janilye on Family Tree Circles
Journals and Posts
Peter CLARK one of 12 children and second son of William CLARK 1811-1879 and Catherine MCALPIN 1814-1893 : In 1863 Peter, who was over 6' tall & age 25 years was engaged to Susannah CLARK 1838-1910 daughter of James Swales Clark. of Bulga (Susanna later married William Thomas SQUIRE on 7 April 1875).
After attending a wedding feast of friends, which lasted 3 days, he set out for "Guie" and "Doondi" two of his Uncle Wellow's (Wellow BALDWIN) stations. He was shot in the neck by the Bushranger WILSON on Warlands Range, Blandford near Murrurundi. The news of his death was wired to Paddy CULLEN of the Fitzroy Hotel in Singleton, who rode out to tell Peter's parents as well as his fiancée, who hurriedly got ready & went to Muswellbrook where Peter was subsequently buried.in Muswellbrook Cemetery where an elaborate sandstone monument stands over his tomb.
within days of Clark's death, A public subscription raised enough money to create one of the Hunter's most unusual memorials.
A stonemason erected the impressive Warland Range memorial which today still stands a few metres from where Clark fell, mortally wounded, 148 years ago.
The isolated monument, restored in the 1920s, is no longer on the main road. It can be reached by crossing the railway line at Blandford and following a signposted if rough road
There are many, many accounts published of the death of Peter Clark. This one, told by the decendants of Ashton CLARK 1844-1925:-
"On the 9th April 1863 a party of young men & a boy camped at Captains Lagoon near the foot of Warlands Range. They were all residents of Bulga, & were now engaged on a droving trip, going from Bulga to the Gwee station owned by Mr. Baldwin on the Balonne River near the Queensland border, to take charge of 2 mob of cattle. The party consisted of 2 brothers James & Ashton CLARK, Peter CLARK & Samuel PARTRIDGE. James Clark was 23 years of age, Ashton was 19, Peter was nearly 26 & Samuel was 17 & was a drovers boy for Peter Clark. Peter was no relation to James & Ashton, though at the time he was engaged to be married to a sister of the Clark brothers & was an intimate friend. All 4 were accustomed to the roads from childhood & bore unblemished characters. Until the 9th April the journey had passed without incident worth recording. The travelling had been pleasant & the party were full of good will to each other & the world in general. On the morning of the fatal day, the journey was resumed as usual, & a few miles on the party were joined by a man named John Conroy who was riding to Breeza & was travelling the same road. When near the site of the monument, up the long slope of the hill in the direction of Murrurundi, perhaps a quarter of a mile away, they saw 2 men galloping towards them. Both were mounted on good horses & to all appearances it seemed as though a race was in progress. one of the riders appeared to be a black. One of the number called out "Oh look at the race look at the race". All of them sat on their horses & enjoyed the sport. Another called out as the riders drew nearer "I'll back the blackfellow". In a few moments the situation was taken in at a glance. What to them appeared to be harmless sport was nothing else than a life & death ride between a bushranger with a revolver in his hand & a young man who preferred to ride for it rather than tamely obey the summons to "Bail up" & hand over to a bush blackguard even at the point of a pistol. The bushranger wore black crepe over his face, hence the mistaken identity, when the facts of the case were made known it transpired the pursued man was a young GORDON, the son of Doctor GORDON of Murrurundi, the bushranger gave his name as Wilson, but was believed on good authority to be MCMANUS. As they passed the party, the bushranger pulled up & young Gordon rode on. The bushranger rode slowly back toward them, Samuel PARTRIDGE imitated the example of Gordon & rode for it. Instead of keeping to the road he turned into the bush to escape & raise the alarm. The bushranger immediately gave chase & opened fire. Partridge said he heard the bullet whistle close past him. He galloped straight for a steep gully & the horse jumped it safely. Later it was measured & found to be 14 feet wide. After firing at Partridge & seeing he had small chance of overtaking him, he rode back to the remainder of the party. Seeing him fire & knowing he was a desperate man & riding towards them, they quietly dismounted, CONROY & James CLARK who was leading the packhorse, were a short distance in the rear. The bushranger jumped off his horse, threw the reins down & with the revolver in his hand walked up to Peter Clark & roughly ordered him to hand over. Peter delayed as long as possible as he saw James Clark quietly closing in on the bushranger from behind. He was wearing a big silver watch with a long chain around his neck, as was the fashion of the times. "Hand over that watch & be quick about it" Wilson said offensively. Peter slowly unwound the chain from his neck & held both the watch & chain in his left hand. "Hurry up there said Wilson" aggressive as before. Ashton Clark was standing a few yards away in full view of both men. he saw his brother about a rod behind the bushranger, & he saw the deadly gleam in Peter's eye, and the grim set countenance seem to denote a man who had made up his mind & counted the cost, whatever it might be. he shuddered for instinctively he felt a tragedy impending & the chances were against Peter. If only his brother could get up first. However brave a man might be, the chances were in favour of the man who was armed. He looked at the big powerful revolver in the bushrangers hand & knew he would shoot without hesitation if the necessity arose, for no one knew better than the robber what capture meant to him. Ashton Clark looked at his friend & in his heart said "God help him". The Bushranger also seemed to feel the strength of the man he was up against. With very bad grace, Peter held the watch & chain out to him with his left hand. For several seconds the robber hesitated to take it. Then he held out his hand to take it & Peter sprang at him. Just as quickly Wilson sprang straight back & fired point blank. The bullet passed through Peter's throat and out his neck to one side. Instantly he fired again, the bullet this time passed through the heart. No Sooner was the second shot fired that James Clark was on the bushranger from behind & seized him by the left arm. Instantly the bushranger turned the revolver over his left shoulder & fired at James. With wonderful presence of mind, James had thrown the bushrangers own arm before the muzzle & the bullet passed through the fleshy part of the thumb & out near the wrist. Then began a life & death struggle as Clark closed on him. James Clark was a trained wrestler & his skill stood him in good stead. The bushranger was thrown & in falling, his head struck the hard road. This in all probability, dazed him for a moment. Conroy rushed forward & secured the revolver, throwing it away. James Clark then quickly overpowered him & called on his brother to bring the saddle straps. Between the 3 of them they bound him securely & left him lying on the side of the road in the water table. From the time the 2nd shot was fired, Peter sank quietly to the ground & died without speaking a word & without a struggle. He died like a very tired man sinking into heavy sleep. Ashton ran to him & placed his head on his knee. He called out "Oh Jimmy he's dying! he's dying!" But his brother at that moment was at death grips with the murderer. In perhaps a minute from the time the shots were fired, the murderer was lying on the road securely bound with his victim lying in his blood a few paces away, quite dead. It was only now that the actors in the grim tragedy began to realise the full horror of the situation. It was a beautiful autumn day between 9 & 10 o'clock in the morning. What bitter irony, the bright sunshine, the soft