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INSTRUCTIVE CODE ...

FOR MARRIED LADIES.


1. Let every wife be persuaded that there are two ways of governing a family; the first is by the expression of that will which belongs to force; the second by the power of mildness, to which even strength will yield. One is the power of the husband; a wife should never employ any other arms than gentleness. When a woman accustoms herself to say I will, she deserves to lose her empire.

2. Avoid contradicting your husband. When we smell at a rose, it is to imbibe the sweetness of its odour: we likewise look for every thing that is amiable from women. Whoever is often contradicted feels insensibly an aversion for the person who contradicts, which gains strength by time, and, whatever be her good
qualities, is not easily destroyed.

3.Occupy yourself only with household affairs. Wait till your husband confides to you affairs of higher importance, and do not give your advice till he asks it.
'
4.Never take upon, yourself to be a censor of your husband's morals, and do not read lectures to him. Let your preaching be a good example, and practice virtue yourself to make him in love with it.

5.Command his attentions by being always attentive to him; never exact any thing,
and you will obtain much; appear always flattered by the little he does for you,
which will excite him to perform more.

6.All men are vain ; never wound his vanity, not even in the most trifling instances.
A wife may have more sense than her husband, but she' should never seem to know it.

7.When a man gives wrong counsel, never make him feel that, he has done so, but lead him on by degrees to what is rational, with mildness and gentleness; when he is convinced,
leave him all the merit of having found out what was just and reasonable.

8.When a husband is out of temper, behave obligingly to him; if he is abusive, never retort;
and never prevail over him to humble him.

9.Choose well your female friends: have but few, and be careful of following their advice in all matters.

10. Cherish neatness without luxury, and pleasure without excess; dress with taste,
and particularly with modesty; vary the fashions of your dress, especially in regard to colours.
It gives a change to the ideas, and recalls pleasing recollections. Such things may appear trifling, but they are of more importance than is imagined.

11.Never be, - curious to pry into your husband's concerns, but obtain his confidence
by that which, at all times, you repose in him. Always preserve order and economy;
avoid being out of temper, and be careful never to scold.
By these means he will find his own house more pleasant than any other.

12. Seem always to obtain information from him, especially before company,
though you may pass yourself for a simpleton. Never forget that a wife owes all her importance
to that of her husband; Leave him entirely master of his actions, to go or come whenever he thinks fit.
A wife ought to make her company so amiable to her husband that he could not exist without it;
then he will not seek for any pleasure abroad if she does not partake of it with him.


transcribed from The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848) issue Friday 1 August 1828, by janilye on the 29 January 2012

Below;
Still happily living by the code in 1900 in Dungog, New South Wales just as her mother and grandmother did.


9 comment(s), latest 2 years, 10 months ago

"Digger" 1914-1918

Digger, a dark brown and white bulldog accompanied his owner, Sergeant James Harold Martin, during his service overseas and is said to have served three and a half years with the AIF.

Martin, an electrician from Hindmarsh in South Australia enlisted on 18 September 1914, at the age of 22.
Digger seems to have been a stray dog that attached himself to soldiers training at Broadmeadows and followed them down to the troopships.
Martin adopted him as a mascot and he and Digger sailed from Melbourne on 20 October 1914. Martin served initially with 1 Division Signal Company on Gallipoli, but transferred to 2 Division Signal Company in July 1915.
He remained with the company, attached to the Engineers, during his service on the Western Front in France and Belgium.
Martin returned to Australia on 12 May 1918, according to his medical records he suffered with Rheumatism and was discharged medically unfit.

Digger accompanied him as strict quarantine regulations relating to the arrival of dogs in Australia from overseas did not come into force until June 1918.

Digger had been wounded and gassed at Pozieres in 1916 and needed cod liver oil for his burns.
This was expensive so a picture postcard of Digger, wearing the inscribed silver collar made for him on his return to Australia, with patriotic red, white and blue ribbons attached to it, was produced and the money realised from its sale used to buy the oil.

It is said that the dog was also presented with a free tram and rail pass so that he could accompany Martin.

Digger died, as an old dog, on Empire Day (24 May - year not known) when he was frightened by the celebratory fireworks.
Thinking he was under fire again he attempted to jump the fence but failed and fell back with a burst blood vessel.
Digger managed to crawl back into the house and died on Martin's bed. Martin was in the Prince of Wales Hospital at Randwick, NSW at the time, but he arranged through Mrs J A Little, a volunteer who visited the hospital twice a day to the help the soldiers there, to have Digger's hide tanned. After Martin's death the hide and collars were passed to Mrs Little. Her daughter recalled that the hide was displayed on the floor and that 'nobody put a foot on it.' His head was propped on a stool so that everyone could see him, he has been loved by all'.

Note that the postcard is signed by Sergeant Martin.

James Harold Martin the son of James Sampson MARTIN 1862-1921 and Ada Mary STEARNE 1862-1921, was born on the 21 August 1892 in Hindmarsh, South Australia and died at Daw Park in Adelaide on the 16 December 1963.

Whilst in UK during WW1, James and Digger stayed with a glass and china dealer James Henry LARKINS, his wife Sarah nee Clark and their family of five boys and two girls.

After the war James and digger returned to Australia, Frances Letitia LARKINS 1892-1975. followed on the next ship...

On the 11 June 1920 at Hindmarsh. James and Frances married.
The couple had two children James Ross MARTIN 1921 1997 and Marjorie Joan MARTIN 1926 1986

The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) Saturday 28 December 1918

DIgger, THE DOG.

