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Please just treat this as just a guide to the SHUTTLEWORTH's in Victoria. I have collected these names and dates from several trees and I have not researched. This is the line of SHUTTLEWORTH's from William SHUTTLEWORTH and Elizabeth, nee SLATER
William SHUTTLEWORTH born 1822 Cumberland England
Died 6 December 1882 at the Amhurst Hospital in Amhurst, Victoria
Father: William SHUTTLEWORTH b:1800
Mother: Ann HARRISON b:1800
Religion: Roman Catholic
Spouse: Elizabeth SLATER b: 1826 Liverpool, England d: 2 March 1906 Chiltern, Victoria daughter of Thomas SLATER 1809-xxxx and Sarah SHANNON 1807-1859. Arrived on the 'Frances' 1941 with family
Married: 1846 at St. James CofE Melbourne Victoria
Reg.nswbd&m; V1846741 31C/1846 SHUTTLEWORTH WILLIAM SLATER ELIZABETH ME
Arrival 18 Feb.1844 Port Phillip
Ship: Royal Consort
William and Elizabeth supposedly had 12 Children, Here's what I found.
Children of this marriage:-
1.Joseph Reed SHUTTLEWORTH b:1847 Heidelberg, Victoria d:12 June 1910 Talbot, Victoria.
reg,nsw.bd&m;V18473269 32A/1847 SHUTTLEWORTH JOSEPH R WILLIAM ELIZABETH
In 1872 Joseph Reed SHUTTLEWORTH married Maria LEE born 1852, and died 21 November 1917 at Dods St. Brunswick. buried at Talbot, Victoria.
The children of this marriage:-
1.Lucy Bertha SHUTTLEWORTH b:1873 Timor, Victoria d: 10 August 1947 m. Ninian Arthur LOCKHART
2.Celia Elizabeth SHUTTLEWORTH 1875 Timor, Victoria d:16 Jan. 1961 m. George PUNSHON 1876-1942 in Victoria 1905.
3.William John SHUTTLEWORTH b:1877 Amherst, Victoria d: 26 January 1942 Amherst, Victoria
4.Alice SHUTTLEWORTH b:August 1879 Talbot, Vic. d: 2 September 1943 Maryborough, Vic. m. Walter COLLINGS 1878-1965 in 1900 in Victoria.
5.Elizabeth SHUTTLEWORTH b:1882 Talbot, Vic. d: 1966 Ballarat, Vic.
6.Henrietta SHUTTLEWORTH b:1884 Talbot d: 1965 m. Wilfred LOY 1886-1974 in Victoria in 1914.
7.Hugh Lee SHUTTLEWORTH b:1887 in Talbot, Vic. d:18 July 1955 Sherwood, Queensland (salesman) m.Victoria Juliet DUNLOP born 1890 Sandhurst, Vic. d:17 Nov.1982 Burwood, Victoria (she was a school teacher) buried at Springvale Cemetery. married in Victoria 1920.
8. Charlotte Scuse SHUTTLEWORTH b:1890 Talbot, Vic d: 26 February 1972 m. Edward Rees TOZER 1890-1972
9. Joseph Reed SHUTTLEWORTH b:1894 Talbot d: 1982
m. Lillian Elizabeth ORR 1894-1983
2.William SHUTTLEWORTH b:1848, Heidelberg, Vic. d:7 Sept.1897 Majorca, Victoria. m. Elizabeth Ann DEADY b:1855-xxxx
in 1877, children of this marriage :-
1. Charles Henry Strathmore SHUTTLEWORTH 1891 d:1960 Ballarat m.Ellen Gladys FAWCETT 1896-1959 in 1917
2. George William SHUTTLEWORTH b:1891 Majorca, Victoria d: 23 October 1947 Royal Melb. Hospital. m. Kathleen Eileen QUINANE 1888-1958 in Victoria in 1913. see one child to this marriage- George William Shuttleworth b: 2 Oct 1916 Euroa, Vic. d: 2007, Kerang Vic. m. Monica RYAN
3.Thomas SHUTTLEWORTH b:1850 Collingwood, Vic d:1851 Collingwood.
4.Sarah Jane SHUTTLEWORTH b:1852 Collingwood d:1852 Collingwood.
