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Primary and Secondary Sources

Many people have asked me about sources and the difference. There is a lot of information about sources on the internet but some people are still confused.

Primary Sources
A primary source is something that comes from the time that the historian is studying.
For instance if a historian is studying the First World War, then letters and diaries written by the soldiers, the uniforms and the weapons are the primary sources. If a soldier who fought in the trenches wrote his memories of the war a long time after the war it is still a primary source.

Secondary Sources
Secondary sources are sources which do not come from the time the historian is studying. These sources have got their information from other sources. Books about the first world war by historians or school textbooks about the First World War, are examples of secondary sources.

with the exception of the 1911 census, returns are not primary sources, they are secondary sources. The information they contain may have been transferred through several people. The individual's details given to head of the house; the head of the house who wrote out the Householders Schedule which was then handed to the enumerator, who then transferred it to the CEB, which itself was subjected to the rules of the census particularly over the classification of occupations. Finally the Census Office clerks may have made alterations. There were mistakes.

I think the diagram shown below, of the various sources historians can use, will make it easier to understand.

Princess Atahoe daughter of Pip-pa-hee

Transcribed from ;
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser Saturday 3 March 1810

Family Notice


On Sunday morning last, at four o'clock, at the house of Mr. Francis McKuan, in Sydney, a Princess of New Zealand, and daughter of Pip-pa- hee, whose first name was Atahoe, but which at the age of 14 was changed to that of Mary Bruce by her marriage with an European of that name who had resided several years in her father's dominions, from whence he went for India in the General Wellesley, accompanied by his royal bride.
From India Mr.and Mrs. Bruce arrived lately here in the Union, on their return to New Zealand, for the valuable purpose of collecting & cultivating the flax, to which that soil is so extremely favourable; at the same time that the no less essential object was in view of improving the good understanding that has hitherto subsisted between our whalers and the native chiefs, which may hereafter prove of considerable interest to this Colony.
In this intention Mr. Bruce has been encouraged by the countenance of His Excellency the Governor, and the aid of several gentlemen of character and opulence, whose minds are capable of speculating on a universal matter than on a private benefit; and that their united efforts may become successful is most sincerely to be wished. - The deceased Princess has left a fine Infant, which Mr. Bruce intends to take with him in the Experiment.

Provisions for the First Fleet bound for New South Wales.

The First Fleet of ships to carry convicts from England to Botany Bay sailed from Portsmouth, England, at 3 am on 13 May 1787. It arrived at Botany Bay on 18 January 1788. When that place proved unsuitable for a settlement the fleet made its way a short distance up the coast and on 25 January 1788 entered what is now known as Sydney Harbour and anchored in Sydney Cove.
There were eleven ships of the FIRST FLEET Two, the Sirius and Supply were naval warships to guard the fleet six were transports for the convicts and three were storeships..The six transports and three storeships were supplied by shipping contractor William RICHARDS. In addition to the ships the contractor supplied, the sailors, all food and water and medicines for both soldiers and convicts. This charter cost the government 49,487 pounds.

List of Livestock and Provisions taken to the Colony of New South Wales on the First Fleet.
10 Forges
175 Steel Hand Saws
700 Iron Shovels
700 Garden Hoes
700 West Indian Hoes
700 Grubbing Hoes
700 Felling Axes
700 Hatchets
700 Helves for Felling Axes
747,000 Nails
100 Pairs of Hinges and Hooks
10 Sets of Cooper's Tools
40 Corn Mills
40 Wheel Barrows
12 Ploughs
12 Smith's Bellows
30 Grindstones
330 Iron Pots
6 Carts
4 Timber Carriages
14 Fishing Nets
14 Chains for Timber Carriages
5,448 Squares of Crown Glass
200 Canvas Beds
62 Chauldrons of Coal
80 Carpenter's Axes
20 Shipwright's Axes
600 lbs of Coarse Sugar
1001 lbs of Indian Sago
1 Small Cask of Raisins
61 lbs of Spices
3 Hogsheads of Vinegar
2 Barrels of Tar
1 Dozen Tin Saucepans
1 Printing Press
Type Fonts for DO
3 Dozen Flat Irons
3 Snuffers
48 Spinning Brasses
7 Dozen Razors
Bible Prayer Book etc.
6 Bullet Moulds
9 Hackies for Flax
9 Hackies Pins
3 Flax Dresser Brushes
127 Dozen Combs
18 Coils of Whale line
6 Harpoons
12 Lances
Shoe Leather
305 Pairs of Women's Shoes
40 Tents for Women Convicts
6 Bundles of Ridge Poles
11 Bundles of Stand Poles
2 Chests of Pins ans Mallets
1 Portable Canvas House (Gov. Philip)
18 Turkeys
29 Geese
35 Ducks
122 Fowls
87 Chickens
4 Mares
2 Stallions
4 Cows
1 Bull
1 Bull Calf
44 Sheep
19 Goats
32 Hogs
5 Rabbits
Gov. Philip's Greyhounds
Rev. Johnson's Cats
Mill Spindles with 4 Crosses
2 Cases of Mill Bills and Picks
1 Case of Mill Brashes
589 Womens Petticoats
606 Womens Jackets
121 Womens Caps
327 Pairs of Womens Stockings
250 Womens Handkerchiefs
700 Steel Spades
175 Claw Hammers
140 Augurs
700 Gimlets
504 Saw Files
300 Chisels
6 Butchers Knives
100 Pairs of Scissors
30 Box Rules
100 Plain Measures
50 Pickaxes
50 Helvers for DO
700 Wooden Bowls
700 DO Platters
5 Sets of Smith's Tools
20 Pit Saws
700 Clasp Knives
500 Tin Plates
60 Padlocks
50 Hay Forks
42 Splitting Wedges
8,000 Fish Hooks
48 Dozen Lines
8 Dozen lbs of Sewing Twine
12 Brick Moulds
36 Masons Chisels
6 Harness for Horses
12 Ox-Bows
3 Sets of Ox Furniture
20 Bushels of Seed Barley
1 Piano
10 Bushels of India Seed Corn
12 Baskets of Garden Seed
Coarse Thread (Blue/White)
Transport Jack
Ventilators for Water and Wine
24 Spinning Whorls
1 Set of Candlestick Makers
Marines Clothes
Fig Trees
Sugar Cane
Oak and Myrtle Trees
135 Tierces of Beef
165 Tierces of Pork
50 Puncheons of Bread
116 Casks of Pease
110 Frinkins of Butter
8 Bram of Rice
10 Pairs of Handcuffs and Tools
1 Chest of Books
5 Puncheons of Rum
300 Gallons of Brandy
15 Tons of Drinking Water
5 Casks of Oatmeal
12 Bags of Rice
140 Womens Hats
1 Machine for Dress Flax
252 Dozen lbs of Cotton Candles
168 Dozen lbs of Mould Candles
44 Tons of Tallow
2 Millstones Spindles etc.
800 Sets of Bedding
1 Loom for Weaving Canvas
2,780 Woollen Jackets
5,440 Drawers
26 Marquees for Married Officers
200 Wood Canteens
40 Camp Kettles
448 Barrels of Flour
60 Bushels of Seed Wheat
381 Womens Shifts

What they forgot

1 comment(s), latest 3 years, 7 months ago

PUBLICANS' LICENSES 1851 New South Wales

Published Saturday 10 May 1851 in The Sydney Morning Herald
THE following is a list of applications for Publicans' Licences considered by the Session of Justices held for that purpose.
Those applications to which no remark is appended have been granted.
It will be seen that two are open for a hearing on Monday next.