'Digger,' a bulldog that left Australia on board the Argyllshire in October, 1914, and is now the only surviving mascot of the original lst Division, has returned to Sydney.
If he could speak he could say that he has been over the top 16 times says the Sydney correspondent of The Melbourne Herald). He was in the landing on Gallipoli, went through Lone Pine, and was in the evacuation.
Afterwards he went to France with the boys, and at Pozieres was wounded and gassed.
He returned to the division again, and out in two winters with it, being gassed again in the Ypres battle.
Men who know him say that as soon as the gas alarm sounded Digger would rush up to, his nearest human comrade and make signs that he wanted his mask fitted.
But he was not a mere show dog. When a man was lying wounded out in front and no one could reach him, Digger would be sent out with artificial foods, and if it was possible for the man to write he would bring a message back.
He bears the marks of his wounds. A hole in the top of the lower jaw, three teeth gone, blind in the right eye, deaf in the left ear. He had to be put under chloroform to have the bullet extracted.

No one company or battalion can ever say that they owned Digger. He belongs to the 1st Division. Sometimes he would be with one battalion, next week with another. Then he would take up with a battery of artillery for a -while.
While convalescent in England he transferred to the flying corps. On one occasion he went up 8,000 ft. with the late Flight-Lieut. Gibba, and has, they say, flown all over England and Scotland. He always was a venturesome dog, but he was invalided home a couple of months ago, and now has to lead a more or less humdrum life.

However, so his present keeper says, he could not be kept in on the day of the news of the Armistice. He caught a train to Sydney to knock around with the boys and,' several days later, had to be bailed out of the Dogs' Home for half a crown. He had the reputation of being a hard drinker 'over the other side.'

His was a common face in the wet canteen and estaminets.

The 1st Division has allowed him to go into the custody of Sgt. J. H. Martin, also a returned Anzac, who since the war has lost a mother, father, two brothers, and a sister the last three on active service.
It was thought that the dog might be some consolation for him.


Sources;
National Archives/
Item details for: B2455, MARTIN J H
Australian War Memorial


9 comment(s), latest 2 years, 11 months ago

'THE CROPPIES ARE COMING'-1804 New South Wales

Just after supper on the 4th of March 1804, The Reverend Samuel Marsden, preparing for bed at his home in Parramatta, heard shouts from the street,"THE CROPPIES ARE COMING!" He was immediately struck with fear, God knows he'd flogged too many of them to feel safe.
In New South Wales, Marsden had earnt himself the nickname 'The Flogging Parson' for his terrible cruelty and harsh sentences. Therefore, he quickly bundled himself onto a boat and headed for Sydney.

The feared Irish rebellion in New South Wales was born.

The Irish croppies, so called because of their short cropped hair were Irish political prisoners who had arrived in the Colony in 1800.

After 4 years of ill-treatment, they had become desperate and decided it was time to take action.

The first armed rebellion by a group of about fifty convicts from Castle Hill began, marching towards Parramatta burning farms and looting muskets and pikes on the way.

Their leader Phillip CUNNINGHAM, hardened by rebellions in Ireland, knew this rebellion would not succeed without secrecy and discipline and although the convict farms on which the rebels worked were full of informers, word of the planned rebellion didn't leak out until that day, when a convict overseer, turned informer, warned them just hours before of the uprising, he was ignored. It began at nine o'clock in the evening with a signal fire that lit up the sky.

When Marsden arrived in Sydney, he alerted Major George Johnston who gathered fifty of his soldiers from the New South Wales Corps, marching them overnight to Parramatta.

On arrival in Parramatta they found no sign of the rebels and were told that after a night of drinking they'd headed up the Hawkesbury.

Johnston and his Red Coats gave chase and just 10 mile from Windsor, on a hill, the next morning, Johnston found the numbers had swelled to two hundred and thirty three, all shouting "DEATH OR LIBERTY"

Calling on them to surrender, Johnston rode forward to speak with Phillip Cunningham - then breaking all the rules of parley, he suddenly put his pistol to Cunningham's head and arrested him. At the same time, ordering the Corps to open fire. Within a few minutes fifteen convicts lay dead, several were wounded with not one British casualty.

Punishment was swift, nine were hanged and nine were flogged of the rest, some were taken, to serve out long sentences at Coal River* where a convict/military outpost known as Fort Scratchley had been established that year to mine coal, harvest timber and prepare lime. The rest to Van Dieman's Land.

The Hill was forever after known as VINEGAR Hill so named after Vinegar Hill in Wexford, Ireland. Vinegar Hill was the site of the only battle, apart from Eureka, (fought fifty years later) ever fought on Australian soil

NB: Skilled in-fighters in politics, the Irish produced more Australian Prime Ministers than any other group: SCULLIN,LYONS,FADDEN,CURTIN,FORDE,CHIFLEY,MCEWAN,MCMAHON,KEATING and John GORTON had an Irish mother. They were physically and mentally tough they helped to found and later dominated the Australian Labor Party. Their exploits, rebel songs and traditions would mix with those of the English and Scots to form the basis of our folklore.

*Coal River became Newcastle


A Hawkesbury Calender

JANUARY

1. 1827. The Australian Cricket Club held their annual meeting in Sydney;
when some good play was exhibited, lt was announced at the meeting that the
Windsor Cricket Club had refused to play their brother amateurs in Sydney.

1, 1844. Post office first established at Richmond.

1, 1870. Telegraph office opened at Richmond.

1, 1807. An address presented to Rev. Samuel Marsden- Parramatta,
Principal Chaplain of the colony signed by 302 magistrates and land owners'
in the interiorprior to his departure to England on a visit.
Marsden frequently visited ; the Hawkesbury in connection With his professional duties,
and he owned property at Windsor. He died at the Parsonage, Windsor.

1. 1839. Elizabeth Pitt, wife of Thomas Matcham Pitt, died aged 39.
The Pitts were the first free settlers to take up their residence in the Richmond district,
and were the founders of the Australian family of that name, descendants of whom still
reside in the district. The founders were related to Lord Nelson, and bore letters of
introduction from him when they arrived in the colony.