5. John Richard SHUTTLEWORTH b:1854 at Collingwood and died on 17 July 1931 Stawell, Vic. buried at Stawell (grave #6364)
In 1875 John Richard married (1.)Agnes Kate EDWARDS b:1855 Ballarat, Victoria d:1898 in Ballarat, Victoria
The children of this marriage were:-
1. John Richard SHUTTLEWORTH b:1876 Majorca, Vic. d:26 August 1956 Cheltenham, Melbourne.
In 1902 married (1) Josine O'BRIEN b: 1881 and died 1904 at Stawell, Vic.They had 2 children Amelia 1902?1913 and John William 1904 ? 1905
(2)In 1905 at Maryborough,Vic. married Frances Hilda POWELL b: 1888 Colac, Vic. d: 1970 Parkville, Melbourne.
2. Agnes May SHUTTLEWORTH b:1877 Amhurst d:1968 South Melbourne. m Walt LYONS 1877-? in Victoria in 1894
3. William John SHUTTLEWORTH b:1879 Craigie, Vic. d: 1942 Carlton
4. Violet Daisy SHUTTLEWORTH b:1881 Craigie d: 1964 Footscray, Vic.
5. Rosie Ethel SHUTTLEWORTH b:1884 Footscray d:1964 Carlton. m. Walter David RICKHUSS 1857-1930 in Geelong 12 June 1901.
6. Minnie SHUTTLEWORTH 1887 ? 1887
(2.)Hannah 'Anna' Jane KNIGHT b:6 March 1865 Queensland d:19 January 1944 Stawell, Victoria. m.1901 the children of this marriage were:-
1.Lillian Maud SHUTTLEWORTH b:1884 Carlton d: 1884 Carlton
2.Bertrando SHUTTLEWORTH b:1885 Carlton d: 28 December 1959 Stawell, m. Margaret Jane WAKE
3.Arthur SHUTTLEWORTH b: 1887 Coburg, Vic. d:24 June 1951 Stawell m. Agnes May WAKE 1890-1972 ( Arthur was a gold miner)
4.Henry SHUTTLEWORTH b 26 October 1890 Coburg d:6 December 1958 Stawell. m. Elsie Bertha PICKERING 1898-1963 on 1 December 1917 at Stawell.
5.Harold Edward SHUTTLEWORTH b:1899 d:4 March 1967 m. Dorothy Evelyn May DAY ( Harold was a train driver)
6.Norman Reginald SHUTTLEWORTH b:5 April 1900 Stawell, Vic. d:1944
6.Thomas Simson SHUTTLEWORTH b:26 January 1856 d:6 August 1949 at daughter "Agnes May" house 'Erindale' Finley in New South Wales.
nsw.bd&n 19049/1949 SHUTTLEWORTH THOMAS WILLIAM ELIZABETH DENILIQUIN .
Married Emma Jane LYE b:31 July 1878 died 1939 at Tocumwal,NSW on the 2 September 1903 the children of this marriage were:-
2.George Wilfred SHUTTLEWORTH 1900 ? 1965
3.Agnes May 1903 ? 1982 m. BALCOMBE m. NEELD
4.Elsie SHUTTLEWORTH 1905?1940 m. John BEATTIE 1898-1985 in 1925 at Tocumwal, NSW
5.Elizabeth SHUTTLEWORTH 1907 ? 2001 m.Sydney Richard CHAMBERS in 1937 at Tocumwal, New South Wales.
6.Emily Hunter SHUTTLEWORTH 1909 ?? m. BOYD
7.Keith SHUTTLEWORTH 1920 ? 1948
Death Reg. nsw.bd&m- 19145/1939 SHUTTLEWORTH EMMA JANE RICHARD JOHN AGNES TOCUMWAL
7.Sarah Ann SHUTTLEWORTH 1857 ? 1928 No Information
8.Charlotte SHUTTLEWORTH 1859 ? 1859
9.Eleanor Ruby SHUTTLEWORTH b:1862 McCulum Creek d: 1915 Wangaratta, Victoria m Henry Percy Alfred TRUEMAN b:1854 London d: 1925 Wangaratta, Victoria at Maryborough
found one child:-
Olive May Trueman b: 3 October 1893 Stockyard, Victoria d: 31 July 1938, married Richard VYNER 1877-1958
10.Lucy Bertha SHUTTLEWORTH b:1865 McCullums Creek d: 1947 m. (1.) John Carey BARCLAY 1861-1892 at Craigie on 5 December 1882.
