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Re- Your Irish Coat of Arms

In the words of Edward MacLysaght, the first Chief Herald of Ireland ...

"The subject of Irish families is one in which much interest is evinced, but the popular books usually consulted and regarded as authoritative, particularly in America, are in fact unreliable. The inaccurate and misleading information thus imparted with cumulative effect is, however, much more deplorable in the armorial sphere than in the genealogical.
It is an indisputable fact that the publication presenting colour plates of Irish arms which is probably most widely consulted is no less than seventy per cent inaccurate, not only in mere detail, but often in points of primary importance and of an elementary kind. Apart from their many grotesque heraldic blunders the compilers of this work seem to have had a sort of rule of thumb; if they could not find arms for one Irish sept they looked for the name of another somewhat resembling it in sound: thus, for example, they coolly assigned the arms of Boylan to Boland. This frequently resulted in the arms of some purely English family being inserted in their book of 'Irish Arms' the Saxon Huggins being equated with O'Higgins, and so on. When this arbitrary method failed them they fell back on the arms of some great Irish sept. To quote one instance of this: Gleeson, Noonan and McFadden are all given the arms of O'Brien, though none of these septs had any connexion whatever with the O'Briens or with each other. Consequently many Americans of Irish descent are in good faith using erroneous and often English arms derived from the spurious source in question.
A certain cachet has been given to this because, in the more recent editions of O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees [published after the author's death - Ed], these same coloured plates have been inserted as if they were an integral part of O'Hart's book.
The serious genealogist uses O'Hart with caution, if at all, for he is a far from reliable authority except for the quite modern period. John O'Hart, however, undoubtedly did a vast amount of research, no matter how he used the information he acquired: I know that some of these errors of ascription can actually be traced to him, but it is surely an injustice to him that his well known name should be used as a cover for the propagation of false and often ludicrous heraldic statements."

Readleaf Wabasha - Wapasha 1 1720 - 1806

Wapasha I born Abt. 1720 and died on the 5 January 1806

Wapasha I was the son of a Dakota chief and a Chippewa princess. Born in approximately 1720, he was the eldest of two sons. Despite his Chippewa blood, Wapasha I led the Sioux in several battles with his mothers tribe. One such incident marks the first recorded reference of his name by the white men.

After a band of Sioux warriors slew several Chippewa, a tribe which had been promised protection by the French, Wapasha and those with him on the raid offered to submit to French justice in order to keep peace with the incoming military forces of the Europeans. On March 9, 1740, the action was recorded by the commander of the French garrison at Mackinac, Michigan. No retribution was taken against the Sioux.

After military defeats at the hands of the British in the middle 1700s, the French began to withdraw from lands they had formerly held in the Mississippi River valley. The French had enjoyed the loyalty of the Indians, who aided them in their defeat with the British. After the French defeat, the English were both suspicious and fearful of the Indians. As a result, there were no English trappers and traders bargaining with the Sioux. The Sioux had developed a dependency on such trade. They had become more accustomed to hunting with rifles than bows and arrows. Fur traded with French trappers brought provisions and ammunition and the Dakota found it difficult to survive without this commerce.

Perhaps also fearing a war with the British, Wapasha I convened a council in 1763 to find a way to bring the British back to this area. Several incidents that took place during the French and Indian War made English trappers apprehensive about returning to the Mississippi River valley. One such incident took place in 1761. A Dakota named Ixkatapay had shot an English trader called Pagonta (Mallard Duck) by the Indians. The two had quarreled earlier, and Pagonta was reportedly killed while sitting in his cabin smoking. To appease the British, it was decided Ixkatapay would be turned over to them for the killing. Wapasha I led the party, composed of 100 men, to the English headquarters in Quebec.

Wapashas enthusiasm for peace with the English was shared by the tribe, but evidently this did not extend to submitting one of their own to the justice of the British. By the time Wapasha had reached Green Bay, Wisconsin, there were only six of the original 100 left, Wapasha and five braves. The others had drifted off in small groups. One of these deserting bands had taken Ixkatapay with them and returned to their homelands.

Wapasha I and the remaining five continued to Quebec and offered themselves as surrogates for Ixkatapay in the English court. He explained the plight of his people and their desire for peace, and asked the British to return to the area. Taken with his courage, the British awarded the Dakota chief seven military medals, hanging one around his neck in a ceremony at the fort. Trappers and traders soon returned to the area.

During the American Revolution, the Sioux fought on the side of the British. Wapasha led his warriors against the Sauk and Fox forces which had sided with the rebelling colonists. In British military communiqus, he is referred to as General Wapasha. His aid in the British cause during the revolution was not forgotten. When he traveled to Montreal on one of his many visits to the British army commanders there, he was always greeted with the salute of a cannon.

Wapasha I died of neck cancer January 5, 1806, at a camp on the Root River in Houston County, Minnesota. He was probably somewhere in his 80s when he died, ending a public career that spanned 66 years.


Below is a photograph of Redleaf Wabasha b:1720 Cass Lake, Cass, Minnesota and died 5 January 1806 at Root River, Houston, Minnesota. the son of Snow Mountain Wabasha 1682.
Readleaf was the father of Chief One Eye WABASHA 1773-1836 and Angelique WABASHA souix name Noh-Ki-A-Keu


Rebecca SMALL 1789-1883

It is said that Rebecka Small was the first Currency Lass to be married in Australia when she married Francis OAKES at the St.John's Church of England in Parramatta on the 27 January 1806.

Rebecka born on the 22 September 1789, in Pitt Street Sydney in the little cottage right next door to the first Government House in Sydney. The daughter of First Fleeters.

Her father John SMALL was born in Birmingham on the 30 November 1761 the son of John Small 1723-1790 and his wife Rebecca, nee ASHFORD.
He joined the 33rd Company of the Plymouth Division of the Marine Corps at Birmingham on 16 April 1781. He sailed on 'HMS Lively' to New York and then to the West Indies. His ship was taken over by American rebel prisoners, who had been held captive on board. He was taken as a prisoner to Havana where he remained until after the War of Independence May 1783.

When peace was signed in 1783 John and other English prisoners were exchanged for Spanish prisoners and he eventually got back to Port Plymouth in August 1783.

Along with Stephen DAVENPORT, John HERBERT and Robert ELLWOOD, John then became a highwayman, He was caught, tried and sentenced to death on the 14th of Mar 1785 for crimes againest James Burt in the King's Highway. He was extended mercy on 5th of April 1785 conditional to serving 7 years he spent two years on the hulk Dunkirk then was transported on the'Charlotte' and he died in Ryde, a Sydney suburb on the 2 October 1850. He became Captain Phillips personal servant, and was nicknamed 'The Sergeant'

John Small died at the age of 88 on the 2 Oct 1850 at this time he was the last known First Fleet convict to die in NSW.

His wife Mary PARKER, had been born in Chelsea on the 26 August 1758. Mary had been transported on the 'Lady Penrhyn' for theft. Mary met John at Government House where she was assigned as a servant. Mary accidently drowned in a dam on their property at Kissing Point on the 4 April 1824.
During roadworks at Devlin Street Ryde, a grave, said to be Mary's was found. The remains re-interred at the Ryde Cemetery and a plaque added in 1979.

John SMALL and Mary, nee PARKER were married at St.Phillips Church of England, Sydney on the 12 October 1788.

The children of this marriage were:-

*1.Rebecca SMALL 17891883 m. Francis OAKES 1770-1844. The children of this marriage were:-

Elizabeth Oakes 18061889 Ann Oakes 18081880
Mary Oakes 18101880 George Oakes 18131881
Rebecca Oaks 18151904 Sussanah Hassal Oakes 18161907
Francis Rowland Oakes 18181886 Lucy Oakes 18191828
Rowland Hassal Oakes 18211888 Samuel Oakes 18221822
James Lawry Oakes 18241853 John leigh Oakes 18261901
Martha Oakes 18281910 William Oakes 18311881


2.Mary SMALL 17911879 m. Matthew HUGHES Poss.1770-1845 the children of this marriage were:-

Margaret Hughes 18121863 Ann Hughes 18151902
Robert Hughes 1816 1818 Mary Hughes 18181902
James Henry Hughes 18201886 Matthew Henry Hughes 18221905
Thomas Henry Hughes 18241908 Elizabeth Hancox Hughes 18261853
Eliza Rebecca Hughes 18281921 Martha Hughes 18301901
Charlotte Hughes 18321919 William Charles Hughes 18371900
Henry Francis Hughes 18391930

3.John SMALL 17941883 m. Elizabeth PATFIELD 1802-1870 on 31 October 1820 The children of this marriage were:-

John Frederick Small 18211897 Ann Small 18251904
Eliza Small 18281907 Sophie Small 18311831
George Small 18321910 Jane Small 18341835
Mary Small 18361924 James Small 18381914
Harriet Small 18421932 Rebecca Small 18451923
Henry Edward Small 18471918

4.William SMALL 17961891 m. Charlotte MELVILLE 1803-1885 on the 18 June 1820. The children of this marriage were :-

Elizabeth Small 18211916 William Small 18241892
Robert Small 1826 1906 Thomas Small 18291920
Samuel Small 18341910 Henry Small 1837 1900
George Septimus Small 18391912 Susannah Martha Small 1841 1907
Andrew Octavius Small 18431932


5.Thomas SMALL 17991863 m. Priscilla Mason SQUIRE 1792-1862 on 17 December 1821. The children of This marriage were :-

Thomas Small 18221893 Suzannah Small 18241858
Elizabeth Small 18261905 William Small 18281905
Samuel Small 18301915 Timothy Small 18351911
Priscilla Small 18381851

t6.Samuel SMALL 18041889 m. Rachel Rebecca BRADLEY 1811-1891 on the 14 October 1833. The children of this marriage were:-

Rachel Lynn Small 1831 ? Samuel Small 18331912
Elizabeth Small 1836 1919 James Small 18411912
Joseph Small 18411921 John Joseph Small 18431921
Rebecca Small 18471937 Reuben SMALL 18501852
Robert Small 18531915 Charlotte Small 18551939


t7.Sarah SMALL 18041861 m. George PATFIELD on the 31 October 1820 at St.Phillips, Sydney. The children of this marriage were:-

George Patfield 18221839 Susannah Patfield 18241852
John Patfield 1827-1920 Thomas Patfield 18301920
Mary Patfield 18321918 Samuel Joseph Patfield 18341910
Elizabeth Patfield 18381857 Joseph Patfield 18421930

Currency Lads and Currency Lasses was a term used to describe the first generation of Australian-born, mostly the children of convicts or emancipists of British or Irish descent. currency referred to the paper money that Macquarie issued in Sydney from 1810. As this local pound was depreciated against the sterling, the word currency, as recorded by (Peter Cunningham in Two Years in New South Wales (1827)), implied inferiority. By contrast, sterling identified the superior class of free emigrants. The physical and behavioural characteristics of currency lads and lasses impressed contemporary observers. J. T. Bigge in 1820 described them as tall and slender, of fair complexion, stronger and healthier than the English-born, active in their habits, lively and assertive, and optimistic about the future; and observed that these qualities provided a remarkable exception to the moral and physical character of their parents. Their brash assertiveness and penchant for toasting themselves reflected both pride in their currency status and loyalty to their native land, which, they claimed, gave them greater rights to land than free British-born settlers. Russel Ward saw their belief in democracy and egalitarianism, and disdain for authority and new chums, as critical to the development of the Australian character. W. C. Wentworth was the most celebrated currency lad; others were Daniel Deniehy and Hamilton Hume. A paper called The Currency Lad appeared from 183233, and the currency lass was the subject of Edward Geoghegan's musical comedy of 1844. They are the subject of (John Molony's The Native Born (2000)).

The photograph below is Rebecca OAKES nee SMALL taken later in life.