2, 1805. Advertisement appeals in the Sydney Gazette of this date of the auction sale
of a farm situated on the banks of the Hawkesbury, opposite Cornwallis, contesting
of 50 acres, mostly cleared, belonging to George Barrington (the famous Lon don pickpocket),
then deceased.

4, 1822. Governor Macquarie replies' to an address presented by Hawkesbury Settlers
on Dec. 12, 1821just prior to his departure from the colony.

4, 1814. James Gordon married, to Miss Arndell, at Windsor, by Rev. Cartwright,
chaplain at St Matthew's.

4, 1816. W. Gaudry, a well-known settler, died at Windsor.

8, 1833. Thos. Hobby, of the N.8.W. Gorps, and afterwards Lieut., of the 102nd Regiment,
died, aged 57. Buried Richmond C.E. cemetery.

11, 1800; Father Harold, General Holt, Rev. Henry Fulton, participants
in the '98 Irish Rebellion, ; arrived with William Cox; and family in Sydney Cove
in the Minerva. William Cox eventually settled down at the Hawkesbury, and became the
founder of the famous and respected Australian family of that name. Holt for a time was
overseer of Cox's farms in the Parramatta and Hawkesbury districts.
Fulton became the much respected chaplain at Richmond and Castlereagh, and conducted a
school at the latter place. Tompson, the first Australian poet, attended this school.

11, 1819. Windsor Charitable Institution (now known as the Hawkes bury Benevolent Society)
established. 300 value in wheat, and 60 head of breeding cattle donated by leading settlers
for its maintenance. The first public meeting was called on Dec. 31, 1818.
The first committee were Rev. R. Cartwright, William Cox (of Clarendon and Fairfield),
James Jones, Thomas Matcham Pitt (father of the late G. M. Pitt), Henry Baldwin, and George Hall
(founder of the Caddai family).

12, 1810. Andrew Thomson, the father of Windsor, appointed a magistrate by Governor Macquarie.
The appointment of an emancipist to the position gave great offence to the military and
prominent free settlers. Thomson died October 22, 1810, aged 37.

12, 1838. Solomon Wiseman (Wiseman's Ferry) died, aged 61.
He was the uncrowned king of the Lower Hawkesbury.

12, 1811. Thomas Gilberthorp, a Pitt Town farmer, advertises in the "Sydney Gazette"
of this date endeavouring to induce the Hawkesbury farmers to co-operate in the purchase
of wheat screens. This is the first record of practical farming co-operation in Australia.
Gilberthorp. was an industrious and honorable settler.

13, 1818. The following land grants to local settlers were gazetted at this date-
Samuel Terry, 950 acres in the Evan district ; John Palmer 1500 acres; John Pye, 300 acres;
and Richard Rouse, 450 acres.- all the latter being situated in the Bathurst district.

14, 1815, William Cox, of Clarendon, concludes the herculean task of constructing a
carriage road over the Blue Mountains from Emu; Plains to Bathurst--within six months.
Commenced July 7, 1814, and continued under adverse conditions as regards weather and
difficulties of crossing an unexplored mountain,' Distance ; accomplished, 101 miles.

15, 1855. 150yds footrace between Judd and Dalton for 100 a-side at Windsor racecourse.
Won by latter by 3yds.

16, 1837. Ann Tebbutt died, aged 71. Buried St. Matthew's Cemetery, Windsor.
Mother of John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S.

16, 1897. Windsor Swimming Club held successful aquatic carnival in the river.
150 Sydney swimmers and New Zealand champions present.
Chief events-One mile championship of Australia won by Percy Cavill;
championship of Hawkesbury (440yds) won by Tom Atkins ;
monster banquet at the Fitzroy Hotel in the evening; Austrian band present.

17, 1900. John Low Thompson died at Burwood. He was Principal of Dookie College, Victoria ;
instructor in agriculture to the government of N.S W. ;
and the first Principal of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College.

20, 1850. William Cox, Junr., of Hobartville died, aged 60.

20, 1829. Jas. Watson died, aged 43. Buried Richmond.

21, 1815. Road over Blue Moun tains constructed and opened for traffic.
Superintended by William Cox, J.P., of Clarendon.

21, 1809. Andrew Thomson appointed auctioneer for the district of the Hawkesbury
by Deputy-Governor Paterson, the Hawkesburys first auctioneer.

21, 1809. The Portland Head Christian etc. Society at a meeting at this date agree to
engage William Harvey and William Barrow, stone masons (free men), to build the wall
of the Ebenezer chapel, and David Dunstan, carpenter, to do the carpentering.

26, 1788. Assistant-Surgeon Arndell arrives with the first fleet- as surgeon on "Friendship."
Captain Walton with 100 male and female convicts. Arndell soon afterwards resigned
from his government appointment, and received a land grant at Caddai, where he resided for
many years, as the first Hawkesbury magistrate and as a prominent settler identified with
farming pursuits. He was much respected.

26; 1788. Commissary John Palmer, purser Of the " Sirius," arrives in the first fleet.
Cobbold, the author of the life of Margaret Catchpole, makes frequent mention of Palmer
as the friend and patron of the Richmond midwife.

28, 1808. Governor Bligh deposed. Although Bligh incurred the enmity of the N.S.W. Corps,
he was well respected at the Hawkesbury, owing to his efforts to stop the iniquitous drink traffic
by the "Rum Selling Corps." Bligh stated that if he could have escaped to his friends at the
Hawkesbury, the high-handed proceedings of Johnston and Macarthur would never have occurred.

28, 1858. John Single died, aged 66.

30, 1889. Ann Elizabeth Hobby, widow of Thomas Hobby, died, aged 72.

31, 1855. 150yds footrace between Dalton and Davenport for 100 and championship,
run on Parramatta-rd, Won by Dalton.

