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Now-a-days wives are occasionally treated with barbarity. When they are, however the husbands are severely dealt with by law. But at one time wives were considered as a mercenary commodity, and the disposal of them for a certain price was a not uncommon occurrence, being recorded in newspapers as " items of everyday news." During this period of dormant sympathy, it was generally considered as lawful for a husband to sell his spouse by auction to the highest bidder, "provided he delivered her over with a halter round her neck." Strange as it may seem, the wife was frequently found to be in favour of the transaction, probably agreeing with the adage that "changes are lightsome."
In July, 1797, The Times in reference to the price of wives, said "By some mistake in our report of the Smithfield Market, we had not learned the average price of wives for the last week. The increasing value of the fair sex is esteemed by several eminent writers as a certain criterion of increasing civilisation. Smithfield has, on this ground, strong pretensions to refined improvement, as the price of wives has risen in that market from half-a-guinea to three guineas and a-half."
Even in the early years of the 19th. century, cases of the sale of wives in public are recorded.
A few instances of such sales, which appeared in a recent number of "All the Year Round," will be read with considerable interest and amusement:-
In 1750 a man and his wife falling into discourse with a grazier, at Parham, in Norfolk, the husband offered him his wife in exchange for an ox, provided he would let him choose one out of his drove. The grazier accepted the proposal, and the wife readily agreed to it. Accordingly, they met the next day, when the woman was delivered to the grazier, with a new halter round her neck, and the husband received a bullock which he subsequently sold for six guineas.
The first recorded sale after the accession of George III., occurred in the month of March, 1766 in this case a carpenter of Southwark, named Higginson, went into an ale-house for his morning draught: there he met a fellow carpenter, and their conversation turned to wives. The carpenter, whose name, history has not recorded, lamented that he had no wife. Higginson, on the other hand, lamented that he had, and expressed regret there was no way except murder by which he could rid himself of her. The carpenter assured Higginson that there was a way, the old English custom had made it quite lawful for a husband to sell his own rib. " No one would be such a fool as to buy mine," sighed Higginson. "I would do so," the other promptly replied, "and would think I had made a good bargain, too."
"Done!" shouted the delighted husband, who clinched the bargain on the spot. Mrs. Higginson was duly claimed by her new lord, and went willingly enough and lived with him as his wife.
In a few days, however, Higginson either grew tired of his mateless home or suspected that he had not done right, and went to the other carpenter's house, demanding his wife back. Mrs. Higginson strenuously refused to leave her new lord. "A sale is a sale," said she, "and not a joke."
Higginson went again and again, but to no purpose, and after a week or two he ceased calling. His wife had just begun to conclude that he had at last quietly resigned his claim, when she was cited to appear before a coroner's jury and identify her husband who had settled the question by hanging himself. (The price paid for the woman is not recorded.)
Another sale occurred in the summer of 1767. In this case, however, the man selling the "chattel" had no legal right over it, she being simply a wife by courtesy. Her reputed husband was a bricklayer's labourer, residing at Marylebone, and the price at which she was valued was five shillings and three pence and a gallon of beer. Three weeks after the sale, when the lady was duly housed with her new lord, a wealthy uncle of hers, residing in Devonshire, died, and, quite unexpectedly, acknowledged the kinship by leaving her two hundred pounds and a quantity of plate. The new protector at once decided to sanctify the union by a ceremony of the Church, and so became her husband indeed, and of course, the possessor of the legacy, there being no Married Woman's Property
Act in those days.
Edgbaston, Birmingham, was the scene of the next sale of this character which had to be reeorded. It took place in the month of August, 1773, and the facts are these :Three men and three women went into the Bell Inn. Edgbaston-street, Birmingham, and called for the toll-book, which was kept there. In this they made the following extraordinary entry: "August, thirty first, 1773. Samuel Whitehouse, of the parish of Willenhill, in the county of Stafford, this day sold his wife, Mary Whitehouse, in open market, to Thomas Griffiths, of Birmingham. Value one shilling. To take her with all faults. (Signed) Samuel Whitehouse, Mary Whitehouse. (Voucher) Thomas Buckley,
of Birmingham." The parties were said to be well pleased, and the purchase-money and the market toll, demanded for the toll, were both cheerfully paid.
This Ipswich Journal, January 28, 1737, states that : "A farmer of the parish of Stownpland sold his wife to a neighbour for five guineas, and being happy to think he had made a good bargain, presented her with a guinea to buy a new gown. He then went to Stowmarket and gave orders for the bells to he rung on the occasion."
The London Chronicle for the 1st of December, 1787, reported that : "On Monday last a person named Goward led his wife to the market place at Nuneaton, and there sold and delivered her up, with a halter about her, to one White, for the sum of three guineas. On their way Goward asked his wife if she was not ashamed of being brought to open market to be sold ; she said she was not, and was happy to think she was going to have another husband, for she knew well who was going to be her purchaser. When they came to the place Goward embraced his wife and wished her well, upon which she returned the compliment. White declared himself extremely well satisfied, and paid down the money, assuring the quondam husband it was good and full weight. The purchase being completed, White gave the ringers a handsome treat to ring a peal, and they spent the remainder of the day with the greatest joy imaginable."
A Case which occurred in 1790 is slightly different to the foregoing, for it is the record of a girl who
actually bought her husband. She was an Oxfordshire lass, and was on the eve of marriage to a young man of the same county, when the bridegroom elect would not consent to name the day unless her friends would advance fifty pounds for her dowry. Her friends being two poor to comply with this demand, the lass, who evidently thought a mercenary husband better than no husband at all, went to London and sold her hair, which was deli- cately long and light, to a chapman in the Strand for three pounds per ounce. As it weighed just twenty ounces, she returned with joy to Oxfordshire with sufficient money to buy her exacting husband, and ten pounds to boot."
It was not just in England where we have recorded the sale of wives but in New South Wales as late as 1803 we have early settler, Israel Rayner, selling his wife Catherine Carpenter. She walked out on Israel and went to live with her lover, Henry Baldwin and refused to return. When Henry Baldwin paid no heed to Israel's threats of legal action, a deal was struck and Israel sold Catherine to Henry for six bushels of wheat and a pig.