4 comment(s), latest 3 years, 2 months ago

Recollections of Richmond, New South Wales, Chronicled in 1910

[These are the memories Alfred Smith of the Hawkesbury in New South Wales.
Alfred was born in Hobartville, New South Wales on the 13 July 1831 to John Smith 1798-1833 a convict who drowned in Liverpool in 1833 and Adelaide Eliza De La Thoreza 1808-1877 she had been born in Madrid. After John Smith died, at 15 months of age, Alfred was adopted by George JAMES 1768-1862 and his wife Ann Kelly 1789-1864. They had only one girl, Eliza JAMES 1824-1862 ( the mother of Ann ONUS 1841-1927) Alfred died 0n 24 December 1917. On the 11 October 1854 at St.Matthew's Catholic Church, Windsor, Alfred married Ann Amelia KINSELA 1838-1917 the daughter of Martin KINSELA 1793-1860 and Ellen, nee HENDLING 1794-1862. Alfred had many jobs throughout his lifetime, including Town Stockman, running The Punt across the river and a drover, droving throughout New South Wales and as far down as Victoria.]
Many of the people mentioned are my ancestors and his recollections have been an invaluable aid not just to my own family research but many other family trees seeded in the Hawkesbury.janilye

Right in the corner of the vacant allotment at the corner of Paget and March streets, there stood a weatherboard house, which had a verandah in front. At the side of the house was a very large cedar tree. When I first remember the place the old man Douglas of all lived there. He would be great-grandfather to the present William Douglas, who we all know today as a good bricklayer in Richmond. In those days we always knew the corner as Douglas' corner, and the big tree at the side of the house as Douglas's cedar tree. I still have a vivid recollection of old Mr. Douglas. He used to wear his hair very long, brush it round behind his ears, and it would hang well on to his shoulders. He had two horses and carts, and hired them out to people who wanted to draw wood. He charged five shillings per day for each horse and cart. He had one very funny saying, which he would use on special occasions. It was this "Bad luck to all informers! You're a liar ! Whether or no too bad. cabbage is no good without pork." He bad two sons, wheelwrights, Joseph and Isaac, and about where Ernest Marlin is living at present there was a skillion, and they had a big workshop there. In this same skillion Ellen Cavanah lived for some time. I think old Saunders, the brickmaker,lived there also. Alderman T. Biddle's father was the agent. Where Mr Sid Paull's residence stands there was a blacksmith's shop kept by Dan Ward. He was a single man and lived with his mother, who we always knew as Granny Ward. I remember three daughters. Sarah married a man named Brett. Jane married a man named Ben Gawthorn, and went to Mudgee to live. I think there are some of the descendants about there now. Phyllis married a chemist named Lester, in Mudgee. Old Granny Ward had a white cockatoo, which could say almost anything, He would call her whenever she was wanted in her little shop. I understood he was 35 years old when Mrs Ward died, and I heard her daughter, Mrs Lester, took him to Mudgee. Outside her family she had a boarder named Robinson, who was a tailor. The old lady was a most industrious woman, and had a big mangle, with which she did a large trade.
Then there was vacant land till we came to where Mr W. Drayton is residing. Here was an old house, used as a school, which was kept by Mr Hogsflesh. Mrs Harrington, a widow, lived there after Mr Charles Hogsflesh kept the school. I think Mr Harrington was killed by the blacks somewhere up Kurrajong. Old Mrs Harrington was a chatty old woman. She often came round to Mr James for advice, as he was a constable. If I were about when she came she would say to me 'Go out ! get out of this!' and away I would have to go. Later she becme Mr. Preystnell, but the union did not turn out a happy one. They did not live long together, and Preystnell told me the reason.
In the course of time the property came into the hands of the Draytons, and is now owned by my old friend Mr W. Drayton. Some years ago he built an up to date cottage on the land, which has improved it so much that only us old hands can have an idea of what it was like in my boyhood days. Next door to this stood the old Horse and Jockey Hotel that was pulled down when the Imperial was built on the corner. The first person I remember living there was Thomas Silk, Harry's father, who kept it as an hotel. His sign was the Lion and the Unicorn. We lads had a song among ourselves which went :
The Lion and the Unicorn Are fighting for the crown,
The Lion beat the Unicorn All around the town.
The first circus I ever saw was in the paddock at the back when Tom Silk kept the pub. A man named Croft was the proprietor, and I never forgot Quinn the tight rope walker. We thought it was something wonderful to see a man walking backwards and forwards on a tight rope. Old Mr.Joseph Onus lived there for a while. Here he had 'Jerry Sneak,' the racehorse, half brother to the famous 'Jorrocks' The first gold cup run for in the colony was won by 'Sneak' at Homebush. When old Mr Crisford and family first came to Richmond it was in this place they commenced housekeeping. Caleb Crisford was only talking to me about it the second last time he was in Richmond. Then a tall man, whose name I don't remember, kept a school there. He had a school also down on the 'Bottoms,' by 'Smashem' Smith's. One night as he was going to Windsor two fellows nearly killed him. The Rev. Father Terry, the Roman Catholic priest, held services upstairs in the big room. Old Mr Brooks also kept a school here, and no doubt some of his pupils are alive to-day in the district. At the time Mr. James Bates took it over to start pub keeping, the building was in a state of great disrepair, and it cost him a large sum of money to put it in thorough order. He was living there at the time of the '67 flood, and I heard it was about half an inch over the counter, but I was up the country at the time and only heard this.
Among others who kept the old place as an hotel will be remembered 'Black' Johnny Gough, ]im Ryan (Toby's son), Tom Hough, George Cobcroft, Tom Young, Campion, Ted Morgan and, after his death, his widow. On the piece of land on which the Imperial Hotel is built was a weatherboard place in which Dan Neil lived. Right on the corner he had a blacksmith's shop. I have been given to understand he was a Government man to old Mr Cox, of Clarendon, and did his blacksmithing. But to his credit, with good conduct and a good record he became a free man, and started black smithing on his own account on this corner.
On this same corner Tom Masters, of Windsor, kept his first little shop. He had been droving, but his health began to give way, and he decided to start in business. On the opposite side of the street where Joseph Ashton keeps his cases there was a little slab place with no verandah. 'Bill' Wilmott a shoemaker, lived in it. While living there he died suddenly. Mrs Morgan, who they called 'Betty,' a very stout woman, was his housekeeper. Next door, only on the same block of land, there stood one room in which lived an old bachelor known as 'Bob the Stockman.' For a long time he made ti-tree brooms, and sold them for sixpence each. He would go out to the Black Swamp and get the good class of ti-tree, cut it, and let it wilt for a certain time before making it into brooms. You would see him coming home with a large bundle of it on each shoulder. Where Mr. S. Orchard's own house stands, and where he kept a store for many years, stood a skillion with no verandah and containing three or four rooms. Here Mrs. Davis, mother of Mrs S. Orchard, lived for some time. Later on Mrs. Davis married Matthew Webb, a carpenter. It was Mr Webb who had the front put on and started storekeeping. Later on he went to St Mary's, and kept a tannery. He died over there. Tom Masters kept a general store there also. Coming down nearer the present day we knew it as a butcher's shop kept by 'Ike' Cornwell. Mr. Orchard conducted a successful business there and a general store for a long time.
What we now call the park, wasn't such a beauty spot when I first knew it, and was called the Market Square. In wet weather water would lie in a few places about the centre. It wasn't quite as level as now. There were a few trees standing, a few logs on the ground, and plenty of stumps. On the 5th of November, Guy Fawkes day, they would build a platform some five or six feet high about where the pavilion now stands, and make a effigy of a man. They had the effigy on show at day time, and large heaps of wood piled up about a a rod away. When night came they set fire to the man and heaps of wood, and great was the rejoicing.
Where the School of Arts and public school stands was the pound paddock. About where Constable Ross has his garden was the pound. The first poundkeeper I remember was old 'Dicky' Lounds.
Returning to the corner where Mr. S. Orchard keeps his present "Railway Stores" I remember there stood a skillion with a small verandah. In this humble, dwelling Charles Chamberlain, the fencer and splitter, lived. On the spot where Mr Orchard's store stands there were several lots of bricks made by 'Tim ' the brickmaker. This was the only name I knew him by. Where Mr. F. Gow's places are there stood a weatherboard skillion of four rooms and no verandah, which was occupied by Mr Tafe. He used to grow tobacco, and had two sons, Joe and Dick. After that there stood a brick skillion, where Mr Wade lived. Mr Wade was a gardener to Mr William Bowman. In his spare moments, and with the help of his wife, he used to raise a lot of good vegetables, his wife used to sell them. He also grew tobacco. He had two daughters, Jane, and Harriet. but only one son, I think. He had a tobacco press made out of logs and a long lever to press his tobacco leaf. A man named Province 'Ratty,' as he was always called lived with him for a long time and helped him with the tobacco.
A brick house stands on the allotment where Mr Guest's saleyards are. It is an old place. I don't remember it getting built, but I don't think it had been up many years when I first knew it. Here old Mr Ducker (Roland's father) kept a shop when they first came to Richmond. Old Mr Ducker was an industrious man and I recollect him driving his team up and down for goods. Mr B. Richards had a butcher's shop in the verandah portion on the end towards Mr. F. Gow's property, and sold, mutton only. This was the last place he lived in in Richmond till he built the beautiful mansion 'Kamilaroi.' From here he went to live at the bridge, where he kept public house. Mr Joseph Single lived there also.
I have heard old Mr Martin, who married Miss Henderson (Granny Field) gave it to his granddaughter, who married Charley Price. Charley lived here a good while. Next door, where Miss Fergusson is living, must be a very old place, as it had an old look when I first recollect it. Mr King occupied the whole premises late years it has been made into two dwellings. Old Mr King was a nail maker, and consequently was always known as 'King the nailer.' He used to live in one end and have his shop in the other. After Mr King left it, Joe Poole lived there. He ran a one horse coach to Windsor. Nixon, the tailor, lived there also.
Then there was a vacant allotment next in my earliest days. Later on, but standing on this piece of ground is the old two-storey place which has been in the possession of the Price family for many years. The brick work was done by Caleb Crisford and his father. Grand father Price died there, as also did Rebecca, his daughter. It was from this place that Mrs Archie Kennedy buried a son, Donald, and a daughter, Mary, in a very short space of time. Mrs Parkinson, who afterwards went to England, kept a school there.
Next door we have the old home of the Price family which I don't remember getting built. Old Mr. William Price of all (great grandfather of the two young Prices now living in Richmond), kept the second post office in Richmond in the old place. At the back was the tan-yard. He also carried on undertaking, &c.
Again there was vacant land, but afterwards there was a black-smith's shop erected, and this, combined with monumental work, made it a scene of activity.
I don't remember the house at the corner, owned by William Sly, getting built. The first I recollect living there was 'Joe the wheeler,' a wheelwright by trade. Joe engaged with Mr William Bowman to go to Tunnabutta but he never turned up. He arranged to go by Bell's Line, and some considerable time afterwards the remains of a man were found at the Bald Hill, seven miles the other side of Mount Tomah. As he was never heard of after leaving Richmond it was always thought to be his body.
Dr. Rowan lived there also. Miss Hawsey a miss, about 60 years of age kept house for him, and did dressmaking besides.
Where Mr Steve Dunston is living plays its part in Richmond's history.The first man I remember living there was James Griffiths. Then old Alexander Gough (father of the 'Johnny' who kept the Royal Hotel) lived there. He was a cooper by trade, and used to make the old fashioned churns, &c, and one of his make I worked many a time when making butter at old Mr James'.
On the same block of ground as John Sly has his house built, only about forty for fifty yards back from March-street, was an old slab place, I think, with a tremendous large vine in front of it. Here lived old Mr and Mrs William Magick. And here it was Mr Magick died at the reputed age of 108 years. I
remember the old man well. He had two bullocks, and with these he ploughed the back paddock of nearly an acre for old Mr George James where he lived. It was through ploughing the paddock I came to know him first. Further down there stood an old weatherboard place. I do not remember its erection. It contained four rooms and had a verandah. Robert Reeves 'Bob Fatty,' as he was generally called who owned this block from March-street to Lennox-street, lived in the house and kept a little shop. He sold pipes, tobacco, starch and blue, He died in this place and I saw him when he was dead. Mr. William Sharpe young Bill as we knew him then married the widow, and I think the old lady died there. At any rate some time after her death, I remember Sharpe marrying old Mrs Onus, mother of the old Joseph Onus, who did a great deal towards the making and advancement of Richmond. The two-storey place next door to where I have been speaking of I remember getting built. Burgess and Shelton kept a store there for a while Burgess married a Miss Dargin, of Windsor, I understood. Thomas Bell, after leaving 'Belmont' came there to live. I sold him many 'possum skins while he lived there. I remember well old Mr Bowen (father of Mr G. B. Bowen, of 'Bowen Mount') living in the two storey house for about two years, It was my work to take them two quarts of milk every morning. They dealt with old Mr George James for butter as well, but he always delivered this himself. Mr G. B. Bowen never forgets it, and always likes to have a chat with me about it. He reckons he was about four years old then. The old house owned by William Sly on the corner will be dealt with when we speak of Bosworth-street, as it faces into that street Where the late Doctor Cameron's grand mansion stands was vacant ground. Next to this vacant block I speak of was a skillion with no verandah, at that time, which belonged to old Mr. Sam Payne, He was grandfather, of the present Mrs. Tomkinson who lives in Windsor street. The first man I remember living there was Thomas Death, a butcher. He was a single man, and was found dead on the floor of his bedroom. They held an inquest, and found the cause to be eating cucumbers. After this 'Long Harry,' the bricklayer, lived there and died there also. I was one who helped to carry him to the cemetery. From there to Bosworth-street was vacant land.
Going down March-street, from the corner of Bosworth-street, toward Mr Charles Guest's there was a skillion standing just past the corner. The front portion has been put on since I first knew it. The first person I have any recollections of living there was John Masters, father of Tom Masters in Windsor. He was a painter and decorator by trade, and a splendid tradesman. He was an artist also, and could paint animals or any other pictures.
Weller , I think, who was a publican of Windsor in the early days, had a sign done by him. It represented a blackfellow and a large lump of gold in his hand.
Sam Nixon, the tailor, lived there also. Nixon's wife was run over by some horsemen while coming home after dark, The accident happened at Seymour's corner (now the 'Black Horse') only in Bosworth-street. In those days they hadn't a Constable Ross to regulate the traffic, and as they were galloping round the corner run over Mrs Nixon.
It was in this house that Bill Johnson was living at the time he got his leg broken in front of my residence, and it was here he had it taken off. Tom Johnson (father of Arthur and Tom) told me that when the doctor was taking off the leg it was like as if they were sawing a baton. He stood the operation without chloroform, and had, I believe, a handkerchief rolled up in his mouth to bite to stand the pain.
[I informed my narrator that my grand father, William Heath, who had been an old soldier, held the leg while the doctor amputated it, and carried it for the doctor who preserved it. Also that Dan Carter saw the handkerchief after, the operation was over, and it was bitten to pieces. R.F.]
Where Mr C. S. Guest is living there was a weatherboard house of' about four rooms with a verandah. In it lived a man by the name of Simpson, who was a currier by trade. I went to school with two of his sons Ebenezer and William. Our schoolmaster was good old Mr Charles Hogsflesh.