1. Edward Robertson, Harbour View Hotel, George-street.
2. Louisa Wood, Commercial Hotel, George-street North
3. Edward Hancock, King's Head, George-st.
4. William Howell, King's Arms, George-st.
5. Thomas Waldock Smith, Observer Tavern, George-street
6. James Chapman, Marine Hotel, George-st.
7. William Sullivan, New York Hotel,George-street
8. Robert White Moore, Fortune of War,George street
9. Isaac Moore, Patent Slip, George-street
10. John Henry Humphreys, Land we live in, George-street
11. Charles Hargrave Salmon, Australian Hotel, George street
12. Abraham Levy, American Hotel, George-street
13. Richard Hawkins, Rose of Australia,
14. John Reed Harman, Blue Posts, George-street
15. William Livingston, Glasgow Arms, George-street. Applicant deceased. The Session agreed to
recommend the case to his Excellency the Governor, as one in which he might exercise his power
of granting a license to the widow.
16. Nicholas Bray, Liverpool Arms, George-street
17. William Cankett, Vine Tavern, George-street
18. Hugh M Lachlan, Crooked Billet, George-street
19. Charles Bath, St. John's Tavern, George and Bridge streets
20. George Scott, Castle Tavern, George and Bridge streets
21. Thomas Moore, City Wine Vaults, George-street
22. Richard Kenyon King, Forth and Clyde,George and Jamison streets
23. Donald Munro, General Washington, George-street
24. George Skinner, Skinners' Hotel, George and Hunter streets
25. Archibald Menzies, Star Hotel, George-st.
26. Robert Rowland, Golden Fleece, George and King streets
27. William Edward Rider, Black Boy, George and King streets
28. John Holman, White Horse, George-st.
29. John Sparke, Royal Hotel, George street
30. Michael Farrell, Farriers' Arms, George-street
31. Henry Robberts, Crown and Anchor,George and Market streets
32. Isaac Titterton, White Horse Cellar, George and Market streets
33. James Cunningham, Bull's Head, George-street
34. George Wilkie, London Tavern, George st.
35. Benjamin Palmer, Swan with Two Necks, George and Park streets
36. William Aitkenhead, Emu Inn, George-st.
37. Refused
38. Refused
39. John Daly, Friendship Inn, George-street
40. Thomas Leary, Currency Lass, George st.
41. Edward Conyngham, Dublin Tavern, George-street
42. Thomas Lee, St. John's Tavern, George and Liverpool streets
43. Thomas Johnson, Crown, George-street
44. Henry Harris, Jew's Harp, George-street
45. Philip Whelan, Britannia Arms, George and Goulburn streets
46. Charles Adrain, Fountain of Friendship, George and Goulburn streets
47. Michael Daly, Golden Fleece, George st.
48. John Francis, Square and Compass, George-street
49. Refused
50. James Stewart, Woolpack, George-street
51. Andrew Byrne, Peacock, George street
52. John Wright, Omnibus Inn, George-st.
53. Abraham Marcus, Steam Engine, George-street
54. John Dishington, Odd Fellows' Hall, George-street
55. George Coulton, Black Swan, George-st.
56. Peter Hanslow, Dog and Duck, George-st.
57. David Roberts, Farmer's Home, George-street
58. David Taylor, Wheat Sheaf, George-st.
59. Thomas Parkinson, Wellington Inn,George street
60. William Ford, Rising Sun, George-street South
61. George Simpson, Currency Lass, Pitt and Hunter streets
62. Matthew Mullaney, Fortune of War, Pitt-street
63. Maria Kelk, Spread Eagle, Pitt-street
64. Denis Kearney, Brougham Tavern, Pitt-st.
65. Joseph William Roche, Rainbow Tavern, Pitt and King streets
66. Edward Samuell, Liverpool Arms, Pitt-and King streets
67. John Alheit, Elephant and Castle, Pitt and King streets
68. Stephen B. Murrell, Sir Richard Bourke, Pitt-street
69. John Mullen, William the Fourth, Pitt-st.
70. Joseph Wyatt, Victoria Hotel, Pitt-street
71. Joseph Faris, Shakspeare, Pitt-street
72. Mary Stone, King's Arms, Pitt-street
73. Edward Borton, Cricketers' Hotel, Pitt and Market streets
74. Thomas Spencer, Toogood's Hotel, Pitt and Market streets
75. John Somerville, Fermanagh Hotel, Pitt-street
76. Refused ; but to be reconsidered on Mon-day next.
77. John Smith, Nags' Head, Pitt-street
78. Michael Cohen, Glasgow Hotel, Pitt-st.
79. John Dane, Railway Tavern, Pitt and Bathurst streets
80. Sarah Doran, Edinburgh Castle, Pitt and Bathurst streets
81. Matthias Hooper, Cottage of Content, Pitt and Bathurst streets
82. George Chambers, Curriers' Arms, Pitt-st.
83. John McCabe, North Star, Pitt and Liver-pool streets
84. George Turner, Brown Bear, Pitt and Goulburn streets
85. James Oatley, Sportsman, Pitt and Goul-burn streets
86. Withdrawn
87. James Davison, Settlers' Arms, Castlereagh-street
88. Thomas Martin, Commercial Hotel, Castlereagh and King streets
89. Henry Peter Hook, Painters' Arms, Castlereagh-street
90. Louisa Watkins, Globe Tavern, Castlereagh and Market streets
91. Roger Murphy, Travellers' Rest, Castlereagh and Market streets
92. Edward Borton, jun., Sydney Arms, Castlereagh-street
93. Edward Canter, Barley Mow, Castlereagh and Park streets
94. William Tunks, Curriers' Arms, Castlereagh and Bathurst streets
95. Robert Collins, Cherry Tree, Castlereagh and Bathurst streets
96. George Clayton, Dungate Inn, Castlereagh and Liverpool streets
96½. William Windred, Painters' Arms, Castlereagh and Goulburn streets
97. Baron Burnett Cohen, Nelson Hotel, Castlereagh and Campbell streets
98. Emanuel Crabb, Golden Fleece, Castlereagh-street
99. James Turley Jones, Crown and Kettle,York-street and Barrack-lane
100. John Hawkins, Original Hope Tavern, York-street and Barrack-lane
101. James Entwisle, Masonic Hall, York-st.
102. John O'Dowd, Forbes Hotel, York and King streets
103. William White, Garrick's Head, York and King streets
104. John Malcom, Adelphi Hotel, York-st.
105. Joshua Hutchinson, Harp and Shamrock, York-street
106. John Ward, Redfern Inn, York street
107. Sarah Kilpatrick, Harp of Erin, York-st.
108. John Nobbs, Gardeners' Arms, York-st.
109. Christopher Somerville, Erin-go-Bragh, York-street
110. Thomas Buck, Lamb Inn, Clarence-street North
111. Thomas Thorn, White Hart, Clarence-st.
112. Abraham J. Levy, Solomon's Temple, Clarence-street
113. Joseph Davis, Crispin Arms, Clarence-st.
114. James Cavanagh, Australian Inn, Clarence-street
115. Joseph Spinks, White Hart, Clarence and King streets
116. Michael Blakeney, Leinster Arms Clarence and King streets
117. James Holloway, Blue Lion, Clarence and Market streets
118. Saul Solomon, Australian Hotel, Clarence-street
119. Patrick Conlan, Tradesman's Arms Clarence-street
120. William Wells, Lord Nelson Hotel, Kent and Argyle streets
121. Ralph Benjamin, Dumbarton Castle, Kent-street
122. Andrew Goodwin, Lord Rodney, Kent-st.
123. William Davis, Gas Hotel, Kent-street
124. James Gomme Stanes, Steam Navigation Inn, Kent-street
125. Joseph Kelp, Steam-boat Inn, Kent-street
126. David Fernandez, Green Dragon, Kent and Erskine streets
127. Dulcibella Beath, Masonic Arms, Kent
and Erskine streets
128. James Prescott, City Inn, Kent street
129. William Murphy, Wollongong Hotel,
Kent and King streets
130. William Brinkley, St. Andrew's Tavern,
Kent and King streets
131. Hugh F. O'Donnell, Australian, Kent and Market streets
132. George John Jilks, Union Inn, Kent-st.
133. John Lonergan, Ship Inn, Kent-street