January, 1805 (day uncertain). George Barrington, the famous London pickpocket,
died at Parramatta, now compos mentis.

January, 1826, (day uncertain). Black snake, 22ft long (?) killed near the Hawkesbury by a
free settler named Fleming.

January, 1794. About the middle of this month the first farms were established on the
Hawkesbury by Deputy-Governor Grose, who placed 22 settlers there.
Amongst those receiving land were J.Ruse and C. Williams, the first Australian farmers.
These had previously been placed on poor land at Rosehill, but were after wards given land grants
at the mouth of South Creek and the Hawkesbury. They did not, however, enter into possession
at the Hawkesbury with the other settlers until some months afterwards, when they had disposed
of their farms at Rosehill. Ruse eventually left the Hawkesbury, and years afterwards died,
and was buried in the Camden R C. cemetery, his tombstone denoting the fact that he "sowed"
the first grain in this colony. Williams held his grant, which is now still held and
cultivated by his descendants, the Hannabus family.

FEBRUARY

1795, The firspublic store established at Green Hills ( Windsor) by Government
early in this month. Baker appointed first storekeeper.

1800. Captain Wm. Cox (after wards of Clarendon) purchases Brush Farm, on the
Parramatta River, early in this month, and commences farming. He appoints General Holt,
the '98 Irish Rebel, as his manager.

1, 1871. Hawkesbury Race Club established. Arthur Dight, president; John L. Smith, secretary.

1, 1828. Francis Beddek, better known as the Hawkesbury lawyer, admitted to practise
as a solicitor in the colony. He lived at Windsor for many years. He was the fifth lawyer
admitted to practise in Australia. It is said that he was the first solicitor practising
in Windsor, but one George Crossley (transported for forgery), preceded him.
William Walker was articled to Beddek.

2, 1802. Mary Pitt (Matcham) arrives with four daughters and a son at Sydney Cove
by the Canada. Founder of the Australian family of that name.
They settled at Mulgrave Place on the Hawkesbury. Mary Pitt died 1815, and the son
Thomas died in 1821, aged 39. The late G. M. Pitt, of North Sydney, was a son of the latter.

2, 1840. Frederick Bridges, chief inspector of schools, N.S.W., born at
Windsor. His father was one of the Scotch masons Dr. Lang brought out from Scotland.
The family left the Hawkesbury owing to disastrous floods.

3, 1821. Thomas Spencer, a mariner in the first fleet, died. Buried at Richmond.

8, 1837. William Harrington, who came with the 73rd regiment, died.
He was an honest and industrious man. Buried Richmond.

9, 1805. William Roberts advertises in the " Sydney Gazette" that he intends to run
at this date a covered waggon, to and from the Hawkesbury-once in three weeks-
with goods and passengers. Probably the first recorded regular communication with Sydney.

10th and 11th, 1791. Terrible heat at Rosehill (Parramatta.) 105 in shade at Sydney.
Birds and flying foxes dropped dead whilst on the wing. Bush fires. (Collins.)

10, 1873. John Richard Rouse died, aged 72. Buried Riohmond.

12, 1796. J. Brabyn, captain of the famous. 102nd regiment, better
known as the Rum Selling Corps, arrives in the colony with his regiment
in Marquis of Cornwallis. Magistrate from 1808 to 1810. Was concerned in the
deposition of Governor Bligh. For this he went to England in 1810
with others of the 102nd regiment to attend the trial of Major Johnston.
Re-appointed magistrate on his return to the colony shortly after.
Presided at Windsor for several years. Street named after him.
His residence, York Lodge, in George-street, near railway station, still stands.

12, 1822. Six men sentenced to death for breaking into the dwelling
of James Mackenzie at Caddai, and putting him on the fire and dreadfully beating him.

12, 1801. Shock of earthquake ; very sensibly felt at Parramatta and Hawkesbury at 11 p.m.,
lasting three minutes, and giving repeated shocks.

14, 1807. Governor Bligh issues ; an order at this date, forbidding the exchange of spirits
for food, on account of the destitution amongst the Hawkesbury settlers.

15, 1815. At a meeting of the Portland Head Society, it was decided
to establish a sabbath school. It was opened, but only continued a few weeks.
Probably the first recorded Sunday school at the Hawkesbury.

26, 1803. Andrew Thomson, chief constable at the Hawkesbury, takes into custody
two escaped convicts for rioting at Baulkham Hills.

17, 1797. William Cox, of Clarendon, appointed Lieutenant 68th Foot.

20, 1819. First ale and spirit license granted to Black Horse Hotel,
Richmond (Paul Randall, owner) The Inn was then known as the Black Horse Prince.
This is now the oldest licenssd hotel in Australia.
It has an nteresting history, and as a honeymoon resort at one time for leading colonista,
it was called "Honeymoon Cottage."

22, 1838. Samuel Terry died, leaving half a million in real and personal estate.

25, 1834. Caroling Louisa W. Calvert, author and botanist of Kurrajong, born.
Died April 28th, 1872. She was a talented lady, and a friend of Reverends Drs.
Woolls and Cameron, of Richmond.

25, 1868. James Stanbury, a champion sculler of the world, and a native of the Hawkesbury, born.

26. 1828. William Walker, member of the Legislative Council, born at Glasgow-
Represented Windsor in Parliament from I860 to the end of 1869. Alderman and Mayor
of Windsor. Founder of the Windsor School of Arts and its first president,
which position he occupied for many years. Secretary of tne Hawkesbury Benevolent Society
for eleven years, and wrote its history ; afterwards president. Writer of poetry and prose.
An early correspondent for the "Sydney Morning Herald," etc. His father was one of the
Presbyterian teachers induced to come to the colony by the late Dr. Lang.
He was educated by his father in Windsor, articled to Francis Beddek, of the same town,
and admitted an attorney in 1852, since which time he has practised in Windsor.