The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser
Tuesday 26 September 1893
Victoriavane Word Press
transcription, janilye 2012
Alderson's Mounted infantry
Amphlett's Mounted hfantry
2 Cavalry Household Cavalry
1st King's Dragoon Guards
2nd Scots Greys
lst & 2nd Life Guards,
lst & 2nd Royal Horse Guards (Blues)
6th lnniskilling Dragoons
5th Royal Irish Lancers
9th Queen's Lancers
12th Prince of Wales Royal Lancers
16th (Queen's) Lancers
17th (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers
3rd Hussars (King's Own)
7th Hussars ( Queen's Own)
8th King's Royal Irish Hussars
10th Hussars (Prince of Wales's Own)
14th (King's) Hussars
18th (Victoria Mary, Princess of Wales's Own) Hussars
19th (Queen Alexandra's Own Royal) Hussars
20th Hussars Imperial Yeomanry
lst, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, l0th, llth, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th,
Royal Artillery Horse Field Garrison
Honorable Artillery Company
Natal Hotchkiss Detachment
Royal Artillery Mounted RiflesInfantry
1st & 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys)
6th (lnniskilling)Dragoon Guards,
Ist (King's)Dragoon Guards
2nd ( Queen's Bays)Dragoon Guards
3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards
5th ( Princess Charlotte of Wales's) Dragoon Guards
6th (Carabiniers) Dragoon Guards
7th (Princess Royal's) Devonshire Regiment,
lst& 2nd Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
2nd Royal lrish Fusiliers
1st Royal Irish Regiment
1st King's Royal Rifle Corps (60th Rifles)
2nd Kings Royal Rifle Corps
3rd King's Royal Rifle Corps
4th King's Royal Rifle Corps
9th King's Rifle Corps
2nd Royal Irish RiflesRoyal Dublin Fusiliers,
1st & 2nd East Kent Regiment (The Buffs)
2nd Royal West Kent Regiment (The Queen's Own)Border Regiment,
1st Coldstream Guards,
1st & 2ndDuke of Cornwall's Light Infantry,
2nd Grenadier Guards,
2nd & 3rdScots Guards,
1st Royal Scots,
1st & 3rd West Surrey,
2nd (The Queen's)Northumberland Fusiliers
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders,
1st Royal Fusiliers,
2nd King's Liverpool Regiment,
The Lincolnshire Regiment,
2nd The King's Own Liverpool Regiment,
1st Manchester Regiment,
1st & 2nd Duke of Cambridge's Own Middlesex Regiment,
2nd Suffolk Regiment,
1st Bedfordhire Regiment,
2nd Leicestershire Regiment,
1st Yorkshire Regiment,
1st East Yorkshire Regiment
2nd West Yorkshire Regiment,
2nd Lancashire Fusiliers
2nd Royal Lancaster Regiment
Royal Scots Fusiliers,
2nd Cheshire Regiment,
2nd Royal Welsh Fusiliers
South Wales Borderers,
2nd King's Own Scottish Borderers,
1st Shropshire Light infantry,
2nd (King's)Somersetshire Light Infantry
2nd (Prince Albert's)Scottish Rifles
1st Scottish Rifles
2nd ( The Cameronians)Scottish Rifles
4th Gloustershire Regiment,
1st & 2nd Worcestershire Regiment,
1st & 2nd East Surrey Regiment,
2nd Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry (West Riding Regiment),
1st (Duke of Wellington's) Royal Sussex,
1st Royal Warwickshire Regiment,
2nd Hampshire Regiment,
2nd Dorsetshire Regiment,
2nd Welsh Regiment,
1st Royal Welsh Fusileers,
1st Black Watch,
2nd Bn (Royal Highlanders)Oxford Light lnfantry Essex Regiment,
1st & 2nd Derbyshire Regiment
1st (Sherwood Foresters)1st Royal North Lancashire Regiment
1st East Lancashire Regiment
1st South Lancashire Regiment
2nd King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry,
2nd King's Shropshire Light Infantry,
2nd King's Royal Rifles, Wiltshire Regiment,
2nd (Duke of Edinburgh's)North Staffordshire Regiment,
2nd South Staffordshire,
1st & 4th York and Lancaster Regiment,
1st Durham Light Infantry,
1st Seaforth Highlanders,
2nd RossShire Buffs
The Duke of Albany's)Gordon Highlanders,
Ist & 2nd Royal Irish Rifles
1st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
1st Leinster Regiment,
2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers,
1st & 2nd Norfolk Regiment,
2nd Northamptonshire Regiment,
2nd Northumberland Fusiliers,
2nd Oxfordshire Light h.fhntry,
1st Highland Light infantry,
1st The Prince Consort's own Rifle Brigade,
2nd Mounted Infantry
Hannay's Mounted Infantry
Hickman's Mounted Infantry
Martyr's Mounted Infhntry
Thorneycroft's Mounted Infantry
Composite Regiment Mounted Infantry
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, l0th, 1Ith, 12th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 18th (Sharpshooters),
19th (Paget's Horse),
21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th Burma Mounted Infantry
Gough's Mounted Infantry
Malta Mounted Infantry
Royal Army Medical Corps
Royal Army Nursing Service
Army Service Corps
Army Veterinary Department
Army Ordnance Department
Army Chaplain's Department
Divisional Scouting Corps
Corps of Military Mounted Police
Imperial Bearer Company
City of London Imperial Volunteers
Army Post Office Corps
New South Wales
Ist Australian Horse (New South Wales)
New South Wales Artillery
New South Wales Field Hospital and Bearer Company
New South Wales Mounted Infantry
1st New South Wales Mounted Rifles
3rd New South Wales Mounted Rifles
1st New South Wales Bushmen
6th Imperial Bushmen (4th New South Wales Contingent)
3rd New South Wales Bushmen
New South Wales Lancers
Victoria 1st 2nd, 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles and Mounted Infantry
3rd Victorian Contingent also designated as Victorian Bushmen and Autralian Bushmen Army Medical Corps
Queensland Mounted Infantry
3rd Queensland Bushmen
4th Queensland Imperial Bushmen
Tasmanian Mounted Infantry
First or Cameron's Tasmanian Contingent
1st Tasmanian Bushmen
1st Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen
2nd Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen
4th Regiment Imperial BushmenWest Australia
1st West Australian Mounted Infantry
1st and 2rd West Autralian Contingents
3rd West Australian (Bushmen) Contingent
4th West Australian Contingent (West Australian Imperial Bushmen)
5th and 6th West Australian Contingent
South Australian Mounted Rifles
3rd South Australian (Bushmen) Contingent
4th South Australian (Imperial Bushmen) Contingent
5th and 6th Australian Contingent
Royal Australian Artillery
Australian Army Medical Corps
1st, 2nd, 3rd 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Contingents consisting of New Zealand Mounted Rifles and one Hotchkiss Gun Detachment
New Zealand Battery
New Zealand Mounted Infantry
Canadian Artillery: "C ", "D" and "E" batteries
Royal Canadian Dragoons
The Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry
The Royal Canadian Mounted Ritles
2nd Regiment Canadian Mounted Rifles
Lord Strathcona's Corps
Ceylon Mounted Infantry Commonwealth Horse West India Regiment
Aberdeen Town Guard
Adelaide District Mounted Troops
Ashburner's Light Horse
Barkly West Town Guard
Beaconsfield Town Guard
Beaufort West Town Guard
Bechuanaland Rifle Volunteers
Bechuanaland Protectorate Regiment
Bedford District Mounted Troops
Bethune's Mounted Infantry
Border Mounted Police
Border Mounted Rifles
British South African Police
Bush Veldt Carbineers
Cape Colony Cyclist Corps
Cape Colony Defence Force
Cape Medical Staff Corps
Cape Garrison Artillery
Cape Mounted Rifles
Cape Mounted Police
Cape Railway Capetown Highlanders
1st City Volunteer's (Marshall's Horse)
City of Grahamstown Volunteers
Colonial Light Horse
Bodyguard Corps of Cattle Rangers
De Aar Town Guard
De Beers Maxim Battery
Diamond Fields Horse
Diamond Fields Artillery
District Military Police
District Mounted Troops
Dordrecht Dictrict Volunteer Guard
Dordrecht Wodehouse Yeomanry
Duke of Edinburgh's OwnVolunteer Rifles
Durban Light Infantry
Eastern Province Horse
Eastern Transvaal Scouts
East Griqualand Mounted Rifle Volunteers
East Griqualand Field Force
Fraserburg District Mounted Troops
Frontier Light Horse
Frontier Mounted Rifles
Gorringe's Flying Column
Heidelberg Volunteers and Scouts
Herschel Special Police
Herschel Native Police
Imperial Light Horse
Imperial Light Infantry
lndwe Town Guard
Jamestown Town Guard
Jansenville District Mounted Troops
Jansenville Town Guard
Johannesburg Mounted Rifles
Kenhardt Town Guard
Keeley's Vryburg Farmer's Association
Kimberley Light Horse
Kimberley Town Guard
Kimberley Mounted Corps
Kitchener's Fighting Scouts
Klipdam Town Guard
Kofflefontein Defence Force
Komga Mounted Infantry
Laingsburg Town Guard
Lower Rhodesian Volunteers
Loyal Burgher Corps
Lydenburg Civil Mounted Rifles
Maritzani Mounted Irregulars
Mafeking Town Guard
Midland Mounted Rifles
Middelburg Town Guard
Molteno Town Guard
Montagu Town Guard
Mossel Bay Town Guard
Namaqualand Border Scouts
Namaqualand District Mounted Police
Namaqualand Town Guard
Natal Volunteer Field Artillery
Natal Volunteers Police and Guides
Natal Bridge Guards
The following is a list of names of the candidates who were successful in passing the examination held by the Nurses' Registration Board on 18, 19 and 20 November 1930.
The list is as follows:
Auburn District Hospital: Freda Mary Eliza Dowdle, Violette Helen Macgregor.
Balmain and District Hospital: Gertrude Gladys Giersch, Amy Josephine Hayes, Ellen Harken Needs.
Braeside Private Hospital: Clare Aileen O'Connell.