134. John Smedley, Brisbane Inn, Kent-street 135 Refused
136. Jane Woodriffe, Macquarie Inn, Kent and Bathurst streets
137. Andrew Scotland, Hunter River Inn, Sussex-street
138. William Carss, Clarence River Inn, Sussex street
139. Duncan McLennon, Ship Inn, Sussex-st. 140 Refused
141. Robert Henderson, Dove Inn, Sussex and Erskine streets
142. Thomas Stewart, Royal Oak, Sussex and Erskine-streets
143. Patrick Casey, Toll Bar Inn, Botany Road
144. James Maxwell, Saracen's, Head, Sussex and King streets
145. William Stevens, Patent Slip, Sussex and King streets
146. James Yied, Commercial Hotel, Sussex and King streets
147. Henry Linden, Woolpack, Sussex-street
148. James Clarke, Governor Bourke, Sussex-street
149. Cornelius Murray, Cheshire Cheese, Sussex-street
150. Cornelius O'Neal, Darling Harbour Inn, Sussex-street
151. Matthew Charlton, Charlton's Hotel, Market Wharf
152. George Coleson, George and Dragon, Market Wharf
153. George Spears, New Inn, Sussex-street
154. Matthew Hezlett, Labour in Vain, Sussex-street
155. Susan Leggatt, Hope and Anchor, Sussex-street
156. John Kirkman, Lancashire Arms, Sussex-street
157. Alexander Gray, Light House Hotel,Sussex-street
168. Daniel Bissland, Sir Walter Scott, Sussex-street
159. James Smail, Robert Burns, Sussex-street
160. Eliza Boyle, Builders' Arms, Sussex-street
161. Patrick Comerford, Angel and Crown, Sussex-street
162. William Harrison, Butchers' Arms, Susex-street
163. Patrick Lee, Harp of Erin, Sussex-street
164. Jane Coulson, Whitehaven Castle, Sussex-street
165. William Cole, Bee Hive, Prince and Arglye streets
166. Edwin Marlow, Neptune Inn, Prince st.
167. Thomas Buxton, Glenmore Cottage, Prince-street
168. James Casey, Rock of Cashel, Cumberland-street
169. Edward T. McDonald, Forth and Clyde, Cumberland street
170. John Hurley, Coach and Horses, Cumberland-street
170½.Charles James Bullivant, Three Crowns,Cumberland-street
171. John Sims, Whalers' Arms, Gloucester-street
172. William Andrews, Ship and Mermaid, Gloucester-street
173. Richard Wild, Black Dog, Gloucester st.
174. John Bruffell, Ship Inn, Gloucester-street
175. John Rochester, Erin-go-Bragh, Cambridge street
176. Margaret Brown, Rose and Crown, Argyle-street
177. Jonathan Brown, Hero of Waterloo, Fort and Windmill streets
178. William Ford, Napoleon Inn, Windmill-street
179. James Merriman, Whaler's Arms, Miller's Point
180. John Pomroy Bond, Royal Oak, Miller's Point
181. Lawrence Kearney, Captain Cook, Miller's Point
182. Refused
183. George Clarke, Clarke's, Hotel, Circular Quay
184. William Collie, Circular Quay Hotel, Circular Quay
185. Henry Barnett, Royal Admiral, Macquarie-place
186. George Pike, Custom House Hotel, Macquarie-place
187. John Henderson, Dolphin Hotel, Bridge-street
188. Henry Webb, Captain Cook, Spring andBent streets
189. George Snell Clarke, Horse and Jockey, O'Connell and Hunter streets
190. Refused
191. John Raynor, Star Inn, Phillip and Hunter streets
192. Robert Edward Heaney, Lord Nelson Inn, Phillip and Hunter streets
193. Anthony Tuohy, Lemon Tree, Phillip-street
194. William Baxter, Sir Maurice O'Connell, Elizabeth and Hunter streets
195. Richard Driver, Three Tuns, Elizabeth and King streets
196. Durell De la Faste, Cricketers' Hotel, Elizabeth street
197. Mountford Clarkson, Spread Eagle, Elizabeth-street
198. Charles Roberts, Crown Inn, Elizabeth and Goulburn streets
199. William A. Cahill, Albion Hotel, Elizabeth-street
200. Joseph Coquelin, Cheshire Cheese, Elizabeth street
201. James Kelly, Friendship Inn, Bathurst-st.
202. Robert Maxwell, Sir William Wallace, Bathurst street
203. Sarah Wallis, Hand and Heart, Liverpool and Dixon streets
204. Timothy Alfred Cowell, Builders' Arms, Liverpool and Charles streets
205. Thomas Quigley, St. Patrick's Inn, Goulburn-street
206. Arthur Walker, Picton Arms, Campbell-street
207. Maurice Walsh, Bee Hive, Campbell-st.
208. Philip Hart, Harp, Campbell-street
209. Richard Loseby, Pack Horse, Campbell-street
210. Elizabeth Benham, Museum Hotel, Woolloomoolo
211. Michael O'Keefe, Richmond Hotel, Woolloomooloo
212. Charles Shaw, Boomarang, Woolloomooloo
212½. John Walpole Ireland, Cottage of Content, Woolloomooloo-street
213. Joseph Carter, Dublin Castle, Crown-st.
214. William Ebbetts, Fitz Roy Hotel, William and Palmer streets
215. Frederick Thompson, Riley Arms, Woolloomooloo and Riley streets
216. Thomas Baker, Woolloomooloo Inn, William-street, Woolloomooloo
217. Zachariah S. Moore, Sir Maurice O'Connell, Riley-street, Woolloomooloo
218. Charles Morris, Willow Tree, Victoria-street, Woolloomooloo
219. Joseph Brady, Shamrock, Woolloomooloo and Crown streets
220. Daniel Clarke, White Conduit House, Rushcutter Bay
221. Alexander Kyle, Terrace Inn, South Head Road
222. Thomas Blake, Robin Hood, South Head Road
223. Anthony Finn, Pelican Hotel, South Head Road
224. Robert Steel, Rising Sun, South Head Road
225. James Teare, Eagle Tavern, South Head Road
226. William Osborn, Half Moon Inn, South Head Road
227. Christina McDonald, Downshire Arms, South Head Road
228. Stephen Newby, Sportsman's Arms, South Head Road
229. Jane Elizabeth Allison, Queen's Arms, South Head Road
230. Jeremiah Healey, Victoria Inn, South Head Road
231. Thomas Taylor, Happy Vale, South Head Road
232. Benjamin Haigh, Rose and Crown, Glenmore Road
233. Margaret Canavan, Greenwood Tree, South Head Road
234. Michael Newman, Odd Fellows' Arms, South Head Road
235. Isabella Gilchrist, Greenwood Tree, South Head Road
236. John Wilson, Sir William Wallace, South Head Road
237. Thomas Hopkins, Prince Albert Inn, South Head Road
238. Jane Beard, Paddington Inn, Paddington
239. Elizabeth Marshall, Waverley Hotel, Waverley
240. Thomas Newell, South Head Hotel, South Head
241. George Francis Baker, Green Isle, Bourke street, Surry Hills
242. Joseph Benjamin Oliffe, Cookatoo Inn, Bourke-street, Surry Hills
243. John Barlow, Pine Apple, Cross-street, Surry Hills
244. James Bluck, Bluck's Family Hotel, Surry Hills
245. John Robinson, Boundary Stone, Surry Hills
246. Thomas Curtis, Bristol Inn, Crown and Campbell streets
247. Emanuel Martin, Madeira Inn, Devonshire-street
248. Thomas Wheeler, Strawberry Hill Inn, Strawberry Hill
249. William Walsh, Napoleon Inn, Kensington-street
250. David Armstrong, Crown Inn, Chippendale
251. Daniel Hickey, Old Rock of Cashel, Chippendale.
252. William Ryan, Railroad Inn, Chippendale
253. John Doyle, Stirling Castle, Chippendale
254. John Maillon, Chippendale Hotel, Chippendale
255. Michael Williamson, Belfast Wine Vaults, Botany Road
255½. Patrick Casey, Toll Bar Inn, Botany Road
256. James Chamlis, Redfern Inn, Redfern
257. Daniel Toole, General Gough, Botany Road
258 Refused ; leave given to make application on Monday next for re-hearing.
259. Honora Simes, Pilot Inn, Parramatta and Harris streets
260. William Sullivan, Erin's Green Isle, Parramatta street
261. Thomas Bass, Britannia Inn, Parramatta-street
262. William R. Green, Wellington Inn, Parramatta-street
263. John C. Webb, Red Bull, Parramatta-st.
264. Thomas Clune, Clare Castle, Parramatta-street
265. Joseph Holder, Albert Inn, Parramatta-street