The children of this marriage were:-
1.Elizabeth Barclay 1883 ?
2.Arthur Thomas Barclay 1887 ?
3.May Emmaline Barclay 1891 ? 1919
Next Lucy married
2) Alex Claude MCINTOSH in 1893
Teacher John Edwin Tilley, The son of Robert George TILLEY and Catherine QUAYLE was born in Amphitheatre, Victoria in 1880.
John married Bertha Ann OSWELL in 1910.
John Tilley taught in many schools throughout country Victoria, in Australia, including Thalia, Babatchio, Pranjip, Ouyen, Beaufort and finally spending 25 years teaching at Newtown, Geelong.
When I found this photograph with just some names, no dates and certainly nothing about who John Tilley was I decided to try and find out a little bit about him, for here was a teacher who must have influenced thousands of lives for a pittance in pay.
Our early teachers in their one room bush schools deserve to be remembered.
John Edwin TILLEY died in 1960 in Victoria, Australia
Below is a photograph taken in 1902 with his students at a little school in Thalia, Victoria.
Back - Martin Joseph Ryan 1894-1954, Willie Kerr 1893-1979, Arthur Allan 1894-1974, Henry Cook 1892-1959, Gordon Allan 1890-1968, Archie Kerr 1891-1980, Phillip Allan 1892-1955, Eddie Ryan 1892-1967,
Centre Row - Ethel May Durie 1896-?, Maggie Ryan 1895-1984, Amy Durie 1892-1976, Euphemia Kerr 1890-1962, Polly Cook 1895-1959, Gertrude Vaught 1896-1985, Lizzie May Kerr 1897-1939.
Front - ? Garnet, Pat Docherty.
Martin Joseph RYAN married Annie Elizabeth HOGAN 1896-1990 and had 6 children
Willie KERR married Florence May MCQUINN 1903-1986 and had 4 children
Arthur ALLAN married Elvira Hope CURRIE 1894-1977 had 5 children
Henry COOK married Alice Elizabeth Maud BERRYMAN 1882-1963
Archie Kerr married (1)Daisey FRAZER (2)Eva Elizabeth BARBER 1896-1953
Eddie Ryan married Margaret Mary OKEEFE 1898-1960 had 10 children
Ethel May DURIE married Frederick Alexander BADDOCK 1893-1940
Margaret RYAN married William Thomas DOYE 1892-1963
Amy DURIE married Clarence William SIMPSON 1893-1974
Gertrude Sylvia VAUGHT married Neil MCLEOD 1890-1985
John CROWLEY was born on the 13 May 1775 at Millbrook, Bedfordshire, England, the son of Francis CRAWLEY and Elizabeth JACKSON.
At age 26, John CROWLEY was tried on the 16th July 1801, with William PEPPER and John SHERWOOD of stealing a sheep. The property of Edward PLATT of Lidlington.
All three were sentenced to death. William PEPPER was hanged on the 1 August 1801. John CROWLEY and John SHERWOOD had their sentence commuted to transportation for life. John Crowley arrived in Sydney on the 11 March 1803 aboard the HMS Glatton.
John CRAWLEY was described as 5'7" tall with a very fair complexion, flaxen hair and light hazel eyes.
In 1805/1806 he was indented to Mr BADGERY.
On the 28th February 1811 he sought and obtained permission to marry. In all records his name was spelt CRAWLEY when the spelling changed is not known.
His Ticket of Leave was obtained on the 21st July 1810
His conditional pardon granted on 5th June 1815, the same day as his brother-in-law Thomas CROSS.
Both men had a horse and cart and carried goods for the men working on the road over the Blue Mountains.
On the 4th March 1811 at St.Matthews church Windsor John married Jane Charlotte BRYAN/BRYANT, the daughter of Jane ISON/LLOYD and William Bryan(t).
John was 35 and Jane Charlotte was 15. She had been born on the 17th May 1796 and baptised on the 14th August 1796.