Coast Hospital: Hazel Anderson, Diana Ferguson Breckenridge, Elizabeth Stuart Brennan, Noreen Mary Brophy, Helen Little Clarke, Jeane Edna Cruickshank, Mabel Elizabeth Alice Douglas, Eileen Frost, Myee Alice Hartley, Cicely Josephine Longhurst, Enid Eliza Looke, Mabel Wakeham Meathrel, Elizabeth May Moppett, Monica Honnorah O'Neill, Claire Hannan O'Reilly, Elizabeth Edna Solling, Doris Mabel Mackintosh Stewart, Catherine Sullivan, Gertrude Evelyn Tully, Clarice Irene Wright.
Lewisham Hospital: Marie Therese Howard.
Mater Misericordiac Hospital (North Sydney): Phyllis Margaret Corkhill, Elizabeth Margaret Croghan, Margaret Carmen McCrone, Lorna Isabel Riley, Reta Magdalen Schrader, Julia Patricia Smith.
Parramatta District Hospital: Mary Eileen Connors, Millicent Irene Crutch, Violet Adelaide Quick.
Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children: Myrtle Isabella Aynsley, Aphra Winifred Black, Muriel May Cowdery, Winifred Joan Drummond, Helen Haviland Evans, Ada Dorothy Weeks Gale, Alexandria Kathleen Goudge, Thelma Elsie Grills, Elizabeth Lee Gunn, Janet Isabella Hunter, Freda Mavis Shaw, Florence Dora Souter, Olive Margery Spen- cer, Enid Jessie Stewart, Katharine Spears Stobo, Ethel Alice Seavington Stuckey, Nita Maud Thomson.
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital:Evelyn Ada Angwin, Winifred Edith Bate, Ina Phyllis Bayliss, Lucy Jean Caldwell, Beryl Thelma Dickson, Yvonne Cecilia Evens, Miriam Blanche Gardner, Gwendoline Alice Green, Hazel Mary Harris, Edith Phyllis Kemmis, Agnes Mary Lions. Yolande Mary Pain, Emmie Thelma Hope Roberts, Audrey Scott-Young, Thelma Inez Squire, Margaret May Stanwell, Evelyn Sydenham Styche, Hannah Thomas, Evelyn Ward, Doreen Edna Watson, Charlotte Ann Brough Williams, Janet Doreen Wrightson.
Royal North Shore Hospital: Kathleen Elizabeth Conway, Nellie Marshall, Kathleen Mary Moore, Noeline Ellen Sheehy, Doris Alice Ruby Walsh.
Royal South Sydney Hospital: Ruby Kathleen Betts
Scottish Private Hospital:Jean Edna Reardon.
St George District Hospital: Vallery Nina Beahan, Kathleen Mary Payne.
St Joseph's Hospital, Auburn: Mary Elizabeth Kearney, Annie Veronica Marsden, Amy Theresa Spencer.
St. Luke's Private Hospital: Dorothy May Hayes.
St. Vincent's Hospital: Naomi Margaret Annear, Mary Bridget Anthony, Dorothea Ormonde Bourke, Eugenie Patricia Burke, Sylvia Clancy, Margaret Joy Egan, Joan Mullins, Eileen Elizabeth Phelan, Eileen Isabel Quinnell, Frances Ryan, Helen Jessie Thomas.
Sydney Hospital: Alice Agnes Louise Andersen, Jean Anderson, Leigh Allison Dowell, Laura Elizabeth Kienzle, Nancy Leake, Agnes Bertha Lien, Constance Gertrude Read, Marjorie Cecilia Wilkinson.
Sydney Sanitarium: Myrtle Louisa Brandstater, Laura Vivian Brumby, Clara Olive Melita Dudd, Viola Mary Eardley, Doris Myrtle Felsch, Dorothy Martin, Marjorie Louie Mills, Jean McKean, Gladys Aileen Tiedeman, Reinetha Scholtz Van Wyk, Edna Mabel Wadman.
War Memorial Hospital: Ethne Mary Cutts, Jean Madeline Higgins, Beatrice Mary James, Alice Vera Pearson, Annie May Watt.
Western Suburbs Hospital: Barbara Mary Estella Mockler.
Wootton Private Hospital: Margery Heather Moore.
Hospitals Outside the State: Peggy Jean Clark, Elsie Hilda Farrell, Josephine Claudia Lloyd.
Broken Hill and District Hospital: Victoria Ivy Bennett, Agnes Bootes, Rita Mavis Egan, Bianka Bertha Mathilda Kretschmer, Lydia Ottilie Noack, Emily Elsie Simper.
Albury District Hospital: Harriet Lucas, Annie Margaret Martin.
Armidale and New England Hospital: Minna Doralice Drinan.
Bathurst District Hospital: Mary Gladys Ellis, Gwendoline Darcie Shillabeer.
Cessnock District Hospital: Dorothea Mary Cullen, Mary Ellen Drane, Beatrice Ruby Jones, Catherine Mary Vaisey.
Cootamundra District Hospital: Kathreen Isabell Harvey.
Corowa Public Hospital: Mary Veronica Sophia Dormer, Millicent Hilda Jones, Winifred Alvera Jones.
Dubbo District Hospital: Grace Bailey, Margaret Maud Gibson, Amy Josephine McManus.
Goulburn District Hospital: Agnes Gibbs.
Grafton District Hospital: Harriet Elizabeth Anderson, Gwendolen Florence James, Beatrice Laura Palmer, Violet Marjory Paulin, Alice Isabel Shannon.
Leeton District Hospital: Margaret Grace Playford.
Lismore District Hospital: Rebecca Jean Armstrong, Thelma Linda Bannister.
Lithgow District Hospital: Mary Genevieve Roach, Gwendoline Mabel Tydeman.
Maitland District Hospital: Annie Somerset Davidson, Jessie McDonald.
Manning River District Hospital (Taree): Mary Carey, Hilda Knight.
Mater Misericordiae Hospital (Waratah): Mary Damien Houston, Mary Berchmans Howard.
Moree District Hospital: Helen Amy Allison, Melita Jane Francis.
Newcastle General Hospital: Marjorie Alice Braithwaite, Isabel Beatrice Bryce, Lenore Mowbray Connolly, Florence Cramp, Thelma May Crew, Marjorie Weston Galton, Lola Vivian Caroline Kelly.
Barbara Mosbacher, Blanche McGuigan, Edna May Russell, Dorothy May Waddell.
Orange District Hospital: Alma Clarice Ray.
Sacred Heart Hospital (Young): Mary Gordon.
Tamworth District Hospital: Mary Brigid Freemen, Jessie Adelaide Glasser, Annie McIlveen.
Wagga District Hospital: Janet Victoria Saunderson.
Wallsend Mining and District Hospital: Elizabeth Crittenden, Alma Vera Halse, Ilma Gertrude Herron.
Wollongong District Hospital: Jean Emily Ferguson, Gwen Jones, Iris Gwendoline Marks, Leila Dorothy Stanton, Marjorie Edna Dolores Whittle.
Royal Hospital for Women: Ada Annie Allen, May Neville Bartholomew Baillie, Myrtle Isabel Marie Bath, Nellie Barker, Ethel Mary Barnes, Jessie Maude Adele Boulton, Edith May Candish, Elma Jean Cannons, Fanny Elsie Clark, Olive Cole, Elizabeth McLaren Crawford, Hope Croll, Ivy Mary Crothall, Mary Estelle Crowe, Mary Violet Curran, Phyllis Isobel Maud Dalrymple, Eileen Doris Davison, Alice Kathleen Delsorte, Margaret Elizabeth Donald, Ethel Lillian Erhardt, Elizabeth Grace Flett, Edna Mary Green, Daphne Linda May Hearps, Ina Edith May Hourigan, Annie Isabel Hyland, Dorothy Enid Annie James, Gladys Kathleen Eunice Johnson, Ethel Catherine Alice Jordan, Lily Jullie, Mary Lucy Keenan, Jessie Hannah Kerr, Martha Alice Lear, Agnes Marjorie Lee, Annie Henderson Levick, Lena Mary Lewin, Madge Mary Lyons, Kathleen Maguire, Martha Moncrieff, Katherine Isabelle Mooney, Blanche Vere Mowle, May Rebecca Murphy, Annie Gillan McAllister, Daisy Bishop Neilsen, Selena Ellen Newbigging, Olive Cecilia Parrish, Jessie Paterson, Edith Emily Pugh, Catherine Amelia Regan, Doree Hinda Revelman, Mildred Ila Richards, Doris Mabel Roberts, Jane Edith Roweth, Mabel Eileen Scanes, Elizabeth Marjorie Schofield, Phylis Ruth Skardon, Ivy Jean Slennett, Sylvia Gwendoline Sly, Olive Caroline Sonnadere, Thelma Elizabeth Sorensen, Bessie Tipping, Irene Maud Turner, Gladys Mary Vance, Kathleen Ellen Jane Walsh, Mary Greer Watson, Mabel Grace Went, Gertrude Mail Whibley, Selina Mary Jean White, Mary Wilmot.