26, 1816. John Anderson murdered in his house at Caddai, aged 36 years.
Buried Church of England cemetery, Windsor.

27, 1815. Miss Wilshire, second daughter of James Wilshire
(Deputy Commissary General under Governor Macquarie) and Hester Pitt, born.
Died November 5, 1900.

MARCH

1800. Several floods at Hawkesbury during this month.

1811. Floods destroyed maize crops during this month

1, 1795. Official communication of this date from Lieut Gov. Paterson states
that he "had erected a small store at the Green Hills (Windsor), putting Baker,
the Superintendent, in charge "--Windsor's first store.

2nd to 9th, 1788. Between this date Pitt Water (mouth of the Hawkesbury),
named by Gov. Philip, during an exploration.

2,1801. John Stogdell, a free settler, lost his life in the big flood in
attempting to swim his horse over a hollow 3 miles from Hawkesbury (Windsor).
Horse and rider were drowned. This man was evidently buried at Sydney in the
old cemetery upon which the Town Hall now stands.
A resident in Sydney not long ago stated in the press that he had a coffin nameplate
referring to this man which had been unearthed from this cemetery.

3,1799. Heavy flood at the Hawkesbury, lasting until the 19th.

4,1804. Insurrection of prisoners at Castle Hill. Martial Law proclaimed.
Repealed March 9.

4,1871. Windsor Municipality proclaimed, R. Dight first Mayor,
J. T, Smith Council Clerk.

4,1815. Laurence May (father of Christie May), advertises in the " Sydney Gazette "
of this date that he "has erected a horse flour mill in the middle of the town
of Windsor, and that he is prepared to grind his neighbour's wheat expeditiously."

5, 1819. Rebecca, wife of William Cox, of Clarendon, died at Clarendon after
several weeks' illness, aged 56, leaving 5 sons.

6, 1822. Road from Richmond to Wallis Plains (Newcastle) opened to the public.

6,1898. Benjamin Richards died, Aged 81.

10,1813. Terrific hailstorm in the Hawkesbury district, much damage done to crops.
The windows in the Windsor chapel and Fitzgerald's residence were broken,
poultry were killed, and Crossley, Armitage, and other settlers were, injured.
Some of the hailstones measured 6 inches in circumference.
The chapel referred to was situated on the site occupied by the present School of Arts.
Crossley a convicted attorney was prominent in the time of Governors Hunter, King
and Bligh, figuring largely as the friend of the latter during his (Bligh's) deposition
by the military.

11, 1804. The "Sydney Gazette" of this date states that Cunningham, one of the rebel chiefs
of the Castle hill insurrection was hanged at Hawkesbury (Windsor).
He was hung on the staircase of the public store, Hawkesbury, which he had boasted
in his march at the head of the rebels he would plunder.
He had been overseen by stone-masons at Castle Hill. The public store was situated
on the site where Mr. Brinsley Hall's residence now stands.

11, 1799. Rev. Ralph Mansfield, Wesleyan minister, and a prominent Sydney citizen,
was stationed at Wind sor; died June, 1880, at Parramatta.
Editor and co-proprietor "Sydney Gazette."

12, 1833. Mary, wife of Richard Fitzgerald, died, aged 53.
Buried Church of England Cemetery, Windsor.

15, 1837. William Cox, J P., Lieut, and Paymaster of N.S.W Corps or 102nd Regiment,
of Clarendon, died at Fairfield, aged 72. Buried at St. Matthew's Church of England, Windsor.
Founder of the Australian family of that name.

22, 1806. Memorable flood; immense damage done; caused a famine.
Bread rose to 4/6 and 5/-loaf of 2lbs. Wheat sold 70/- and 80/- per bushel.
This flood rose 8ft. higher than on any previous occasion. 36,000 worth of property was
destroyed, and several lives lost. It commenced last week of February, and its greatest
height was reached on March 22, 6000 bushels of corn were destroyed.
100 persons, who had taken refuge upon the tops of their houses were saved through the
exertions of Arndell and Biggers, two settlers. Arndell was the founder of the
Hawkesbury family of that name. He arrived as a surgeon in the First Fleet.

1897. J. Ayling, Presbyterian minister at Pitt Town, and a noted apiarist,
died in New Zealand, aged 71.

24, 1807. The vessel Governor Bligh (owner, Andrew Thompson) launched from
the Green Hills (Windsor).

25, 1897. Sen. Coastable McNeely retires after 21 years' service in the
district.

25, 1804. Governor King thanks the settlers for their assistance in putting down the
Irish insurrection at Castle Hill.

28, 1828. First postmaster at Windsor appointed. Salary 84/7/9 per annum.

1814. Rev. Wm. Wools, Ph. Dr., A.L.M., F.L.S., born.
Incumbent of St. Peter's, Richmond, and Rural Dean.
Literateur and scientist, botanist, lecturer. Died 1894

A letter from Margaret Catchpole

MARGARET CATCHPOLE was born in Suffolk on the 14 March 1762 the daughter of Elizabeth Catchpole. She was transported for life and arrived in Sydney onboard the 'Nile' on the 14 December 1801. She worked at one time for a very good friend of the Eather's (my ancestors), Arthur DIGHT 1819-1895 at 'Mountain View' Richmond. She was a prolific letter writer and chronicler. paper, back in those days was not cheap and Margaret used every space on the paper first writing across the page and then down. There are several stories online about Margaret. For the interest of the members of Family Tree Circles I wanted to show you part of one of her letters, unfortunately I was not able to attach the whole page. All her letters have been transcribed. What a painstaking job that would have been.
For those interested, there are several stories about her online.