air of the morning, & the unbroken calm of the hills seemed to those horror stricken men. Even though the murderer was bound, their friend was dead, and to them the whole world was desolate. How the passing of one soul can often change the course of many lives. Both men took grave risks in attempting to capture a man so desperate, whom they saw only a few minutes before attempt to shoot down an unarmed boy. Both were equally brave & in the strength of their manhood , and now one was taken & the other left. With the report of the revolver, the strong arm had fallen, the strength of manhood departed, and between then now rolled the great ocean of eternity. Soon they were brought back to the grim reality of the situation by the foul curses of the wounded wretch lying on the side of the road. James Clark, calm & collected, picked up the revolver & turned to the murderer "Now" he said sternly "You have shot one man & tried to shoot 2 others. There is still one shot left & that is for you if I hear another word out of you" . The threat had the desired effect. reverently they laid their dead friend on their blankets , covered his face, and left him lying almost where he fell. Soon the bushranger began to lament his fate & begged his captors to loosen the straps that secured him. "No" said James firmly, "I am going to take no risks with you. When the police come they can please themselves what they do with you". " I didn't think this was going to happen when I rode out this morning" said WILSON. "If you didn't think it was going to happen why did you bring this thing along with you?" said James quietly holding out the revolver. There was no answer. After safely jumping the gully, & feeling pursuit was at an end, Partridge turned onto the main road a short distance on & fell in with some men with a horse & dray repairing the road. He told them what had happened & they in turn informed him that a trooper had ridden past them only a short while before towards Murrurundi. Partridge galloped on & overtook the trooper about a couple of miles further on. Quickly he told his tale. "Boy" said the trooper as he looked to his revolver. "Ride for your life to the police station at Murrurundi & I will go back". He was a brave resolute man, worthy of the highest traditions of the force he honoured. Without a moments hesitation he galloped back to the scene of the encounter. Dismounting & putting back the revolver in the holster, he grimly surveyed the scene. "Well done boys" he said. Those simple words of recognition conveyed all that was necessary from a brave man to brave men & spoke volumes. Unbuckling the handcuffs from his belt, he remarked to the murderer as the steel snapped on his wrists, " A bloody morning's work you have made of it." He then commissioned one of the men who had been working on the road to bring the horse & dray. Meanwhile Partridge galloped to the Murrurundi police station, only a few miles away & delivered his message. 3 troopers with their horses saddled were just ready to ride off on patrol Instantly they were on the road with partridge & in less than an hour were also on the scene. One can better imagine than describe the feelings of Samuel Partridge as he rode up to his mates. Ages seem to have rolled by since he left them not more than 2 hours before. There was all that was mortal of the man who had been as loving, gentle & considerate as a father to him , lying in the stillness of death. henceforth his name was to be only a softened & tender memory. Truly the boy could say "Every remembrance of thee I cherish". With a breaking heart he turned away. Almost 80 years have passed over his head & still the memories of that dead friend is soft & tender. Gently the police laid the corpse in the dray & seated the murderer beside it & set off for Murrurundi. Almost all the way, the bushranger lamented his fate & the pain of his wound. Small pity was bestowed on him by the enraged public as the news spread. Deep & bitter was the sorrow for the death of CLARK & bitter was the hatred for the murderer, who was taken to the police station & confined in the cells. The corpse was taken to Whiteman's Hotel at Murrurundi & laid on a table. An Inquest was held the same day & a verdict of wilful murder returned against Wilson. As the Doctor was removing the clothes from the body of CLARK, the bullet that had inflicted the fatal wound was found among them. It had pierced the heart, passed clean through the body, & was spent. The weapon used was a big powerful muzzle loading 5 chambered trauter revolver, & was one of the best of it's day. Under any circumstances, it was a truly formidable weapon. It was so constructed that the hammer was raised by drawing back a spur that projected through the trigger guard by the 2nd finger of the hand that grasped it. By simultaneously drawing back the spur with the 2nd finger & pressing the trigger with the index finger, the weapon could be discharged with the speed of a modern double action revolver. Hence the speed with which the 2 shots were fired. In all probability, had the bushranger been armed with a single action revolver & have been forced to cock it with his thumb, Peter Clark could have closed with him before the 2nd shot was fired. After the inquest at Murrurundi, the corpse was removed to Eaton's Hotel at Muswellbrook to a wait burial. Mrs Eaton being some connection of Peter Clark's family. While there it was visited by a great number of Friends & sympathisers, some coming long distances to pay their respects to his memory".
* Patrick(Paddy)CULLEN 1822-1893 son of Patrick CULLEN 1770-1822 and Elizabeth MCNAMARA 1783-1860 both from Ireland, they married in Sydney on 20 September 1811. Paddy was one of eight children, he was born at Windsor,NSW he married Caroline Hopkins HORNE 1827-1824 at Singleton 10 July 1847 the daughter of Samuel Horne 1798-1868 the chief constable of Patricks Plain and Elizabeth Evans 1804-1841
** Samuel Partridge 1850-1928 married Jane Charlotte EATHER 1851-1907 the daughter of Thomas EATHER 1824-1909 and Eliza nee CROWLEY 1822-1897
Ashton CLARK married Sarah Elizabeth EATHER 1861-1923
James Clark 1840-1911 married Mary DAWES 1848-1936
*** The fate of Harry WILSON:- From Murrurundi he was brought to the gaol at East Maitland to await trial. A few months later he was brought to trial, a miserable, wretched broken looking man. He was found guilty of murder by a jury within ten minutes, condemned to death & was executed at the East Maitland goal on October 4th 1863.When searched he also had in his possession a gold watch which was taken from a man during the hold-up of a coach a few weeks before he was captured. It was believed that Harry Wilson was an alias and he looked to be much older than 25, however, no matter his name or his age he hanged for his crime.
Wilson's second claim to fame? According to author Greg Powell, secretary of Hunter Bushrangers, Australia's longest running re-enactment group, Wilson holds the dubious honour of being among the first to be hanged on the new private gallows inside old East Maitland Gaol.
****In recognition of their bravery in capturing the bushranger, James Clark & Conroy were each awarded 50 pounds by the NSW Government.
Below a photograph of Peter Clark's memorial on Warlands Range
Peter EATHER, my 2nd great grand uncle, the fifth child and third son of Thomas EATHER 1800-1886 and Sarah nee McALPIN, was born at Richmond on 19 February 1831. He grew up there and at the age of 22 married his first cousin, Charlotte Eather WILLIAMS 1834-1918. The wedding, which was by licence, was held in St Peter's Church at Richmond with the Reverend John ELDER officiating. Witnesses who signed the marriage register were Sarah EATHER, who was probably Peter's younger sister, and Thomas WILLIAMS, who was one of Charlotte's brothers. Charlotte's parents were Robert WILLIAMS 1795-1839 and Charlotte EATHER 1797-1862, the daughter of Thomas EATHER formerly HEATHER 1764-1827 and Elizabeth LEE 1771-1860.