WINDSOR STREET.
In the house which is now the back of the Commercial Hotel, and which was occupied by Miss Caroline Price for many years, Mr Alfred Cox lived for some time. He was the son of the original Cox, who died at ' Fairfield,' after leaving Clarendon. This same Mr Cox was grandfather to Sloper. I used to take milk to Mr Alfred Cox, and he was the first person I have any knowledge of living there. It was the post office also for some time
previous to the new office being built. Mr White, who married a step-daughter of Mr William Reid, and a sister to the present Mr. Joseph Onus, of Richmond, was postmaster at the time. In years after Mr George Cobcroft bought the property and built the hotel on to the front of it. Next door Mrs Parkinson, as I have stated, kept her school, and I was her milk boy also. I remember the ser- vant girl she had living with her, whose name was Rebecca Rose. She came from Wilberforce way. At another period it was a school again, and kept by Mr Brown. Again it was a school, and kept by a Mr Gaisley, but only for a short time. I remember the Gaisleys were strict Wesleyans. The ground where the present Wesleyan Chapel stands was given by old Mr Martin. I remember this church being erected. I have said that where Woodhill's drapery store is was the old Wesleyan Chapel, and I remember quite well when they used to preach in it. Afterwards it was bought by old Mr Ducker, and he re- moved from March-street over there. The grocery store was afterwards built by Mr Ducker. Where Mr O Ridge now has a shop, a man named Forrester, who was a baker and confectioner was the first I remember living there. He was a very religious man and a strict, Wesleyan. He brought wood into town with his pair of a blue bullock in the shafts and a chestnut horse leading. Then the late William Sullivan's father kept a school there. I think where the Price brothers have their office was the chemist shop kept by "Cocky" Jones. He also kept the post office. When he left, "Grandfather" Price kept the post office and sold patent medicines, perfumery, etc. But before "Cocky" Jones lived there, the first I recollect was a Mr McCreedie, a boot and shoe maker. When he left there he went to live where Mr. Tom Richardson lived for many years at the corner of Lennox and Paget-streets. Old Mr Collins, mentioned in a previous paper, lived in the same house, which McCreedie left, for some time. In the last house of this terrace of four cottages, and which stands next to Mr Henry Sly's, a Mr Oxley kept a butcher's shop He had been an overseer for Mr. Bowman, of Richmond. At the same time his wife kept a school where "Granny" Ashton lives. The last time I saw his son, Owen, he was at Coonabarraban, where he was carrying on business as a saddler and harness maker. A daughter of his, Mary Ann, married a drover named Baker. The last time I saw her she was living at Cooyal, and told me her husband had been dead a few years. Robert Eather also kept a butcher's shop there. He married the eldest sister of the present Mr John Cornwell, of Richmond. The house where Mr Henry Sly lives I re- member getting built. W. G. Burgess and Shelton kept a general store there. These two men will be remembered as living and keeping a store in the two storey house in March-street. One night a hole was made in the brick wall just large enough for a man to get through. It was in the corner of the building just as you go in off the street into where Mrs Rogers now lives, Several articles were stolen. Old Mr. King, who we always re member as "King the Nailer," kept a store there for a long time. Of course the late William Sullivan kept a boot and shoe factory there for a number of years. The first horse I ever bought I sold to William Sullivan, say, to-day at a profit of 10/-. He rode the horse to Windsor the same day and made 10/- on his deal. Mr Cox, when writing to you about a bit of old times, mentioned William Sullivan running a one horse coach from Richmond to Windsor. Mr Sullivan ran the coach while I was keeping the pub., but before that Joe Poole ran one, and again Tom Phillmore ran one. These two latter plied their coaches to and from Windsor when I was a big lump of a lad. Where Henry Mortimer is living the back portion was built first, and it had a small verandah. A Mr. Burgess, a very big man and no way connected with the other Burgess I have mentioned, was the first one I remember living there. He kept a butcher's shop and used to hang meat in the verandah. Afterwards Tom Eather kept a butcher's shop there for a long time. He married Eliza Crowley, sister of John Crowley, who lived and died at Yarramundi. He was the eldest son of Mr Thomas Eather, who kept the pub. Later on, the front portion was built. The old dwelling portion of the present A.J.S. Bank I saw getting put up. Old Thos. Eather had it built. He was keeping a public house, where the Bank of N.S. Wales is, at the time, and when it was finished he shifted into it. The sign then was the "Union Inn." Afterwards it was kept as a pub by Mrs Griffiths. The old lady dropped dead in the kitchen. I was going up Kurrajong with Mr. An- drew Town to have a look at some horses he had for sale. On our way up Mr Town "shouted" for me and Mrs Griffiths served us. When we came back she was dead. A good, jolly woman she was. She was a daughter of Robert Eather and mother of the present Thomas Griffiths, sen., who lives in Richmond. "Ned" Young must not be forgotten as keeping a pub there also, not George Cobcroft. Mrs Charles Eather died suddenly there while reading a telegram she had re- ceived. Opposite to the place we have been speaking about was the old lockup, and a big cedar tree stood in front of it. It was a brick place of four rooms, whitewashed and a verandah in front. After some time the authorities had a slab building put up at the back, but close to the house, for a lockup. "Daddy" Merrick, grandfather to Mrs. T Pryke, was the first lockup keeper I remember. Fred Williams, the constable, lived there for a number of years. After him a man named Andrews was constable and lockup keeper. Andrews was guardian to William Tom kinson, and it was he who bound Mr Tomkinson to Mr John Long for five years to carpentering. Mr Tomkinson served his apprenticeship where Harry Fong is living. Where Chalmers' build ings and Holborow's store stand was vacant land when I first, recollect it. It be longed to old Mr John Stevenson, grand- father to the present Mr Edwin Steven son. Mr Abraham Cornwell bought the land from old Mr Stevenson, and built the low long house where Thomas Chalmers kept a shop for so many years. Mr Chalmers purchased the house and land from Mr Cornwell, and a few years before his death replaced the old house with the present up-to-date premises. When he was pulling the old place down to build the new terrace I happened to be going by one day and he was standing outside. We entered into conversation, when he said to me "I suppose you don't remember this old place getting built." I told him I did, and where his stables were.
On St. Patrick's Day I have seen cock- fighting, men fighting, a skittle alley and quoit playing. One St. Patrick's Day, Constable Byrnes, who was for years in Yarramundi, was in Richmond, and was what they would now call a hot member. A row had started in Tom Eather's yard just opposite, and he went over and was trying to stop some fighting when Isiah Bell, a blacksmith, gave him "a beauty " on the nose. Byrnes didn't know at the time who it was that had dealt it out to him owing to the crowd, but someone "came it" on Isiah. Byrnes summoned him and he was fined 5. It was made up for Isiah among his pals. He was an apprentice to Jack Freeman at the time. The land on which Holborows shop stands was bought from old Mr John Stevenson by Mr Brew, who built the shop and kept a big store, and a post office as well. Afterwards old Mr Grinsell kept a large store there, and died there. Mr William Holborow kept a store there for years. The back portion of the house this side of Mr Allison's was a brick place of four rooms and a veran- dah, and belonged to old William McAlpin. He was a blacksmith, and carried on his business there. A cabinet maker lived there, and the late Mr. W. Sullivan's father worked with him. There was a saw pit in the yard, and I remember them sawing up big cedar logs there. The portion I have just mentioned I don't remember getting built. The front ot it I remember getting built. About where Mr Allison's shop is there was another brick place of four rooms and a verandah which was built before my time. William Hook, a tailor, was the first I recollect living there. Mrs Hook was a sister of the late Thomas Laycock, senr., of Putty. John Hammond, a butcher, lived there for some time and
died there. Old Tom brown, a shoe maker, who married Mrs Savage, lived there also. The building of Allison's and Pryke's shops will be within the recollec tion of the young generation. I don't remember the present Bank of New South Wales getting built. The first per son living there to my knowledge was Thomas Eather, who was keeping a pub. After he left it and started up at the corner already spoken of, old Mr George Guest kept a saddle and harness-maker's shop there. He also had a tan-yard there. His currier was a Mr Shepherd. Thomas Onus kept a pub there, and here he died. Mrs Thomas Onus married a man named Joseph Rutter, and he died there also. The old residence by the Army Medical orderly room I don't remember getting built, and it looked as if it had been up for a number of years when I first knew it. Old Mr Brew was the first person who lived there to my recollection. He kept a store and post office. I remem- ber old Mrs George James paying him 1 for 4 lbs of tea. At the time the Californian diggings broke out. Mr J. A. Earle, a cabinet-maker, lived there. The Army Medical room was a specula- tion of Mr Sam Boughton's in more re-
cent years. Where the baker now lives had no front when I first knew it. There were four rooms of weatherboards, and a verandah. The land was owned by old Robert Potts. The late Mr Joseph Walden, who some little time ago died in Yarramundi, married Rachael, his daugh- ter, and the house was put up for them to live in when they were first married. After him a single man named "Frank the groom," lived there. He had been a groom to Andrew Town's grandfather. He died there, The first man I remember in the house occupied by Miss Richards was "Bill the painter." He had a man working for him who flew into a rage one day, and in the heat of passion he took an axe and went to cut "Bill" down. He got 75 lashes for it. Then Mr Robert Potts came there to live, and kept a butcher's shop only selling mutton. He lived there for years, and he and his wife died there.
After him old Mr Thomas Richards came there and started butchering.
Then we have no houses till we come to the corner where Mrs Alex Benson is living. This was built before my time. The first I knew there was Mr Issac Cornwell, who kept a big general store there. When Mr Ben Richards got married he lived there and kept a mutton butcher's shop, and while he was living there Mr Robert Richards
was born. William Delange and Mitchell Despointes kept a large store there. I took milk to William Delange, who was always known as ' Billy the Frenchman.' Here old Tiernan, the constable, luckily missed meeting his end. One night calling in for a chat, as was his custom, on his round he happened to have his big over- coat on and buttoned up which saved him from a well directed stab. He had been in the shop only a few minutes when a very tall stranger came in and wanted to buy some clothes. He had selected the goods and put down a 5 cheque, on some of the Dangars, of Singleton. Tiernan had heard about the mail up there being robbed and these cheques being among the missing articles. Naturally he was on the look-out for any stranger on for passing them. David Yates was shopman, and Thomas Hughes, a brother to Henry Hughes, happened to be in the shop talking to Yates. Neither of the owners happened to be there at the time. When he put down the cheque Tiernan asked him how he came by it. "What is that got to do with you?" he said. Tiernan tapped him on the shoulder and told him he was going to arrest him. He sprang back from Tiernan, and as he did so he drew a big knife and made a stab at the policeman. His blow missed the desired mark, and only cut Tiernan's coat a few inches. It was lucky for Tiernan he had his great coat on and buttoned up. In the scuffle that followed the stranger was too much for Tiernan, who wasn't the easiest man to best. He called on Yates and Hughes to assist him. One got hold of one leg and one the other, and between them they downed him and succeeded in popping him in the lockup. Tiernan had got word there were two in the matter, and he 'dropped down ' that the other was about the town, somewhere handy. He sent to Windsor and George Shirley, the chief constable, came out. Well on in the night they were having a cup of tea when they heard someone knocking at the front door of the pub opposite and calling out. Tiernan went out and saw a man there, and told him to go round to the back and what window to knock at if he wanted to get in. He asked Tiernan if this was where the mail of course it was only a one horse coach running to Windsor started from for Windsor. He guessed it was the mate of the man he had arrested, and told him he and a friend were having a cup of tea and invited him to come and have one, as they were going by the coach also. There was a palisading in front of the old lockup, and Tiernan opened the little gate for him to walk in. He walked in ahead of Tiernan till he got to the front door, and as soon as he saw the handcuffs hanging on the wall he knew what was up, and made a bound back. Tiernan grabbed him, and he and Shirley locked him up with his mate. I saw the two next morning when Tiernan was taking them to Windsor handcuffed.
Tiernan told me they got ten years at Cockatoo Island.
Then old Mr Henry Turner kept a general store there for many years. Mr Turner was a schoolmaster at one time down on the front of the river. Coming on to the opposite side, between West Market and Bosworth streets, there was a little place of four rooms with a small verandah some 30 or 40 yards back from where Charley Knott's store stands. A plasterer lived there in my earliest recollections of it. His name I don't remember. Old William Allen lived there and dealt in eggs and poultry in a large way. James Roberts lived there also, and had a blacksmith's shop in front of the place near the road. He shod horses for me when I had the Camden mail. A little farther on there was a little weatherboard place of four rooms, and no verandah. The first I remember living in it was a Mr Shepherd, who was a currier to old Mr Guest. Joe Poole lived there for a while when he was running the one horse coach to Windsor. Where Miss Long is living I remember getting built. It was the first bank of New South Wales in Richmond. I think Mr Hole was the first manager. He married a Miss Long. Old Mr Brew lived there before it was a bank. When he left there he went to England.
Old Mrs Long died in this house. She was half sister to old Richard Skuthorp, on the mother's side. This Richard Skuthorp would be father of the present Mr Richard Skuthorp, J.P., of Kurrajong. The old low long house which stood next door it was pulled down by Mr John Long some time ago I don't remember getting built. When I first knew it there was a big grapevine growing in front. It belonged to old Mr Samuel Payne. I used to mind his cattle for him five milking cows, and among them I remember well he had a white cow and a brown 'poley.' Being the owner he lived in it. Old Mr and Mrs Long lived there for a long time. Their son, Thomas, died there, and Mr Long ended his earthly days there also. Where the third infantry have their office, I remember that getting put up. Atkinson, a builder in Windsor, was the man who had the contract. He was old Mrs Edward Robinson's father. Dr Whittaker and his wife were living there, and one time they happened to be away the roof caved in, and it was a wonder it did not fall right in. It was afterwards put to rights by old Mr George Marlin. Mr Marlin, being such a good tradesman, was sought after, and old Mr William Durham got him to go to Wombo to put up some buildings for him. I also remember a Dr Brown living there. Dr Jockel lived and died there, and Mr. Robert Richards lived there. Of course I don't remember the Black Horse Hotel getting built. It looked old when I first recollect it. Old Dr and Mrs Seymour were the first people I remember there. The old doctor was a bit lame. Ever since I can recollect the sign was in Mrs Seymour's name during the time they kept the hotel. The old pub couid tell many tales if it could only speak. Many of the nobility have spent their honeymoons there. It has been the means of giving Richmond a fair footing in history.
On the opposite side of Bosworth-street, on the corner, there stood a large brick place there must have been six or seven rooms in the place and old Mr and Mrs Cuff were the first people living there in my earliest recollections. The old people lived in the back portion of the premises, and rented the front to William Delange and his partner. This was before they went to live where Mr Henry. Turner kept the store. Living in the same place was a young man named McEwen. He married a widow named Mrs White. Old Mr Cuff died first, and after his death Mrs Cuff rented the front portion, which the French man had occupied, to this McEwen. She died while the McEwens were there. Some time after Mrs McEwen died there. Before McEwens went there to live a woman we always called ' Little Ann,' a dressmaker, lived there. Later on Mr James Haughton kept a shop there for a good while. He had a creamy pony and a cart with a tilt, and used to go over Kurrajong selling ornaments. (Here my narrator showed me an ornament he bought from Houghton, a few weeks be- fore he was married, nearly 56 years ago. It represents an animal like a greyhound dog resting R.F.) I was putting him over the river in the punt when I bought it. While living in this place Mr Houghton had two children die at the same time. In course of time the old place went to ruin and has been pulled down many years. Just this side of where Mrs Stewart is living, about opposite Mrs Onus' place, there stood a four roomed place with a verandah and built of brick. Here a man we always knew as Sam Davison lived. Then it was occupied by 'Johnny the Sexton ' and his wife. He was the first sexton to the church. They had no children, and were peculiar speaking people, and were known as ' Shonny and Shany.' Then Johnny Ward, a brick- maker, lived there. He was a married man, but had no family. Two women also lived there. One was a widow named Mrs Levey and the other they used to call "Big Jane." Where Mrs Stewart lives was built before my time, and was, I think, built by old Mr G. Bowman. I have heard old hands say he kept a pub there. I have heard also he did some blacksmithing there. I remember quite well the old roan horse he had, named Richmond. I have heard them say he was the first foal foaled in Richmond, and that he had turned 30 years when he died. Many a time I have seen him in the water truck fetching water from the lagoon. After the Bowmans left a doctor lived there, but I forget his name. Crossing over to the opposite side of the street there were no houses from the cemetery till we come to the brick place opposite Mrs Stewart's residence. I don't remember it getting built. In my earliest days a man named Tipping lived there. After him Jack Freeman, a blacksmith, came there to live. Jack McGinnity served his apprenticeship there with Freeman. After serving his apprenticeship he married Hannah White, whose father was a farmer, and lived there for a long while. Afterwards he bought a piece of land from Fred Thompson in March-street, about where Ald. Brownlow is now living. He built two places of four rooms and a verandah to each of them. He went up country. But coming back to the old place in Windsor-street, where MrGinnity lived. After he left, a man named Thomas Chapman lived there. He worked for Mr Joseph Onus. He went to Guntawong, and lived for a long time with the Rouses. He met his death while driving a waggon.
About where the A. J. S. Bank was first kept in Richmond (next door to the widow of the old Mr Joseph Onus) there was a weatherboard place of four rooms. The first I remember living in it were the Ashtons old Mrs Ashton, who is still alive, and who we now call "Granny Ashton," and her husband, Thomas. He dealt in poultry and fruit. The late Mrs James Bates, a young maid then, lived with them. Her maiden name was Ivery, and she was a sister of old Mr Thomas Ivery. The next I remember living there was a Mr Shepherd, a currier. Old Mr. Guest kept a butcher's shop in the old place. Charley Shepherd, a son of the currier, went round for orders. Mr Guest had the new place built and had the saddler's shop there. He also had the tanyard as well and they do not tan the leather today equal to what he turned out. A set of leading harness, &c, made by Mr. Guest out of his own tanned leather meant almost a lifetime's wear.
Edward Guest used to go round with the meat on horseback, in a basket. Henry Etherden also lived there and carried on the tannery.
About where Mrs Onus' place is there was the old pub which bore the sign of the "Welcome Inn." It was a low, long house with a long verandah to it. In the end room my daughter, Ellen, was christened. Old Mrs Kenny of all had a daughter christened there the same day on a Sunday morning. It was kept by Dan Harriskey. Paul Devlin also kept it for some time, and William Allen kept it also, I think he was the last to keep it. The erection of this old pub goes back before my recollection, and it appeared very old place when I first knew it.
Where John Allen now lives I don't remember getting built. My first know ledge of the place was Mr Ben Richards keeping a mutton butcher's shop, there. He married there and went to live in the corner house, a remnant of which has been made into the comfortable residence occupied by Mrs Alex Benson. Old Mr Kidd lived there many years ago. He was a sort of a butcher; the chief thing he made was sausages. He also went round killing pigs and such like for anyone who needed his services. He was the father of good old 'Ned,' who is not forgotten in Richmond at the present time. When the Frenchmen lived in old Mrs Cuff's place, I used to sell them green frogs, and out of them they used to make soup. They gave me fourpence a dozen for them. They also bought them off other boys. One day Mrs ? went into their shop they were keeping a store there then to buy something, and they were at dinner. They asked her if she would try some soup. She said she would. They gave her a cupful and after she had finished it they asked her how she liked it. She said it was a nice drop of soup. They then told her what it was, and whether she ventured on frog soup again I don't know. On St. Patrick's night and other festive occasions there used to be great dancing in the hotels in Windsor-street and other parts of the town in the olden times. Step-dancing, four-handed reels, etc., were the fashion, It was quite a common thing to see men and women dancing. The race between the late 'Abe' Eather and a horse, fifty or a hundred yards and back, took place in Windsor street, and we have several still in the flesh who remember the event. "Abe" won the race.

