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Throughout the 19th century Ireland saw an exodus of people to all corners of the world especially to the colonies and former colonies governed by the British, in particular to Canada, United States and Australia. These countries are often referred to now as the Irish Diaspora.
I'd like to bring to the attention of our Australian members the Irish Famine Memorial website which has a free online searchable database for ORPHANS from workhouses in all 32 counties throughout Ireland and SHIPS to Australia between 1848 and 1850.
Compiled initially from article by Trevor McClaughlin, 'Barefoot and Pregnant?Female Orphans who emigrated from Irish Workhouses to Australia, 1848-1850', in Familia: Ulster Genealogical Review, incorporating Ulster Genealogical & Historical Guild 'Newsletter', Vol.2, No.3, 1987, pp.31-36 and updated from shipping lists in New South Wales and South Australia.

The Great Irish Famine Commemoration Committee is gathering stories about all the women, following on from the work of Dr Trevor McClaughlin. Some of the stories are attached as pdfs to the individual girls and are mainly complied by descendants - some have not been authenticated by The Great Irish Famine Commemoration Committee but have been compiled from research conducted by descendants.

NOTE THAT NOT ALL 4114 WOMEN FROM THE 20 SHIPS ARE IN THE DATABASE - 2 South Australian ships are still being researched

© copyright 2011 irish famine memorial

National Archives of Ireland
THE FRIARS BRITCHES at the Corkman Pub, Carlton, Melbourn

Israel Rayner 1762-1845

Israel Rayner born about 1762 in London, England. A shoemaker by trade when he arrived as a free settler on the ship 'Nile' on the 14 December 1801 with his wife Elizabeth, nee Carpenter born on 21 October 1775,in London and their two daughters Elizabeth Jemima 1798-1872 and Sarah 1799-1803.
Elizabeth Jemima known as Jemima was born 1798 in England she married John MARTIN 1792-1848 at St. Lukes Church of England Liverpool, New South Wales and died at Forestwood Farm, Beckham, near Gostwyck in New South Wales, on the 16 January 1872.

On arrival he was granted 100 acres of land, given twelve months of supplies and two convicts to help work the land, which was considered by most to be an excellent start in the new colony. However, Israel was lazy, had no idea about farming and and got heavily into debt.

Phillip Gidley King, the then governor of New South Wales, described Israel Rayner as "worthless and the laziest man I've ever met".

His treatment of Elizabeth was appalling and she endured terrible hardship.
Indeed, legend has it he once dragged Elizabeth through the market on a rope offering to sell her. This is partly true.
The proven story is that around 1802 Elizabeth met and fell in love with Henry BALDWIN. Henry had been born in Chipping Barnet, Hertfordshire on the 4 October 1769 and had arrived in New South Wales, on the 'Admiral Barrington in 1791.

Elizabeth left Israel and went to live with Baldwin. Israel refused to give Elizabeth a divorce and placed an ad in classifieds of The Sydney Gazette on 16 October 1803 threatening any person who harbours or shelters his wife with legal action. When Henry Baldwin seemed not to be too worried about any legal action Israel might bring upon him, Israel negotiated a price for his wife with Baldwin and agreed to hand her over for six bushells of wheat and a pig.
Wives were considered as a mercenary commodity, and the disposal of them for a certain price was not an uncommon occurrence. It was at the time legal provided the wife was wearing a halter when handed over at the time of purchase.

Below is the transcription of Henry BALDWIN's reply to Israel RAYNER's advertisement in The Sydney Gazette, appeared on October 1803

"The man at Baulkham Hills who lately cried down the Credit of his wife did so merely to raise her reputation, and enhance her Worth, as he was desirous probably of making the "best of a bad bargain". He has since converted her into an article of traffick, the nett produce of which amounted to six bushels of wheat and a large black inhabitant of the stye, received in barter from a settler at Hawkesbury.
His public Notice was simply intended as a caution against sheltering; and though we cannot readily ascertain the Rate per cent Advance upon the prime colt, yet the demand does not appear exorbitant, when we consider the expense and trouble attending the Importation of so brittle a Merchandise, that was ever in danger of "slipping though his fingers".

The children of Henry BALDWIN and Elizabeth were:-
Wellow Baldwin 1804 - 1869 m. Elizabeth CONNOLLY
Edwin Baldwin 1805 - 1868 m Alice CLARKE 1810-1863 parents of Charles BALDWIN
Job Baldwin 1806 - 1806
Eve Baldwin 1807 - 1881 m. William John Robert PHILLIPS 1814-1884
Otto Baldwin 1809 - 1874 m. Mary Ann MASKEY 1811-1890
Wynn Baldwin 1811 - 1860 m. Julia YOUNG
Arletta Baldwin 1812 - 1881 m. William EVANS
Harvest Baldwin 1813 - 1865 m. Kezia MASKEY 1816-
Tulip Baldwin 1814 - 1869 m. Henry MASKEY 1814-
Virgo Baldwin 1816 - 1816
Bemarr Baldwin 1817 - 1878 m Catherine WILLIAMSON
Dio Baldwin 1818 - 1878 m. Phoebe GOUGH 1823-1905

SOURCES:Middlesex, England, Extracted Parish Records Israel Rayner & Eliz. Carpenter 25 Dec 1796 Book: Marriages at Ealing, 1582 to 1837. (Marriage) Collection: Middlesex: - Register of Marriages, 1582-1837, Pallot's Marriage Index for England: 1780 - 1837

2 comment(s), latest 2 months, 1 week ago

Itellya's Watson's of Sorrento and Portsea.