She had been only five years old when her father died and her home had been at Agnes Bank, just a few miles out of Richmond so she and Peter had known each other since childhood
Peter and Charlotte didn't stay at Richmond for long after their wedding. Within eighteen months they had made the long journey to the Liverpool Plains and had taken up residence on "Henriendi", the run that Peter's father had established twenty years previously on the Namoi River. There Peter found employment attending to stock work on the run or droving cattle down to the markets. In January 1855 their first child was born and when the baby was christened a little later in the year, their address was stated as "Namoi River", and Peter's occupation as being a drover. This child, was a daughter, Matilda Jane, who was the first grandchild of Thomas and Sarah EATHER to have been born at "Henriendi". Sadly, Matilda Jane died at the age of ten months. When Peter and Charlotte's second child was baptised in 1856 their address was "Namoi River" and Peter was a squatter. Four years later, when their third child was baptised, their address was "Boggabri" and Peter was once more a drover. Whether they were residing then on the "Boggabri" run, or whether Boggabri was becoming a general name for the district we do not know. By 1860 Peter and Charlotte had been joined at "Henriendi' by Peter's younger brother William, who had brought his wife Ann and young children to live there. In 1861 the run was given by their father to their brother Charles, and by 1863 he and his wife and children had also taken up residence there. Between 1862 and 1877 another seven children were born to Peter and Charlotte and all were born at "Henriendi". Peter and Charlotte experienced further sadness in 1881 when their ninth child, Ida May, who was nearly five, was taken ill. She was conveyed to the town of Boggabri, and was attended by Dr BARACLOUGH, but she died on 25 January 1881 from a ruptured blood vessel. Bad seasons and droughts in the late 1860's were followed by financial problems for Peter's brother Charles and in 1871 he became bankrupt. His eldest son took charge of "Henriendi" and within a few years the control of the station had passed out of the hands of family members. Peter EATHER was relatively little affected by these events. When he wasn't working on "Henriendi" he was working elsewhere in the district. It seems that he spent a good deal of his working life droving and he often described his occupation as "drover". In 1870/1871 he was working at "Glen Quinn", a property owned by Patrick QUINN who disposed of it in 1871. In 1878/1879 his address was "Henriendi" and at that time he was also working on "Gukenddaddy", a run owned by John Kerr CLARK, who had taken over "Henriendi" in 1876. The year 1876 saw the first wedding of Peter and Charlotte's children. Twenty year-old Clara Amy married twenty-three year-old Thomas Henry FULMER. The first two grandchildren of Peter and Charlotte were born during the next few years. On 22 February 1881, the second family wedding was held. Twenty year old daughter Angelina Sophia was married to Arthur Halmney MILNER from nearby Turrawan, in a ceremony conducted according to the rites of the Wesleyan Church by the Reverend William WESTON. On this occasion Peter's occupation was recorded as "drover". Three witnesses signed the marriage certificate. They were Joseph COLE, Peter EATHER (who made his mark - a cross), and Sarah Charlotte EATHER, the younger sister of bride. By the time that the station was resumed and sub-divided in 1898, Peter and Charlotte had been on the Liverpool Plains for over forty years and their children were all adults and they themselves of retirement age. As a result of the sub-division and the resulting ballot for allotments, one of their sons, Peter McALPIN, was fortunate enough to draw Block 104, an area of 320 acres with a river frontage. Peter and Charlotte lived for over fifty years on the Liverpool Plains, and their residence for most of that time was on "Henriendi". They were residing there in 1903 when they celebrated their golden wedding. By then Peter was describing himself as a labourer. By 1911 Peter EATHER was in his eighty-first year and health was failing. He died in Merton Street, Boggabri, on 1 December 1911. Dr L H BEAMAN, who attended him that day, gave as cause of his death, an intestinal obstruction caused by a carcinoma. He was survived by Charlotte and six of their children, who ranged in ages from 55 to 34. There were more than twenty grandchildren, most of whom were already adults. A large crowd of relatives and friends attended his funeral on 3 December 1911, when he was laid to rest in the General Cemetery at Boggabri. His son, Peter McALPIN provided the information for his death certificate, and his son-in-law A MILNER signed it as a witness. In 1915 Charlotte was still residing at "Henriendi" and her sons were scattered around the district. Most of them were farming. Charlotte lived to see the end of World War 1. She died, age 84 years, on 23 December 1918 and was buried beside her late husband in the Boggabri General Cemetery. Their grave with its inscribed headstone can be seen there today.
The children of Peter EATHER and Charlotte Eather WILLIAMS were:-
Matilda Jane EATHER 1855 1855
Clara Amy EATHER 1856 1933 m. Thomas Henry FULMER 1853-1891
Angelina Sophia EATHER 1860 1911 m. Arthur Halmney MILNER 1853-1931
Sarah Charlotte EATHER 1862 1939 m. George Henry STANFORD 1866-1954
George Milton EATHER 1864 1945 m. Mary Agnes STANFORD 1868-1942
Charles EATHER 1867 1868
Peter McAlpin EATHER 1869 1940 m. Ellen Maude Shephard 1891-1961
John Henry EATHER 1872 1943
Ida May EATHER 1875 1881
Florence Ada EATHER 1877 1966 m. Robert Adam PROUDFOOT 1873-1923
Below is a photograph of Charlotte with one of her grandchildren
Charlotte had an inheritance under the terms of her father's will. It was in two parts. She inherited 50 head of horned cattle "for her own absolute use upon her attaining the age of twenty-one or day of marriage". Upon reaching the age of twenty-one she was also to receive a share of the proceeds of interest and dividends on investments in bank shares in her father's estate, less the sum expended upon her maintenance and education during her minority. As she had married under the age of twenty-one, she was entitled to the 50 head of cattle.
It was thirteen years since her father's death, and the cattle in the large herd running then on the WILLIAMS family station "Boggabri" would have long since been sold or died. Presumably she was allocated fifty head from the herd running on the station at the time of her marriage.
My 3rd Great Grandfather was Peter HOUGH, born in Paris, France 1776 and died in Richmond, New South Wales on the 17 March 1833. He was buried at St Peter's Church of England Cemetery Richmond, on the 19 March 1833.
Peter Hough was indicted for burglary, 16th September 1795 and tried at the Old Bailey For steeling money and silver from St.Paul's Coffee Shop in London. For this charge he was found Not Guilty
On the 17 February 1797 Peter Hough was again before the courts. This time in Middlesex and charged with Petty Larceny. He was charged with "that on 8 February 1797 with force and arms that he did steal one Red Morocco Pocket Book of the value of 10 pence from James Daniell. Found guilty and committed to Newgate Prison until the sentence of 7 years Transportation could be carried out. Between 12 October 1797 and 31 December 1797 at Woolwich; England, Peter Hough was imprisoned on board the hulk Prudentia. On 2 January 1798 at Woolwich it was noted he had been ill but was recovering from venereal disease.
Peter HOUGH was named on the Hillsborough ships list as Peter HUFF sailed to New South Wales on the Hillsborough taking 218 days. The captain was William Hingston. She left England on 23 November 1798 and arrived in Sydney Cove on 26 July 1799. As well as convicts, free settlers were also also onboard. 95 died on the voyage.