FRANCIS STREET.
We will commence this street from the Windsor end.
About where Mr J. G. Percival's factory is was an old slab place with a verandah, and bark roof. Old Thomas Kenny's father, Charles, lived in it and worked a farm on the lowlands. He would be grandfather to Charles Kenny, well-known to local residents. Old Charles Kenny, after leaving there, removed to Windsor-street, opposite to where the late Mr Joe. O'Sullivan lived. In the same place a man named Robert Smith lived for some time. He was a farmer. This old place I don't remember getting built. Where Mr John Madden lived the first I remember there was William South, who married a Miss Byrnes, and did farming.He was a brother to Ben South, and James South. The Rigneys lived there for a long while, and were farmers also. From there they went up country and took up selections. The building of this old house took place before my recollections. Where Mrs Ridge lives there was a cottage of several rooms before the present front was put on. This old place I remember getting built for old Mr Benson, father of William Benson, the elder, of Richmond. It was ready for him when he came out from Scotland with his wife and family. Alongside this place was a cottage of several rooms where old Mrs Fossett lived. She died there. I remember Mrs Fossett's husband, James very well. Also her previous husband, Byrnes. Byrnes was a short, stout man, and he, too, died there. He was a Presbyterian, and I remember him going to I church where 'Granny' Ashton lives. He was father of the late William South's wife. The next house in this street was the old place which stood on the ground where Mr Robert Marlin has his nice house. I don't remember this place getting built. It belonged to Mr Vincent, grandfather of Mr Neville, who lived in Paget street. In this place Frank Gow's father and mother lived some time. His mother died there. She was a Miss Kingswood, 'Ned' Thompson lived there at one time. 'Bandy'Smith, as they used to call him, lived there also and did some farming. Jim Douglas, a brother to ' Billy ' the bricklayer, lived there for some time and farmed. He afterwards went up country, and, I believe, did well.
Then we come to where "Abe" Eather lived for a number of years. This place I have no knowledge of getting put up. The first I knew living in it was old 'great grandfather' Martin. His wife died there. After he left Frank Simons (father of the late Frank, of Windsor) came there to live and went in for farming. Then the father of Mr Alex Matheson, J. P., lived there for some time. Like some of his predecessors he went in for farming. This place has been pulled down some time. The house where Mr Thomas Horan lives was erected before my time. The first I remember living in it were Paddy and Jimmy White, brothers. Both died there. Jimmy married a widow named Mrs Kelly, who owned a public house on the road between Windsor and Parramatta. It was a great house of call for teamsters. After leaving the house next to Mrs Ridge's William South went to live in this place. He was farming and carrying. He brought a large quantity of loading up for old Mr Ducker. I remember a man named Stubbs, a farmer, living there. Then we come to where Mr Joseph Onus lives up on the hill, 'The Cedars.' This was built when I knew it first. William Sharpe was the first man I remember living there and he was there for a long time. It belonged to William Onus, father of Mr Joseph Onus, now living in it.
When William Onus married Miss Annie Hough, sister to the late Peter Hough, of Agnes Banks, he went there to live. Good old Edward Robinson, also lived there for a while, and kept a boarding house. On the same side, down rear the lagoon, was a brick house of four rooms and a verandah with a kitchen at the back , where Jacob Inness lived. He was a farmer and had three sons, Jacob, Isaac and John, and one daughter, Betsy. I went to school with them. Betsy was a fine working girl, and I have heard them say she was a great reaper girls thought nothing of that work in those days and could do her half acre a day. Mr. Inness died there. After they left, the place went to ruin, and Mr Joseph Onus, senr., had it pulled down.
Another place was built and that, too, has been down a long time. We will take the opposite side of this street, and work from the Windsor end. There were no houses on this side till we come to the old brick place opposite to where Abe Eather lived. It was a big place with a verandah back and front, and a barn. It belonged to Robert Martin, Mrs William Price's father, who lived there. He sold the property to old Mr. Fossett. Mr Fossett had the barn built. He died there. I don't remember it getting built, Crawford Bedwell lived there for a number of years, and a large portion of his family were born there. Afterwards old Mr. and Mrs. Field lived there. Here old Mr Field died.
Then we come to the long weatherboard place on the corner, which was built before my time. The first I remember there was old Mr Peter McAlpin, father of the well-known William. He was a blacksmith, and carried on business there. He was a fine singer, and had a very strong voice, and I remember him singing at the Presbyterian services, which they held where 'Granny' Ashton lives. When Thomas Eather left the pub he went there to live. Mrs Eather was a daughter of Mr Peter McAlpin. Old Mr. McAlpin, the black smith, died there Mrs Thomas Eather died there also. We then had vacant land till we come to where Mr Henry Hughes lives. This must be a very old place, and was built before my time. The first I remember living there was Henry Hughes' father, the old schoolmaster, and his wife. Both Mr and Mrs Hughes died there. This house has always been occupied by the Hughes family. Where Mr Fred Powell had his milking yard there was a four-roomed weather-board cottage, with a verandah. It be- longed to Mr Joe Sharpe, who lived in it. This also I cannot remember getting put up. Mrs Faithful's coachman, Riley. lived there after he left 'Lakeville.' This place, has been pulled down many years. The next place is the skillion where Miss Thorley lives. This is a very old place. The first I remember living there was Jack Cafe, better known as Jack Tailby. He was a splitter and fencer. He married a sister to old William Timmins, and she died there. Miss Thorley has been living there a great number, of years.
Where Matthew Hughes lived there was an old weatherboard place with a verandah I don't remember getting built. When Matthew got married and went there to live they made alterations and additions to it. Here the good old Matthew lived all his life, and died. His wife died somewhere about Goulburn. She had a married daughter living up there, and went up for the good of her health.
The next place is the historic building, the old church and school. The portion down stairs was used as a church and the upstairs as a school. The first minister I heard preach there was the Rev. H. Stiles, and the first schoolmaster I remember was old Mr Hughes. The next schoolmaster was Mr Braham and then came Mr Griffiths. He was the first registrar of births, deaths and marriages in Richmond. I understand a daughter of his was keeping a boarding house at Manly a short time ago. Mr Braham was a little man, and I remember hearing people say he was the last of a family of twenty two.
While in this locality I am reminded of old *Mr George James when we used to go down to the lagoon for casks of water. He was fond of children, and when leaving home would bring out a basket of fruit to take with him. When he got to the school he would scramble them among the school children and delight in the sport.