2 comment(s), latest 4 years, 10 months ago

JAMES BOOTH 1836-1931

4 comment(s), latest 1 year, 10 months ago

James Clyde Young Clark 1896-1973

James Clyde Young, the fifth child of Ashton CLARK 1844-1925 and Sarah,nee EATHER 1861-1923, was born at 'Willow Farm', Bulga on 30 May 1896. He was usually known as Jim. He grew up on 'Gerale' and attended the Bulga Public School with his brothers and sisters. About 1917 Jim and his brother Stanley took up land they named 'Hillsdale' near 'Willow Farm'. They worked the farm in partnership. While he was single, Jim used to ride home to 'Gerale' each week-end, and quite often on Saturday afternoons he would ride over to Bulga Post Office to visit the MCALPIN's, who ran it. There, on one occasion he met Rosamond CHAPMAN 1889-1990, daughter of Thomas CHAPMAN 1863-1929 and his wife Emily, nee WHITBREAD 1863-1902. Rosamond had come up from Sydney to visit the McAlpins, who were her cousins. Jim courted her and they were married in St.Paul's Church, Burwood in Sydney on the 22 June 1929. They made their home in a house that Jim built on 'Hillsdale'. Their only child Betty Joyce was born on 19 September 1931 in Garthowen Private Hospital at Stanmore in Sydney.

In the 1940's Jim had a property out in bush country that is now part of the Wollemi National Park. There, he ran a herd of cattle and every so often he would go out to muster them. He used to ride from Bulga on his horse 'Trigger', leading another horse 'King Pin' loaded with provisions in pack saddles. He followed a creek up to a place known as 'Junction' and then went on to 'Parnell Springs' and then further on to 'Paddock Hut' where he camped. There, he had a yard for the horses and a hut which he furnished with rough furniture, including a bed made with saplings and corn bags resting on two logs. He took the usual basic cutlery and cooking utensils and carried corned beef with him. He stored tea and sugar in Golden Syrup tins and kept the lot in a box because the rats used to invade the hut when he wasn't there. Loaves of bread were carried in a calico flour bag, which he always packed at the top of the saddle bags because the contents of the saddle bags were often damaged on the rough track. He'd boil the billy and cook pumpkin and potatoes over an open fire and supplemented his corned beef with tinned meat and finished it off with a desert of bread and jam.

On 14 March 1953 daughter Betty married Harold Onslow HARRIS in St.Andrews Presbyterian church in Singleton. Harold had been born in a private nursing home in Singleton, the son of Albert HARRIS 1896-1962 and Emily,nee WOODS 1893-1966. Harold used to go with his father-in-law on mustering trips to the bush country that Jim owned. They would set off with pack horses and food for a week. The property covered a huge area and was unfenced, so mustering the cattle was a difficult task. In 1961 they began looking for another grazing property, so that Jim could get rid of the bush country. On the 3rd of November 1962 Jim and Harold bought a grazing property known as 'Yellow Rock' at Carrabolla on the Paterson River, from Peter CAPARO. They stocked 'Yellow Rock' with a hundred head of Hereford Bullocks that roamed the mountains, and with the help of several drovers took them on foot a distance of one hundred miles to Carrabolla. The muster took five days. Some years later an adjoining property called 'Rudwood' was also purchased. From these properties the cattle were sold to the Newcastle Abattoirs at Waratah.

James Clyde Young CLARK died in the Singleton District Hospital on 24 October 1973 at the age of 77. A week previously he had been riding his horse around 'Yellow Rock' inspecting the stock. Rosamond, his widow, lived to be a centenarian, she was 100 when she passed away on 14 April 1990 in Elizabeth Gate Home in Singleton.

1 comment(s), latest 7 years, 2 months ago

James Eather 1811-1899

The family settled at Bulga but still had a very close connections with Narrabri, the branch most commonly identified with that district is that of James EATHER, youngest son Thomas EATHER 1764-1827 and Elizabeth LEE 1771-1860 who was born at Windsor on 4 March 1811 and died at Narrabri on 26 May 1899. He was the only one of five original brothers to die outside the Hawkesbury district. and the last survivor of the children of Thomas and Elizabeth. Trained to the trade of Wheelwright, he developed interests in the west of the valley and it was claimed that during the 1840s he was the first man to drive a wagon down the precipitous Victoria Pass between Mount Victoria and Hartley.

He obtained a part interest in 'Henriendi' and settled at Narrabri in 1867. The difficulties experienced on the station by his nephew "Old Charley", apparently influenced James EATHER for he turned to free selection on Maule's Creek near Narrabri. He married Mary Ann HAND at Richmond oN the 10 March 1835 and by her, had a family of thirteen. Their eldest son Thomas, was the progenitor of most of the Eather's in the district today, but another son John, was also long associated with Narrabri.