The convicts were ironed two together and were accommodated on the lowest deck where conditions were extremely grim, there being no direct access to outside light or air. Each man was given a wooden plank two feet wide as a bunk and a blanket and a pillow. The weight of the irons was 11 lbs.
The Hillsborough was one of a convoy of about 15 ships and there was some delay in their sailing because of storms. During the trip typhoid struck and 100 convicts died. The typhoid began on 12 November. The disease was carried by lice and, due to the lack of hygiene, it spread rapidly through the ship.
The convicts were given only 13 pints of water each to last them for a week. This was to be their ration throughout the journey despite the fact that their provisions were salt meat and they had to sail through the tropics in appalling heat. The journey began with a gale and one can only imagine the conditions as the convicts were locked below and many were seasick.
The convicts were deeply rebellious and the Captain and crew responded with dreadful cruelty. A number of the convicts had found ways to remove their irons, but this was reported to the captain by an informer amongst the convicts. They were thereupon all ordered on deck, had their irons examined and, if these had been interfered with, the convicts were punished by between 12 and 72 lashes. The Captain further threatened to hang any more convicts found interfering with their chains.
By March the ship arrived in Table Bay, now the site of Capetown in South Africa, where they stayed for some considerable time as a number of convicts were dying from typhoid and the ship had to be cleaned and provisioned. Conditions on the shore were also very poor, the convicts being forced to dig graves for their dead comrades whilst shackled together.
The Captain finally realised that the treatment he was meting out would interfere with the payment he was to receive for the delivery of live convicts, and conditions began to improve toward the end of May with liberty to go on deck at will if one was sick, as much water as was wanted, but by now the death toll had risen to 63 of the original 300.
The ship sailed down the "roaring forties" going through a number of terrible storms and arrived off Van Diemans Land (now re-named Tasmania) on 4 July. Fighting their way up the east coast of Australia, they arrived off Sydney Heads at 4 am on 26 July. At daylight the ship sailed up the Harbour and the convicts were finally unloaded on 29 July.
Only 205 of the 300 original convicts were landed in Australia, and of these 6 more died in the first few days. The Hillsborough had been one of the worst convict ships ever to bring a load to Australia, and Governor Hunter wrote to the Secretary of the Colonies, the Duke of Portland, acquainting him with the situation and describing the convicts on the Hillsborough as \"a cargo of the most miserable and wretched convicts I ever beheld". The reason for this was a difference in the payment method. Whereas previously the Government had paid £23 per head for every convict transported to Botany Bay, James Duncan owner and contractor of the Hillsborough was to receive only £18 per head with an extra £4/10/6 for every live convict arriving in Australia.
Source; William Noah 1754-1827
In July 1801 Peter appears on the census at Parramatta with Susannah Tillet 1780-1846 convict arrived on the 'Speedy' in 1800
No marriage. They had 2 Children
Henry 1803-1880 m Cordelia TOOTH 1828-1885 in 1848
Spouse Catherine Rigby 1782-xxxx died in Windsor. Convict arrived on the 'Nile' 1801, Catherine Rigby, sailed back to England after gaining her freedom, leaving Louisa in the care of her father.
Children Louisa 1805-1881 m. John CUPITT 1799-1937 in 1819
Spouse Mary WOOD 1793-1880 The daughter of John WOOD 1768-1845 and Ann MATTHEWS 1762-1819. Peter married Mary at St.Phillips C of E Sydney, New South Wales on the 19 September 1809.
The children of this marriage were:-
1.Sophia 1810-1885m. Timothy LACY 1806-1887 in 1827
2.John 1812-1896 m. Margaret MAGUIRE 1812-1904 in 1837
3.George 1813-1878 m. Mary BANNISTER 1820-1875 in 1838
4.Peter Joseph 1817-1888 m. Jane Sharp LOVELL 1823-1894 in 1840
5.Mary 1821-1904 m.William CORNWELL 1827-1906 in 1850
6.Ann 1822-1889 m. William ONUS 1822-1855 in 1842 and William REID 1833-xxxx in 1857
7.Eliza 1825-1870 m. Charles EATHER 1827-1891 in 1848
8.Elizabeth 1830-1909 m. James Edward MARSDEN 1830-1887 in 1850
9.Sarah 1833-1878 m. William BENSON 1830-1923 in 1855
He was Publican of a hotel opposite the Toll Gate on the Sydney Road in Parramatta from 1825 till the end of 1828.
On 4 November 1826 at Parramatta, Peter Hough and Timothy KELLY were committed for trial at the Quarter Sessions, for assault and battery of John Hall of Evan forcibly taking his horse and cart from him on the high road, but the trial did not proceed.
Below is the Toll Gate on Sydney Road. On the Sydney side of Parramatta.
also those brought to trial.
I have copied this original report written by Peter Lalor after the massacre at the Eureka Stockade on 3 December 1854.
Report of the killed and wounded at the Eureka Massacre
on the morning of the Memorable Third of December, 1854
The following lists are as complete as I can make them. The numbers are well known, but there is a want of names. I trust that friends or acquaintances of these parties may forward particulars to The Times office Ballaarat, to be made available in a more lengthened narrative. P.L.
John HYNES, County Clare, Ireland
Patrick GITTENS, Kilkenny, do.
______MULLINS, Kilkenny, Limerick, do.
Samuel GREEN, England
John ROBERTSON, Scotland
Edward THONEN (lemonade man), Elbertfeldt, Prussia
John HAFELE, Wurtenburg
John DIAMOND, County Clare, Ireland
Thomas O'NEIL, Kilkenny, do.
George DONAGHEY, Muff, County Donegal, do.
Edward QUIN, County Cavan, do.
William QUINLAN, Goulburn, N.S.W
names unknown. One was usually
known as "Happy Jack"
Wounded and since Dead
Lieutenant ROSS, Canada
Thaddeus MOORE, County Clare, Ireland
James BROWN, Newry, do.
Robert JULIEN, Nova Scotia
Edward M'GLYN, Ireland
Wounded and Since Recovered
Peter LALOR, Queens County, Ireland
Name Unknown, England
Patrick HANAFIN, County Kerry, Ireland
Michael HANLY, County Tipperary, do.
Michal O'NEIL, County Clare, do.
Thomas CALLANAN, County Clare, do.
Patrick CALLANAN, do. do.
Frank SYMMONS, England
James WARNER, County Cork, Ireland.
Luke SHEEHAN, County Galway, do.
Michael MORRISON, County Galway, do.
Dennis DYNAN, County Clare, do.
(Signed) PETER LALOR,
Commander- in- Chief
Requiescant in pace
Lieutenant ROSS refered to was Captain Henry ROSS
*Of the approximately 120 'diggers' detained after the rebellion, thirteen were brought to trial.
Timothy HAYES, Chairman of the Ballarat Reform League, from Ireland
James McFie CAMPBELL, a black man from Kingston, Jamaica
Raffaello CARBONI was an Italian revolutionary and writer.He is the author of the ONLY eyewitness account of events.