CHAPEL STREET.
Commencing at the lowlands end of this street.
I can just remember the two-storey house on the corner belonging to the Onus' being finished. It was here old Joseph Onus went to live when he married Emma Powell, sister to Mr Henry Powell, and daughter of the late Edward Powell, His son, 'young' Joe, lived there also for a great number of years and died there. Coming along on the same side about half way between the house we have mentioned and Windsor-street there was an old weatherboard place of several rooms without a verandah. There were two doors in the front. One end of it was occupied by 'Jerry' Hill, a very tall Stout man. He had no family. He was a veterinary surgeon, and will be remembered by some of the very old hands. At the other end towards Windsor-street Tom Watson, 'Tom the Tinker' as he was called, lived. His sign was "T. Watson, tinman and brazier" lettered on a piece of tin. This old place has been pulled down many years, and I don't remember it getting built.
That is all the houses in this street at that time. On the opposite side was a paddock.
The house in which old Herbert Travis lived for so many years, and the places to be seen to-day, have all been built within my recollection.

BOSWORTH STREET.
At Cox's lane end the first house I remember was up before my time. The first person I knew there was James Griffiths. He was a shoemaker, and a brother to Mrs Parnell and Mrs Potts. He had three daughters and two sons. When he first came to Richmond he and the wife and family it wasn't quite as large then stayed with old Mr. and Mrs. George James for a week or two till they got a house. They went back to Launceston.
Mr Thomas Richards lived there for years and kept a butcher's shop. When he left there he went round into Windsor Street, and there ended his days. Old Mr William Heath lived there for many years, and carried on tailoring. He sent clothes to all parts of the district, and miles up country. He was a jolly old man and good company. He had been an old soldier, and learnt the tailoring while in the army. His training as a soldier stuck to him, and in his advanced years was a very nimble man, and could kick the top of a door frame quite easily and the hat off your head if you wished. He was a great admirer of game fowls, and an excellent hand at making 'heels,' and heeling the birds. Others have lived there also, but Charley Curtis crosses my mind at present as living there for a while. The old house was pulled down years ago. A few years ago a new cottage was
put up on the same block of land. When Mr Jim Shields and his sisters are living I don't remember getting put up. I remember Thomas Harris keeping a 'pub' there, but that is many, many years ago. Old Mr Potts kept a ' pub ' there also. After the 'pubs' a Jew, whose name I forget, kept a shop there. He was a very big man, jolly, and good company. Old Mr George Shields lived there pretty well a life time, Both Mr and Mrs Shields died there. The house is still in the possession of the family and occupied by the children already mentioned. I fancy old Mr Joseph Stafford kept a shop there, and dealt in poultry. Where the two skillions are next to Shields' old place was one block of land, on which stood a weatherboard place of four rooms, the two back rooms being skillion roof. This, like Shields' house, I don't remember getting put up. There was an old low paling fence in front. A man whom we always knew as ' Robison the carpenter ' lived there for some time. He and his wife died there, leaving no family. I have heard it said he was a good tradesman. This old place has been down many years. The two skillions standing there to-day I remember getting built. Harry Willis, a shoemaker, lived in the old house. He worked for old Mr Swinbourne.
We then come to where Mr Richard Allen lives and truly 'Dick' is a very long way over the three score and ten. Mrs Masters, my mother, stands first in my mind. I was taken down to see her one day, and told she was my mother, but I couldn't make out how it was possible to have two mothers. I had always known Mrs James as mother, and I was too young to know anything about being adopted at the age of fifteen months. This place is too old for me to recollect. Old Mr Allen has been living there a very fair lifetime and may he be spared many years yet. Old Mr Allen was a wheel wright, and I was going to be bound to him for seven years to learn the wheel wrighting, I was then fourteen years of age, and my term was to be till I was twenty one, The indentures was drawn up and ready to be signed when my foster father and mother jibbed on it. I went to school with Mrs Richard Allen, who was Miss Matilda Cornwell then.
The little skillion on the corner is a very old place long before my time. The first person I knew living in it was a man named Whalan, a basketmaker. He was a short man, and had a great habit of saying "How do ! How do !" to, himself as he went along. Little 'Bob the Hatter' lived in it. He was a very short, stout, jolly man, and made straw hats for sale. When walking up the street he would have his plait of straw with him and hard at it as he went along. Tom Watson, the tinker, removed from Chapel-street and lived in it for some time. Alex. McKay lived there for a number of years. He worked for Mr Thomas Richards for many years. He was a jolly old fellow, and a true-born Scotchman. In one of the skillions we have been speaking about in this block Thomas Young lived, but the exact one I cannot say. He was a quiet, harmless old man, and was thought a great deal of by Mrs W. H. Holborow, the Rev. Dr. Woolls and others. All were kind to Tom. Where Mr Charles Sly has been living for a number of years ; where the old skillion so many years occupied by 'Janey' Baldwin stands; where the old homes of Mr Houghton and his son Clem, and where the old home of good old 'Betty' Mortimer are to be seen, was all vacant land when I first knew it. It was at the old Houghton home that 'Clem' ran the livery stable for so many years.
We next have the old, low, house on the corner, opposite to the side 'Dick' Allen lives on, which was built before my time. When I first knew it it was a pub. kept by Thomas Mortimer. His wife died there. A man named Harris, or Owen, kept it as a 'pub' also.
John Markwell also kept a ' pub ' there for some time. While Markwell was there a very funny thing happened. A man who was famous for his non-shouting propensities was in there, sitting on the seat. Several jolly boys came in for a drink, and invited him to take one with them. The next one's turn came, and he, too, extended the invitation. And so it went the rounds of the boys, the invitation being given every time. They thought they would drag a shout out of the man by this method, but no. Some of them had been out back and knew a little about the black's language, and, as they knew their guest prided himself on knowing more about the blacks language than anyone else, they challenged him to a test. Their friend led off with some of the language and told them they did not know what he was saying. One of them said he was asking them would they have something to drink, and named their drinks and told Markwell to draw them.
The old man protested strongly that wasn't what he was saying, but it was no go. They were all of the same opinion that that was what he, said, and the wind up of it was the old man had to pay for drinks all round. Then a Douglas Hadkins kept a 'pub' there also. Douglas in years after drifted into Sydney. He invented an incubator, etc , for poultry raising and was, I believe, keeping a shop in that line in Bathurst-street. Old Mr. Joe. Stratford lived in this old place at one time. He kept a little shop, and still dealt in poultry.
His first wife died there. I remember the day Joe got married to his second wife. John Cashell also lived there for many years. The little building at the March-street end has been used by different people as a butcher's shop among them my old road mate William Sly.
Where Dr. Helsham lives is of comparatively recent date, and was built by the well-known contractor of Windsor, old Mr John Johnson, father of the late Mrs Edwin Pitt.
One more old place was only to be found in this street when I first knew it. It stood just below where. Mrs Alex Benson lives. The first I have any recollections of living in it was a man named George Smith. His wife was a servant to old Mr. Dan Harriskey, and Smith married her from there. Mr Isaac Cornwell owned it for a long time. Afterwards it came into the hands of Mr Henry Turner, and he used it as a bake-house for many years. I think Thomas Allen used it as a bake-house also. A man named Afflick lived in it for a while, in earliest history. Where old Mr. and Mrs. Buckton lived is an old place so also is the one next to it.
The other places on the opposite side cannot be included among our old building.

WEST MARKET STREET.
Commencing from Lennox-street the old house in which Mrs John Collins lived for some years was built before my time. The first people I remember living there were old Mr and Mrs Thomas Ashton. Mr Ashton was dealing in poultry then. Then old Mr and Mrs George Campling lived in this house for a long time. One of his daughters was a teacher, and well up in the profession. George Smith, the brickmaker, lived in it also. Mr and Mrs John Collins lived there for a long while, and on more than one occasion.
On the opposite side of the street, only facing into this street, was a very large weather board room with a single roof and no verandah to it. In this old place a single man whom I never knew by any other name than old 'Warley Camp' lived for a long time. He was a brickmaker and very deaf. This room was built on the property of old "Scotch John". It has been pulled down many years.
Where Mr Tom Chalmers lives I remember getting built, and the brickwork was the first done in Richmond by the late Caleb Crisford.
In this street there was only one more house standing in my earliest recollections. It was a skillion which stood about where Mr John Cashell is now living. It contained two main rooms, and a little room at the back, with a shingle roof, and no verandah. Thomas Hogsflesh lived there for some time. He was a blacksmith by trade, having served his apprenticeship to Jack Freeman, and had his shop there. He left Richmond, and I think he died at Rope's Creek. I often saw his widow there.
The Salvation Army barracks is not an old place by any means, and is now used by the Richmond Light Horse as an orderly room.
Where Mr Alf Sly lives is a more recent addition to the street, and a few more houses like it would make this street look up. I think it was on this allotment of land where Peter O'Hara had a weatherboard building where he kept a bit of a shop. One of his sons, Harry, kept a billiard room there, and finally, it was burnt down. The old house on the corner of March Street was mentioned when we spoke of March-street, but the blacksmith's shop adjoining Mr. Alf Sly's place faces into this street, and has been a busy little shop more than once. Mr. Fred Small has only left it a few months. Fred is a son of William Small, of Lennox-street, whose reputation as a blacksmith spread far and wide.
The house belonging to some of the Onus family, and rented by Mr Fitzsimons, has been up some time, but does not come in our list of old Richmond buildings.
Coming along the street we have the School of Arts, and when I first knew the ground on which it stands it was a portion of the pound paddock. I was at the laying of the foundation stone. The stone is at ihe corner of the building on the March-street side as you enter the main hall. It was laid by Mary Ann Bowman, who afterwards became the wife of the medical Dr Cameron. A sovereign was put under the stone, a copy of the daily paper was put under it also.
The Presbyterian Church I remember getting built. Mr Long had the contract for the woodwork. Later on Mr Sam Boughton was the contractor for the tower. While the work was in progress Mr. Tom Masters and I went round to have a look at it. Mr.Boughton was working about where the clock is, and a ladder was standing up almost as high as the ball on top. Tom was chaffing me about not being game to go up to the ball, and Sam happened to hear him at it, and remarked he had seen me as high as that in the trees out on the common after possums. To show I still had nerve left, up I went and placed my hand on the ball.
The Commercial Bank, which faces into Windsor-streets is a comparatively recent ornament to the town. So also is the police station.
Years ago old Mr William Stevenson kept a shop in a weatherboard place close to where Mr Les. Wheeler lives. He dealt in poultry as well. The houses on the same side as Mr Wheeler's have been up some years, but are not the oldest.
The opposite side of this street was much improved by the two new cottages built to the order of the late William Sullivan. The skillion next to these cottages is not a youngster, though I remember when it was vacant land. William Douglas has built himself a comfortable home close by. He is a great gardener, and what he grows on his small plot shows what can be done both in quantity and quality.
The Public School is in this street, and as I see the youngsters playing about in such numbers I think of the big difference there is now for a child to get an education and when I was a youngster. If they do not get a good schooling now it is the parents' fault.