On page 3

266. James Harris, Golden Anchor, Parramatta-street
267. George Williams, Australian Inn, Parra-matta-street
268. Margaret Onan, Victoria Inn, Parramatta-street
269. Phil Macdermott, Sportsman, Parramatta-street
270. Peter Brenan, Coopers' Arms, Pyrmont
271. Thomas Burdon, Edinburgh Castle, Pyrmont
272. John Clissold, Foresters' Arms, Glebe
273. Edward Cadden, Glebe Tavern, Glebe
274. James Simpson, Lady of the Lake, Glebe
275. Michael Doyle, Captain Cook, Botany
276. William Beaumont, Sir Joseph Banks, Botany
277. Andrew Guy, Sportsman's Arms, Newtown
278. Thomas Gettens, Robin Hood, Newtown
279. James W. Corbett, Antrim Arms, Newtown
280. Joseph Blackstone, White Horse Inn, Newtown
281. Robert Bates, St. John's Tavern, Newtown
282. George Rose, Pulteney Hotel, Cook's River
283. Michael Gannon, Union Inn, Cook's River
284. William Trinby, Bold Forester, Cook's River
285. Evan Evans, Man of Kent, Cook's River
286. John File, Canterbury Arms, Canterbury
287. Refused 288 Refused
289. William James Stack, Sugar Loaf Inn, Canterbury
290. Thomas Collins, Omnibus Inn, Parramatta Road
291. Richard Williams, Sir Richard Bourke, Parramatta Road
292. William Walker, Union Inn, Camperdown
293. Thomas Perren, Victoria Inn, Camperdown
294. William O'Brien, Royal Oak, Camperdown
295. John Lucas, Patriot, Camperdown 296 Refused
297. George Shirbin, Red Lion, Parramatta Road
298. Not entertained ; applicant being an uncertificated insolvent
299. Thomas Weedon, Cherry Gardens, Parramatta Road
300. Charles Hearne, Baldfaced Stag, Parramatta Road
301. Robert Oliver, Woolpack Inn, Parramatta Road
302. John Jones, Wheelwrights' Arms, Parramatta Road
303. William Henson, Norwood Inn, Parra-matta Road
304. James Clifton, Union Inn, Parramatta Road
305. Jane Hill, Cheshire Cheese, Parramatta Road
306. Lawrence Ryan, Wheat Sheaf, Liverpool Road
307. Charles Whitney, Cottage of Content, Liverpool Road
308. George Davis, Bark Huts, Liverpool Road
309. Mary Aiton, Unity Hall, Balmain
310. Thomas Rostrow, Shipwrights' Arms, Balmain
311. James Barr, Balmain Hotel, Balmain
312. William Carter, Marquis of Waterford, Balmain
313. William Roberts, Burnbank Hotel, Bal-main
314. Thomas Redgrave, Fig Tree Cottage, North Shore
315. Susannah Lavender, Macquarie Inn, North Shore
316. William Dind, Lily of St Leonard's, North Shore
317. Isabella Beirne, Union Inn, North Shore
318. Daniel Gallagher, Traveller's Home, Lane Cove
Note.An application was made by Samuel Taylor, of Canterbury, that a license might be granted to a house occupied by him, to be called the Rising Sun, but having been lodged with the Chief Constable a day too late it was not published with the other applications. It is believed that application will be made for the welfare of the magistrates that it is one of those special applications which the Governor may grant with advantage to the public.

Publicans' licenses. Hobart Town 1846

This is the complete list given at the Annual Meeting of Justices of the Peace for the purpose of granting Publicans' Licenses for the District of Hobart Town (including Kangaroo Point,) held in the Court of Requests' Room.

Tuesday the 1st September 1846

Present were :- Joseph Hone, Esq., Chairman,
Edward Abbott, William Moriarty, Thomas Mason, Thomas Hewitt, William Robertson, William Watchorn, and James Davis, Esquires.

The persons on the list below were granted Certificates:-

Thomas Abray, The Dusty Miller, O'Brien's Bridge

Henry Aburrow Adams, The Royal Oak Inn, Macquarie-st

Thomas Aherne, The Queen's Arms, Harrington-street

John Allen, The Dallas Arms, New Town Road

William Allison, The Uritich Hotel, Liverpool-street

Andrew Fleming Angus, The Jolly Scotchman, Brisbane-st

Peter Ayton, The Waggon and Horses, New Town

Neils Bastian, The Tasmanian Inn, Campbell-street

William Bastian, The Cornish Mount. Barrack-street

John Battersby, The Steam Packet Tavern, Old Wharf

Joseph Thomas Beaumont, The Britannia Inn, Macquarie-street

William George Beaumont, The Shades Tavern, Old Wharf

Robert Beech, The Black Swan, Argyle-street

George Bell, The Hibernian Inn, Liverpool-street

Hubert Bell, The Vine Tavern, Liverpool street

George Blackburn, The York Tavern, Brisbane-street

Samuel Blackhall, The Crown and Anchor, New Town

James Bonney, The Emu Tavern, Liverpool-street

Thomas Brooks, The Fisherman's Anns, Old Wharf

Samuel Burnell, The Rising Sun, Bathurst-street

John Boys, The Nag's Head, Melville-street

John Bridges, The Union Hotel, Campbell street

Richard Burt, The Shipwright's Arms, Battery Point

Ruben Bush, The Duchess of Kent, Murray street

Job Bye, Bye's Hotel, Camphell-street

Francis Canes, Help-me-Through the World, Liverpool st

James Carter, The Mariner's Compass, Murray-street

William Chaffey, The Travellers' Rest, Sandy Bay

William Champion, The Jolly Hatters, Melville street

John Chard, The Peacock, Barrack-street

William Chatley, The Gordon Castle, Liverpool-street

William Cleary, The Sir Thomas Brisbane, Veteran's Row

William Clues, The Lord Rodney, New Wharf

Martin Collins, The Bull's Head, Goulburn-street

Matthew Collins, The Derwent Tavern, Elizabeth-st

Susan Connor, The Kensington Inn, O'Brien's Bridge

Thomas Cooley, The Horse and Jockey, New Town

William Cresswell, The Bridge Inn, Macquarie-street

Adam Cummins, The Lord Nelson, Liverpool street

John Henry Dawson, The Plough Inn, Kangaroo Point

William Dawson, The Sailors Return, Old Wharf

Joseph Day, The Adam and Eve, New Town

William George Donaldson, The English, French, and American Hotel, Macquarie-st

Joseph Donolan, The Maypole Inn, New Town

Henry Dorman, The Waggon and Horses, New Town

William Dove, The Dog and Partridge, Barrack street

William Downie, The Dorchester Butt, Campbell-street

Peter Dudgeon, The Golden Gate, corner of Harrington and Collins-sts

Francis Edeson, The Blue Bells of Scotland, Murray street

John Edgecombe, The Whaler's Return, New Wharf

Henry Ellis, The George and Dragon, Campbell-street

James Featherstone, The Greyhound Inn, Antil street

Joseph Fisher, The Retreat, Brown's River

Anthony Fox, The Hope and Anchor, Macquarie-street

Isaac Friedman, The Kensington Inn, cnr of Bathurst and Argyle sts

Henrietta Garden, The Canterbury Inn, Elizabeth-st.