Royal North Shore Hospital: Vida Blackwell, Maisie Olga Deignan, Violet Frances Winifred Harvey, Florence Gertrude Lees, Edna Elizabeth Matthews, Jeannie Muriel Muir, Isabel Mary McAllan.
South Sydney Women's Hospital: Marie Heise, Florence Elsie Jeffrey, Frances Mary Lawson, Ethel Monica McDonald, Elizabeth May Ogilvie, Alice May Wilkinson, Eva Martha Keevil Williams.
St. George District Hospital:Minnie Elizabeth Austen, Helen Boulton, Ada Lillian Flanagan, Winifred May Passmore, Noreen Tunnicllffe Whitlow.
St. Margaret's Hospital: Margaret Theresa Daniel, Mary Mavis Dowie, Margaret Mary Goodwin, Mavis Annabel Greenaway, Caroline Slader Hays, Agnes Isabel Healy, Ruby Ellen Hill, Lillian Elizabeth Leach, Marie Bernardene Maher, Ada Josephine Noland, Norah O'Hanlon, Maud O'Sullivan, Grace Anne Sheridan,
Elsie Josephine Tarlinton.
Women's Hospital: Ettie May Basham, Florence Biggs, Eileen Mary Breckenridge, Coralene Maude Brodie, Myra Isabel Brook-Smith, Veronica Clara Byrne, Charlotte Minnie Cody, Zita Catherine Duffy, Eileen May Errington, Margaret Elsie Fisk, Eileen Ada Giffin, Doris Hartnett, Katharin Ross Henson, Kathleen Doris Hollway, Bertha Ibbitson, Maisie Lillian Jarman, Helen May Kentwell, Vera Muriel Kilkenny, Phillis Bertha Lampe, Annie Larkin, Millie Amy Lillian Lawless, Theresa Lawliss, Annie Euphemia McColl, Ellen McGahan, Evelyn Mary Quinlan, Doris Mary Richards, Dorothy Mary Emelie Rodgers, Winifred Grace Rodgers, Dorothy Muriel Rogerson, Mary Margaret Ryan, Edith Clara Schrock, Elizabeth Edith Daphney Searle, Una Iona Selby, Helen Staley, May Alice Thorney- croft, Dorothy Mary Edith Todd, Ethel Walsh, Veronica Anne Weber, Ellen Elizabeth Westacott, Ruth Elizabeth Wiley, Edith Ellen Wood.
Hospitals outside the State: Ellen Bennett, Minnie Ida Caroline Darknell, Marion Gardiner, Catherine Hickey, Daisy Lee.
Broughton Hall, Leichhardt: Bruce Henry Dulin, William Henry Hearn, William Charles Ruder,
Nina Patricia Stuart.
Callan Park Hospital: Edna Myrtle Schofield, Roy Frederick James Thompson.
Orange Mental Hospital: Rosa Grace West.
Parramatta Mental Hospital: Marjarie Frances Allester, Eacie Josephine Dalton, Winifred May Eddy, Amy Helmers.
Stockton Mental Hospital: Elizabeth Stella Cromarty, Florence Rachel Ann Davies, Catherine
Dorrington, Eleanor Hart.
Renwick Hospital. Sophie Chessell, Edna Muriel Clifton, Phyllis Coles, Jessie Roberton MacFarlane Thomson.
Benjamin Bridge was born at Stockyard Creek in the Wollombi district of New South Wales
on the 31 May 1860.
One of seven children and second son of Hawkesbury born Joseph Bridge Jnr.1835-1923
Joseph Bridge Jnr was the son of Parramatta born Joseph Bridge 1814-1891 and
grandson of convict Joseph Bridge 1776-1829
Benjamin's mother was Sarah Jane Payne 1839-1899. Sarah Jane born at
Payne's Crossing New South Wales was the daughter
of Convict Edward Payne 1800-1880 and Ann Hanratty 1823-1913.
Benjamin married 1st cousin, Bertha Amelia Teresa Australia Medhurst 18651932,
at Inverell on the 25 June 1881. The daughter of George Medhurst 1838-1888
and Ann Matilda Bridge 1839-1927.
Ann Matilda Bridge and Benjamin's father Joseph Bridge Jnr. were brother
The couple managed to have seven children in Inverell between 1879 and 1909,
in spite of the fact the police never seemed to know where he was.
Francis Robert Medhurst/Bridge 18791927
Alice Maud Bridge 18841951
Annie May Bridge 18861945
Benjamin William Bridge 1889 1936
Hilton Victor Joseph Bridge 18911985
Clarice Evelyn Edith Bridge 18921985
Walter Edward Alexander Bridge 19041978
Cecil Meldorn Bridge 19091963
Benjamin died in Tamworth, New South Wales on the 25 August 1950.
The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser, Thursday 4 February 1892.
At Scone last week Benjamin Bridge, a well-known horse-trainer, arrested
at his residence by Senior-sergeant Coady, was brought up on a charge of
horse stealing from the properties of Thomas Cook and Bakewell Bros.
Upon the application of the police, the prisoner was remanded till Saturday
for the production of evidence. Two others, alleged to be implicated, are said
to have been arrested up the country, and the evidence is likely to be of
a sensational nature.
The Maitland Mercury, Thursday 3 March 1892.
Benjamin Bridge, found guilty of stealing a colt of Wm. Bakewell,
recovered at Mogil Mogil, was remanded for sentence, and on a second
charge of stealing a horse of Thos. English, the jury are still locked up.
Singleton Argus, Wednesday 9 March 1892
THE ESCAPE FROM THE MURRURUNDI GAOL
Benjamin Bridge in Trouble.
The Murrurundi Times of Saturday last says: "On Thursday evening,
about-half-past 5 o'clock some excitement was caused in Murrurundi
by a report that a prisoner had escaped from the local gaol and the
hurrying of the foot and mounted police in pursuit.
On enquiry we learned that Benjamin Bridge, who had on the previous
day been found guilty of horse stealing on two charges and sentenced
to 10 years penal servitude, had escaped from gaol by scaling the wall.
The gaol wall is about 15 feet high. Bridge was confined with three other
prisoners in the yard all day, and closely watched by gaoler Gall. About
1 o'clock the prisoners were given their tea, and about 5 o'clock were
provided with water, when they were alright, and the gaoler sat down to
wait till half-past 5, the time at which the prisoners are locked up for
the night. In the interval Bridge quietly effected his escape by scaling
the front wall at its junction with the main building. There is a small
cell window at this corner about 9 feet from the ground, the sill of which
projects several inches, the eaves of the roof being a couple of feet higher;
about 18 inches from the ground the base course projects a couple of inches.
It is surmised that Bridge, who is a pretty smart fellow, reached the window
sill by spring from the base course, and then with the aid of the other prisoners
and a broom got on the roof, and once there to climb over the remaining portion
of the wall and drop down on the other side was easy enough. The es cape seems
to have been well planned, as the other prisoners at once retired to their
cells to avert suspicion.
Immediately on escaping Bridge crossed the garden in front of the gaol,
leapt lightly over the fence, decended the steep bank there, and proceeded
along the river, to Messrs Stuart and M'Fadyen's residences, and thence in
the direction of the Chinamen's gardens, but here all trace of him was lost.
He was seen crossing the garden in front of the gaol by Mrs Brennan, who,
believing something was wrong gave the alarm to the sergeant, who was returning
from the railway station but some minutes elapsed before the prisoner was missed,
and he got a good start. Although we shall be glad to hear of the prisoner's
speedy capture It is hardly likely he will be retaken in a hurry.
No blame attaches to the gaoler."
Singleton Argus, Wednesday 9 March 1892
BENJAMIN BRIDGE WANTED.
£50 Reward. [By Telegraph]. Sydney, Tuesday.