The children of James EATHER 1811-1899 and Mary Ann HAND 1815-1894

1. Thomas EATHER 1836?1929 M. Charlotte Margaret Howell 1842-1899 at
Parramatta, New South Wales, ON 22 November 1860

2. James EATHER 1838?1935 m. Sarah Mary EATHER 1843-1921 on 16 September 1863.

3. John Patrick EATHER 1839?1916 m. Ellen Mary SPENCER 1853-1946 at
Narrabri, New South Wales in 1874.

4. Elizabeth EATHER 1844?1876 m. Edward SHADLOW 1837-1905 at
St Peter's, Church Of England, Richmond, 27 March 1861.

5. Anne Eliza EATHER 1844- ? m. Malcolm MCEACHERN 1844-1878 at
Hartley, New South Wales on 24 February 1870.

6. Charles EATHER 1846-1938 m. Rosalie INGHAM 1865-1950 at
Moree, New South Wales,in 1882.

7. Robert EATHER 1848-1901 m. Ellen BRYANT 1861-1901 at
Lithgow, New South Wales on 5 December 1883.

8. George Henry EATHER 1850-1881 m. Sarah POTTS b:1856 at
Narrabri, New South Wales in 1873.

9. Mary Ann EATHER 1852-1911 m. Eugene Andrew Conmar WHELAN 1842-1941 at Narrabri, New South Wales in 1873.

10. William Abel EATHER 1855-1917 m. Cecilia Ruth VILE 1865-1948 at
Gunnedah, New South Wales in 1885.

11. Sarah Amy EATHER 1857-1937 m. Francis William ROBINSON 1857-1886 at Gunnedah, New South Wales on 5 March 1885.

12. Catherine Matilda EATHER 1858-1939 m. Henry George SPENCER 1855-1936 at Narrabri, New South Wales in 1881.

13. Susannah Charlotte EATHER 1861 - 1911 m. John PITMAN 1859-1911 at Maule's Creek, New South Wales on the 15 February 1882.