Jacob SORENSON, a Jew from Scotland
John MANNING, a Ballarat Times journalist, from Ireland
John PHELAN, a friend and business partner of Peter Lalor, from Ireland
Thomas DIGNUM, born in Sydney
John JOSEPH, a black American from New York City
James BEATTIE, from Ireland
William MOLLOY, from Ireland
Jan VENNICK, from the Netherlands
Michael TUOHY, from Ireland
Henry REID, from Ireland
All were charged with treason, the U.S.Consul intervened and had 2 other Americans released, but not John Joseph, this brave black American also faced the court.The jury quickly pronounced them all NOT GUILTY, and the court erupted in loud cheers. The American from New York, John JOSEPH that night was carried triumphantly around the streets in a chair above 10,000 jubilant people.
Many consider 'Eureka' the beginning of true democracy in Australia.
The image below of Peter Lalor was created by Ludwig Becker in 1856
The original resides at the National Library of Australia
It is said, The Singleton Argus, on 25th September 1835, when writing about Peter McAlpin 1809-1898, described him as a man with "a roaming disposition, a giant and in every sense of the term, physically and morally with high principles, lofty ideals". I have been unable to find this article. Never-the-less, he was, all of that.
Peter McALPIN Senior had taken his family out to the Hawkesbury district and set himself up as a blacksmith at Windsor after arriving with the family as free settlers on the 'General Graham' on the 29 January 1812.
Here the family lived until the end of 1815, when Peter Snr. sold his shop and two houses by auction, the family moved to Richmond early in 1816, again setting up a blacksmith shop, when young Peter was only 7.
In 1822 Peter together with his brother William Glas and Catherine (nicknamed, Kite) attended the school in Richmond for only about a year, just long enough to learn to read and write and do their sums.
In the 1825 census Peter was recorded as living at Richmond, however it was not long after the census that Peter showed his wanderlust by making a trek up north to Muswellbrook, or perhaps he was a little bit envious of his brother's wanderings.
Two years earlier in 1823, Peter's brother William known as Billy Mack at thirteen, had been one of Archibald Bell's party who, with the help of aboriginal guides marked the Bells Line of Road which was an alternative route to Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworths road across the Blue Mountains.
In the 1828 census Peter was living in Bathurst and working as a labourer for John Neville 1780-1854 and his wife Elizabeth nee Vincent, whom Peter had met in Richmond, when they were living there. They had offered him work and Peter was keen to take it.
I'm not sure how long Peter remained with John Neville and his family but John Neville moved from Bathurst to Rylstone in 1830 and Peter didn't like to stay in one place for long.
In 1831 Peter set himself up as the Blacksmith in Patrick's Plains. It's thought that Peter visited Richmond around Christmas 1831 when his little sister Catherine 'Kite' announced she was going to marry William Clark on the 16 January 1832. Of all the family Peter was closest to Kite and I don't see him missing her wedding day.
Another big wedding took place on the 1 February 1833 when brother Billy Mack married Susannah Onus 1815-1882 at Christ Church in Castlereagh. William built a brick home in 1834 in the main street of Richmond, NSW with financial help from Joseph ONUS (the father of his wife, Susannah) and set up a blacksmiths shop at the rear.
On the 9 January 1935 at a chapel in Maitland where his sister and her husband William Clark were now living Peter married Elizabeth Cole alias Harrison, a convict woman whose real name was Phebe Cole, nee Stirrup
1807-1885. Phoebe was a widow with two children.
This marriage was seen as a convenience for both parties and did not last very long. It seems Peter sold the shop bought Phoebe a house, gave her some money and then took off for Victoria. Neither one looking back or having any regrets.
It was on the 30 August 1835 that the first settlers arrived in Melbourne and commenced building along the Yarra River. This pioneering group led by Captain John Lacey with his builder from Launceston George Evans, his servant Evan Evans, carpenters William Jackson and Robert Hay Marr, the Blacksmith James Gilbert and his wife and a ploughman called Charlie Wise. In 1840 Peter McAlpin made his way there not to seek his fortune ( he could have made that in New South Wales), but for the adventure of it all.
From this point on it's not easy to track Peter. He did have a blacksmith shop in Little Bourke Street Melbourne, in 1847. In March 1851 he was shot in his left arm in the city of Melbourne at 1am by George May Smith after Peter called he and his companions some names. George May Smith was charged with assault and fined twenty shillings. Another shot in the arm in 1851 was because Peter was out of the state of nsw for so many years phoebe, had him declared dead. She married Frederick WINGRAVE 1797-1876, at Windeyer on the 31 March 1852.
Then in 1853 we see Peter at the McIvor diggings. I doubt he was digging more likely running the blacksmiths shop.
All told Peter spent thirty five years in Victoria not returning to New South Wales until 1875.
Peter died on the 23 September 1898 in Singleton, New South Wales.
His death certificate states he died without issue
His grave is at the Glenridding Uniting Church Cemetery, formerly known as
the Glenridding Presbyterian Cemetery, on the Putty Road, Singleton, NSW.
The headstone reads-
23 Sep 1898
Singleton Argus (NSW : 1880 - 1954), Saturday 24 September 1898
Death of an Old Colonist.
"In his 90th year, Mr Peter M'Alpin, of Bulga, died in the local Hospital yesterday,
after a short illness, his death being due to senile decay.
The deceased was a native of Sterling, Scotland, but was only three years of age
when he arrived with his parents in Victoria he lived there for 35 years, when he removed
to N. S. Wales, and has since lived in this part of the colonya term of 51 years.
Mr M'Alpin was married in Maitlaud, but there was no issue to the union.
The old gentleman was well respected, and those who knew him intimately
in his earlier days retain many pleasant memories of the acquaintanceship "
Note: He arrived with parents in NSW on 29 Jan 1812.
He Lived in Victoria for 35 Years and
in NSW for a total of 51 years.
written by janilye, 2004
Alfred Abraham Harris 1826 - 1890
The following list of Physicians and Surgeons, qualified to act in the colony of New South Wales, is extracted from a useful Pamphlet by Mr. Baker, Clerk to the New South Wales Medical Board, 4 November 1842:
Aaron Isaac, Kissing Point
A'Beckett, Arthur Martin, Elizabeth street, North, Sydney
Agnew, James Wilson
Aitken, John, George street South, Sydney
Alexander, A., Assistant-surgeon, 28th Regiment, (gone to the East Indies)
Allan Edward, Berrima
Anderson Colin, A. M. D.
Appleton Henry (gone to England)
Arbuckle Alexander, Clifton
Armstrong John, George-street
Auld Robert, Sydney
Ballow, D. K. Colonial Assistant; surgeon, Brisbane Town, Moreton Bay
Bamber Charles (gone to England)
Barker Edward, Port Phillip
Barnes George Frederick, Hinton
Baylie William Kingston, Port Phillip
Beardmore Frederick Joshua, Maitland
Bell William, Windsor Bell Thomas, R. N., Braidwood
Bennett George, Elizabeth-street, Hyde Park, Sydney
Birtwhistle John (gone to England)
Black Thomas. M. D., Penrith
Blake Isidore Maurice, Campbell Town
Bland William, Pitt-street North, Sydney.