The Government have offered a reward of £50
for the capture of the man Bridge, sentenced
to 10 years' for horse stealing, and who escaped
from the Murrurundi gaol on the 3rd instant.
Australian Town and Country Journal,Saturday 12 March 1892.
The Government has offered a reward of £50 for information leading
to the recapture of Benjamin Bridges, alias Texas Jack, a prisoner
under sentence of 10 years for horse-stealing, who, on the 3rd instant,
effected his escape from the gaol at Murrurundi.
He is described as about 29 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high,
fair complexion, small sandy beard and moustache, grey eyes, rather bow-legged
Australian Town and Country Journal, Saturday 20 August 1892
Recapture of a Prisoner.
Murrurundi, Tuesday.The man Benjamin Bridge, who was sentenced to
10 years' penal servitude and two days later escaped from
Murrurundi Gaol, has been recaptured at Burketown, Queensland.
Northern Star, Wednesday 14 September 1892.
DARING ESCAPE FROM GAOL.
AT Burketown (Queensland) on Friday morning a most daring escape was made by a prisoner
named Benjamin Bridge from the police barracks.
It appears that about 12 months ago Bridge escaped from Murrurundi Gaol in
New South Wales when he was under sentence of 10 years' imprisonment for
The fugitive successfully evaded the police until some six weeks back,
when he was captured by the local police at Riversleigh Station.
A New South Wales police officer arrived on Thursday, and had identified
the prisoner, intending to take him to Sydney by the next boat, to avoid this,
the prisoner set fire to his cell and gave the alarm. Senior-constable M'Grath,
who was the only constable on the premises, opened the cell and removed
the prisoner, who after a desperate resistance was manacled and chained to the
In the mean time, in spite of willing assistance, the whole of the barracks were
in flames. M'Grath with others then went to the rescue of his wife and family,
and of the court records, books, &c. During the con fusion the prisoner escaped,
making for the man groves, where he disappeared, and has not yet been re-captured.
He is 30 years of age, and is said to have been 22 times before a jury, the present
being his fourth escape from custody. He informed the New South Wales officer that
he would never take him to Sydney.
Nothing now remains on the site of the courthouse and the barracks but a heap
of smouldering ruins.
Kalgoorlie Western Argus (WA), Thursday 4 January 1900.
A NOTORIOUS CRIMINAL. ARRESTED AT DENHAM RIVER. PERTH, Dec. 31. 1899
On Saturday the Commissioner of Police received a telegram from Derby
stating that Constable Freeman had just arrived at Wyndham with the
notorious Benjamin Bridge whom he had arrested at Denham River.
Bridge is an escapee from Brisbane gaol, who regained his freedom in 1892.
He is a notorious horse and cattle thief, and during the last seven years
he is reported to have been carrying on cattle duffing on a large scale
in the Northern territory of the Kimberley district.
He has successfully evaded capture for seven years, and is regarded by
the police as an exceptionally dangerous criminal.
Western Mail, Perth, WA. Saturday 24 March 1900.
A NOTORIOUS GAOL-BREAKER
ADELAIDE, March 16. 1900
Among the passengers by the s.s. Marloo, from Western Australia,
on Friday, were two New South Wales sergeants of police with four
of the mother colony criminals in their charge.
One, - Benjamin Bridge, has a black record. He escaped in 1893 from
Murrurundi gaol, while undergoing a sentence of ten years' imprisonment
for horse stealing. He was re-arrested at Burke, in Northern Queensland,
eighteen months later, but again escaped by burn- ing down the lock-up
in which he was incarcerated. For over four years he eluded capture; although,
the police were most vigilant through all Queensland and New South Wales.
Recently, however, he was brought to bay in the Kimberley district of
Western Australia by Constable Freeman, who, by the way, gained promotion by
his smartness in the matter.
The other prisoners in charge of the sergeants are charged with ordinary wife
desertion. On the arrival of the s.s. Marloo at Port Adelaide they were lodged
in the police cells for safe keeping. They will rejoin the vessel just
previous to the resumption of the voyage eastwards.
Singleton Argus, NSW. Tuesday 10 April 1900.
THE ESCAPEE BRIDGE.
Sentenced to Two Years.
Benjamin Bridge, who had pleaded guilty at the Darlinghurst Quarter Sessions
on Friday to escaping from Murrurundi Gaol in 1892 was brought
up for sentence in the afternoon Mr Levien asked Judge Heydon to
deal leniently with the prisoner. It was now eight years since he had
escaped, and the term of six years to which he was sentenced had expired.
Bridge had been living an honest life in W. Australia, and, indeed had
discovered a property which would in all probability have made him independent
for life had he been left undisturbed. His wife, as good a woman as ever
lived, and to whom Bridge had constantly remitted money, had travelled
to Sydney to see him and he trusted that his Honor would take these
matters into consideration in passing sentence.
His Honor Judge Haydon said that, while there was no moral indignation against
a man for escaping yet it, of course, was flouting the law and could not
be passed over. He would be as lenient a possible, the sentence to be imposed
would be two years.
He was not satisfied as to the evidence of Bridge's good character since he escaped,
and if Mr. Levien could produce evidence that he had been an upright man during
that time, he would recommend the Minister for Justice; to reduce the sentence.
the Northern Territory Times was not available in Sydney
Northern Territory Times and Gazette (Darwin, NT) Friday 12 January 1900.
Ben Bridge, the `Out-law.'
The recent capture of Benjamin Bridge by Mounted Constable Freeman in East Kimberley, W.A.,
brings a climax to the wrong-doings of a very notorious character.
Bridge hails from northern New South Wales, where he once raced horses.
A friend leased him some racers on one occasion for a meeting at a neighbouring town,
but fortune frowned, and to satisfy the demands of his landlord he sold him the
horses. Subsequently he stole the horses from the landlord and gave them back
to the rightful owner! Gaol followed, but he broke it and turned into Queensland,
where 'the feeling' came on him again, and he eventually got into Burketown gaol
for horse stealing.
Not long after he was celled here the gaol caught fire and was burnt down,
some say from the inside, some from the outside. To save Bridge he was
taken out and chained to a post. When the fire was subdued the police went to
remove Bridge, and found he had vanished.
It is generally agreed that the prisoner swam the river, with heavy irons and all on,
and then walked 60 miles to a camp where his chains were knocked off. At all events
the police never saw him again. Bridge moved down to Western Queensland, where he took
jobs at station work. From there he gravitated into the Territory, and spent some time
on the cattle runs at stockman's work. His identity was pretty well known, though his
name was mostly 'McDonald.' He was gradually moving west, and on the way called at all
the police camps for the latest papers! From Newcastle Waters he had a mate who was
drowned in Murrenji Waterhole. Bridge reported this to M.C. O'Keefe, at the Victoria,
who, investigated the matter but couldn't find the body. There was nothing to warrant
further enquiry, consequently O'Keefe had no scruples about letting Bridge camp
close to the police quarters, particularly as he seemed a decent sort of chap. He
even swapped horses with him, giving Bridge, amongst others, the one-time racer Bluegown,
with which, curiously enough, he lost a £20 match to a western member of the force later on.
After spelling a bit, Bridge moved on into Western Australia, about four years ago.
One story says that he 'gammoned green' about horses while, employed on one station,
until he got a bet on about breaking in a lot of colts. He spent some time poisonings
dingoes, and is said to have collected, £200 worth of tails in a very short time.
Not long after his arrival in the west he dropped on the police sergeant's camp
and turned out for a while, boldly faced the camp and sat down and engaged in
conversation with the sergeant. After he had been in camp some time the
sergeant, who must have had a keen scent, advanced to Bridge, put his
hand on his shoulder, and was proceeding to deal out the usual formula 'I
arrest you in the Queen's name ' and so forth, when Bridge wriggled free, and with a
parting 'Not yet' cleared for a creek close by, where his boy had just brought his
horses, picking up a revolver from his pack as he ran. The sergeant, in following the outlaw,
kicked his foot against a stiff grass tussock and got a spill, and when he
rose again Bridge was mounted and gone.
After that, but little was heard of Bridge, no one really seemed to
trouble about him. He had done no harm there, he could pitch a pitiful tale, he was
a great hand with horses, and in short the whole district stood to him rather than otherwise.