The following was compiled by the EATHER FAMILY NEWSLETTER

James EATHER, the eighth and last child of the pioneers, Thomas EATHER and Elizabeth LEE, was born at Windsor on 4 March 1811. His father was nearly 47 and his mother about 39. His eldest sister Ann was already the wife of Joseph ONUS and had baby daughter two months old. When James was about nine his father purchased an allotment in George Street, Windsor, and a house on this allotment became the family home. By the time James was thirteen most of his brothers and sisters had married and left home. After 1824 only James and his elder brother John were still living at home with their parents. Just after James had turned sixteen in 1827 his father died and the family gathered the next day for the funeral service and interment in the churchyard close by St Matthew's Church. There was nothing of immediate importance for James under the bequests in his father's will. Everything that Thomas EATHER had possessed: the houses in George Street; the cattle, carts, farm equipment, and household furniture and effects, all went to his widow. Upon her death James was to receive the front two rooms of the house in which the family was residing, and one cow and calf. As it turned out, James had to wait over 33 years to receive his inheritance. About the time of his father's death or soon afterwards, James commenced training in the skills of a wheelwright. He seems to have persevered with his chosen trade and became, qualified to make and repair wheels for the various carts and wagons in use in the district. In his adult life he served the public for a number of years as a wheelwright with his business premises located in the Richmond district. At the age of twenty-four James married. The wedding was held on 10 March 1835 and the bride was Mary Ann HAND. Mary Ann had been born at Richmond on 23 July, 1815, the fourth child of Patrick HAND and Catherine HATCH. Her father was Irish, born about 1777 probably in Armagh County, Ireland. He had been convicted at Armagh in August 1801 of some political offence and sentenced to seven years transportation. He had arrived in the colony on the ship "Rolla" on 12 May 1803 and assigned to the Parramatta area. After the completion of his sentence, Patrick had moved to the Hawkesbury district and leased land firstly at Cornwallis and later from Archibald BELL at North Richmond. Mary Ann's mother, Catherine HATCH, also hailed from Ireland. She had been born at Dublin in 1786 and had arrived in New South Wales as a convict on the ship "Experiment" on 25 June 1809. She soon became associated with Patrick. Their first children had been twins, Catherine and Patrick, born at Richmond on 17 April 1812. They had been followed by Elizabeth (1813), Mary Ann (1815), John (1816), Charles (1823) and James (1825). Catherine had died during the birth of their son James at their home at Richmond on 4 February 1825. Her death had been followed by that of Patrick on 15 December 1827 at his home at Richmond, so Mary Ann had been left an orphan at the age of ten. For a time her elder sister Catherine cared for the younger children of the family. In 1828 her sister Elizabeth had married Charles CONLAN. At the time of the 1828 census, Mary Ann was living with them at Cornwallis. Following their wedding, James EATHER and Mary Ann lived at Richmond. On 17 January 1836 their first child, Thomas, was born. When he was baptised by the Reverend Henry STILES of St Peter's Church on 14 February 1836, James and Mary Ann were residing at Richmond and James was a wheelwright. On 17 December 1837 their second son, James, was born. On 7 March 1838 he was christened by the Reverend Henry STILES. James and Mary Ann were still residing at Richmond and James was still a wheelwright. On Christmas Day 1839 another son was born and named John Patrick. When the Reverend STILES baptised him on 30 August 1840, James and Mary Ann were still living at Richmond, but James stated that he was a farmer. Probably he was leasing land somewhere in the Richmond district. By 1844, when their fifth child was born, James and Mary Ann were living at Agnes Bank and James was once again a wheelwright. In 1860, Elizabeth EATHER died and James came into his inheritance at last. The cow and calf that he was to inherit, had expired years before. He became the owner of the front two roams of the old family home, while his brother John inherited the remainder of the building. Four of James's nephews each inherited an interest in the family allotment, so by an agreement the land was sub-divided into six small allotments, each with a frontage to George Street of about 30 feet and a depth of about 128 feet. James's allotment was on the north-eastern end of the land, and upon it stood the old EATHER family home. As his brother John had inherited half of the old house, James had to purchase it from him. As he was farming in the Richmond district, he had no intention of taking up residence in Windsor and on 1 June 1861 he mortgaged his allotment to a grazier, John HOSKISSON, for a loan of £250. He probably rented the allotment to a tenant. In 1861, Charlotte Susannah, the thirteenth and last child of James and Mary Ann EATHER was born. During his years in the Richmond district, James had derived an income from several sources. Besides his farming and business as a wheelwright, he had a wagon and team and made a number of journeys carting supplies over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst. His son James recalled in his later years that, as a boy in the 1840's he had accompanied his father on a journey over the mountains. The journey was made during a cold spell in winter, and the bags of sugar on the wagon became so frozen that at the end of the journey they had to be prised off the load with a crow-bar. James and Mary Ann EATHER continued to live in the Richmond district for a few more years. Their eldest son, Thomas, had married Charlotte Margaret HOWELL on 22 November 1860. Eldest daughter Elizabeth married Edward SHADLOW four months later in March 1861, and second son, James, married his cousin, Sarah EATHER, in 1863. Soon the first of many grandchildren was born and was followed in quick procession by several others. Then, in 1867, when in his middle fifties and married for over thirty years, James left the Hawkesbury Valley and took his wife and family north to the far-off Liverool Plains to live. It was a momentous decision to make at his age, but it appears that he had obtained a part interest in "Henriendi", the EATHER station near Boggabri on the Namoi River. Soon after arriving in the Namoi district, he took up a selection on Maule's Creek near Narrabri and continued with farming and grazing. There, with Mary Ann and those of their children still at home, he lived for nearly twenty years. After James EATHER inherited a part of the property "Henriendi" in 1867 he and certain members of his family departed the Hawkesbury and travelled to the Namoi area, which was where the family estate was located - east of Baan Baa and north of Boggabri. Thus in August of that year a Richmond bank noted his address as, "Care of Mr Charles EATHER, Henriendi, Namoi River." (Mrs Pat Taylor and the 1867 ledger of the Richmond branch of the Bank of New South Wales).
At the time of their arrival, "Henriendi" was in the hands of James' nephew Charles EATHER who unfortunately had started to run into financial trouble. (See EATHER Newsletter No 168, March 2005 - Insolvency Papers of Charles EATHER, and EATHER Newsletter No 177, March 2008). It is unclear if James was aware that all was not well at "Henriendi" but whatever the case he wasted little time being idle for in the same year of his arrival there he ventured about 26 kilometers north east of Baan Baa where he selected 300 acres of land on Maule's Creek which was also known as Kihi Creek. This was the old squatting locality of his brother-in-law Joseph ONUS Senior, who in the 1830's, held the run "Theribry/Therribri" - so it is hard to believe that he went there by chance. James' land was recorded on a parish map of Durrisdeer, County Nandewar, as Block 20. Water was on hand as on the south it was bordered by Maule's Creek. Here James commenced building the family home - perhaps with the assistance of the £200 that he had recently borrowed from John HOSKISSON. (See John ST PIERRE for this money transaction of August 1867 in "EATHER Family Volume 1", page 50.)