Brooks George, Colonial Surgeon, New castle.
Brown William, M. D., Murrumbidgee
Brown William Spencer, M..D.
Brown William, East Maitland
Browne Joseph Browning, Cavin.
Buccanan Colin, M. D
Burby George, Colonial Assistant-surgeon, Bathurst.
Cadell James John, M. D. Raymond Terrace
Campbell Francis, M.D.
Campbell John, Surgeon 28th Regiment (gone to the East Indies)
Cannan Kearsey, Elizabeth-street, Sydney.
Cartwright Robert Marsden, Goulburn
Cates John, Sydney
Clarke George Thomas.
Clarke Jonathan, Port Phillip
Cluttebuck James Bennett, M. D.
Clayton Benjamin, County King
Cobb Law Blaxland (died at Sydney)
Cochrane James (died at Maitland)
Connell James Joseph, Bathurst
Cook Alexander, Castlereagh street Sydney
Cooper John Cowper Henry, Bungonia
Craigh Robert, Bathurst
Crichton John, Oven's River
Cullen Phibba White.
Cussen Patrick, M. D. Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Melbourne
Cuthill Alexander, Surgeon to the Benevolent Asylum, Parramatta-street, Sydney
Davis William, (gone to New Zealand)
Day Henry, Hunter-street, Sydney
De Lisle R., Assistant surgeon, 96th, Regiment.
Dobie John, R. N., Clarence River
Dorsey William M'Taggard, Limestone, Moreton Bay.
Dowe Joshua, M . D. Coroner, Windsor
Eckford James, M D., Assistant Colonial Surgeon, Liverpool.
Edye Alfred Oke, R. N., Maitland
Ellis James, R. N., Yass
Ellison Robert, surgeon, 50th Regiment (gone to the East Indies)
Enscoe John, Melbourne
Fayle Higginson, Parramatta
Felton Maurice (died at Sydney)
Foulis John. M. D., Parramatta.
Fullerton . George, M. D., Pitt-street Sydney.
Galbraith R., M. D.., Assistant-Surgeon, 99th Regiment, Sydney
Gammack Alex., Assistant-Colonial Surgeon, Liverpool
Gammie Patrick, Surgeon, 80th Regt., Auckland, New Zealand
Gerard. John, Illawarra
Gilbert Jordan, Market-street, Sydney
Gill John, Broules.
Gillespie. Robert (died at the Clarence River)
Glennie Henry, George-street, Sydney
Goodwin John; Invermein
Graham Henry, Colonial Assistant-surgeon, Norfolk Island
Grant John, M. D., Pitt-street south, Sydney.
Graydon Alexander, M. D., Assistant Surgeon. 50th. Regiment (gone to the East Indies)
Green Henry, Tumut.
Gwynne Gordon, Parramatta.
Haig Isaac, M. D., New England.
Harford James, Sydney.
Harriett Patrick, Colonial Surgeon, General Hospital, Sydney.
Harpur Frederick, King-street west, Sydney.
Hathorn Fergus, Wellington Valley
Havens Robert, Yass
Hayley William, Foxton
Hill Patrick, R. N. Colonial Surgeon, Parramatta.
Hobson Edmund Charles, Melbourne.
Hope Robert Cuthbertson, M. D , Campbell Town.
Hosking Peter Mann (gone to England )
Houston Hugh, Apothecary to the Sydney Dispensary.
Houston William, Pitt-street, Sydney
Howitt Godfrey, M. D.
Huffington Hugh Arthur.
Hunt Thomas, Parramatta.
Huntley Robert, County of Murray.
Inches John, R. N (died at Maitland).
Jay Richard Gardiner
Jenkins William Jacob.
Jenkins Richard Lewis, Jerry's Plains
Johnson John, M. D., Colonial Surgeon, Auckland, New Zealand
Johnson Alfed Scomberg
Jones Robert, Jamison-street, Sydney.
Kenney William B, Campbell Town ,
King William, M. D., Mudgee
Kingslake Charles Woodford.
Lee Michael William, M D., Colonial Assistant Surgeon, General Hospital, Sydney
Lee Thomas, M. D., Colonial Surgeon, Lunatic Asylum, Tarban Creek
Ledbetter George Samuel, Port Macquarie
Liddell William, (gone to England)
Linderman Henry John
Little, Robert, M. D., Hunter street Sydney.
Lloyd Humphrey Thomas
Lewis, Prince street, Sydney
Maberly Samuel, New Zealand
Mallon Patrick Walsh, Maitland
Mark Edward Robson Bridge-street Sydney.
M'Donald, M, D. Auckland, New, Zealand
Maxwell Edwin Stanford, (gone to England).
M'Cartney Michael; Gummum Plains
M'Crea Farquhar M. D,' Melbourne.
M'Curdy Samuel, Port Phillip
M'Donald Allan Ronald, M. D , Berrima.
M'Donald Donald, Sydney
M'Donnell A. S., Assistant-Surgeon, 28th. Regiment, gone to the East, Indies)
M'Evoy Francis, Yass
M'Ewin Donald Macintosh, M. D.
M'Farlane John, M. D., Pitt-street South, Sydney.
M'Hattie Richard, Bathurst
M'Intosh Robert, M. D., Asst. surgn. to the Australian Agricultural Company, Port Stephens
M'Keachie David, M . D.
M'Keller Charles Kinnard, George street, Sydney.
M'Kellar Frederick, M. D., Surgeon to the Sydney Disppensary.
M'Kenzie Kenneth, Wollongong
M'Kinlay Ellar M'Kellar, Clarence Town, William's River
M'Kirdy Robert, M. D., (gone to the East Indies)
M'Lenn Daniel, (late Colonial Surgeon, died at the Lunatic Asylum, Durban Creek)
M'Nish A. C, Assistant-surgeon, 80th Regiment, (gone, to the East Indies).
Mollison Patrick, ,M. D., (late Colonial Assistant-surgeon, died at Port Macquarie)
Moran Francis, M. D., (died at Sydney)
Morton Andrew ,
Murray Alexander W., 96th Regiment, (gone to England).
Nathan Charles, Elizabeth-street Sydney
Neilson John, Hunter-street, Sydney
Newton William. Parramatta
Nicholson Charles, M. D., Fort-street, Sydney
Nind Isaac Scott
Norris Thomas, (died at Campbelltown).
O'Brien Bartholomew, M. D, Wollongong, Illawarra
O'Hara Henry Lewis, Melbourne
O'Mullane Arthur, M. D., Melbourne.
Palmer James Frederick, Melbourne
Park Robert, Hunters River
Parsons Thomas, Liverpool.
Patterson John, R. N., Melbourne
Pearce Thomas, (died at Parramatta)
Perrott Thomas M.
Reedy Maurice O'Keefe, M. D., (gone to East Indies)
Reid James, Colonial Assistant Surgeon, Norfolk Island
Richardson William, Colonial Surgeon, Port Macquacie
Robertson John (gone to England)
Robertson Kinnear, Maneiro
Rodger Robert, Brisbane Water
Russell James Charles, Pitt-st., Sydney
Rutter Robert Champley, Parramatta
Rutter, John Yates, Sydney.