EAST MARKET STREET
Commencing at the Lennox street end, we have the old place where "Granny" Ashton lives, which dates back before any time. When I first knew it there was only one room, and in it Mr.and Mrs. Johnson lived. This would be 'Bill' Johnson's father and mother, Afterwards they went to Londonderry 'Town's paddock' in those days where they lived for years. After they left it was done up for the Presbyterian Church, and services were held there for a long time. I have heard Dr. Lang, Dr. Fullerton, and the Rev. Mr Adam, of Windsor, preach there. The pulpit stood at the end of the room on Lennox-street side. As you went in at the door, on the left side along the wall, there was a long cedar seat with a back to it which was occupied by George Bowman and his family. William Bowman, his wife and daughter, Ann (who married a Mr. Caddell) went there to worship also.
On the opposite side of the room to the Bowman's seat was another long seat where William McAlpin and his father, Peter McAlpin, sat. On a front cross seat, facing the pulpit, sat Mrs. Field's father, John Henderson. He, too, like McAlpin, was a great singer, and his voice was always loud and clear during the singing. Mrs. Martin had a Sunday school there, and taught a few children.
The old weatherboard house which stood by the fig tree which grew in the paddock at the back of the Imperial Hotel I remember getting built. It was an old place, and has been pulled down many years. Among those who have lived there we have with us in Richmond to-day Messrs. Ernest Marlin and John Ashton. Mr. Sam Farley lived there also. Mrs. Elliott lived there for years, The good old lady went to her last resting place some few months ago. The railway station is in this street, but though built a goodly number of years looks different to my boyhood days. What is to be found in the way of buildings below the Royal Hotel is the outcome of later years.

PAGET STREET.
We will start in this street at the College end, and up to the corner of Lennox street there was only two houses when I was a boy. George James lived in one and Thomas Silk in the other. About where Mr John Cornwell now lives there stood a very large bushy apple tree, which were plentiful on the common then. On Sunday evenings people used to sit there in the hot weather. The blacks were about then, and had their camp not more than a hundred yards the other side. All about there then was a wild bush, but just about that spot it was principally gum trees.
About where Mr Dan Carter lives there, was a saw pit where they used to cut timber for the town. It was kept by a man named Robert Westmore. Before Westmore came here he worked at Cockle Bay, and here he was known as 'Cockle Bay Bobby.' His wife used to help him saw, and at work in the pit he acted as top sawyer, his wife underneath. To prevent the sawdust getting into her eyes she wore a veil.
Coming along towards the railway there was only the old white house standing. I have no recollection of this getting built. These were the only three houses facing into this street in those days.
The large hole in Paget street between where Thomas Richardson lived for years and the double house just mentioned, is the result of brickmaking. Many a kiln of bricks were made there by Jack Short. Speaking of Jack Short reminds me we had at that time living in Richmond Jack Short, Jack Long, Jack Large, Jack Small. Jack Short was short, Jack Long was short, Jack Large was a big man, Jack Small a big man also.

MOORAY STREET.
In my earliest days no houses. Later on Charley Roberts kept a butcher's shop between March-street and the railway line for many years-His first house was close to the butcher's shop, but some time after he built another house lower down and facing into March-street. His wife died in the latter house, so also did old Charley.
The few other houses in this street have been built long enough since I first knew it.
We have now been round the town, a street at a time, and dealt mainly with it in the very early days.
A casual jaunt around it in more recent years will not be out of place before we leave it.
Where James Moulds now lives (the last house in Lennox-street going towards the Blacktown road) Ned Kidd kept a blacksmith's shop alongside it for many years. His wife died there.
the corner house where Tom Richardson lived Mr Willliam Mitchell lived for some time. It was on this spot Mr. Mitchell laid the foundation of what afterwards developed into the famous coachbuiiding, horseshoeing, general smithing and implement making business. When he first came to Richmond he worked, I think, for William Price. He then started on this own account on the corner I have just mentioned. His wife's brother, named Ross, who was a clever man, used to do woodwork and painting. Mr Mitchell was by no means a man of money then, but he was a great tradesman and a very hard worker. It was nothing unusual for him to work all hours of the night, and he got along by degrees.
I have just alluded to Ned Kidd's blacksmith's shop in Lennox street, and at one end of the shop Fred Thomson had his wheelwright's shop and carried on his work for some time. William Heath, 'the old taiior,' as he was often called, lived in the skillion a little this side of Kidd's blacksmith's shop. Years after two brick rooms and a verandah were put on the front of the skillion, and Tom Kewen lived there for years. Tom was a fetler on the line, Heath lived there for years and did his tailoring. I think it was from here Dan Carter married a grand-daughter of Heath's. I often met his son John in after years while I was droving. The last time I saw him was at Gunnedah where he was keeping a pub. Before he started pub keeping I often camped at his place at Middle Island.
In the house on the corner where Mr Mitchell first started in business Mr Swinbourne, Mr Collins, and McCredie lived at different times. John Waldren, a blacksmith, lived in this corner house for a time also. When he left Richmond he went to Rouse's, at Guntawang. Tom Masters went up with him, having agreed with Mr George Rouse.- Tom was striking for Waldren up there. I shall never forget one little thing which happened to Mr Roland Ducker in this locality. He had been out to the 'three holes' to get their mare, "Busy," and could not catch her. He asked me to go and help him catch her, and we succeeded. Both of us mounted her bare back and came along alright till we got about where Mrs. Magick now lives-plenty of trees and stumps there at that time and I wanted to get off.
As I was getting off the mare started to buck and I fell off unhurt. Roland was thrown, and as he fell the mare kicked him on the forehead. He bled a good deal and was unconscious for about half an hour I called Eliza James and Mrs. Martin to come over, and with a jug of water they bathed him and brought him round. I have no doubt Mr Roland Ducker carries the scar today.
Close to the College avenue entrance stood the old pound. I remember Tom Pryke being poundkeeper there many years ago Harry Gunton kept it for a long time. He also kept the present pound many years.
Opposite to this old pound is the old house which has been there many years, but which I remember getting built. Mr Dean lived in it for a long time and had a tan yard. The old shed, which still stands, was built for Mr Dean, and in it many a score of hides I have seen hanging up to dry. George Dean, his son, was married from there. Both of his sons, Billy and George, were very venturesome boys with snakes. I have often seen them catch a snake by the tail and pull it out of a log and kill it. They would then cut the heads off and take the body home. These their mother boiled down for the oil, which was considered a cure for cer tain complaints in those days. Old Mrs Dean died in this old house. George was always a jolly chap and ready for a lark. He played a good one on Johnny Roberts one day. We had been out in the bush and had brought a good lump of a snake home, and after I left him he saw Roberts coming. He knew Roberts would have to go round Richardson's corner on his way home, so he laid the snake about a couple of yards round the corner across the footpath with the head part of the body in some rubbish against the fence. He called me over and told me what was in the wind. Roberts was coming along the Paget-street footpath so we waited and watched him turn the corner. He came on to the snake unexpectedly, and got a great fright. He pulled a rail out of the fence and started to settle the snake, when he found out it was dead. When he saw its head had been cut off no doubt he had his, suspicions as to who played the joke.
cannot pass this part of the town without mentioning a good old woman whom we knew as "Granny" Roberts. She was grandmother to Charley Roberts, of Clarendon, grandmother to the late Thomas Primrose, of Windsor, and several other well known and respected people in the district.
The house I am living in I remember getting built. About where my big gate is there was an old weatherboard place which was nearly down when I first recollect it. The bricks were made on the allotment by 'Tim, the brickmaker'. Mr William Sharpe, 'Daddy', as he was often called in after life, often told me he helped 'Tim' to make the bricks. The bricklayer was Henry White who lived in Silk's old bouse in Paget-street. He was a married man, but had no family. A man by the name of Clayton, a tailor, lived in Silks' house before White. The house was built for Mr Baines He previously lived in the Lodge at "Fairfield," Windsor. Baines died in this house, and Mrs Baines died there in June, 1867. Then their son, Johnny, lived there. Johnny, like his father, was a chair-maker, but didn't work much at it. It was the rush bottom chairs in those days.
If my old stable could only speak it could tell some very funny tales about the gaffing schools they carried on in it. It was here that ' Bricky ' Colley stayed with us, and not at the old pub, as I stated when speaking of my pub-keeping days. I shall never forget 'Bricky' giving me the tip about Sterling for the Metropolitan once. He told me, bar accidents, he was going to win. Sterling was a 10 to 1 chance, and I decided to go down and have 5 on him. But a day or two before the races I had to start up country, and as Tom Masters was keeping shop round the corner, I commissioned him with instructions what to do, as he intended going down. As I was going up country I met the mailman as asked if he had, heard what won the Metropolitan, and he told me Sterling. When I got up country there was a letter from home and I learned Tom had not gone to the races, so I was as far off as if 'Bricky' had never given me the tip.
Old Mr. and Mrs. Baines had two daughters and one son. Emma married William Crowley from here, and as tin kettling was all the fashion then they got a good one. Louisa married a Mr Wood, who was a brother to the late Mr John Wood, of the Grose River. Wood was a saddler and lived for years in Singleton. Mrs Baines was a dressmaker, and the present Mrs Henry Powell, senr., learned the art from her, Sam Freeman lived in Francis-street.
He could tell some stirring tales about the old rimes. I knew Sam very well and for many years. I remember when he was a boundary rider for Mr. A. Town for years at Bomera. He also worked at Lakeville for some time for Mr Town, who had the property rented. After leaving Bomera he came down over Bell's Line known as Maddocks' line then and got lost for two days. It was a cold "shop " to be lost in, and when Sam got out of it he was nearly done up. When he came to Richmond, after this adventure, he stayed with us for fully a month. Sam had seen a deal of the old convict days, and the treatment the men received. He was a jolly old fellow, and it didn't take much to start him going about the flogging days. And it was no secret about town how to start him, and when one felt inclined they only had to say to him, "Where is Dr. B -?" The answer he would give you was, "Dr. B- 's in hell." Then he would tell you about the brutal work, and the scant regard this doctor had for human life. Sam never forgot to tell you that Dr. B- would say, "Men's no object to me. If there's 50 killed to-day, I can get 50 more to-morrow". Sam was a brother to Tom and George Freeman, who kept a Public house in Windsor. The Town family thought a lot of Sam, and other families were good and kind to him, while the boys found him interesting and amusing.
In Richmond we had another Sam Freeman, but in no way related to this one. He was a carpenter, and lived for some time in the weatherboard house where Robinson, the carpenter, lived, which stood on the ground where the two skillions stand next to where Jim Shields and his sisters live in Bosworth-street. His sons William and Jack were blacksmiths. William left Richmond and secured property on the Comleroy Road, and was living there when I was at the punt. He kept a public house there. Billy sold the property to Michael McMahon, now ' Garryowen.' He then went out somewhere about the Cockfighter to live. While out there he had the promise of a great crop of wheat one year, but the grain got blighted. He mowed it and made it into hay and I have heard that this was the first time he found out the value of wheaten hay. He later came to live on what we call the Grose Farm which lies between the Grose and Nepean rivers, now occupied by Mr Donald Clemson. I hear his father, Edward, owns it. Billy left there and went to live in the old house by the river, on a farm belonging to Mr George Williams. There he lived till he accidentally met his death. He reared a large family. The boys were a fine big lot of men, and the girls were good styles.
Among the family I knew Bob, William, Joe, Tom. George, Wellington and Annie, who married Mr W. Maughan and still lives in Richmond. Charlotte was another of the girls, she married Mr John Devlin, who is still living at Agnes Banks. George is still at Riverstone meatworks and liked by all who know him. Bob and Tom are dead William, Joe and Wellington are still living at Agnes Banks, the latter occupying the same house as his late father and mother.
Then not long ago there died an ex Richmondite who took great interest in town matters when he was here David Cobcroft. He was for years an alderman in the Council, and the opposition side wished him out of it many a time. In those days party feeling in the Council was very strong, but the Onus side carried the sway. But for all that, Dave fought them, and, if he couldn't best them, often tormented them.
He lived in the two-storey house in March street which stands about half way between East and West Market streets. He was a good chemist and had his shop there. Before he took up chemistry he was in a bank. One time I was going up to Warrah and had a five pound note I wanted to change, so I went into a bank at Muswellbrook, and he was in charge of it. Before he came to live in the two storey house in March-street he lived in the old long house in Windsor-street which belonged to old Mr Long. He was married to a sister of William Benson, senr., who has been dead many years. The loss of two sons cut him up very much. One fine young fellow accidentally met his death at South Creek railway viaduct one encampment at Gosper's Groves. The other one died at home after a lingering illness. After Dave left Richmond he was in Sydney for years, and died somewhere in Forest Lodge.
R. B Hughes, "Bobby" Hughes as he was generally called, was a good chemist and as good as plenty of the doctors with some complaints. He often saved a poor person the expense of a doctor. I re member him coming to Richmond. At one time Richmond was lively on Saturday when German Charley, the doctor, used to visit it. He was a queer old sort in many ways, but could cure many things. He used to attend patients at my place, and I have seen as many as 18 vehicles in front from Penrith, Kurrajong, Pitt Town. Wilberforce and Freeman's Reach.
Old 'Bob' Eggleton, the wheelwright, who was buried quite recently, was reared up Kurrajong, and when a lad of about 14 started to serve his apprenticeship with William Small who had a wheelwright's shop on the property Mr Bowman Douglass owns and occupies.
Johnny Madden served his apprenticeship to the wheelwrighting to the same man and at the same time as Eggleton. Bob lived at one time in the old house in Lennox-street where I lived and saw the ghost. He was there for a long while. Later on he bought the ground opposite, the Roman Catholic Church at the Windsor end of Richmond. Here he built, and carried on business as a wheelwright and blacksmith for years. He was a good tradesman. Bob was a good sportsman a great pigeon shot, quail shooter, wild duck hunter and an ardent fisherman with both the rod and the net. The latter he could make and was considered a good hand at hanging them. He had an old gun and good one it was he kept for duck shooting which they called 'Long Sal.' He married a Miss Roberts who died some time back. They reared a family of fine big children. Among the boys I knew Jack, George, Bob, Ted ; and Kesiah, the girl. Jack was for years in charge of the Hawkesbury racecourse, and could do wheelwrighting as well. Bob was a great hand among horses. George is in the railway service.
I was at the punt when the railway was opened to Richmond. Among the station masters in Richmond I remember Mr. McKenzie, who is buried in the Church of England cemetery here. Mr Morris was here, but had to leave on account of ill-health. Mr Lackey was here for many years, and is now in charge of Burwood station, I think. The present station master's residence, at the corner of Bourke and March streets, was built for him. Then We had Mr. Gazzard for a while. Mr Stafford was a great bike rider, and used to take part in the bike races on the park, which were all the go here at that time. Then Mr. Chivers was here for years, and when he left took charge of Blacktown station where he is at present. Then came Mr. Cox, who stayed with us till he retired from the service, when he was given a hearty send-off by his fellow railway men only a month or two ago.
Tom Cavanough was here for some time and was head porter, and afterwards worked up to be stationmaster.
Among the men on the engines who have been in Richmond, a man named Frost was the first driver from Blacktown to Richmond, and lived in the old house in Lennox-street occupied by Tom Miles. Then there was old Mr Ritchie who spent many years among us and was well liked.
(To be continued).