Susan Garth, The Victoria Inn, Collins-street

Charles Gaylor, The Custom House Tavern and Chop House, New Wharf

Robert Graham, The Royal Oak, Watchorn street

Charles Hartam, The William the Fourth, Liverpool-st

Margaret Harris, The Man of Ross, Liverpool-street

William Hartley, The Pack Horse, Melville-street

James Haughton, The Moulders' Arms, Macquarie st

James Hearll, The Eagle Hawk, New Town Road

Elijah Hedditch, The London Wine Vaults, Liverpool. st

Jeremiah Hefford, The Waterman's Arms, Liverpool st

Joseph Hewlett, The Cross Keys, Liverpool-street

Richard Hill. The Woodpecker, Harrington-street

Thomas Holmes, The Plough and Harrow, Murray-st

Francis Homer, The Saint Patrick, Barrack-street

Israel Hyams, The Rose and Crown, New Town Road

Andrew Jackson and David Manson, The Saracens Head, Macquarie-street

Benjamin Jackson, The Duke of Wellington, corner of Barrack and Macquarie-sts

William Johnson, The City Hotel, Elizabeth-street

Edward Jones, The Prince of Wales, Liverpool-street

Mary Ann Jones, The Angel Inn, Argyle.street

James Kennedy, The Labour-in-Vain, Campbell-street

Francis Laidman, The Lord Melbourne, Melville-street

George Henry Latham, The Rainbow Tavern, Liverpool st

William Lear, The Albion Inn, Elizaheth-street

John Providence Lester, The Ship Hotel, Collins-street

Solomon Hyman Levey, The Caledonian Hotel, Elizabeth-st

John Lewis, The Sir George Arthur, Campbell-street

Frederick Lipscombe, The Beach Tavern, Sandy Bay

Alexander Livingstone, The Black Bull, Harrington-st.

Thomas Lovick, The City of Norwich, cnr of Argyle and High-sts

James Lowe. The Mogul Tavern, cnr of Argyle and Collins-sts

Ann M'Andrew, The Duke of Clarence, Murray-street

John M'Grath, The Victoria Tavern, Murray street

Hugh M'Guinniss, The Highlander Inn, Macquarie-st.

Thomas M'Namara. The London Holet, Campbell-st.

Henry Marshall, The Star Inn, Goulbourne street

James Martin, The Haberdashers' Arms, Elizabeth St.

John Marlin, The British Hotel, Liverpool-street

John Martin, The Butchers' Arms, Argyle-street

William Horatio Mason, The Rainbow Inn, New Town Road

James Matches, The Brown Bear, cnr of Bathurst and Hamilton-streets

John Mezger, The Bird in Hand, Argyle-street

George Mills, The Brunswick Wine Vaults, Liverpool-st.

William Mitchell, The Doctor Syntax, Sandy Bay

William Montgomery, The Golden Anchor, Murray street

Edward Moore, the Belvidere Wine Vaults, Elizabeth-street

Frederick Moore, The Prince of Wales, Hampden Road

Henry Morris, The York Hotel, Glenorchy

William Edward Mullagh, The Turnpike Gate, Restdown

Joseph Oakley received a license to sell on board the 'Thames Steamer,' to run between Hobart Town and New Norfolk.

Henry Oliver, The Verandah Wine Vaults, Elizabeth street

John Alfred Outridge, The Old Fox Inn, Glenorchy

William Page Wells, The Fountain Inn, Argyle-street

Edward Paine, The Glasgow Wine Vaults, Elizabeth street

John Paisley, The Freemasons; Arms, Murray-street

John Parker, The Swan Inn, Liverpool-st

Frederick Paterson, The New Wharf Wine Vaults, New Wharf

John Paterson,The Thatched House Tavern, cnr of Argyle & Collins-sts

Joseph Perkins, The Royal Standard, New Town Road

John Petchey, the Highlander Inn, Kangaroo Point

Samuel Phipps, The Eardley Arms, Melbourne-street

Francis Piesse, The Berriedale Inn, Glenorchy

George Pollock, The Ordnance Arms, Liverpool-street

Richard Poole, The Quarryman's Arms, Argyle-street

Lewis Prentis, The Pickwick Tavern, Liverpool-street

James Priest, The Joiner's Arms, Davey-street

Thomas Priest, The Good Woman, Argyle street

William Punshon, The Gray's Inn Tavern, Patrick-st.

Richard Ramsden, The Whale Fishery Tavern, Bathurst street

Robert Rees, The Golden Fleece, Elizabeth-street

James Allan Reeves, The Wheat Sheaf, Macquarie st

Elizabeth Reynolds, The Shamrock Inn, Harrington-st.

John Richardson, The Turf Tavern, Murray street

Thomas Richardson, The Ocean Child, Argyle street

Joseph Riches, The Oporto Wine Vaults, Liverpool-st

Samuel Ridler, The Fortune of War, Marquarie-street

William Robertson, The Hammer-in-Hand Park-street

Thomas Robinson, The Saint Andrew's, Harrington-st.

Peter Albertus De Roock, The Stag and Hounds, Harrington st

Francis James Ball Robotham,The Black Prince, Elizabeth-st

Frederick Saville, The Derwent Hotel, Murray-street

John Shadwick, The Prince Albert, Collins-street

William Sharman, The Birmingham Arms, Murray street

Daniel Simpson, The Globe Inn, Davey-street

James Simpson, The Bricklayers' Arms, New Town Road

William Sims, The Commercial Inn, Collins street

James Smith, The Golden Cross, Murray-street

John Smith, The Greyhound Inn, Elizabeth street

John Smith, The Masons' Arms, Burnett-street

Mary Ann Smith, The Old Bell, Elizabeth-street

William Smith. The Harvest Home, New Town Road

William Smith, The White Pheasant, Upper Goulboune street

Thomas Spiller, The Travellers Home, Goubourn street

Mark Stump, The White Horse, Liverpool-street

William Sykes, The King George, New Wharf

James Thomas, The Emerald Tavern, Molle-street

Henry Thompson, The Union Club Hotel, Murray-st.

Thomas Thompson,The Man-of-War, cnr of Argyle and Brisbane sts

John Tilley, The Sawyers' Arms, Murray-street

John Trump, The Red Lion, Liverpool-street

Caleb Tupping, The Freemasons' Hotel, Harrington. street

William Turner, The Bowling Green Hotel, Sandy Bay Road

Francis Tynan, The Albermarle Arms, Goulbourn-street

Daniel Walagan, The Old Commodore, Brisbane-street

Robert Walker, The Davey-street Bottling Department, Davey-st

William Walker, The Bay Horse, Goulbourne-street

Henry Webb, The Neptune Inn, New Wharf

William Webb, The Elephant and Castle, Bathurst st.