The money borrowed from HOSKISSON was by way of a second mortgage taken out on his property in George Street, Windsor which he had inherited from his parents, Thomas HEATHER/EATHER and Elizabeth LEE. Whilst James had started to borrow money in June 1861 from HOSKISSON (ibid) it was after the June 1867 flood, when the EATHER home in George Street, Windsor was documented as submerged ("Hawkesbury in Flood" - compiled and Researched by Denise HAYES, 1997) and 12 members of his brother Charles' family were drowned at Comwallis, that he took out an additional mortgage. After which he left the district - as others did. Possibly he used the ?200 for his selection and new home at Maule's Creek or even a portion of it may have been spent on repairs occasioned by the flood to his George Street home. According to Samuel BOUGHTON, a local historian, James had erected a new dwelling there: In a letter of 1875 in which he spoke of the 1874 Windsor fire, BOUGHTON said: "In George Street the fire missed the place Jim EATHER built" {See Windsor & Richmond Gazette, August 27, 1958} BOUGHTON was certainly speaking of the section of George Street where the EATHER property was located. Presently the department store of "Target" occupies the site -having replaced "Coles Supermarket". In 1868 James' address was still recorded at "Henriendi" so possibly the family home was incomplete or he deemed the latter address more convenient for incoming mail. Three years later, in 1871, his nephew Charles EATHER signed voluntary sequestration papers when "Henriendi" was also mortgaged to the previously mentioned John HOSKISSON for £3,400. In addition there was a second mortgage for £1,300 on the 32,000 acre property, which was disputed. The total value of the property was stated as £6,000. While John HOSKISSON has been recorded several times in recent EATHER newsletters in relation to family land, in 1869, he also became the owner of James' property in George Street, Windsor. The next selection taken up at Maule's Creek was by James and Mary Ann's unmarried son, Charles EATHER, who selected 150 acres in 1872 in which year James' postal address was also given there. Charles' land, Block 19, adjoined his parents on the east and also had a frontage to Maule's Creek. The following year (1873) Charles' sister, Mary Ann EATHER, married Eugene Andrew Conmar WHELAN who selected land to the east of James and Charles. The last selection taken up by James was in 1878. At this time he took up a further 340 acres which on the east adjoined his first selection of 1867. It was Block 65 on the Parish Map however the block number cannot be seen. This land also adjoined on the south Charles' selection of 1872 and it had no water frontage. In 1878 the family land in the area totalled 790 acres. Subsequently, around seven years later, James took up residence at Narrabri where he had also obtained property. He died there in 1899 while his wife Mary Ann died at the same place in 1894. It is not known at this time when James sold his land at Maule's Creek but by 1902 both of his selections were in the hands of William Francis JAQUES who held the land until at least 1929. JAQUES (who also acquired the block of land that adjoined James' Block 20 on the east) was a big landowner on the Namoi having acquired some 60,000 acres by 1884/5. In 1902 Charles EATHER's land was listed in the hands of W R HALL. He (Charles) had married in 1882 Rosalie INGHAM. It appears in later maps that the EATHER selections on Maule's Creek were partly incorporated into the present day "Elfin" but more research needs to be done to be certain. Dawn McDOBALD, daughter of the Namoi and a descendant of James EATHER is trying to find out more.
On 17 August 1867, during the year that he left the Hawkesbury district, James borrowed another £200 from John HOSKISSON, thus extending the mortgage on his allotment at Windsor to a total of £450. Two years later he came to an arrangement with John HOSKISSON regarding the loan, and on 9 September 1869 an Indenture was drawn up, under which the allotment became the property of the mortgagor in settlement of a debt of £480, consisting of a debt of ?450 and interest of £30. James had in effect disposed of his late parents' old home and his share of their allotment for £480. During the 1870's four more of the children of James and Mary Ann married. Anne Eliza married Malcolm McEACHERN in 1870; Mary Ann married Eugene Andrew Conmar WHELAN in 1873; George Henry married Sarah POTTS also in 1873; and John Patrick, at the age of 34, married Ellen Mary SPENCER in 1874. Grief was thrust upon the family however when in 1876, eldest daughter Elizabeth died at the age of 33, leaving her husband Edward with several small children. Second daughter, Anne Eliza, suffered the loss of her husband Malcolm in 1878 and became a widow at the age of 34 with four small children. Further family marriages continued in the next decade, when the remainder of their children married. Catherine Matilda married Henry George SPENCER in 1881. Charlotte Susannah married her distant cousin John PITMAN in 1882; and in that same year her brother Charles married Rosalie INGHAM. Their brother Robert married Ellen BRYANT in 1883, and finally William Abel and Sarah Amy both married in 1885. William was wed to Cecilia Ruth VILE and Sarah took Francis W ROBINSON as her husband. By then some grandchildren had married and in 1883 James and Mary Ann became great-grandparents. Grief had struck the family again in November 1881 when son George Henry had died. To add to family tribulations, two of George's six children succumbed to ailments during the following year.
On 10 March 1885 James and Mary Ann celebrated their golden wedding. He was 74 and she had just turned seventy. Of their fifty years of marriage, they had much to be proud. They had succeeded in rearing thirteen children without loss and had seen them all married. Unfortunately two of them, Elizabeth and George, had already passed on. About this time they decided that with all their family now married it was time to give up living on the farm and to seek an easier life for their remaining years. Over the years James had speculated in various ways and had a reputation for being prudent in his transactions. He had acquired some property in the town of Narrabri, so he and Mary Ann took up residence in a house that he owned there. There they resided until Mary Ann died in 1894. From time to time during the 1880's word reached James that one of his brothers had died down on the Hawkesbury. Each occasion stirred memories of his early years.
In 1881 it was his eldest brother Robert and in 1886 it was Thomas. He was followed in 1888 by bachelor brother John. When word came in 1891 that Charles had died, James knew that he was the last surviving child of his pioneer parents, Thomas and Elizabeth EATHER. Aged eighty, he was still relatively hale and regarded by those who knew him as having a cast-iron constitution.
On 9 October 1894, Mary Ann died at the age of 79. Many of her children and grandchildren were amongst the many relatives and friends of the family who gathered at the graveside when her body was interred at the Narrabri Cemetery. James was 83 when his wife died. Members of his family realised that he needed company and care in his declining years, and that he should not be left to live alone in the house that he had hitherto shared with Mary Ann. His son William invited him to live with him and his wife Cecilia. It was an offer that James accepted and he spent the last four years of his life residing in William's home at Narrabri.
As time went on he became increasingly deaf and the vigour and energy of earlier years deserted him. By the middle of May 1899 his health was in such a state of decline that the local medico, Dr SEGOL, was called and he provided medication and kindness.The end was inevitable, however, and at the age of 88 years and two months, James EATHER passed away during the evening of 26 May 1899. With him went the last of the original EATHER family in Australia. It was just 102 years since his father had settled in the Hawkesbury district.