Source:
Some Ups and Downs of an old Richmondite,
by Mr. Alfred Smith
Chronicled by Robert Farlow
Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954)
Saturday 12 February 1910
Saturday 19 March 1910
Saturday 26 March 1910
Saturday 16 April 1910
Saturday 23 April 1910
Transcription, janilye, 2012

Record Searching - before the Parish Registers

Lineages of anyone who lived more than eight centuries ago should be considered mythological until proven.
TRUST, BUT VERIFY.



If you are going back to the medieval times, think about this.
If each generation is on average 25 years
-then by the start of the parish registers in 1583
-you will be looking for 1,048,576 ancestors
-or over 274 billion by the time of the conquest. So from that we learn that by 1500, you are looking for more people than are living in Britain.

Going back to the conquests you are looking for many times todays world population. So how can this happen?
The answer of course is intermarriage. Cousins, however remote or close, married other cousins.


A simple fact of medieval life was, the rich survived better than the poor. Their living conditions were better, they ate better and they protected themselves better and aliances were forged by marrying their sons and daughters.
Not just gold, but land and women were the currencies of the day.

So as long as you can keep going back along your tree, it's very likely that you will eventually come across land owners, minor nobility and more.
--It's simple mathematics!
--It's nothing special!
--Most of us are descended from William the Conqueror
-------we just need to establish how.

1538 is the natural cut-off when parish registers first appeared.
Survival of registers is patchy for a century or more after this date, bare information in parish registers needs confirmation from other sources.
Supplementary evidence used in modern genealogy - wills, records of land ownership, monumental inscriptions etc. is also available in the medieval period.
The older the record, the poorer are its chances of survival

Who do we look for?

It's easier to trace the ancestry of the wealthy and prominent than the poor and insignificant.
Manorial records of tenancy contain poorer people too and a lot of research has already been done in this field much of the source material has been transcribed and published, often in English translation.
It is tempting to believe that published genealogical work is accurate, however, genealogy has had more than its fair share of shoddy research

Types of Medieval Records

Manorial Records
Wills
Heralds' Visitations
Inquisitions post mortem
Feet of Fines
Education records
Rolls
Published sources

Surnames

Hereditary surnames came in only gradually in the centuries following the Norman conquest
BEWARE of components of the name which look like surnames, but are not.
Indexes of printed records and historical texts are often arranged by forename

Handwriting and Language

English becomes a foreign language at some point in the 15th century
most documents are in Latin, and a few in French,in legal documents - the Latin is often highly abbreviated.
Handwriting in official medieval records is usually fairly carefully done (Victorian censuses can be harder to read!) dates from about the late 12th century until 1751 the civil, ecclesiastical and legal. The year began on 25 March.
In Anglo-Saxon and Norman times the year was generally started from the 25 December
Earlier still, the year sometimes began in September
In Sept 1752 Julian and Gregorian calendars came in, but this meant that for 170 years there was a week difference due to leap years!
anno domini system of numbering years was introduced in England by Bede in the eighth century.
From the late 12th century it became standard, instead, to date civil documents by the regnal year.
Regnal years can date from the coronation or the accession.
From the thirteenth century, documents often dated relative to a nearby saint's day, feast day or other religious festival.
Regnal Year converter

Manorial Records

The manor was the building block of feudal society
it embodied the government of the local community
administrative control over succession to land tenure within the manor.
Local court of law for routine offences
Genealogical information about ordinary people - rather than the upper classes - is likely to survive from medieval times
There's a very low survival rate of these records estimated at about 4%.
Known records can be found in the National Register of Archives
The language in medieval times is Latin, often heavily abbreviated
the form of the proceedings and the terminology are often very standardised
many manorial court records continue in Latin until the 18th century

Manorial Records - the Court Baron

dealt with the everyday business of the manor and met typically every 3 or 4 weeks business would include the reporting of tenants' deaths
the surrender of the land and the admission of the new tenant would be recorded, and the relationship between the two would normally be noted.
Payments for the marriages of the daughters of customary tenants
and records of the remarriage of widows
Tenants may appear as officials or jurors, they may be noted as absent (with or without leave), or they may be amerced for some minor offence

Manorial Records - the Court Leet

routine local matters (and even with capital offences in earlier times)
jurisdiction declined rapidly during the Tudor Period

Manorial Records - Surveys

Manorial Custumals, common in the 12th and 13th century, which records the tenants, their holdings and their obligations to the lord
the extent, a valuation of the manor, which seems to have been inspired in the 13th century by official surveys connected with inquisitions post mortem
rentals, lists of tenants and the rents payable, beginning in the 14th century, when it became common for the lord to rent out the demesne rather than working it himself

Wills
the will in a recognisably modern form did not evolve until the late 13th century. Wills and testaments merged in 1540
Wills only dealing with land did not require probate
Testaments dealt with personal property.
early wills often primarily concerned with burial and gifts to the church and fell under the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts
likely to survive as transcripts in a register, rather than as original documents
Before 1500, most written in Latin - or occasionally French
members of the family are named
to a greater extent than in modern wills, children may well have been previously provided for
often provided for the spiritual welfare of members of the family who were already dead. Parents may well be named, together with even more remote ancestors if one is very lucky.

Heralds' Visitations

collection of pedigrees of families with the right to bear arms
must be used with great care
dates are given only occasionally
may sound too good to be true and sadly, in many cases, it is not true
often more impressive than accurate
the shorter the pedigree entered at a visitation, the more reliable it is likely to be

Inquisitions post mortem

Also known as escheats Held for anyone holding land directly from the Monarch
Protecting the King's interests
Outlaws or sine prole land reverted to the Crown
Chester, Lancaster and Durham have their own records (Palatines)
Crown takes profits until age 21, then fine paid to assume title (Lords did the same to manorial tenants)
Documents often contain proof of age
Births tended to be relative to memorable events
Records run from 1235 until 1662
The index held at the PRO in Kew and copies were kept by family - often deposited at the CRO
They can be very difficult to read in the original form

Feet of Fines

Records from 1195 to 1834
Transfers of property for deforciant/ the seller to querent/the buyer
3 copies on same sheet - 1 for each party and the bottom copy (hence feet of fine) for the exchequer or palatine authority
These are useful as transfers are often between relatives
Descent of ownership or occupancy is often described
Indexes drawn up by local societies
Records are held at the The National Archives of UK Public Records

Education Records

Most useful are the Cambridge and Oxford lists of graduates
Gives parentage and the dates and ages at graduation and/or matriculation
Aberdeen University available from 1495
St Andrews available from 1413

Charters or Charter Rolls

1199 through 1517
documents recording grants, usually of land, but sometimes of other property or rights the medieval equivalent of what we now call deeds
Family relationships are often mentioned they may record a marriage gift to a daughter, or provision for a younger son.
Spouses and children appear, sometimes as witnesses to express their assent to the grant
many have ended up at the Public Record Office
a large number of charters have survived as transcripts.
more charters, many since lost, were later copied, in the 16th century and later, by heralds and antiquaries

Patent Rolls

Open or unsealed letters issued by Chancery Court
66 volumes covering 1216 to 1587
Chester and Lancaster have their own records
Wide range of subjects : grants, licences, wardships, land usage
Jail delivery and keeping the peace are also found

Curia Regis Rolls

These dealt with just about anything.
Plea rolls from 1273 - 1875 contain several pedigrees
Early rolls published by the Selden Society

Close Rolls

1205 - 1905 held at PRO
Deeds, wills, leases, changes of name
Particularly useful for deeds of sale
Calendarised to 1509 with full texts from 1227 - 1272

Fine Rolls

Including Henry111 1216-1262
Fine is a payment for privilege e.g. to enter land
Run from 1120 to the execution of Charles I
Calendars in 22 volumes up to 1509 which are preserved in the Public Records Office but may be read online Open Library

Pipe Rolls These really only contain sheriff's accounts but I have included them. These rolls were once kept in treasury along with the Domesday Book for the exchequer clerks. Now also housed at the Public Records Office



Published Sources
Making a Pedigree' by John Unett, SoG 1961
Burkes Peerage etc. (Family Tree Maker's 'Notable British Families 1600-1900' available on CD)
For Cheshire 'The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester' by George Ormerod on CD (fully indexed)
The Victoria County History series

The medieval village below is Cosmeston in South Wales.


3 comment(s), latest 2 years, 8 months ago

Reginald Victor EATHER 1873-1946

The eldest son of John William EATHER 1845-1915 and Harriet Clark 1849-1928.
Reg married Harriet Maria COUSINS 1882-1924 at Singleton on the 30 November 1910. Harriet was the daughter of Walter Young COUSINS 1856-1898 and Sarah Jemima nee MCFADDEN 1860-1885.
The children of this marriage were:-
Jack Cousins EATHER 1912 2002 Heather Jean EATHER 1913 2003
Kathleen Mollie EATHER 1915 1983 Wilga Elizabeth EATHER 1918
Ian Finlay EATHER 1921

None of the EATHER family had been fortunate enough to draw the homestead block of 'Henriendi' when land ballots had been held, but Reginald Victor, succeeded in coming to an arrangement with the man who had drawn it, and after the required residential requirements had been complied with, purchased it from him.
Reginald took his bride Harriet (known as Ettie) to live at 'Henriendi. She was 28, having been born at the Caledonian Hotel at Singleton on the 8 October 1882. She had ancestral roots in the English county of Wiltshire, where her paternal grandfather Walter COUSINS had been born at Heytesbury. Her uncle Alexander Munro COUSINS, was married to Reginald's cousin, Matilda Sarah, one of the daughters of his great uncle Charles EATHER 1827-1891.
Henriendi was their home for over forty years and where their children grew up.
Parts of the homestead had been modernised and there were additions, however the original kitchen remained for many years.
And what a marvellous kitchen it was. A very long room built entirely of cyprus pine with a very high ceiling which had white
calico tacked to the rafters which had been adzed flat. Every year just before Christmas the calico was replaced with fresh new calico.
On one side was a huge cast iron stove with two ovens on either side of the woodbox. In the corner was the copper for boiling the water and against the end wall were huge stone laundry tubs. In the winter the children would bathe in these tubs in front of the roaring fire. The walls were of upright logs split in halves with the flat sides on the inside. The scrubbed kitchen table seated at least a dozen. there was a huge pantry stocking all kinds of preserved fruits and vegetables. Big pottery jars of cauliflower pickles and tomato relish big bags of sugar and flour and other staples needed when living so far away from the nearest shop. The walk in fireplace had an iron bar across the top where the hams were smoked. Can just imagine the wonderful warm inviting aroma.

On the north west corner of the Henriendi homestead block was a small public school. In 1920 the Education Department realised that Reginald Eather could lawfully claim the school. They bought two acres of land from the stock route and set about moving the school building. Imagine the excitement of the children when a bullock team arrived to tow the school the ninety feet. They put round logs under the school and little by little they moved it without any trouble at all.