1 comment(s), latest 3 years, 9 months ago

ABRAHAM JOSEPH EATHER 1828-1906 Australia

The youngest son of Robert Eather 1795-1881 and Mary LYNCH 1802-1853 was Abraham, born in Windsor on 5 October 1828. In later life he settled in the Sydney suburb of Belmore and he died there on 12 May 1906.
His early years were spent as a jackaroo on his father's north-western properties and at the age of 19 he almost perished in a desperate adventure on the Narran River after setting out with a brother and two friends from Barwon with cattle and horses. It was then less than three years since discovery of the Narran and knowlege of local conditions was scanty. The waterholes had all dried up, so after travelling thirty miles Abe EATHER and James WARD left the other two in order to hurry to the Narran for water, but they lost their way and their companions, fearing disaster, tried to push on without the cattle. Young Abe was found by an aboriginal, almost dead after two days and nights without water.
With his brothers Tom and Jim, Abe spent some years on the Narran at his father's station at Angledool and on other family holdings nearby until they were driven out by drought.
In old age Abe used to talk about how in those remote parts he lit his pipe with one foot in Queensland and another in New South Wales.
On occasions Abe drove his father's stock from Angledool to Homebush, near Sydney, around 480 miles.
In the 1850's Abe settled in Sydney as a produce merchant in Sussex St. where he met and married his first wife, Margaret McELLIGOTT 1830-1856, who died at Ultimo leaving one daughter, Mary EATHER 1852-1853.
During this period, he was the winner of two pedestrian races which have gone down in the records of Australian sport. The former of these contests was held over 150yards on the Cook's River sporting paddock on Easter monday, 28 March 1853, with each contestant backed for 50 pounds. Eather was billed as the "pet' of Windsor while his competitor, HATFIELD, was backed by his hometown, Liverpool. Abe won easily and Liverpool rode home disconsolate; Windsor high up in the stirrups.
With his Easter success to support him, EATHER matched FARNELL of Parramatta at Cook's river on 25 April 1853, backed by his brother James, and Michel Despointes ( brother-in-law married to Cecilia) for a 100pounds each over 150yards. Excitement over the approaching contest gave circulation to some imaginative doggerel;

Parramatta says "Farnell
is a real Nonpareil" -
Windsor answers from afar,
"Look at Ether, see a star"


And indeed he was a star for he won easily.

"Abe used to race a horse fifty yards there and back for a wager.One day some shrewdies turned up with a stock pony instead of a racehorse; it turned the peg as fast as Abe did and Abe lost all his money".
Abe finished up running an hotel, but was a teetotaller all his life.
Abraham Eather's second wife, by whom he had eleven children was Ellen FARRELL 1842-1928 of Yarramundi, near Richmond. She survived him by many years and died at Belmore on 8 September 1928.

The children of Abraham and Ellen, nee FARRELL were:-

1. Margaret Eather 18641865

2. Abraham Eather 18661947 m. Mary Ann DUTCH 1867-1903

3. Herbert William Eather 18681955

4. Ellen Balbina Eather 18701957 m. Robert Francis Piers MURPHY 1868-1943 at Richmond, New South Wales in 1893.

5. Theresa Eather 18721946

6. Gertrude Elizabeth Eather 18731955 m. James Stephen LYNCH 1873-1948 at Canterbury, Sydney New South Wales in 1916.

7. Mary Magdalene Eather 18781952 m. Percy PLUMRIDGE 1892-1957 at
Belmore, New South Wales, in 1922.

8. Kathleen Cecilia Frances Eather 18811969 m. Vincent Joseph GATTENHOF 1881-1958 at Canterbury, New South Wales on 24 April 1906.

9. Joseph Bernard M Eather 18831944 m. Ellen Kinsela MADDEN 1886-1954 at Parramatta, New South Wales, in 1921.

10. Eileen Benedicta Eather 18901965 m. John Cole MEDCALF 1880-1947 at Canterbury, Sydney New South Wales,in 1915

Absalom Tonkin 1827-1892

Baptised 10 October 1827 at St Austwell,Cornwell, England
the son of William TONKIN 1788-1876 and Elizabeth, nee WELLINGTON
Arrived in Port Adelaide on the ship China on 14 December 1847
Photograph curtesy of the Wentworth Historical Society


Albany, Western Australia Cemeteries

All lonely graves in the Albany area.

Albany Town Hall Block several graves not all marked.
Those marked are C.BROWN, MOKAREI, TALWIN, and Dr. A COLLIE who has been re-interred at Middleton Beach Rd.
Candyup: 2 graves : C. DICKSON and T LARKINS
Callenup: W VICKERS
Takalanup: ROYCE children and S G MARTIN
Warriup: E C WRAY
Wylie: Native (no name)
Grassmere: baby BURVILL
Great Southern Railway line (26 mile) GARDINER
Kalgan River: WARTHWYKE
Marbellup: T KNAPP
Two Peoples Bay: 2 graves believed to be men from a french ship. Probably how the name came about.

Public Cemeteries;

Albany Memorial Park Upper and lower Middleton Road
Allambie Park
St.John's Anglican Churchyard
Elleker and Redmond land set aside but not used.
Quaranup Quarantine Station 2 graves- J GRANT and R L MCGUIRE

This work, part of the Western Australian Burial Location Index was collated by Yvonne and Kevin Coates and published by the Western Australian Genealogical Society Inc.

2 comment(s), latest 3 years, 4 months ago

ALESHIRE

Just in case you're ever talking to a Scot and to save some embarrassment AYRSHIRE is pronounced ALESHIRE.

The reason being the name Ayrshire came from the 12th century A.D. when the Scottish alphabet did not include the letter 'L'. For this reason the spelling had to be changed in order for it make sense in a written context. However the oral traditions have remained from the Gramian region of Scotland and confirm the correct pronunciation is actually 'Aleshire'. It was believed at this early stage in the language that the 'yr' between the 'A' and the 'Shire' was the best way in which to navigate this problem and hence this is the reason for the spelling today.