JAMES EATHER 1838-1935

The second son of James and Mary Ann Eather nee Hand was James born at Agnes Banks in 1838 who in 1863 married his first cousin Sarah, daughter of Robert Eather.

Although a teetotaller, James made his mark as a publican at South Bowenfels, Lithgow and Rooty Hill. At South Bowenfels, on the Bathurst-Sydney Road, he conducted the Glasgow Arms Hotel until 1882 and then, from 1886 onwards, the Royal Hotel, in a handsome two-storey stone building which still stands. In the intervening period, he kept the Cosmopolitan Hotel at Lithgow.

James Eather 1839-1934

James EATHER was the sixth son and tenth child of Thomas EATHER 1800-1886 and Sarah, nee McALPIN, he was born at Richmond on 13 December 1839. He was baptised by the Reverend H T STILES on 5 January 1840. James EATHER spent his childhood at Richmond where his father was a hotel-keeper and farmer. By his late teens he had grown to a height of 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm). He was of solid build and he had hazel eyes.
During his teenage years James EATHER learned the skills of saddlery, probably as an apprentice. His father had been apprenticed as a shoemaker when he had been a teenager and he undoubtedly appreciated the value of the skills of a trade. In an era when most travel was on horseback or in a horse-drawn vehicle, saddlery was a trade which promised good remuneration.
As James EATHER later found, the skills that he had gained then in making and repairing saddles and harness generally, proved very useful to him throughout his long life. He probably learned also some of the skills of stock work on his father's farm and these too would have stood him in good stead when, as a young man, he left the Hawkesbury district and joined some of his elder brothers at "Henriendi", the family station on the Namoi River near present-day Baan Baa.

In 1859, at the age of nineteen, James EATHER was stricken with rheumatic fever. According to what he related to his family in later years, his dark hair turned grey after this illness, and he remained grey-headed for the rest of his life. Whether this illness occurred at Richmond or after he had arrived at "Henriendi" is not known, but he was on the Liverpool Plains by the time he was in his early twenties. James EATHER didn't settle permanently at "Henriendi".
He began practising his trade and moved from homestead to homestead repairing saddles and harness wherever he could find customers. It was probably during a visit to one of these stations that he met Victoria PRYKE. She had been born on the 9 June 1840, the daughter of Thomas and Ellen PRYKE, and had been baptised on 18 June in the Roman Catholic Church in the parish of Wollongong. Victoria was a sister of John Thomas PRYKE who was married to Mary Elizabeth EATHER, a grand-daughter of Robert EATHER.

By 1862 James and Victoria were living in a de facto relationship at Cox's Creek near "Henriendi". On 4 April 1863 a son, James Augustus, was born to them at Cox's Creek.
In October 1864 a second son, Augustus, was born. Both of these sons died within three days of each other at Cox's Creek in February 1865. They were probably carried off by some epidemic. The death certificate of Augustus, who died on 16 February, states that he had been sick for two days and no doctor had attended him. It would have been well nigh impossible to obtain the services of a doctor at short notice in that remote region in the years before townships developed on the Liverpool Plains. The deaths were not registered until 31 March when Victoria gave the particulars for the registration.
In 1867 a third son, James, was born to James and Victoria, but he died later in that year at Cox's Creek. Victoria and James parted soon afterwards.

Victoria PRYKE married some years later. James was living at "Henriendi" in 1868 along with his brothers Charles, William, and John Rowland. Perhaps he was using "Henriendi" as a base from which he went out plying his trade of making and repairing harness. Little is known of his life during the next decade. On the electoral rolls for 1878 and 1879 he was recorded as residing at both "Henriendi" and "Breeza", so it appears that he worked from both places from time to time.

On 24 November 1880, when he was forty, James and Isabella Jane were married at Breeza by the Church of England minister Frederick GOUGH. Witnesses were Albert Young and Isabella's sister Evelyn. Albert YOUNG was probably a nephew of James, the son of his sister Ann and her husband Edwin YOUNG. According to the wedding certificate, James was a saddler and his usual place of residence was Breeza. Following their marriage, James and Isabella lived in the Breeza district for about six years and their first three children: Edward Carl (1881), Sarah Elsie (1883) and Pearl Hilton (1885) were born there. A railway line had been constructed northwards gradually across the New England Tableland and by 1884 it was open as far as Glen Innes.
Isabella's brother William joined the railway department and when he was transferred away, his mother Sarah took the remainder of her family with her and moved north to Glencoe, a few miles south of Glen Innes. There she took up the position of railway gatekeeper, which she held until the turn of the century. At the same time, James and Isabella packed their belongings and moved north too, leaving the community where Isabella had lived for almost thirty years.
It was at Glencoe that their fourth child, Ruby Hellice, was born in 1888. By this time James had turned his hand to farming. They stayed at Glencoe for a few years, but by 1894 were further north along the Tablelands at Deepwater.
This was a small township which was developing close by a large sheep station of the same name. In the Post Office Directory for the years 1894 to 1902, James was listed as a farmer. He and Isabella both worked on Deepwater Station for a family named CADELL. James plied his trade as a saddler, mending harness, making whips and tending the horses. Isabella was employed as a cook for the household, and she also attended to washing and ironing. From where they lived they walked two miles (3.2 km) to and from work each day. Their children attended the school at Deepwater which had opened in 1884. After an elapse of almost twelve years, another child was added to the family when Isabella gave birth on 28 December 1899 to another son whom they named Claude Leslie. Isabella was 41 and James had just turned 60. However, their happiness at this new addition to their family was short-lived. On 13 January 1900 baby Claude died after 16 days of "debility and bronchitis'.
The century had ended sadly for James and Isabella, but they were proud of their four surviving children. Edward Carl turned nineteen that year and was quite a young man. By the time Australia became a Commonwealth at the beginning of 1901 the three girls were age 17 years, 15 years and 12 years respectively They assisted with many of the household chores, seeing that both their parents were working. Their duties included carrying buckets of water from the river on each Sunday afternoon in preparation for washing day on the Mondays. This was no mean feat as the river was about 400 metres from their home. About 1902 second daughter Pearl left home and travelled down to Sydney to take up employment with a family who had a young son. Pearl was his "nanny" and earned 7/6 (75 cents) a week. When a second child was born in this family, Pearl's elder sister Elsie joined her in Sydney. Where they lived in Sydney was a far cry from the little community at Deepwater from which they had come. They lived in a two-storey dwelling overlooking Sydney Harbour. When the family for whom they worked was planning to make a trip abroad, Pearl was offered the opportunity of accompanying them. However, she declined the offer because she had met the man with whom she hoped to make her future. Therefore the two sisters returned home to Deepwater.

