers, during his service on the Western Front in France and Belgium.
Martin returned to Australia on 12 May 1918, according to his medical records he suffered with Rheumatism and was discharged medically unfit.

Digger accompanied him as strict quarantine regulations relating to the arrival of dogs in Australia from overseas did not come into force until June 1918.

Digger had been wounded and gassed at Pozieres in 1916 and needed cod liver oil for his burns.
This was expensive so a picture postcard of Digger, wearing the inscribed silver collar made for him on his return to Australia, with patriotic red, white and blue ribbons attached to it, was produced and the money realised from its sale used to buy the oil.

It is said that the dog was also presented with a free tram and rail pass so that he could accompany Martin.

Digger died, as an old dog, on Empire Day (24 May - year not known) when he was frightened by the celebratory fireworks.
Thinking he was under fire again he attempted to jump the fence but failed and fell back with a burst blood vessel.
Digger managed to crawl back into the house and died on Martin's bed. Martin was in the Prince of Wales Hospital at Randwick, NSW at the time, but he arranged through Mrs J A Little, a volunteer who visited the hospital twice a day to the help the soldiers there, to have Digger's hide tanned. After Martin's death the hide and collars were passed to Mrs Little. Her daughter recalled that the hide was displayed on the floor and that 'nobody put a foot on it.' His head was propped on a stool so that everyone could see him, he has been loved by all'.

Note that the postcard is signed by Sergeant Martin.

James Harold Martin the son of James Sampson MARTIN 1862-1921 and Ada Mary STEARNE 1862-1921, was born on the 21 August 1892 in Hindmarsh, South Australia and died at Daw Park in Adelaide on the 16 December 1963.

Whilst in UK during WW1, James and Digger stayed with a glass and china dealer James Henry LARKINS, his wife Sarah nee Clark and their family of five boys and two girls.

After the war James and digger returned to Australia, Frances Letitia LARKINS 1892-1975. followed on the next ship...

On the 11 June 1920 at Hindmarsh. James and Frances married.
The couple had two children James Ross MARTIN 1921 ? 1997 and Marjorie Joan MARTIN 1926 ? 1986

The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Saturday 28 December 1918

DIgger, THE DOG.

'Digger,' a bulldog that left Australia on board the Argyllshire in October, 1914, and is now the only surviving mascot of the original lst Division, has returned to Sydney.
If he could speak he could say that he has been over the top 16 times says the Sydney correspondent of The Melbourne Herald). He was in the landing on Gallipoli, went through Lone Pine, and was in the evacuation.
Afterwards he went to France with the boys, and at Pozieres was wounded and gassed.
He returned to the division again, and out in two winters with it, being gassed again in the Ypres battle.
Men who know him say that as soon as the gas alarm sounded Digger would rush up to, his nearest human comrade and make signs that he wanted his mask fitted.
But he was not a mere show dog. When a man was lying wounded out in front and no one could reach him, Digger would be sent out with artificial foods, and if it was possible for the man to write he would bring a message back.
He bears the marks of his wounds. A hole in the top of the lower jaw, three teeth gone, blind in the right eye, deaf in the left ear. He had to be put under chloroform to have the bullet extracted.

No one company or battalion can ever say that they owned Digger. He belongs to the 1st Division. Sometimes he would be with one battalion, next week with another. Then he would take up with a battery of artillery for a -while.
While convalescent in England he transferred to the flying corps. On one occasion he went up 8,000 ft. with the late Flight-Lieut. Gibba, and has, they say, flown all over England and Scotland. He always was a venturesome dog, but he was invalided home a couple of months ago, and now has to lead a more or less humdrum life.

However, so his present keeper says, he could not be kept in on the day of the news of the Armistice. He caught a train to Sydney to knock around with the boys and,' several days later, had to be bailed out of the Dogs' Home for half a crown. He had the reputation of being a hard drinker 'over the other side.'

His was a common face in the wet canteen and estaminets.

The 1st Division has allowed him to go into the custody of Sgt. J. H. Martin, also a returned Anzac, who since the war has lost a mother, father, two brothers, and a sister? the last three on active service.
It was thought that the dog might be some consolation for him.

National Archives/
Item details for: B2455, MARTIN J H
Australian War Memorial

9 comment(s), latest 5 years, 1 month ago

'THE CROPPIES ARE COMING'-1804 New South Wales

Just after supper on the 4th of March 1804, The Reverend Samuel Marsden, preparing for bed at his home in Parramatta, heard shouts from the street,"THE CROPPIES ARE COMING!" He was immediately struck with fear, God knows he'd flogged too many of them to feel safe.
In New South Wales, Marsden had earnt himself the nickname 'The Flogging Parson' for his terrible cruelty and harsh sentences. Therefore, he quickly bundled himself onto a boat and headed for Sydney.