Much of this story has been taken from the book 'The Eather Family' Volune 5 for the Eather family History Committee by John St.Pierre.
Jack and Heather, Two of the children photographed below about 1915


3 comment(s), latest 3 years, 3 months ago

RICHMOND CORNWALLIS EATHER M.M M.C (1888-1966)

RICHMOND CORNWALLIS EATHER (1888-1966),

Soldier, station-owner and manager, was born on 18 January 1888 at Goodooga, New South Wales, son of John Rowland Eather 1843-1923, storekeeper, and his wife Hannah Ann Crothers 1858-1952, both native-born. He was educated at Goodooga Public School but left at 13 to work in local shearing sheds. In 1907 he moved to Richmond, Queensland, and later to Muttaburra and Hughenden, to manage properties owned by his uncles, Robert, Thomas and Henry Crothers.


Eather enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a private on 17 June 1915, embarked with reinforcements for the 15th Battalion in August and saw action at Gallipoli. In March 1916 he was transferred to the 47th Battalion which reached France in June and in August-September fought in the battles of Pozires and Mouquet Farm. Eather was awarded the Military Medal for personal bravery during this period. Promoted sergeant in September, he was posted to the 6th Officer Cadet Battalion at Oxford, England, and in March 1917 was commissioned second lieutenant in the 25th Battalion.


Early in June 1918 a series of minor counter-blows was made by British and Australian formations to relieve pressure on their French allies. On 10 June near Morlancourt the 25th took its objective in a twenty-minute assault. As the battalion's intelligence officer, Eather showed conspicuous gallantry by maintaining communications with the attacking companies after the signals officer had been wounded. He repeatedly passed through heavy enemy barrages to bring in the wounded as well as to maintain telephone lines to the forward companies, and for these actions was awarded the Military Cross.


In September the allied offensive against the Hindenburg line began, and on 3 October the 25th Battalion spearheaded its brigade's attack in a two-corps assault on the Beaurevoir line. Eather again showed great bravery and initiative for which he won a Bar to his Military Cross. The battalion attacked at 6 a.m. across three-quarters of a mile (1.2 km) of open country and, after hard fighting, captured its objective. Eather then went across to the right flank under heavy fire and returned with information that the neighbouring battalion was unable to move forward. The 25th immediately established a flank defence to protect against an enemy counter-attack. Eather then went further forward towards the enemy line and brought back valuable information for guiding the next phase of this crucial operation. He was transferred to the 26th Battalion later in the month.


On 13 March 1919 at Knockbreda, Antrim, Ireland, Eather married Mary Jane McFarlane Longmore, a British Army nurse who had won the Royal Red Cross. They returned to Australia in May and until 1927 managed a family property at Muttaburra. Eather then managed Sylvania station near Hughenden and eventually bought the partners out; in 1954 he sold Sylvania and retired to Warwick. He was a prominent citizen in the Hughenden, Richmond and Muttaburra districts and served several terms on the Flinders Shire Council. His main hobbies were horse-racing and exhibiting hacks and hunters in shows. Survived by his wife and two daughters, he died on 21 April 1966 at Warwick.

Darryl McIntyre wrote the above story.

In the photograph below taken on the occasion of their investiture at Buckingham Palace by King George V, Richmond is sitting on the table.


Roadside Inns of NSW 1830

The Australian Roadside Inn was a witness to a grand parade of history, characters and communities. The roads that passed their doors carried on its corrugated surface the future of the fledgling colony and the inns were encouraged by the Governors to assist the adventurous travelers. There were good inns and then there were just barley inns. The glow of the light in the distance was welcoming to the weary traveler and the warm fire in the parlor was eagerly looked forward to at each stop. Once inside, the cozy glow of the fire was a good setting for cheerful discussions with fellow travelers. Conversation was as varied as was on the state of intoxication were the travellers. It was a chance to catch up with the news from the regions and swap stories and titillate over tales of scandal.

A law was passed in 1825 that stated that every inn must provide accommodation for at least 2 persons and in 1830 another law came into being which required all innkeepers to burn a whale oil lamp outside the inn at night

In 1830 the first year that license fees were introduced and a fee of 25 pounds had to be paid to keep a Common Inn, Alehouse or victualling House, and to sell fermented and spirituous liquors in any quantity, The 25 pound license fee commenced on the first July and continued in force until the 30th June of the following year. In 1833 the fee went up to 30 pounds which was quite a large expense.

ROBERT EATHER 1795-1881

Robert EATHER The son of Thomas EATHER 1764-1827 and Elizabeth LEE 1771-1860, was born on the 29 April 1795 at Parramatta, New South Wales.
On the 24 August 1824 at St.Matthews Church of England, Windsor, Robert married Mary LYNCH the daughter of Dublin couple Thomas LYNCH 1769-1831 and Celia Catherine DALEY 1768-1826.

Thomas LYNCH, was born in Ireland in the parish of St Paul's, Dublin in February 1769.
He joined the 61st regiment of foot (South Gloucestershire) on 1 May 1790, and served in it until 5 February 1791. He then transferred to the 56th regiment of foot (West Essex) & served in it until 26 June 1794. He joined the New South Wales corps (102nd regiment) in London on 15 August 1796 & for 2 years helped overseer convicts in the hulks on the Thames.
On 6th August 1798 he sailed from London to Cork in the transport ship "Minerva".
The ship was delayed at Cork by the Irish Revolution and other causes and it took over six months to embark 191 prisoners. Of these, 78 were political prisoners.
The ship "Minerva" finally sailed from Cork on 24 August 1799 under the military command of William COX, the later builder of the road over the Blue Mountains.
On the ship "Minerva" Thomas met Celia Catherine DALEY who, born in Dublin in 1768 & convicted at the same place in May 1798 for an unknown offence, had been transported for seven years. The date of their marriage is not known although the settlers muster book of 1800 records that they were living together at that time. Their only surviving child, Mary, was born in 1802/03 but it is possible that an infant named Thomas LYNCH who died in 1801 was an older child. In the Indents Thomas is described as being 5'7" in height, of swarthy complexion, with grey eyes, dark brown hair and a long visage.

Celia died in 1826 age 58 years & was buried on 16 November 1826 with the rites of the Roman Catholic Church.
Private Lynch's total military service of 31 years and 27 days included 4 years and 56 days in the 61st Regiment, 13 years and 222 days in the 102nd. Regiment, and 13 years and 214 days in the Royal Veterans.

( His military career, by later confusion of ancestors, seems to be the origin of a common belief that Thomas Eather, the pioneer, was a soldier).

On discharge in 1827 Thomas Lynch was granted one hundred acres of land which he unsuccessfully endeavoured to select at the Hunter River. Taking up his residence with Robert and Mary Eather in George Street, Windsor, he made a further attempt to select his grant, this time at Kurrajong, but he was again frustrated and his death occurred before he could choose his land. The grant was finally secured by Robert Eather in the Field of Mars district (Ryde) and named "Eather's Retreat".

Robert Eather received his first grant of land from Governor Macquarie at Mittagong.

The stony, scrubby land of the southern highlands, then so remote from the settled districts and so unfamiliar to a Hawkesbury native, induced him to exchange it for a small herd of cattle which he took to a sixty acre farm which he leased at Cornwallis.

He was prospering for in one year, 1828-1829, his stock increased from 20 cattle and 6 horses to 100 cattle, 11 horses and 40 pigs.

Shortly afterwards he spent a brief period in Tasmania, presumably in company with Jonathan Griffiths, an old family friend who had come out to New South Wales at the same time as Robert's father and who was by that period engaged in some very important pioneering work in Launceston.

Before the Tasmanian interlude, he moved with his wife and six children in 1829 onto the Cornwallis farm where he had constructed a comfortable dwelling.

Ten years later he was living at Richmond, having obtained a six years lease of the farm of Jonathon Griffiths from the beginning of 1836 and taking as wards three of Griffith's orphaned grandchildren as part of the arrangement.

He was also interested in land in the north, across the forbidding mountain ranges which his brother, Thomas EATHER, had been one of the first to penetrate and tame.

He used land between the Bulga Road and the Colo River; he leased an area near Howe's Valley a little later, and was lessee at various times of a number of runs in the far north west of New South Wales.

The children of Robert EATHER and Mary, nee LYNCH were:-

1. Thomas EATHER 1820 1874 m. Susannah MERRICK 1812-1894 on the 26 August 1844, St.Matthews Catholic, Windsor.

2. James Joseph EATHER 1821 1906 m. Bridget Harriet HONAN 1833-1886 at St.Matthews Catholic Church, Windsor.

3. Elizabeth EATHER 1822 1874 m. Thomas GRIFFITHS 1820-1856 on 3 Feb. 1840 at St.Matthews Presbyterian Church, Windsor

4. Robert Vincent EATHER 1824 1879 m. Ann CORNWELL 1831-1889 on 29 May 1847 at Richmond, NSW.

5. Cecilia Teresa EATHER 1826 1913 m. Michel Thomas DESPOINTES 1815-1865 at St.Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, on 14 Sept. 1848

6. Abraham Joseph EATHER 1828 1906 m. (1) Margaret MCELLIGOTT 1830-1856 at St.Matthews Catholic church Windsor,17 June 1851 (2) Ellen FARRELL 1842-1928 on 16 September 1863 at Windsor.

7. Mary EATHER 18301902 m. (1)Mathias GRIFFITHS 1823-1863 at St.Matthews Catholic church Windsor, in 1850 and (2) Thomas COOPER 1823-1902 at St.Matthews in 1865.

8. Charlotte Cecilia EATHER 1835 1862 m. Michael Benedict HEFFERNAN 1835-1877 at St.Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Sydney in 1858

9. Rachel Teresa EATHER 1836 1912 m. William John KING 1829-1905 at St.Matthews Catholic church Windsor, on 18 June 1855.

10. William EATHER 1839 1842

11. John Joseph EATHER 1841 1842

12. Sarah Mary EATHER 1843 1921 m. James EATHER 1838-1935 on the 16 September 1863. James was 1st cousin, son of James EATHER 1811-1899 and Mary Ann HAND 1815-1894

Mary EATHER nee LYNCH died on the 9 June 1853 at North Richmond. She was buried the next day at the Windsor Catholic Cemetery.

Then on 6 December 1856 at St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in Parramatta, Robert Eather married Elizabeth BROWN, the widow of one Mark BROWN and the mother of three children.
She had been born in Dublin in 1801, the daughter of Martin CREAGH and Mary O'ROURKE, and came to Australia as a convict on the ship 'Hooghly' which reached Port Jackson on 27 September 1831. She had been tried at Limerick on 13 March 1831 and the indents describe her as being 5' 2" in height with hazel eyes and brown hair and having a sallow, freckled appearance.
By occupation she was a 'dress maker and house keeper' and her crime was stealing money from her master.
On arrival she was assigned to James COX at Parramatta and, at the time of her marriage to Robert, she was managing four boarding houses in York Street, Sydney behind the present B.B.C. Hardware (formerly Nock and Kirbys). Robert appears to have assisted her in this occupation for some time during the 1850's and in 1858/1859 is listed as the manager of a boarding house at 98-104, York Street, on the east side, two doors from Market Street.
Elizabeth died at North Richmond on the 22 April 1873 and is buried at Windsor Cemetery.

janilye 2009


Robert Glasscock 1766-1854

Robert GLASSCOCK was baptised at St Mary and St Clement Church, in Clavering, Essex on the 29 January 1766. The son of Henry GLASSCOCK 1733-1796 and Elizabeth FREEMAN.

On the 4 October 1793 at Wicken Bonhunt in Essex, Robert GLASSCOCK married Elizabeth NOTTAGE daughter of John and Frances NOTTAGE born on the 25 September 1774 in Wicken Bonhunt.

Robert GLASSCOCK died on the 10 January 1854 and Elizabeth followed on the 24 June that year. Both are buried at St Mary and St Clement Church Cemetery in Clavering, Essex.

The children of this marriage were:-

1. James Glasscock b:1794 in Clavering Essex

2. Elizabeth Glasscock b:20 March 1795 in Clavering d:9 May 1834 in Essex. m. Widower, William HOCKLEY 1792-1873 in 1823. William went on to marry twice more and died in Canada.

3. Frances Glasscock b: 8 May 1796 in Clavering Essex.

4. Ellen Glasscock b: 10 February 1799 Clavering d: 15 July 1879

5. Robert Glasscock 10 October 1801 Clavering, Essex

6. John Glasscock b: 30 August 1803 Clavering. m. Ann HOCKLEY 1804-1874 at St Mary the Virgin, Arkesden, Essex on the 23 May 1829.

7. Henry Glasscock b: 19 May 1806 Clavering. d:11 May 1807 Clavering

8. Mary Glasscock 1816, Clavering

9. Martha Glasscock b:1818 Clavering d: 23 November 1860, Clavering

10.Sarah Glasscock b:1821 Clavering, Essex

Sources1841 England census
Name Age
Robert Glasscock 70
Elizabeth Glasscock 60
Mary Glasscock 25
Sarah Glasscock 20
Charles Hockley 9

1851 England Census
England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index: 1837-1915
Whites Directory of Essex Clavering