Samuel Wellard, The Traveller's Rest, Glenorchy

John West, The Rob Roy, Liverpool-street

Thomas White The Lamb Inn, Brisbane-street

James Wiggins, The King's Arms, Murray-street

James Williams, The Stowell Arms, Elizabeth-street

Edward Wilson,The Sir John Falstaff, cnr of Collins & Murray sts

John Gittins Winter, The Cascade, Macquarie-street

Jane Mary Wise, The Waterloo Hotel, Murray street

William Hinds Wolding, The Lame Horse, High street

William Dawson Wood, The Seven Stars, Old Market Place

complete transcription by janilye 29 July 2005

Note: The Thames Steamer left The Old Wharf in Hobart Town for New Norfolk on Monday, Wednesday and Friday mornings at 8:00 and returned every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday afternoon at 2:00pm.

The photograph below shows the old Wharf with the Steam Packet Tavern on the left.
Title inscribed on verso in pencil.
"Beattie's Studios, Hobart"

Rachel EATHER and John NORRIS decendants

The Family of Rachel Eather 1807-1875
John Norris 1803-1864

Rachel Eather, youngest daughter of the pioneers, Thomas EATHER and Elizabeth nee, LEE
On the 17th December, two months after she turned sixteen, she was married to John Norris, the eldest son of Richard NORRIS 1776-1843 and Mary Norris, nee WILLIAMS 1778-1863 who had a farm at Cornwallis. Witnesses at the wedding were John's brother Richard, Rachels brother Thomas Eather and Sarah McAlpin, who became her sister-in-law the following year.

John Norris was a Catholic and the wedding was conducted at Cornwallis by the rites of the Roman Catholic faith. The wedding was registered at St.Mary's in the register of Roman Catholic Marriages.

John NORRIS met a violent death at Sally's Bottoms, Kurrajong, on the 26th. September 1864 when he was thrown from a loaded cart and crushed beneath the wheel. His widow later went to Spring Creek, near Orange, where Rachel died on 3 August 1875.

One of the NORRIS children Rebecca (who married John COOK) spent nearly 40 years after their marriage at Coonamble where they kept the "Morning Star" hotel.

1. Maria NORRIS b: 1824, married (1) Patrick DUNN 1823-1850, on 30 January 1843. The children of this marriage were:-
Elizabeth Leticia Dunn 1843 1845
Rachel Anne Dunn 1845
(2) Peter PAGE 1816-1878 on the 4 September 1859. The children of this marriage were :-
Maria Amelia Page 1851 1924
Peter John Page 1856 1922
Thomas Page 1862
Catherine Emma Page 1865 1869

2. Harriet NORRIS b:15th. December 1824 d:10 October 1841. buried 11 October 1841 Windsor Catholic Cemetery.

3. Michael John NORRIS b:1832 in Cornwallis, NSW and died 1909, Wellington New South Wales married (i) Jane COLBRAN 1838-1875 at St.Matthews Catholic Church Windsor in 1854 The children of this marriage were:-
John Joseph Norris 1854
Thomas Norris 1856 1857
Mary Jane Norris 1858 1948
James M Norris 1860 1943
Dominick J Norris 1862
Agnes R Norris 1864 1865
Francis S Norris 1866
Herbert Norris 1868
Walter Norris 1872
Alice Lavinia Norris 1874 1970
Garrett Norris 1875 1877
Abraham Norris 1876 1971
Unnamed Norris 1877 1877
(ii) Barbara Ellen PASCOE, nee GRUBB 1842-1895 married in 1878 in Orange NSW one child Kathleen Ada b:1881

4. Elizabeth NORRIS b:27 October 1834 in Hobart, Tasmania. d: 25 August 1894 at North Richmond. Married in 2 November 1854 Cornelius MCMAHON b:1824-1894 at St.Matthews Catholic Church, Windsor. The children were:-
Thomas McMahon 1855 1890 John McMahon 1857 1865
Mary Elizabeth McMahon 1859 1919
Rachael Louise McMahon 1862 1950
Michael Stephen McMahon 1864 1914
Peter Matthew McMahon 1866 1922
James Joseph McMahon 1868 1940
Catherine Jane McMahon 1871
Abraham Michael McMahon 1873 1954
Harriet Cecelia McMahon 1876 1932
George Stephen Cornelius McMahon 1878 1949

5. Thomas NORRIS b: 17 July 1836 Derwent, Tasmania d: 26 July 1903 married Catherine London 1843-1911 on 30 October 1861 in Richmond New South Wales. The children of this marriage were:-
Percival Norris 1865 1926
Henrietta Norris 1868 1899
Frederick Joseph Norris 1869 1940
Nell Norris 1869 1869
Marie Josephine Norris 1873 1959
Rachel L Norris 1875 1957
Thomas H Norris 1878 1903
Ada Alice Norris 1880
John Norris 1882

6. Rachel NORRIS b:3 November 1839 Tasmania d:1 July 1915 in Dubbo, married John Michael COLBRAN 1836-1914 on the 27 June 1855 the children of this marriage were:-
Michael John Colbran 1857 1934
Robert Colbran 1859 1929
Mary Jane Colbran 1861 1911
James Colbran 1863 1864
Rebecca Colbran 1866 1866
Stephen Colbran 1867 1870
Emily Colbran 1868 1937
Sarah A Colbran 1871
Caroline Colbran 1873
Angelina Colbran 1876 1947
Thomas Henry Colbran 1878 1948
Clara L Colbran 1881 1883
Frederick William Colbran 1884 1962

7. Ann NORRIS b:19 March 1842, Kurrajong, d:25 August 1931. Married Henry F. GREEN 1839-1916 on 27 May 1862 at Richmond. The children of this marriage were:-
John H Green 1863
William T Green 1865 1944
Robert Michael Green 1867 1949
Mary Ann Green 1869
Margaret R Green 1871 1934
Eva Jane Green 1873
Ernest Sydney Green 1875
James Stephen Green 1877 1927
Minnie Emma Green 1880 1968
Esther Cecelia Green 1883 1971

8. Rebecca NORRIS b: 30 June 1844, Kurrajong and died in Oatley,26 January 1936. Married John COOK 1843-1915 on 31 May 1865 at Richmond. Yhe children of this marriage were :_
Michael William Cook 1866 1928
Agnes Rachel Cook 1868
Ada Cook 1869 1949
Amy Cook 1871 1953
Amos John Cook 1872
Emily A (Bette) Cook 1874
Minnie Ann Cook 1877 1957
Esther Cecilia Cook 1879 1882
Richard Henry Cook 1881 1924
Louisa Jane Cook 1883 1953

9. Stephen NORRIS b:1846 Kurrajong and d: 18 September 1888 in Dubbo N.S.W. married Ellen MCGUINESS 1855-1962 in Dubbo in 1875. The children of this marriage were:-
Stephen John Norris 1876 1959
Caroline Amelia Norris 1879
Ethel M Norris 1882
James Norris 1885
Stephen Norris 1887

10. Susannah Mary NORRIS b:7 March 1852 Kurrajong and died 9 September 1940 married (1) Isaac Cook 1846-1895 on the 13 September 1870 in Orange N.S.W.The children of this marriage were:-
Frederick Cook 1871 1947
Libby (Matilda)Ann Cook 1873
Isaac John Cook 1874 1953
Esther Cook 1876 1877
Albert Stephen Cook 1877 1925
Michael Amos Cook 1880 1941
Elsie Eva Rubina Cook 1892 1969
(2) Susannah Mary next married Alfred T DRUITT 1859-1934 in 1898 at Dubbo, New South Wales.

Rachel KIRBY nee CARR formerly BEITZ 1864-1939

Born Rachel CARR 21 May 1864. at Old Machar, Aberdeen,Scotland. Rachel's parents Margaret and John Carr had 6 children - a boy (who died of rheumatic fever at 10 yrs) followed by 5 girls. When the mother, Margaret, died (tuberculosis) in 1869, and the father, John, died (pleuritis) in 1870, Margaret Carr (John's sister who never married) looked after the girls until her death (tumour) in 1878. The two youngest girls were put into the Female Orphan Institute, 19 Albyn Place, Aberdeen, and in July 1883 the girls all migrated to Queensland, Australia; only one Sophia had married in Scotland and her husband came out too.