The feared Irish rebellion in New South Wales was born.

The Irish croppies, so called because of their short cropped hair were Irish political prisoners who had arrived in the Colony in 1800.

After 4 years of ill-treatment, they had become desperate and decided it was time to take action.

The first armed rebellion by a group of about fifty convicts from Castle Hill began, marching towards Parramatta burning farms and looting muskets and pikes on the way.

Their leader Phillip CUNNINGHAM, hardened by rebellions in Ireland, knew this rebellion would not succeed without secrecy and discipline and although the convict farms on which the rebels worked were full of informers, word of the planned rebellion didn't leak out until that day, when a convict overseer, turned informer, warned them just hours before of the uprising, he was ignored. It began at nine o'clock in the evening with a signal fire that lit up the sky.

When Marsden arrived in Sydney, he alerted Major George Johnston who gathered fifty of his soldiers from the New South Wales Corps, marching them overnight to Parramatta.

On arrival in Parramatta they found no sign of the rebels and were told that after a night of drinking they'd headed up the Hawkesbury.

Johnston and his Red Coats gave chase and just 10 mile from Windsor, on a hill, the next morning, Johnston found the numbers had swelled to two hundred and thirty three, all shouting "DEATH OR LIBERTY"

Calling on them to surrender, Johnston rode forward to speak with Phillip Cunningham - then breaking all the rules of parley, he suddenly put his pistol to Cunningham's head and arrested him. At the same time, ordering the Corps to open fire. Within a few minutes fifteen convicts lay dead, several were wounded with not one British casualty.

Punishment was swift, nine were hanged and nine were flogged of the rest, some were taken, to serve out long sentences at Coal River* where a convict/military outpost known as Fort Scratchley had been established that year to mine coal, harvest timber and prepare lime. The rest to Van Dieman's Land.

The Hill was forever after known as VINEGAR Hill so named after Vinegar Hill in Wexford, Ireland. Vinegar Hill was the site of the only battle, apart from Eureka, (fought fifty years later) ever fought on Australian soil

NB: Skilled in-fighters in politics, the Irish produced more Australian Prime Ministers than any other group: SCULLIN,LYONS,FADDEN,CURTIN,FORDE,CHIFLEY,MCEWAN,MCMAHON,KEATING and John GORTON had an Irish mother. They were physically and mentally tough they helped to found and later dominated the Australian Labor Party. Their exploits, rebel songs and traditions would mix with those of the English and Scots to form the basis of our folklore.

*Coal River became Newcastle

A letter from Margaret Catchpole

MARGARET CATCHPOLE was born in Suffolk on the 14 March 1762 the daughter of Elizabeth Catchpole. She was transported for life and arrived in Sydney onboard the 'Nile' on the 14 December 1801. She worked at one time for a very good friend of the Eather's (my ancestors), Arthur DIGHT 1819-1895 at 'Mountain View' Richmond. She was a prolific letter writer and chronicler. paper, back in those days was not cheap and Margaret used every space on the paper first writing across the page and then down. There are several stories online about Margaret. For the interest of the members of Family Tree Circles I wanted to show you part of one of her letters, unfortunately I was not able to attach the whole page. All her letters have been transcribed. What a painstaking job that would have been.
For those interested, there are several stories about her online.