He came and went on the stations like a free man, camped where he pleased in apparent safety,
and if he wanted to attend the annual races at Wyndham, well, he simply stood a little back
from the crowd. Where everyone helped the fellow the police had what is some times
called 'Buckley's chance' of catching him. But by and bye the feeling began to change.
There were things happening which could not be accounted for. Valuable stock disappeared
mysteriously from their accustomed haunts, and kept on vanishing for a long time before
anyone would admit Bridge to have a hand in it. 'Billy,' as he was called in the West,
wouldn't do such a thing ; but faith in him soon turned to anger against him when
indisputable evidence of his treachery was produced from time to time.
There were even then a few of a sort who helped him whenever they could against the police.
Three months ago or a little better the Wild Dog police, Freeman and M'Ginley, made an excursion after 'Billy ' and came upon him near Argyle station.
'Well Freeman,' says he, 'are you going to take me this time!' To which Freeman said 'I'm going to have
a hard try,' and the chase began. Bridge was well mounted, while the troopers had scrags
that couldn't head a duck. The result was that after a long stern chase first Freeman's
horse and then McGinley's dropped down exhausted, just when the outlaw's mount could only
be kept going by plenty of flogging. A black tracker was sent on to keep Bridge in sight,
but darkness beat him, and by cutting a wire fence he gave his pursuers the slip.
I was at Rosewood when the police came that night, horses and men were tired out ;
'Billy' had gone towards Newry, on the N.T. border.
Next morning the police crossed over into the Territory to hunt for Bridge's main camp,
supposed to be somewhere near Auvergne. Though they lost 'Billy' the
day before they managed to secure his packs and a boy, and the boy was useful as a guide.
Their mission resulted in securing another of Bridge's black boys and some more of his
horses and packs. This boy, Larry by name, was afterwards used by Freeman to track down
the outlaw. At this stage Trooper McGinley fell sick and had to go into hospital at Wyndham.
Freeman, after the lapse of some days got on Bridge's tracks again and followed him to Turkey Creek,
the station owned by his brother, where the scent soon got red hot.
Bridge held out as long as he could, even after Freeman had secured his last horse:
but he was run down eventually and safely landed in Wyndham gaol (where his brother Joseph
is serving a sentence) last week in December. His 'pals' declared he would shoot rather than
be taken alive; he vowed the same thing himself, but so far as is known there was no firing before the capture.
The district is well rid of a most expert horse and cattle thief, and his capture is all the
more creditable because he could ride with any man in Australia, was always well horsed, and
had several staunch confederates who never hesitated to shelter him. It was the common talk
of the district that if Bridge had acted 'on the square ' no man's hand would have been turned
against him. It would complicate matters very much if he broke gaol at Wyndham, but his past
history ought to show the need for taking extra precautions against such an untoward
The following poem was written by Catholic priest, Fr. Patrick Joseph Hartigan 1878-1952 under the pen name John O'Brien and was first published in the anthology, 'Around The Boree Log and Other Verses' in 1921. It describes the cycle of drought, floods and bushfires as seen by the pessimistic Irishman 'Hanrahan.
"We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
In accents most forlorn,
Outside the church, ere Mass began,
One frosty Sunday morn.
The congregation stood about,
Coat-collars to the ears,
And talked of stock, and crops, and drought,
As it had done for years.
"It's lookin' crook," said Daniel Croke;
"Bedad, it's cruke, me lad,
For never since the banks went broke
Has seasons been so bad."
"It's dry, all right," said young O'Neil,
With which astute remark
He squatted down upon his heel
And chewed a piece of bark.
And so around the chorus ran
"It's keepin' dry, no doubt."
"We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
"Before the year is out.
"The crops are done; ye'll have your work
To save one bag of grain;
From here way out to Back-o'-Bourke
They're singin' out for rain.
"They're singin' out for rain," he said,
"And all the tanks are dry."
The congregation scratched its head,
And gazed around the sky.
"There won't be grass, in any case,
Enough to feed an ass;
There's not a blade on Casey's place
As I came down to Mass."
"If rain don't come this month," said Dan,
And cleared his throat to speak--
"We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
"If rain don't come this week."
A heavy silence seemed to steal
On all at this remark;
And each man squatted on his heel,
And chewed a piece of bark.
"We want a inch of rain, we do,"
O'Neil observed at last;
But Croke "maintained" we wanted two
To put the danger past.
"If we don't get three inches, man,
Or four to break this drought,
We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
"Before the year is out."
In God's good time down came the rain;
And all the afternoon
On iron roof and window-pane
It drummed a homely tune.
And through the night it pattered still,
And lightsome, gladsome elves
On dripping spout and window-sill
Kept talking to themselves.
It pelted, pelted all day long,
A-singing at its work,
Till every heart took up the song
Way out to Back-o'Bourke.
And every creek a banker ran,
And dams filled overtop;
"We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
"If this rain doesn't stop."
And stop it did, in God's good time;
And spring came in to fold
A mantle o'er the hills sublime
Of green and pink and gold.
And days went by on dancing feet,
With harvest-hopes immense,
And laughing eyes beheld the wheat
Nid-nodding o'er the fence.
And, oh, the smiles on every face,
As happy lad and lass
Through grass knee-deep on Casey's place
Went riding down to Mass.
While round the church in clothes genteel
Discoursed the men of mark,
And each man squatted on his heel,
And chewed his piece of bark.
"There'll be bush-fires for sure, me man,
There will, without a doubt;
We'll all be rooned," said Hanrahan,
"Before the year is out."
Patrick Joseph Hartigan, born in Yass, New South Wales on 13 October 1878 to Patrick Joseph Hartigan Snr. and Mary who came from Lisseycasey, Clare, Ireland. He was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1903 and was appointed inspector of Catholic schools in the Goulburn diocese in 1910. He later became parish priest for Narrandera from 1917 to 1944. He died of cancer with the title Reverend Monsignor Hartigan in 1952.
These cousin Cousins have confused some, particularly when their names happened to be Richard Young.
The subject of this case was Richard Young Cousins born on the 5 March 1875 in Wellington New South Wales he was the son of William Henry Cousins 1827-1883 and his wife Martha Eliza, nee Blunden 1838-1907.
William Henry being a brother to Richard Young Cousins J.P 1819-1886. Both, along with Walter Cousins 1829-1904 and Mary Anne Chatfield, nee Cousins 1829-1896 were children of Richard Young Cousins 1798-1857 and Kezia, nee Dann 1796-1837.
The breach of promise action in which Richard Young Cousins sued
Mary Louisa Carr, nee M'Nevin, for £5000, in the Supreme Court,
Sydney, on Friday, 14 March 1902 before Mr. Justice Owen and a jury.
No evidence was offered for the defence, and the jury awarded £150 damages
It is not very often that a man sues a woman for breach of promise. Indeed,
it is probable that the number of such cases could be counted on the fingers
of one's two hands. As a rule it is the woman who sues the man, and then the
reasons are such that there is no doubt as to the desirableness of awarding heavy
The case in which Richard Young Cousins sued Mary Louisa M'Nevin, of Molong,
for such a breach was the sensation of Thursday and Friday in the No. 2 Jury Court,
Sydney. Mr. Cousins is a young man with an ambition, and Miss M'Nevin was an
elderly spinster with £50,000. Apparently everything was fixed up for their
wedding, and presumably this would have taken place had not a Mr. Carr appeared
on the scene I before the celebration of the marriage. Mr. Carr was a nice man,
with a genius for entertaining, and Mr. Cousins and he didn't grow fonder of
each other when they both thought of the fair M'Nevin. Eventually Mr. Carr got
ahead in the running as it were, and then, though everything bad been fixed for
the marriage as originally intended, the lady claimed the prerogative of her sex
in changing her mind. Briefly stated, the first intimation that Mr. Cousins had
that he and his fiancee weren't playing 'cousins' any longer, was when he received
the following letter.
"My dear Dick,
As arranged, I am now writing so that you will get this letter
about the 12th. I fear the answer will not be a favorable one. I have given
the matter due consideration, and, considering everything, I think we had
My feelings towards you are not those one ought to have to pass a life together,
and what would be the use of rendering two lives miserable? I see lots of things
of the past in a light that I did not before, so that the reflection of it
makes a difference. You know I was a bit unsettled, from things I beard before
you came down, but I thought I would let things go, and carry it through ; then
at last I found I could not do that, and the rest you know. As I felt I could not
marry you then, I cannot do so now ; the result would be the same.