Savage Arthur, R. N., Health Officer, Castlereagh-street, Sydney
Scott Henry Charles (gone to England)
Scouler Arthur, Campbelltown.
Selkirk John, M'Donald River.
Shaw Forster, Geelong
Sherwin William, Mittagong.
Skinner Alexander, Patrick's Plains
Sloane David, Maitland.
Sparrow Thomas (gone to England)
Stacey John Edward, Port Macquarie
Stanford Charles John.
Stewart Bute, M. D., Parramattta.
Stewart Grigor, Surgeon, 96th Regt.
Stewart John, Elizabeth-street, Sydney
Stewart William Farquharson, Windsor
Stolworthy David, Patrick's Plains.
Street Francis Gall Snelling, Invermein
Stuart James (late Colonial Assistant Surgeon, (died at Port Marquarie)
Swaine Spillman R., Campbelltown.
Thomas David John, Port Phillip.
Tierney Daniel Joseph, M. D. Wollongong.
Traill Rowland John, M. D., Clarence River.
Tripe Henry Richard Gawen .
Turnbull Robert, Surgeon, 80th Regt., (died at Sydney)
Vallack Adoniah, Patrick's Plains.
Wallace Francis L. M. D., Druitt-st, Sydney.
Wakeman Thomas Henry
Wark David, M. D., Adelaide, South Australia
Warner Charles Avory, Penrith.
Watson Henry, Port Phillip
Waugh Robert, Goulburn
Welch Robert Porter, King and Castlereagh-street, Sydney
West John Boucher, Muswellbrook.
Whittaker Lewis Duncan, Richmond.
Whittell Henry Rawes, corner of Elizabeth and Liverpool-streets, Sydney.
Wilks Stephen Geary, M. D., Clarence street, Sydney.
Williamson William, Morpeth.
Wilmot William Bryan, M. D. Coroner, Melbourne.
Woods, Charles Bourne (died at Sydney)
Wilton William, Newcastle.
Yate Benjamin Howell.
And we do hereby further declare, that the several, persons, whose names are herein mentioned are entitled to be deemed "legally qualified Medical Practitioners," in terms of and according to the provisions of the said Act.
J. V, THOMPSON,
Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals,
FRANCIS L. WALLACE, M.D.
CHARLES NICHOLSON, M.D
The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842)--Thursday 7 June 1832
Monday.-Mary Madden was charged by her mistress with taking herself off on Sunday morning, for the purpose, as she boldly declared, of spending the day on the water, with a party of choice spirits like herself.
Mary denied the charge; the mistress vociferating it at the top of her lungs, and a very pretty botheration and blarney immediately ensued, which bothered the cause most mightily.
After order was restored, the Bench decided that Mary should sojourn under Mrs. Gordon's wing for fourteen days.
Sarah Dawson, possessing a considerable portion of cambric handkerchief-sensibility, was placed at the bar, charged with being found snoring a charming bass in the Shambles of the Market-place, the previous evening; during her placid slumbers she was heard ejaculating, " give me another drain, and then." -
On hearing the charge, the tears chased each other down her lilly cheeks, "like Orient Pearls at random strung." The exchequer having been previously exchequered, and not one of the bye standers having sufficient gallantry to offer to become her banker, she was fain to put up with three hours reclination in the stocks.
John M'Carthy, picked up, humming to himself, " I've been roaming, I've been roaming," - "I dare say you have" said the constable, and the burden of his song turning out true, to the letter, the Bench sent him to a cell for three days.
Thomas Hewitt, a sort of a lackadaisical visaged youth, was charged with not only getting drunk himself, but making the servants of his master also drunk; entering the parlour where his master was sitting, breaking nine squares of glass, and threatening to set fire to the house, and consign his master and all his household goods to the flames.
On the favourable representation of the master, he was only fined 5s. and discharged.
Tuesday.-William Whaling was charged with being found all the worse for wear, endeavouring to win the affections of a pretty girl, who was just beginning to feel an interest in his small talk, when malheureusement , a baton bearer stepped in and desired Whaling to accept of a lodging at the King's expense, which he wished to avoid, but without success - three days on the Mill were recommended to prevent similar exhibitions of gallantry.
Jacob Porter, a quizzical looking old codger, who, from appearances, carried his name visibly marked on his countenance, was charged with banging a poker and frying pan together through the streets the previous night, at the same time harmoniously chanting, "Hark the bonny Christ Church Bells." - To balance this small adair he enriched the poor fund with five shillings.
Mary Thompson was charged with being picked up the previous afternoon, on the Parramatta road, waving her hand, and exclaiming to a young man, who was getting through the pannel of the fence into the bush, "false, perjured, fleeting Charley." As it appeared that she was a bolter, and was frequently in the habit of making herself scarce, the Bench sent her to the 3 C. for a month.
Mary Macmanus, a regular touch and go lady, with the temper of a Volcano, that was constantly in eruption whenever any thing crossed her, was charged with solacing John the footman the night before, with some comfortable liquors, and a good feed. -1 month Gordon seminary. On hearing the sentence she looked unutterable things and threatened a violent explosion, but the guardians of the peace muzzled her instanter.
Wednesday.-Eliza Ross was charged with absconding with her Mistress's child, and at ten o'clock at night both were brought home drunk. 6 weeks, 3rd class.
Mary Ann Clany, mugging herself with hot punch, as she described it, to rectify the disorganized state of her internals, and when wound up, with flying off at a tangent, refusing work, and all that sort of thing - 1 month, 3rd class.
Ann Carr, for giving her mistress due notice that she intended to quit, as her grub was not of that quality she had been in the habit of feeding upon, was sent to try Mrs. Gordon's fare for 1 month.
William Hervey was charged with being picked up in the streets, rolling over and over, Hervey declared that it was a touch of the Cholera that possessed him, the Bench considering that it might be the gin-cholera, sent him to the stocks for three hours.
John Kerwen was charged with being found on the Race Course, on one knee to a lady of the pave, whom he was thus pathetically addressing
" Oh me, can thus thy forehead lour,
And know'st thou not who loves thee best ;
Oh Sally dear, oh more than dearest.
Say is it me thou hat'st, or fear'st,
Come lay thy head upon my breast,
And I will kiss thee into rest."
The devil, exclaimed the irreverent constable, what's all this palaver about, come with me, my lad, and he was conveyed to the lock-up.
The Bench, to curb these sort of pranks, sent him to take three days exercise on the mill.
Ann Armstrong, who was admonished and discharged only the previous day, was charged, that when she arrived at home, she clapped her arms a-kimbo, and swearing she would nolens volens on the part of her mistress, be Lady of the ascendant.
The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842)--Thursday 19 July 1832
MONDAY.Maria Carney was placed at the bar to answer for bolting, amalgamating, and sundry
BenchWhat have you to say Maria for such
MariaOh, nothing, my mistress is one of the best in the Colony, and I hope I may serve my lagging with her.
BenchI fear not; how long have you to serve?