In 1906, according to the electoral roll, James and his son Carl were both employed as labourers, while Isabella, Elsie and Pearl were all involved in domestic or home duties. Ruby was not yet old enough to be enrolled. The first family wedding took place on 6 May 1908 when second daughter Pearl was married at Deepwater to Robert John Hawksley LOCKWOOD, whom she had known since her school days. Other weddings followed on 21 June 1911 when Elsie married Andrew MOULE, and on 12 January 1914, when Ruby married John William WEBSTER. These weddings were also held at Deepwater. When time permitted, Isabella enjoyed doing embroidery. She was also a very competent seamstress and she stitched ball dresses and the wedding gowns for her daughters. She made everyday clothes for the whole family and later for her grandchildren. She became quite accomplished at making men's jackets and trousers. She also became a capable midwife and it was not unusual for her to be called upon to attend one or another of the wives in the district at the time of a birth. By the time she was in her mid-fifties she had ceased to work at Deepwater Station, but James, although seventy-six, still walked out and back each day and attended to odd jobs there.
According to the 1915 Post Office directory, James was still a saddler. Son Carl was making a living as a hairdresser. Carl was a young man who always had a neat appearance and a quiet demeanour. He worked for some years for the newsagency at Deepwater. He and his sister Ruby both had handwriting skills which won them many prizes in local shows.
In 1917 Carl moved to Glen Innes and joined the staff of the newspaper there. He took up residence in Church Street. By 1921 James and Isabella had joined their son in Glen Innes and were residing in Meade Street. James was then 82 and at last he had retired from work. They always resided in a rented house, and they changed their place of residence on a number of occasions over the years and had a number of different addresses in Meade and Grey Streets at Glen Innes. Carl was still single and hecontinued to live at home with them. Isabella commenced a service doing washing and ironing for prominent people in the town. This entailed a deal of walking between one house and another and back again. She was prepared to work six days a week, but Sunday was always a day for Church and rest. She was not averse to having an occasional bet on a horse-race.
On 31 October 1929 son Carl was admitted to hospital suffering from bronchial pneumonia. James and Isabella visited him in hospital and stayed for long hours, but despite all the care and attention that could be given, he died on 12 November. For a fifth time in his life James had to bear the loss of a son, and he was left with no son to survive him. He and Isabella changed house again soon afterwards, moving back to Meade Street. They were getting away from sad memories, but life was never quite the same again for them.

James EATHER was the longest-lived of all of the children of Thomas and Sarah EATHER, and after the death of his youngest sister Catherine in 1928, was their last surviving child. He was 94 when he was admitted to hospital at Glen Innes in September 1934 suffering from lobar pneumonia. He died on 19 September 1934 and was buried next to his son Carl in the Church of England portion of the Glen Innes Cemetery, following a funeral service in the local Church. The coffin was left open during the service so that those who wished could pay their last respects. Isabella was almost 76 when her husband died, and soon afterwards her daughter Ruby and family moved in to live with her. She was still a strong and independent woman and continued with her washing and ironing undertakings. However she reduced her workload by working just three days each week. For each wash and iron she was paid 5/- (50 cents). She still had a brother and a sister residing in the Glen Innes district and she would see them from time to time.

By 1947 she had moved once again and was residing in McQuarie Street. By then she had retired and no longer did washing and ironing.
When she was 91 Isabella had the misfortune to fall while hanging sheets on the clothes line. She broke her hip and spent the next eighteen weeks in hospital. She eventually made a good recovery and was able to walk quite well again. Her recovery was an indication of the spirit of determination which was a feature of her character. She lived another four years before she was admitted to hospital for the last time. On Saturday 17 July 1954 she died in the Glen Innes Hospital at the age of 95 years. Following a funeral service in Holy Trinity Church of England, her body was laid to rest beside James and Carl. She had survived her husband by almost 20 years. The longevity which they had both portrayed was emulated by the three daughters who survived them. Two lived into their eighties and the third to the age of 94 years.

The children of James EATHER and Victoria PRYKE:-
James Augustus EATHER 1863 ? 1865
Augustus EATHER 1864 ? 1865
James EATHER 1867 ? 1867

The Children of James EATHER and Isabella Jane NOWLAND were:-
Edward Carl EATHER 1881 - 1929
Sarah Elsie EATHER 1883 - 1964
Pearl Hilton EATHER 1885 - 1969
Ruby Hellice EATHER 1888 - 1982
Claude Leslie EATHER 1899 - 1900

Eather family Newsletter
Eather Family History

James EATHER 1858-1920

Son of James Joseph EATHER 1829-1906 and Bridget Harriet Honan 1833-1886.