Rachel, nee CARR 1869-1939 and Carl Friedrich BEITZ 1872-1906 were married on the 12 August 1884 at St.Paul's Church of England, Roma, Queensland.all born in Queensland were:-

1.Minnie BEITZ 1889 - 1941 m Charles Herbert EATHER 1872-1942 in 1905 the son of Thomas EATHER 1843-1900 and Jane BARNETT 1845-1932.
The children of this marriage were:-

Isabel Victoria EATHER 1906 xxxx
Charles Herbert Leslie EATHER 1908 1986 m. Laura May DALEY 1911-1974
Walter Barnett EATHER 1909 1999 m. Alfreda Jean KENT 1911-2006
Warwick George EATHER 1913 1914

2.Francis Frederick BEITZ 1891 -1926 m. Florence Joan HACKER 1888-1919 the daughter of Charles HACKER and Myra BYRD, in Roma, Queensland, in 1912 they had one child Doris Irene BEITZ 1919 2003 Florence died 30 January 1919 in Brisbane. Francis Frederick next married Olive May KENNEDY 1893-xxxx at Brisbane in 1919 this couple had two children; Francis James Beitz 1921 2007 and Leslie George Beitz 1929 1929

3.Charles Frederick BEITZ 1893-1944 m. Norah BOWDEN 1892-1975 in Queensland in 1915.
The children (I have found) from this marriage were:-

Irene Cecilia Beitz 1916 1982
William David Beitz 1917 1975
Gordon Thomas Beitz 1921 1942
Charles Bernard Beitz 1922 1985
Harold John Beitz 1926 1987
Joan Esme Beitz 1930 1987

4.Rachel Ann BEITZ 1895-1985 m. William Munro HENDERSON 1889-1982

5.William Frederick BEITZ 1897-1917 Killed in Action 4 March 1917, France

6.Henry Frederick Carl BEITZ 1898-1951 m. Dorothy Margaret Louisa MURRAY 1901-1953 in Queensland in 1923. A son of this marriage was Mervyn Henry Norman Beitz 1925 2002

7.Ernest Frederick Joseph BEITZ 1901-1926 m. Violet Emily GRIEVE 1900-xxxx in Queensland in 1921

8.Allan John Frederick BEITZ 1905-1944 m. Julia Mary KNOWLES in Queensland in 1924

In 1910 at Queensland the widow, Rachel BEITZ nee CARR next married Robert KIRBY, born in 1859 at Easington Yorkshire, England. The son of John Kirby 1818-1892 and Mary Ann DOBSON 1826-1895. This marriage ended when Robert died at Roma, Queensland in 1918.

The photograph from the Australian War Memorial is Private (Pte) Henry Frederick Beitz, 49th Battalion, of Brisbane, Qld, 379 Pte William Frederick Beitz, 41st Battalion, of Roma, Qld, and their mother Mrs Rachel Kirby. Henry and William were station hands prior to enlisting on 14 January 1916. Pte Henry Beitz embarked from Sydney with the 2nd Reinforcements on board SS Hawkes Bay on 20 April 1916. He was wounded in action in France on 4 April 1917 and returned to Australia in October 1919. Pte William Beitz embarked with the 41st Battalion from Sydney on board HMAT Demosthenes (A64) on 18 May 1916. He died, aged 20, on 4 March 1917 of wounds received in action in France.

5 comment(s), latest 1 year, 8 months ago

Re- Your Irish Coat of Arms

In the words of Edward MacLysaght, the first Chief Herald of Ireland ...

"The subject of Irish families is one in which much interest is evinced, but the popular books usually consulted and regarded as authoritative, particularly in America, are in fact unreliable. The inaccurate and misleading information thus imparted with cumulative effect is, however, much more deplorable in the armorial sphere than in the genealogical.
It is an indisputable fact that the publication presenting colour plates of Irish arms which is probably most widely consulted is no less than seventy per cent inaccurate, not only in mere detail, but often in points of primary importance and of an elementary kind. Apart from their many grotesque heraldic blunders the compilers of this work seem to have had a sort of rule of thumb; if they could not find arms for one Irish sept they looked for the name of another somewhat resembling it in sound: thus, for example, they coolly assigned the arms of Boylan to Boland. This frequently resulted in the arms of some purely English family being inserted in their book of 'Irish Arms' the Saxon Huggins being equated with O'Higgins, and so on. When this arbitrary method failed them they fell back on the arms of some great Irish sept. To quote one instance of this: Gleeson, Noonan and McFadden are all given the arms of O'Brien, though none of these septs had any connexion whatever with the O'Briens or with each other. Consequently many Americans of Irish descent are in good faith using erroneous and often English arms derived from the spurious source in question.
A certain cachet has been given to this because, in the more recent editions of O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees [published after the author's death - Ed], these same coloured plates have been inserted as if they were an integral part of O'Hart's book.
The serious genealogist uses O'Hart with caution, if at all, for he is a far from reliable authority except for the quite modern period. John O'Hart, however, undoubtedly did a vast amount of research, no matter how he used the information he acquired: I know that some of these errors of ascription can actually be traced to him, but it is surely an injustice to him that his well known name should be used as a cover for the propagation of false and often ludicrous heraldic statements."

Readleaf Wabasha - Wapasha 1 1720 - 1806

Wapasha I born Abt. 1720 and died on the 5 January 1806

Wapasha I was the son of a Dakota chief and a Chippewa princess. Born in approximately 1720, he was the eldest of two sons. Despite his Chippewa blood, Wapasha I led the Sioux in several battles with his mothers tribe. One such incident marks the first recorded reference of his name by the white men.

After a band of Sioux warriors slew several Chippewa, a tribe which had been promised protection by the French, Wapasha and those with him on the raid offered to submit to French justice in order to keep peace with the incoming military forces of the Europeans. On March 9, 1740, the action was recorded by the commander of the French garrison at Mackinac, Michigan. No retribution was taken against the Sioux.

After military defeats at the hands of the British in the middle 1700s, the French began to withdraw from lands they had formerly held in the Mississippi River valley. The French had enjoyed the loyalty of the Indians, who aided them in their defeat with the British. After the French defeat, the English were both suspicious and fearful of the Indians. As a result, there were no English trappers and traders bargaining with the Sioux. The Sioux had developed a dependency on such trade. They had become more accustomed to hunting with rifles than bows and arrows. Fur traded with French trappers brought provisions and ammunition and the Dakota found it difficult to survive without this commerce.

Perhaps also fearing a war with the British, Wapasha I convened a council in 1763 to find a way to bring the British back to this area. Several incidents that took place during the French and Indian War made English trappers apprehensive about returning to the Mississippi River valley. One such incident took place in 1761. A Dakota named Ixkatapay had shot an English trader called Pagonta (Mallard Duck) by the Indians. The two had quarreled earlier, and Pagonta was reportedly killed while sitting in his cabin smoking. To appease the British, it was decided Ixkatapay would be turned over to them for the killing. Wapasha I led the party, composed of 100 men, to the English headquarters in Quebec.

Wapashas enthusiasm for peace with the English was shared by the tribe, but evidently this did not extend to submitting one of their own to the justice of the British. By the time Wapasha had reached Green Bay, Wisconsin, there were only six of the original 100 left, Wapasha and five braves. The others had drifted off in small groups. One of these deserting bands had taken Ixkatapay with them and returned to their homelands.