I doubt a Scot or anyone else could say Mamungkukumpurangkuntjunya Hill which is in South Australia, not an 'L' to be found till we get to the Hill.
Mamungkukumpurangkuntjunya is pitjantjatjara (pronounced pitjanjara) for 'where the devil urinates'

Then again, I guess the kiwi's didn't have any 'Ls' either. I'd like to hear from anyone that can pronounce this uninhabited hill in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand, Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu
Which translates to;-The summit where Tamatea, the man with the big knees, the climber of mountains, the land-swallower who travelled about, played his nose flute to his loved one.

I won't mention the Welsh.


5 comment(s), latest 3 years, 7 months ago

Alexander Munro 1812-1889 NSW

Alexander MUNRO was born in Ardersier in the Scottish Highlands, on the Moray Firth, east of Inverness, near Fort George, and Nairn,Scotland on the 18 July 1812 the son of George MUNRO and Isabel MAIN.

On the 3 September 1829 Alexander was transported for seven years, he had been sentenced the day before in Inverness, where the family had moved after the death of his father. Along with two other boys, Alexander robbed a grocery store.

He arrived with 200 other convicts onboard the ship, York on the 7 February 1831. Measuring only 5'3" tall, he could read and write and his occupation was given as a Farm Boy. Alexander was assigned to John BROWNE a settler of Patricks Plains.

Alexander gained his Certificate of Freedom in 1836 and soon began buying up depasturing licenses all around the Singletom Area.

On the 6 July 1838 the Reverend HERRINGTON at Whittingham married Alexander MUNRO to Sophia LOVELL 1812-1889, Sophia, a convict sentenced to seven years had come from Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, on the 'Diana', arriving in 1833.

Sophia and Alexander failed to have children of their own and in 1840 adopted 3year old Harriet. Harriet was the natural child of Thomas PHILLIPS and his wife Catherine.

Harriet 1837-1873 became known as Harriet MUNRO and married Walter COUSINS 1829-1904.

Alexander in 1839 began a successful carrying business in 1839 and with his depasturing licenses soon began to acquire wealth. In 1841 he built the Sir Thomas Mitchell Inn on the corner of Cambridge and George Streets in Singleton and managed several other hotels and began his mail coach service from Singleton.

In 1851 Alexander built Ness House in George St., Singleton which is still standing today and he replaced the old Sir Thomas Mitchell Inn with the large Caledonian Hotel. In the 1868 Rate Book it was stated as "two,story,brick iron roof,13 rooms". The Singleton Argus 9th November 1901 advertisement stated" 14 bedrooms, 2 dining rooms, 2 parlours, sample room,kitchen,bathroom, laundry, pantry, man's room, stables, 4 stalls, buggy house etc". It had a 73ft frontage to George St, 73ft to High St, and 332ft to Cambridge St. The sale was on account of Mrs R.H.LEVIEN his grandaughter Harriet Emma COUSINS 1860-1946

MUNRO began the 'Bebeah' Vineyard and his wines won more than 2000 prizes all over the world; more than 500 first prizes. He built his house 'Ardersier House' on the grounds of Bebeah.

Alexander MUNRO was elected the first mayor of Singleton in 1866, when Singleton became a municipality.

Alexander MUNRO was a good man with a big heart, always putting back into the community and always helping those less fortunate than himself. He was very much admired by both the wealthy and the not so wealthy.

When the council in 1884 was not interested in building a gas making plant themselves, they passed an act on the 16 May 1884, to allow him to build it himself thereby giving the town light. He then turned the plant over to the town at cost price.

He donated the land for the Glenridding Church and Cemetery, the Masonic Hall and was a huge benefactor in the building of the Singleton Grammer School. He was the founder of the Oddfellows Lodge and his Hunter River Building Society financed the building of a north wing on the hospital in John Street and gave money to the hospital. He had a beautiful fountain made in Glasgow and gave it to the Town

In 1878 Alexander Munro retired from politics and was given a large banquet by the town, he returned to Scotland with Sophia for a short holiday.

On the 2 February 1889 Alexander MUNRO died at Ardersier House. Two days later on the 4 All the shops in Singleton were closed at 1:00pm to allow the town to mourn in what was to be the largest ever funeral Singleton had ever seen. The cortege being a half a mile long.

Sophia followed on the 26 July 1889.

Alexander in his will left 6,000 to various lagacies and 500 to the Singleton Benevolent Society. All this from a man who had been transported for stealing groceries.

The Maitland Mercury paid homage to Alexander Munro with this stirring obituary
in their newspaper on the 5 September 1889

SINGLETON.