James was 21 when the provisional school was opened on the Bellinger and the total length of his formal education was twelve months.
He married Millicent Sarah BATH (1867-1960) at Walcha,New South Wales in 1885. Producing 11 children.
Millicent was the daughter of Thomas Hull BATH (1836-1890) from Wiltshire, England and Rebecca TURNER (1839-1887)from Berkshire, England.

James cut cedar in the Dorrigo mountains for several years, and taught himself to read and write. He joined the police force as a mounted trooper when they started recruiting 'colonials'. He rose to the rank of Inspector and was a recognised court interpreter for the aborigines in New South Wales. He patrolled with constable Walker who captured Thunderbolt, and was with him when Walker captured the Inverell 'Hairy man'


The son of Robert EATHER 1795-1881 and Mary LYNCH 1802-1853.

On his father's squattages near Wee Waa in the north west of New South Wales, and further north on the Narran River, James gained much of his early bush experience at the price of having almost every bone in his body broken at various times.

One of his early reminiscences illustrates the hardships of bush life as well as the toughness of those who undertook it: After a drought the stray cattle were rounded up on a high river-bank and each man was entitled to claim any beast which he could cut off from the herd. James's choice, in trying to evade capture, leaped over a cliff into the river but he pursued and caught it, still on horseback, for bullocks were too precious to be let escape so easily.

Despite his many adventures in the outback, his residence was at North Richmond until 1861 when he took over Thomas's farm at Richmond Bottoms.

James married Bridget Harriet HONAN the daughter of Patrick HONAN and Margaret FLANAGAN, she was born in Croagh a small village about 20 miles north of Limerick city in Ireland. James and Bridget married at St.Matthews Catholic Church in Windsor in 1855.

The benefits of North Richmond, where normal amenities were close at hand, would have been much appreciated by Mrs. Bridget Eather.
She could read, write, sew and play the piano. All accomplishments which were much appreciated after she left the civilisation of Richmond with her husband and several small children for the barely explored wilds of the Bellinger River district. The date on which that difficult journey was undertaken was in 1863 when the Richmond Bottoms proved as unrewarding to James as it had to his brother.

They arrived at Urunga Heads in a sailing vessel and from there on it was hard travelling with a horse and three slides for twenty three miles up the river to the spot where they settled, at Boat Harbour near the later town of Bellingen.

The attractions of the district to which the Eathers came, among the very first who accepted the invitation of paying off their farms under the Free Selection legislation of 1861, were the lush river flats, temperature climate and limitless expanses of virgin land.

At first, however, the only economic use to which the land could be put was cedar-getting. The earliest settlers cut the cedar from the foothills of the valley, axing their way finally onto the Dorrigo plateau and sending out the precious logs on the boats which brought in their supplies.

The land was in it's virgin condition requiring much toil before crops could be sown and it was 1864 before the first blocks, including the Eather's could be surveyed.

There, on what became the "Orange Grove" property, the Eather children grew to sturdy adulthood, the daughters were taught sewing by their mother who had somehow managed to bring both sewing machine and piano to the little clearing in the frowning forrest, and both boys and girls finding their recreation in the Irish jigs which she taught them. She was obliged likewise to instruct the elder children in reading and writing, for a provisional school was not yet established on the Upper Bellinger until 1869 when James Eather became one of the members of the local board.

One of the other members of the board was William Jarrett, reputed to be the first settler on the river. Before many years the link between the two families was made even stronger with the marriage of the eldest Eather daughter, Mary, to Thomas Jarrett.

The Children of James Joseph EATHER and Bridget were:-

1. Mary Eliza EATHER 1856?1933 m. Thomas W Jarrett 1851-1935 in 1875 at Bellingen, New South Wales

2.James Joseph EATHER 1858?1920 m. Millicent Sarah BATH 1867-1960 at Walcha, New South Wales, on 31 August 1885.

3. Abraham Robert EATHER 1860?1860

4. Matilda Sarah EATHER 1861?1942 m. Joseph MURPHY 1860-1940 at
Boat Harbour Bellinger River, New South Wales on 5 March 1889.

5. Teresa Jane EATHER 1865?1886 m. Michael MCCRISTAL 1861-1921 at Bellingen, New South Wales on 25 November 1885.

6. Margaret Charlotte EATHER 1868?1932 m. Charles P KEEBLE 1867-1932 at Bellingen, New South Wales, in 1893.

7. Thomas Charles EATHER 1869?1958 m. Anne BROWNLEE 1879-1933 at
Bellingen, New South Wales in 1899.

8. Abraham R EATHER 1872? XXXX

9. John Louis EATHER 1876?1954 m. Ruth F TAYLOR 1880-? (Queensland) at Glen Innes, New South Wales in 1915.

10. George EATHER 1878 ? XXXXI can't find any record of him apart from an attestation paper on enlistment into the A I F where he claims Mrs. Margaret Keeble is his sister. She is listed as next of kin.

Bridget Harriet died at Bellingen on the 3 May 1886.
James Joseph EATHER died at Bellingen on the 21 November 1906.