Wapasha I and the remaining five continued to Quebec and offered themselves as surrogates for Ixkatapay in the English court. He explained the plight of his people and their desire for peace, and asked the British to return to the area. Taken with his courage, the British awarded the Dakota chief seven military medals, hanging one around his neck in a ceremony at the fort. Trappers and traders soon returned to the area.

During the American Revolution, the Sioux fought on the side of the British. Wapasha led his warriors against the Sauk and Fox forces which had sided with the rebelling colonists. In British military communiqués, he is referred to as General Wapasha. His aid in the British cause during the revolution was not forgotten. When he traveled to Montreal on one of his many visits to the British army commanders there, he was always greeted with the salute of a cannon.

Wapasha I died of neck cancer January 5, 1806, at a camp on the Root River in Houston County, Minnesota. He was probably somewhere in his 80s when he died, ending a public career that spanned 66 years.

Below is a photograph of Redleaf Wabasha b:1720 Cass Lake, Cass, Minnesota and died 5 January 1806 at Root River, Houston, Minnesota. the son of Snow Mountain Wabasha 1682.
Readleaf was the father of Chief One Eye WABASHA 1773-1836 and Angelique WABASHA souix name Noh-Ki-A-Keu

Rebecca SMALL 1789-1883

It is said that Rebecka Small was the first Currency Lass to be married in Australia when she married Francis OAKES at the St.John's Church of England in Parramatta on the 27 January 1806.

Rebecka born on the 22 September 1789, in Pitt Street Sydney in the little cottage right next door to the first Government House in Sydney. The daughter of First Fleeters.

Her father John SMALL was born in Birmingham on the 30 November 1761 the son of John Small 1723-1790 and his wife Rebecca, nee ASHFORD.
He joined the 33rd Company of the Plymouth Division of the Marine Corps at Birmingham on 16 April 1781. He sailed on 'HMS Lively' to New York and then to the West Indies. His ship was taken over by American rebel prisoners, who had been held captive on board. He was taken as a prisoner to Havana where he remained until after the War of Independence May 1783.

When peace was signed in 1783 John and other English prisoners were exchanged for Spanish prisoners and he eventually got back to Port Plymouth in August 1783.

Along with Stephen DAVENPORT, John HERBERT and Robert ELLWOOD, John then became a highwayman, He was caught, tried and sentenced to death on the 14th of Mar 1785 for crimes againest James Burt in the King's Highway. He was extended mercy on 5th of April 1785 conditional to serving 7 years he spent two years on the hulk Dunkirk then was transported on the'Charlotte' and he died in Ryde, a Sydney suburb on the 2 October 1850. He became Captain Phillips personal servant, and was nicknamed 'The Sergeant'

John Small died at the age of 88 on the 2 Oct 1850 at this time he was the last known First Fleet convict to die in NSW.

His wife Mary PARKER, had been born in Chelsea on the 26 August 1758. Mary had been transported on the 'Lady Penrhyn' for theft. Mary met John at Government House where she was assigned as a servant. Mary accidently drowned in a dam on their property at Kissing Point on the 4 April 1824.
During roadworks at Devlin Street Ryde, a grave, said to be Mary's was found. The remains re-interred at the Ryde Cemetery and a plaque added in 1979.

John SMALL and Mary, nee PARKER were married at St.Phillips Church of England, Sydney on the 12 October 1788.

The children of this marriage were:-

*1.Rebecca SMALL 17891883 m. Francis OAKES 1770-1844. The children of this marriage were:-

Elizabeth Oakes 18061889 Ann Oakes 18081880
Mary Oakes 18101880 George Oakes 18131881
Rebecca Oaks 18151904 Sussanah Hassal Oakes 18161907
Francis Rowland Oakes 18181886 Lucy Oakes 18191828
Rowland Hassal Oakes 18211888 Samuel Oakes 18221822
James Lawry Oakes 18241853 John leigh Oakes 18261901
Martha Oakes 18281910 William Oakes 18311881

2.Mary SMALL 17911879 m. Matthew HUGHES Poss.1770-1845 the children of this marriage were:-

Margaret Hughes 18121863 Ann Hughes 18151902
Robert Hughes 1816 1818 Mary Hughes 18181902
James Henry Hughes 18201886 Matthew Henry Hughes 18221905
Thomas Henry Hughes 18241908 Elizabeth Hancox Hughes 18261853
Eliza Rebecca Hughes 18281921 Martha Hughes 18301901
Charlotte Hughes 18321919 William Charles Hughes 18371900
Henry Francis Hughes 18391930

3.John SMALL 17941883 m. Elizabeth PATFIELD 1802-1870 on 31 October 1820 The children of this marriage were:-

John Frederick Small 18211897 Ann Small 18251904
Eliza Small 18281907 Sophie Small 18311831
George Small 18321910 Jane Small 18341835
Mary Small 18361924 James Small 18381914
Harriet Small 18421932 Rebecca Small 18451923
Henry Edward Small 18471918

4.William SMALL 17961891 m. Charlotte MELVILLE 1803-1885 on the 18 June 1820. The children of this marriage were :-

Elizabeth Small 18211916 William Small 18241892
Robert Small 1826 1906 Thomas Small 18291920
Samuel Small 18341910 Henry Small 1837 1900
George Septimus Small 18391912 Susannah Martha Small 1841 1907
Andrew Octavius Small 18431932

5.Thomas SMALL 17991863 m. Priscilla Mason SQUIRE 1792-1862 on 17 December 1821. The children of This marriage were :-

Thomas Small 18221893 Suzannah Small 18241858
Elizabeth Small 18261905 William Small 18281905
Samuel Small 18301915 Timothy Small 18351911
Priscilla Small 18381851

t6.Samuel SMALL 18041889 m. Rachel Rebecca BRADLEY 1811-1891 on the 14 October 1833. The children of this marriage were:-

Rachel Lynn Small 1831 ? Samuel Small 18331912
Elizabeth Small 1836 1919 James Small 18411912
Joseph Small 18411921 John Joseph Small 18431921
Rebecca Small 18471937 Reuben SMALL 18501852
Robert Small 18531915 Charlotte Small 18551939

t7.Sarah SMALL 18041861 m. George PATFIELD on the 31 October 1820 at St.Phillips, Sydney. The children of this marriage were:-

George Patfield 18221839 Susannah Patfield 18241852
John Patfield 1827-1920 Thomas Patfield 18301920
Mary Patfield 18321918 Samuel Joseph Patfield 18341910
Elizabeth Patfield 18381857 Joseph Patfield 18421930

Currency Lads and Currency Lasses was a term used to describe the first generation of Australian-born, mostly the children of convicts or emancipists of British or Irish descent. currency referred to the paper money that Macquarie issued in Sydney from 1810. As this local pound was depreciated against the sterling, the word currency, as recorded by (Peter Cunningham in Two Years in New South Wales (1827)), implied inferiority. By contrast, sterling identified the superior class of free emigrants. The physical and behavioural characteristics of currency lads and lasses impressed contemporary observers. J. T. Bigge in 1820 described them as tall and slender, of fair complexion, stronger and healthier than the English-born, active in their habits, lively and assertive, and optimistic about the future; and observed that these qualities provided a remarkable exception to the moral and physical character of their parents. Their brash assertiveness and penchant for toasting themselves reflected both pride in their currency status and loyalty to their native land, which, they claimed, gave them greater rights to land than free British-born settlers. Russel Ward saw their belief in democracy and egalitarianism, and disdain for authority and new chums, as critical to the development of the Australian character. W. C. Wentworth was the most celebrated currency lad; others were Daniel Deniehy and Hamilton Hume. A paper called The Currency Lad appeared from 183233, and the currency lass was the subject of Edward Geoghegan's musical comedy of 1844. They are the subject of (John Molony's The Native Born (2000)).

The photograph below is Rebecca OAKES nee SMALL taken later in life.

4 comment(s), latest 3 years, 7 months ago