MariaOnly a streaky bit, say three years.
BenchThen, you will have to serve one month more by taking the air at Mrs. Gordon's for a month.
Maria wished now to say something about bad feedqueer wittles, &c, but the constabulary, very politely, handed her from the bar.
Adam Bond, for threatening to make his mistress smell h-ll, by setting fire to the house, was ordered 14 days on the mill.
Winefred Doyle, a lushington, was placed at the bar on that charge.
BenchPrisoner, will you promise to reform.
WinefredI must have my morning, my leavener and my night cups.
BenchSix weeks 3 C.
William Gorman, was charged with being drunk and skylarking.
Bench Were you drunk
Bench Five shillings to the poor.
GormanThat's meI'm poor.
BenchThree hours stocks.
GormanI wish you were alongside of me just now, see how I'd sarve you-
The Charley's were obliged to remove him vi et-armis, as Gorman, who is a bit of a sledge hammer hitter, wished to show fight.
John Eaton, Thomas Green, and John Tierney were charged with being musically lushey, and while in that state, with singing through the streets, the Glee of "Gently tolls the evening Chimes."
The Bench sent them to chime on the mill for seven days.
Henry Willis, for making free with a pair of fie- for-shames, belonging to the Governor of the gaol, was ordered into his custody, until delivered by due course of law.
Patrick Ryan, with a phiz resembling the back of a lobster when parboiled; a jest leering in his eyecurling on his lipand mantling and diffusing itself over his whole visage, was charged for not having the fear of the mill before his eyes, but being moved and seduced by the rum bottle, which he swigged at so heartily, that he was picked up as stiff as a poker, but the application of an oak sapling, well applied, made him quite supple. Seven days Devil's barrel organ.
TUESDAY.Mary Perkins, when allowed to stroll for an hour, was charged with taking six, which she declared was what she understood by compound interest.
The Bench ordered her for this, to obtain a more correct knowledge of arithmetic at Mrs. Gordon's academy.
" Carry me out, bury me decently" said Mary, as she bounced from the bar.
Mary Carr, with a taste for the sublime and beautiful, was charged with returning home the previous day in a queer state, seizing a knife, and having flourished it over her mistress' head, for a few minutes, exclaimed, "here's into your bread basket," and attempted to put her threat into execution, when she was fortunately prevented. 2 mos. 3 C.
Charles Phillips, an impertinent young dog, was charged with phoo-phooing whenever ordered to do any work. Master would say, "Charles do this," "phoo, phoo," master Charles would reply, "don't you wish you may get it." Seven days mill to teach him manners.
Thomas Darby, rolling through the streets at 12 o'clock at night, singing out,
" Talk of the cordial that sparkled for Helen, Her cup was a fiction, but this is reality."
At the same time flourishing a bottle of grog round his head, and he gave the Charleys the choice of a broken head or the contents of the bottle, they preferred the chance of the former, and after demolishing his bottle, secured him. Darby refused to come down with the ready, and consequently was handed to the stocks.
The 390 tons barque Posthumous left Plymouth on 13 March 1849 and arrived in Adelaide on 20 June 1849 under the guidance of Captain Davison and carrying 157 Passengers.
Passengers : Messrs. F and E. Duffield, J. Parr, W. Colman, and Mrs Colman and child, Mr Atatyar, Mr Darwent, and Mr E. R. Bower, surgeon superintendent, in the cabin ;
Messrs Nelson de Coursey, C. Schwabe, G. E. Bowley, and J. Clearson in the intermediate;
Ewart Mehruta, B. Edmondson, Mr Williams, F. Federel, J. Watkinson, Alfred Watkinson, Wm. Watkinson, Wm. Matts, Edwin Laff, Henry Laff, Wm. Edwards, wife and child, Sarah Tiffen, Josh. Betts, John Miskin, Henry James, James King, Louis Alex. Perdusal, Charlotte A. Bull Bryant, Wm. Harris, Charles Crawford, G. C. Foat, John Papple, Chas. Rooks, Josh. Wicker, Ann, Nehemiah, Josh., Alfred, and Henry Wicker, G. Wicker, infant, Jas. Fielder, Mary Fielder, Frances Hall, Eliz. Beechin, Harriet Beechin, G. Hamlin, J. Salmon, Henry Heath, S. Baird, J. Botterell, M. Baird, Walter Scott, T. Noble, J. Clarke, W. Ramsdedn, T. Evans, J. Neates, Josiah Oldfield, E. Bryant, Eliza Ann, Eliz. Jane, T. Frances, and W. C. Bryant, infant. W. Lewellen, John Edwin Smyth, W., and Mary, Emma Maslin, Eleanor, Harriet, Mary Hannah, John, Susannah, W. and Martha Cook, C. Hodson, T. Hall, wife and seven children, R. M. Wray, T. Hopkinson, R Walker Emma, Sea, Mary Ann G. Hoye, Rosina Gale, Mrs Biggs, Sarah Taylor, John, Geo., Mary Ann, Eliza, Susan, and Margaret Murray, James Jordon, wife and three children, J. Treeman Notts, wife and two children, J. J. Walker, Wm. Southgate, Henry Elborough, Sarah Elborough, J. Hammon, R. G. Dur ham, wife and six children, Susan Duncan, Susan Duncan, Walter Ransome, S. B. Pitt, C. Webb Sarah Webb, Henry, Rebecca, Eliza, and Frances Baker, Alex. Wood, Wm. Andrew, Eliz. Colts, Ulrich Spikly, Alex. Sim, John, Susan, Eliz. and Emma Harvey, Alex.J.L.F.Chanmout, Wm. Braceide and wife, Miss Morris and child, Mr Morris, wife and son Louisa Ransome, Louisa Chalmers, Wm. Akhurst wife and infant, James Coumbe, wife and six children, David Wheeler and wife, Augustus Raymond and wife, Henry, Mary Ann, Henry, Kate, Geo. and Mary Ann Gove, infant, Robt. Thompson, wife and three children, Alex. Anderson, Mr Moyle, wife and three children, Jean F. Amiet, and Louis Amiet, in the steerage.
Many people have asked me about sources and the difference. There is a lot of information about sources on the internet but some people are still confused.
A primary source is something that comes from the time that the historian is studying.
For instance if a historian is studying the First World War, then letters and diaries written by the soldiers, the uniforms and the weapons are the primary sources. If a soldier who fought in the trenches wrote his memories of the war a long time after the war it is still a primary source.
Secondary sources are sources which do not come from the time the historian is studying. These sources have got their information from other sources. Books about the first world war by historians or school textbooks about the First World War, are examples of secondary sources.
with the exception of the 1911 census, returns are not primary sources, they are secondary sources. The information they contain may have been transferred through several people. The individual's details given to head of the house; the head of the house who wrote out the Householders Schedule which was then handed to the enumerator, who then transferred it to the CEB, which itself was subjected to the rules of the census particularly over the classification of occupations. Finally the Census Office clerks may have made alterations. There were mistakes.
I think the diagram shown below, of the various sources historians can use, will make it easier to understand.