1 comment(s), latest 5 years, 10 months ago

ABRAHAM JOSEPH EATHER 1828-1906 Australia

The youngest son of Robert Eather 1795-1881 and Mary LYNCH 1802-1853 was Abraham, born in Windsor on 5 October 1828. In later life he settled in the Sydney suburb of Belmore and he died there on 12 May 1906.
His early years were spent as a jackaroo on his father's north-western properties and at the age of 19 he almost perished in a desperate adventure on the Narran River after setting out with a brother and two friends from Barwon with cattle and horses. It was then less than three years since discovery of the Narran and knowlege of local conditions was scanty. The waterholes had all dried up, so after travelling thirty miles Abe EATHER and James WARD left the other two in order to hurry to the Narran for water, but they lost their way and their companions, fearing disaster, tried to push on without the cattle. Young Abe was found by an aboriginal, almost dead after two days and nights without water.
With his brothers Tom and Jim, Abe spent some years on the Narran at his father's station at Angledool and on other family holdings nearby until they were driven out by drought.
In old age Abe used to talk about how in those remote parts he lit his pipe with one foot in Queensland and another in New South Wales.
On occasions Abe drove his father's stock from Angledool to Homebush, near Sydney, around 480 miles.
In the 1850's Abe settled in Sydney as a produce merchant in Sussex St. where he met and married his first wife, Margaret McELLIGOTT 1830-1856, who died at Ultimo leaving one daughter, Mary EATHER 1852-1853.
During this period, he was the winner of two pedestrian races which have gone down in the records of Australian sport. The former of these contests was held over 150yards on the Cook's River sporting paddock on Easter monday, 28 March 1853, with each contestant backed for 50 pounds. Eather was billed as the "pet' of Windsor while his competitor, HATFIELD, was backed by his hometown, Liverpool. Abe won easily and Liverpool rode home disconsolate; Windsor high up in the stirrups.
With his Easter success to support him, EATHER matched FARNELL of Parramatta at Cook's river on 25 April 1853, backed by his brother James, and Michel Despointes ( brother-in-law married to Cecilia) for a 100pounds each over 150yards. Excitement over the approaching contest gave circulation to some imaginative doggerel;

Parramatta says "Farnell
is a real Nonpareil" -
Windsor answers from afar,
"Look at Ether, see a star"

And indeed he was a star for he won easily.

"Abe used to race a horse fifty yards there and back for a wager.One day some shrewdies turned up with a stock pony instead of a racehorse; it turned the peg as fast as Abe did and Abe lost all his money".
Abe finished up running an hotel, but was a teetotaller all his life.
Abraham Eather's second wife, by whom he had eleven children was Ellen FARRELL 1842-1928 of Yarramundi, near Richmond. She survived him by many years and died at Belmore on 8 September 1928.

The children of Abraham and Ellen, nee FARRELL were:-

1. Margaret Eather 1864?1865

2. Abraham Eather 1866?1947 m. Mary Ann DUTCH 1867-1903

3. Herbert William Eather 1868?1955

4. Ellen Balbina Eather 1870?1957 m. Robert Francis Piers MURPHY 1868-1943 at Richmond, New South Wales in 1893.

5. Theresa Eather 1872?1946

6. Gertrude Elizabeth Eather 1873?1955 m. James Stephen LYNCH 1873-1948 at Canterbury, Sydney New South Wales in 1916.

7. Mary Magdalene Eather 1878?1952 m. Percy PLUMRIDGE 1892-1957 at
Belmore, New South Wales, in 1922.

8. Kathleen Cecilia Frances Eather 1881?1969 m. Vincent Joseph GATTENHOF 1881-1958 at Canterbury, New South Wales on 24 April 1906.

9. Joseph Bernard M Eather 1883?1944 m. Ellen Kinsela MADDEN 1886-1954 at Parramatta, New South Wales, in 1921.

10. Eileen Benedicta Eather 1890?1965 m. John Cole MEDCALF 1880-1947 at Canterbury, Sydney New South Wales,in 1915

Absalom Tonkin 1827-1892

Baptised 10 October 1827 at St Austwell,Cornwell, England
the son of William TONKIN 1788-1876 and Elizabeth, nee WELLINGTON
Arrived in Port Adelaide on the ship China on 14 December 1847
Photograph curtesy of the Wentworth Historical Society

2 comment(s), latest 2 months, 3 weeks ago

Albany, Western Australia Cemeteries

All lonely graves in the Albany area.

Albany Town Hall Block several graves not all marked.
Those marked are C.BROWN, MOKAREI, TALWIN, and Dr. A COLLIE who has been re-interred at Middleton Beach Rd.
Candyup: 2 graves : C. DICKSON and T LARKINS
Callenup: W VICKERS
Takalanup: ROYCE children and S G MARTIN
Warriup: E C WRAY
Wylie: Native (no name)
Grassmere: baby BURVILL
Great Southern Railway line (26 mile) GARDINER
Kalgan River: WARTHWYKE
Marbellup: T KNAPP
Two Peoples Bay: 2 graves believed to be men from a french ship. Probably how the name came about.

Public Cemeteries;

Albany Memorial Park Upper and lower Middleton Road
Allambie Park
St.John's Anglican Churchyard
Elleker and Redmond land set aside but not used.
Quaranup Quarantine Station 2 graves- J GRANT and R L MCGUIRE

This work, part of the Western Australian Burial Location Index was collated by Yvonne and Kevin Coates and published by the Western Australian Genealogical Society Inc.

2 comment(s), latest 5 years, 6 months ago


5 comment(s), latest 5 years, 9 months ago