"DEATH OF MR. ALEXANDER MUNRO.The kind and sympathetic voice is
hushed for ever, and the noble eye will no longer speak the sentiments
of a heart that for three-quarters of a century was beating full of
truly Christian love.
Alexander Munro is no more-the Great Conqueror claimed him to join
the silent majority.
Singleton has lost one of its greatest citizens, and the colony,
a prominent philanthropist and one of Nature's gentlemen.
The sad event took place at the residence of the deceased,
Ardesier House, near Singleton, on Saturday, the 26th instant, at half-past
two o'clock in the afternoon. For more than a week all hope had been
abandoned by Mr. Munro's medical attendants, and it was only a
question of time when the end should come. During nearly the whole
of that period the deceased was in a comatose state, but when
consciousness returned at intervals he appeared to suffer much pain.
Life, however, ebbed gradually away until the last grain
had dropped out of the glass and a merciful Providence ended
the earthly troubles of our noble friend and fellow townsman.
Mr. Munro was born at Ardesier, Invernesshire, Scotland, in the
memorable year 1812, and arrived in the colony in 1831, and has
resid ed here ever since, with the exception of a trip to his native
land about 11 years ago.
Arriving here when quite young, he soon adapted himself to the
rough mode of life then prevailing in New South Wales, with that
readiness and endurance for which the national character of Caledonia's
sons has so eminently qualified them as the best colonizers in
the world.
One of his first ventures in Singleton was to build the Caledonia Hotel.
Having made some money at hotelkeeping, he subsequently took up stations
in the Liverpool Plains district, where he was squatting for many years.
In all his undertakings he was singularly prosperous, and wealth flowed
in from all sides.
About thirty years ago Mr. Munro, being fully convinced
that viticulture as an important industry would eventually take root
as an important industry in the valley of the Hunter, he started
to work with that determination and enterprise so characteristic of
the man, and having obtained a suitable piece of land-a portion of the
well-known Kelso estate, near Singleton-planted there the Bebeah vineyard,
now so famous throughout the length and breadth of the Australian colonies.
At an early period of the establishment of Bebeah, Mr. Munro
engaged the services of Mr. Mackenzie, under whose excellent management
Bebeah wines attained such a celebrity that at length
they appeared at the table of the gracious Sovereign who rules the
destinies of this great Empire. The late Emperor William of Germany also
patronised Bebeah wines, and expressed himsnlf in approving terms of
their excellent character.
As the demand for Bebeah wines was increasing at a rapid rate, in
order to add to the supply, Mr. Munro about a dozen years ago purchased
the adjoining Greenwood Vineyard from Mr. James Moore, and between
the two vineyards there are now about eighty acres in full bearing.
After purchasing the Greenwood Vineyard, Mr. Munro built there, on
an excellently elevated site, the residence where he ended his days.
When in England some eleven years ago, Mr. Munro ordered a gas plant
for Singleton, and, having subsequently got an Act passed through
Parliament, the gas works were established.
the first lamp in Burdekin Park being lit by Mr.James P. Quinn, then
Mayor of Singleton, in October, 1881.
Throughout his long residence in Singleton, Mr. Munro took an active
part in all public matters. On the establishment of the municipality
in the year 1867, he was elected the first mayor, and was twice re-elected
after wards, thus remaining in office for three years.
The subject of this notice took an active part in the establishment
of the Singleton and Patrick's Plains Benevolent Society some forty-five
years ago, and throughout that long period Mr. Munro was always, we believe,
on the Committee of Management,
He was subsequently for many years Vice-President of the Society,
and on the retirement of the late President, Mr. J. C. S. M'Douall,
Mr. Munro was elected as President, an office which he held up till
his death.
Mr. Munro's sympathetic disposition made him at all times take a
deep interest in the poor inmates of the Asylum and nothing gave him greater
delight than to provide an ample feast for the old men and women on holidays,
namely Christmas and New Year, Easter, and Queen's Birthday, etc.,
making it a point to be present at the meal and enjoying
the hearty manner in which the old people appreciated his kindness.
Many years ago Mr. Munro showed his deep interest in the welfare of
the Benevolent Society by giving a munificent donation of 1000 towards
completing the Benevolent Asylum in accordance with the original design
prepared by Mr. Rowe, architect, Sydney.
In order to recognize this noble act the people of Singleton determined
to perpetuate Mr. Munro's memory by erecting a marble bust of the
generous donor in that building, and the ceremony of unveiling it
was performed last year by Miss White, eldest daughter of the
Rev. Dr. J. S. White, in the presence of a large number of people;
the day having been made a half-holiday in Singleton.
Mr. Munro was an ardent Freemason, and took an active interest
in masonic affairs. He joined the first lodge established in Singleton
in the year 1864, and passed the chair, and remained in connection
with various lodges here ever since.
Some time ago he presented the brethren with an allotment of land
in a central position in John-street for the purpose of erecting
there on a Masonic Hall, and further contributed a donation of 100
towards the building fund.
Mr. Munro was also one of the founders of the Oddfellows' Lodge
in Singleton many years ago, and remained a consistent member till
his death.
He took great interest in the Northern Agricultural Association from
its establishment in the year 1868, and for several years was one
of the vice-presidents ot that society.
He was a liberal contributor to the funds of the Mechanics' Institute
and all public movements which in his opinion were worthy of support.
Quite recently he gave the handsomesum of 1000 to the funds of
St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church for the purpose of building
a new church ; but although a consistent supporter of the church of
his forefathers, he was at all times ready to support any calls made
upon him by other denominations, and his charitable feelings made no
distinction between creed or country : no poor man was ever turned
away from the door of good Alexander Munro without a crust of bread.
An instance of the genuine charitable character of Mr. Munro was
lately conveyed to us from a trustworthy source, and it may not be
out of place to give it here. It appears that when in Scotland
some 11 years ago he ascertained that some of his relatives were
rather reduced in circumstances, and in order to provide against
want for the rest of their lives he built four cottages, one for each,
and allowed each an annuity of 40 per annum, the money having been
remitted regularly since then.
All honor to the noble departed. May a glorious resurrection be his reward."


Singleton, 3rd February, 1889.




researched, written and transcribed
by janilye 1999


Family Note:

Thomas EATHER 1824-1909 established a vineyard which was soon producing wine grapes of good quality and Thomas sometimes sold Alexander grapes from his vineyard at "Meerea" to help his growing business. Family legend has it that Eliza nee CROWLEY threatened to leave Thomas if he persisted in selling grapes to MUNRO for his "immoral liquor trade". Faced with this threat, Thomas is said to have dug out his wine grapes and replaced them with table grapes. However later on the family again began to grow good wine grapes as you see here in Meerea Park Today
The photograph below taken in George Street, Singleton around 1900 shows The Caledonian Inn on the left and the horses drinking from Munro's fountain.