I am very sorry that things should have gone like' this as far as you are concerned,
for it has placed you in an awkward position, I must admit ; but better to have
things as they are than find out afterwards we made a mistake. There would be
no undoing it then, while now it can be done.
Very often in the past you were not up to the mark, but I would not let myself
think so then, and as I said, many little items passed over then I have thought
of since, and contrasted with others. I could say more, but of what use?
The result would be the same and it cannot alter matters now. Things will get
back into a groove again, and it is only a nine days' wonder, and you may be
glad it happened so I may be, too, after all, but that remains to be seen.
You will find some one to fill the imaginary gap I have made in your affections,
and then it will be all right for you. I am writing to Alf. to tell him of my
decision, so you may hear from him. Though this breach has occurred, if you
ever need a friend I will not fail you if I possibly can. It is needless to
write more on the subject. This is sufficient; what do you intend doing?
Are you going home ?
I will close now, with best wishes.
I remain, yours affectionately.
M. L. M'NEVIN."
Subsequently Miss McNevin became Mrs. Carr, and then there was bitterness,
deep reflection, and, finally, the present action. Only the plaintiff gave
evidence, that is, so far as the two chief parties were concerned, and the whole
thing turned on the question of damages, as when he had been cross examined by
Mr. Wise the "breach" was tacitly allowed. In the cross-examination, various things
came out, the most amusing being in regard to the way Mr. Cousins relied on
Mr. Stockwell, a friendly solicitor.
On Mr. Wise asking, "After the thing was broken off, did you still retain an
affection for Miss McNevin?
The plaintiff replied " Yes, acting on Mr. Stockwell's advice,"
which brought down the house, and even made the Judge smile.
In the next breath he confessed to referring to three people as "d--d animals,"
and the lady was one, but this was under much provocation. When the judge summed up,
he said that the plaintiff was entitled to a verdict-that was a matter, of course;
As to damages, they would have to consider the circumstances. The lady was rich,
and plaintiff was to get a fourth of her estate, and on her decease the whole of it.
This he lost, because the marriage didn't come off, and, naturally, he must have been
annoyed to lose so much just as it was at his lips.
The jury considered that the plaintiff was 144,000 times as much injured as the
defendant alleged he was. That is, the latter, through her counsel, thought a farthing
sufficient compensation, but the jury found for £150, which, of course, will carry the
After the case described above, Richard Young Cousins 1875-1953 went on to marry Agnes Annie Smith in Wollongong in 1908. They had two daughters Lila Clair born 1909 in Ashfield Sydney, who married Francis J McEncroe in 1934 and Silvia Young born 1912 in Ashfield, Sydney who married Desmond Coleman Trainor in 1944.
Australian Electoral Commission
Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915
Tuesday 11 March 1902 Page 4
Transcription, janilye, 2012
Baptised 10 October 1827 at St Austwell,Cornwell, England
the son of William TONKIN 1788-1876 and Elizabeth, nee WELLINGTON
Arrived in Port Adelaide on the ship China on 14 December 1847
Photograph curtesy of the Wentworth Historical Society
It is Christmas Day, Sunday, December 25, 1836. The heat is rather trying, 100 deg. in the shade. A number of immigrants, dressed in their best, and carrying their seats with them, are on their way to the rush hut of George Strickland in Kingston. There is no clergyman among the pioneers, but it is Christmas Day, and Sunday, so divine service must be held.
The 'gun' has already been fired intimating that the time for the service to begin has come. About 25 persons are present, all strangers in a Strange Land.
After the service, the pioneer fathers and mothers, with their children, walk back to their tents.
The sun is shining, and the birds are singing, but everything seems so strange. The previous Christmas was spent as every other Christmas had been, in the dear old motherland. It was cold and gloomy; but the yule log crackled and sparkled in the fireplace, the old home was decorated with holly. They had their Christmas dinner surrounded by the comforts of civilization.
This Christmas they are on the shores of an unknown country, living in tents and reed huts, with the heat 100 deg. in the shade. There is neither horse nor cart in the land; no baker nor butcher shops; no streets, houses, gardens, or churches. What the future has in store, these resolute men and women cannot tell. They have come to try a great experiment, to colonize a land which for ages has been shrouded in gloom.
We talk of our hardships to-day: but look at the founders, sitting down to their Christmas dinner in 1836. They are destitute not only of the luxuries, but of the very necessities of civilization.
The table is an extemporized one; the seats are boxes and packing cases; tin pannikins do duty for cups and saucers. There are no roast geese or turkeys; no Christmas tokens, or glad family reunions.
No! in place of these there is the thought of a land and of loved ones far away a land whose streets perhaps they will never again tread, and loved one's whom probably they will not again see.
Said one of our lady pioneers: "It was sometimes very hard to forget all that we had left in the old country, and particularly friends, and to determine to make the best of our surroundings; but we all managed to put up with the roughness, and be contented... No one appeared to fear for the future, although, of course, no one could anticipate what the future would bring forth."
Think of the children who lived in the tents and reed huts at Glenelg South Australia in 1836. Think of the children who sat down to their first Christmas dinner then. There are no shops or stores from which father and mother have been able to buy books or toys. No fruit or lolly shops from which to purchase sweets. No trains, no traps, no horses, no streets, no gardens, no houses. They are living in tents and rush huts on the shores of what Col. Light has called Holdfast Bay. They have just returned from church service, conducted in a rush hut.
Time for dinner has come. The table is fixed up, perhaps using a few boards, laid upon cases. The cloth is spread, the tin plates and pannikins are brought in. Mother carries in some ship's biscuit and salt pork: perhaps father has been able to secure a few parrots or cockatoos, and mother has been able to make a parrot or cockatoo pie. Some have been fortunate enough to secure a piece of the cow that fell into the lagoon and had to be killed, and some perhaps have a piece of kangaroo.
Boxes and cases are drawn up to the table for seats; grace is said: and father carves and serves out the salt ship's pork. the parrot pie, or the kangaroo.
There are no French beans, peas, or cabbages, no cherries, apricots, or peaches. After dinner there are no Sunday, school gatherings, with hearty singing and bright speeches. Even a long walk is quite out of the question, for there is the danger of being lost in the bush.
Such was the first Christmas Day in South Australia.
The fathers and mothers who came to found South Australia in 1836 and who sat down to their first Christmas dinner in this land, were splendid men and women, the pick of Old England. They were really heroes and heroines, they were bold, determined, brave and resourceful. They had come to subdue a wilderness, to colonize an unknown land; they felt that their strong arms, determined wills, and faith in God would carry them through.
There was no Government to which they could run when they wanted a house built, a road made, or a bridge constructed. No; they felt that they were equal to all the difficulties of the position, and proved themselves to be so. They laid the foundations of the City of Adelaide, forded the rivers, cleared the forests, built their houses, planted their gardens, worked 14 and 15 hours a day, and were as happy as the bees who made sweet music in their gardens, or the birds that sang in their trees. The girls and boys who sat down to that first Christmas dinner were like their fathers and mothers, so they successfully laid the foundations of this beautiful and prosperous State of South Australia.
Christmas is a day to reflect, to remember your ancestors, the pioneers who took that giant leap into unknown lands across the globe.
I often hear the phrase "times are tough" used today, but look around, and thank your ancestors who overcame tougher times. Remember their bravery and sacrifice to fulfill their dreams to make a better future for their children and children's children. For you.
Merry Christmas to Scott and all at Familytreecircles
This festival is not of divine institution or is it easy to assign the first period of observing it, although it was certainly kept before the age of Constantine.
Much uncertainty prevails with respect to the actual day of Christ's birth; it most probably took place at the time of the Feast of Tabernacles, judging from other events on record, but the season which the Church has fixed upon for its celebration, does not involve the credibility of the fact.
It was named Christmas Day from the Latin Christ Misse, the Mass of Christ, and thence the Roman Catholic Church termed the Liturgy their Missal or Mass Book, and among that sect, about the year 500, the observation or this day became general.
In the primitive Church, Christmas Day was always preceded by an Eve or Vigil; when the devotion of the Eve was completed, our forefathers used to light up candles of different sizes which were called Christmas candles; and to lay a log of wood upon the fire, called the Yule log.
A kind of baby or little image, intended to represent Jesus, and called the Yule-dough, was formerly made at this season, and presented by the bakers to their customers and in some parts of the northern counties of Britain, the people after service, would cry. " Ule, ule, ule," as a token of rejoicing and run through the streets calling,
" Ule, ule, ule, ule,
Three puddings in a pule,
Crack nuts and cry Ule."
Carols, formerly sung at this season of the year were festal chansons for enlivening the merriments of Christmas celebrity, and not such religious songs currently sung by people today under the same title of Carol, and which were substituted by those enemies of innocent and useful mirth, the Puritans.
The boar's head soused, was anciently the first dish on Christmas Day and was carried up to the principal table in the hall, with great state and solemnity, The Boar's Head Carol being sung at the time; the old song, with some variations, since the 15th century is still sung in Queen's College, Oxford, and sung annually on Christmas Day, when a boar's head is carved up as the chief dish.
These days we settle for ham.
Many Boar's Head festivals are held all over the world. This Boar's Head Fesitval held in 2010 is a preview for those who have not been to one.
The Great Barons and Knights throughout the kingdom of Great Britain, formerly kept open house during Christmas, when their villains or vassals were entertained with bread, beef, and beer, pudding and wassail cake.
A groat of silver was given to the guests when leaving.
The tradition of the silver groat or coin still remains in my own family, but with a little variation.
My christmas puddings which I make in the traditional way, as did my mother and several generations before her, on the 16 November, the feast day of St.Margaret of Scotland. It has always been on this day, for at the same time we celebrate our McAlpin Clan heritage.
I add to the puddings silver threepences and sixpences saved from the pre-decimal era, which I now have to buy back from those who are lucky enough to find one in their pudding. The little ones not minding at all about a swap for gold dollar coin.
May your Christmas be filled with joy and merriment, hope and fulfilment, family and friends and I wish you all kindness and contentment.
This article published in The Sydney Morning Herald on the 25 September 1886 has not appeared fully transcribed online before.
Parts of the text may be offensive to non historians today. I have transcribed this article as it was written in 1886.
This article contains data which should be added to other history collected by the Fisk University.
The history of the Fisk Jubilee Singers, their work and its results, as told by Mr. J. B. T. Marsh, in a volume recently published, rivals in interest the most absorbing romance, with this notable difference, that the reader lays down the book not with the sense of gratified amusement, but with a feeling of deep sympathy, amazement, and admiration at the wonderful results, and the magic power of song.
The original band was a company of emancipated slaves, who, in 1871, set out with a determination to raise by their singing 20,000 dollars for the school of which they were students. To persons in Sydney with the fine Public schools, in which the children receive cheap education, the state of the slaves in America before emancipation is almost incomprehensible They were by law debarred from acquiring any book-learning. With greediness, and under immense privations and difficulties, men, women, and children laboured to acquire elementary knowledge, and the severest punishment in those early days, following the triumph of the Northern States, was to be suspended from school privileges. From the small start made by the American Missionary Association 17 academics and normal schools, with seven chartered institutions for collegiate and theological education, have been established. So interesting is the account of the educational work, the establishment of the Fisk University for freed people, and the progress of the institution in the 20 years it has now been established, that readers will, it is believed, be glad to know that a condensed history will be on sale during the stay of the Jubilee Singers here. There is a touching significance in the fact that at Nashville, in the former slave-pen of the city, a pile of rusty handcuffs and fetters came into possession of the school authorities, and were sold as old iron, the money being spent in Testaments and spelling books. The first teacher of the Jubilee singers was Mr. White, a native of Cadig, New York, who had a marvellous aptitude for picking out and training the best voices in vocal music. After a few months training, the Fisk choir became so successful, and their efforts in local concerts were so well appreciated, though many a scornful phrase was hurled at "the niggers," that Mr. White followed the active biddings of his earnest heart and started from Nashville with a company of 13 to provide a fund for maintaining the schools.
During their first year, indignities and insults were frequent; at some hotels they were refused admission because of their colour ; at others they were compelled to take their meals in secret ; their first concerts barely paid expenses, and many a time they had to sing with the fear that their lodging and travelling money would not be paid from the proceeds of their work.
The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher on their arrival at New York took up their cause, and thenceforth their cares were lightened.
Their first successful trip was through Connecticut ; in seven days their gross receipts exceeded 3900 dollars. In Newark one hotelkeeper, at whose house rooms had been engaged in advance, turned them literally out of their beds when he discovered that they were negroes and not niggers[sic]. This indignity bore good fruit. The City Council, to mark their sense of the wrong, passed an ordinance opening to the coloured people all the privileges of the Public schools.
Washington, Boston, many points in Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, and places in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont were visited.
In Boston a thousand dollar organ was presented to them for the University ; books for their library and many valuable presents were made. Their first season of three months cleared 20,000 dollars.
A second campaign began with another cruel insult, which again was turned to the advantage of the Jubilees. At Princeton a church had been tendered for their concert; the coloured people who had bought reserved-seat tickets were compelled to occupy an out-of-the-way corner. Such an indignity, offered in the House of God, provoked a hot rebuke from their manager, who was stoutly hissed for his speech. The second campaign also produced 2000 dollars profit.
The third campaign was a visit to England. Lord Shaftesbury was their friend, and the invitations to the first concert were sent in his name, The success of their singing was complete, and the singers had the best fortune throughout their trip. The Queen, the Duke and Duchoss of Argyle, Dean Stanley, Mr. Samuel Gurney, the Rev. Newman Hall, Mr. George Macdonald, and Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone, at whose house they sang to the Prince of Wales, the Grand Czareons, and many royal and noblo personages attended their concerts. Mr. Spurgeon, too, helped them much, and was himself most deeply impressed with their music. From London they went to Scotland, singing in connection with Messrs. Moody and Sankey in the North of England, and, besides large audiences, at many places they received valuable gifts. Mr. John Crossley, after hearing them at Halifax, promised
a supply of carpets, and many gave £10 to furnish a room in the Jubilee Hall. Four concerts in Manchester produced £1200. Their journey to Britain resulted in £10.000 being raised for Jubilee Hall and many gifts of apparatus, books, and money for special purposes.
In May, 1875, a second English campaign was planned. The Jubilee Hall was too small, and the Livingstone Missionary Hall was deemed necessary. The singers determined to reise beyond their ordinury earnings-which wore needed for existing demands of the school the sum of £10,000 for its erection, in their first year more than a third of the sum was raised, exclusive of the usual concert work.
Through the influence of Mr. G. P. Ittman, of Rotterdam, who heard the Jubilee Singers in London, a trip to the Continent was planned; and the grand cathedrals of the Netherlands were thronged to hear the plaintive melodies sung by those who had been slaves in America; 10,000 dollars profit from that trip. In October, 1877, they pushed on to Germany and had a warm welcome. In Berlin the Crown Prince and Princess invited them to the new palace, where their singing excited the liveliest admiration.
The company has necessarily gone through several changes; but it is asserted that the standard of the singers, who will shortly commence a season here, is quite equal to the original company. The songs are of the simplest charactor. The great charm seems to lie in the varying forms of interpretation, and the changing moods, the perfect intonation, and the light and shade with which they invest their singing. In a preface to the music, the unique origin, and some of the characteristics are pointed out. Though they are in reality the simple ecstatic utterances of un- tutored minds stirred into fervour by the meeting in church or camp, there are none of the crudities which shook the musician. The rhythm is always good, though at times complicated and often distinctly original. Three part measure, or triple time is rarely found; more than half the melodies follow the national Scottish music, in the fact that in the scale the fourth and seventh tones are omitted ; and as many maintain the Greek to have been written in a similar scale, the thoughtful student may well ask if this is not perhaps the easiest musical alphabet. Tho Jubilee Singers have secured the Y. M. C. A. hall, and will commence a season in Sydney on Monday, 4th October.
The Sydney Morning Herald
(NSW : 1842 - 1954)
Dated Saturday 25 September 1886
Ogiginal Document Tagged
The Fisk Jubilee Singers
7 November 2012
State library of Victoria
Note: The Fisk Jubilee Singers found appreciative audiences in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia throughout 1886 and 1887.j