On the 30 June 1820 from Windsor, John Crowley wrote a memorial to Governor Lachlan Macquarie asking for a grant of land, saying he was supporting a wife and four children. He received 100 acres fronting the north bank of the Grose River. Only 40 acres separated them from her mother and stepfather, William EATON 1769-1858.
In 1820 he was listed as a farmer at North Richmond, where he had 250 acres of land, of which 52 acres was cultivated and 70 acres were cleared. he was running 220 head of cattle, 7 sheep and 13 horses.
He was employing 7 men:- John MORTON age 53 'Mangles'1820, as his convict servant. James ROBINSON age 27, 'Glory' 1818 as a ploughman, Patrick RILEY age 45 'Guilford 2' 1815 as stockkeeper. John KNOTT age 28 'Baring 2' 1819 as a shoemaker. Then three labourers John VARLEY age 58 'Royal Admiral' 1792. George FORESIGHT age 40 'Cambridge' 1827 and William ASTON age 16 Prince Regent 1827. Over the next 20 years his land holdings grew to 324 acres.
John Crowley died on the 9th May 1833 just 4 days shy of his 58th birthday.
Three years later Jane Charlotte married William ASTON who had been John's labourer. She lived to be 72 and died on the 6th February 1869. On the 8th she was buried in the family vault with John Crowley at St. Peter's Cemetery Richmond.
The children of John CROWLEY and Jane Charlotte, nee BRYANT were:-
1. Jane Crowley b: 21 December 1812 d:13 June 1823
2. Elizabeth Crowley b: 12 May 1815 d: 17 January 1891 m. Thomas HOWELL 1809-1876 at St.Matthews Windsor on 28 February 1832.
3. John Crowley b: 22 June 1817 d: 15 January 1887 m. Mary Ann JOHNSON 1817-1893 at Windsor on the 17 May 1836.
4. William Crowley b: 26 November 1819 d:30 October 1892 m. (1) Emma BAINES 1825-1867 at Windsor in 1845 (2) Sarah WILLIAMS 1834-1920 at Bingara in 1888.
5. Eliza CROWLEY b: 30 August 1822 d: 4 February 1897 m. Thomas EATHER 1824-1909 at St.Peter's Richmond on the 25 July 1843.
6. Charlotte Crowley b: 4 October 1825 d: 26 June 1840
7. Ann Crowley b: 16 January 1828 d: 30 August 1893 m. William H WOOD 1829-1879 at St.Peter's Richmond in 1847.
8. Mary Ann Crowley 1830 ? 1834
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Cotter William Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Croak Mrs. Mary Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Cushen Laurence Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Dalton Catherine Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Daly Eleanor Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Daly Honoria Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
De Vere Baronet Vere Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Deeves Richard Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Deeves Stephen Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Delahunty James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Delahunty John Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Delahunty Mrs. Mary Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Delane John Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Delane Mary Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Delane Philip Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Denis Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Edward Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Michael Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Patrick Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Patrick Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Patrick Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Delany Richard Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Delmege Jacob Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Delmege Jacob, Jr. Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Delmege Jacob, Sr. Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Delmege John Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Demer Henry Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Dermody Lawrence Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Despard Alexander Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Doheney Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Donnell Anastasia Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Donovan Daniel Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Doyle Patrick Kilbrannel Kilcooly Tipperary
Duggan Anastasia Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Duggan John Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Duggan John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Duggan John Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Duggan Patrick Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Dunne Judith Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Dunne Kieran Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Dunne Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Dunning William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Dunning William Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Dwyer James, Jr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Dwyer James, Sr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Dwyer Michael Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Egan Eleanor Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Euzell Adam Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Euzell Anne Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Euzell Peter Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Fanning Catherine Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Fanning Mary Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Farrell ??? Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Farrell James Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Farrell John Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Farrell Matthew Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Farrell Timothy Kilbrannel Kilcooly Tipperary
Faulkner John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Feehan John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Feehan Michael Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Feeney Laurence Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Fenelly Philip Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Fennelly Eleanor Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Fennelly Michael Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Fennilly Roger Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Edward Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Judith Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Judith Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Richard Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Richard Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Richard Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald William Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald William Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Wm. Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzgerald Wm. Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzpatrick John Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Fitzpatrick William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Fogarty Charles Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Ford Timothy Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Ford Timothy Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Gilbert John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Glazier John Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Gleeson James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Gleeson Thomas Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Going Ambrose, Esq. Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Going James Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Going Patrick Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Going William, Esq. Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Gorman William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Gorman William Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Grace Mrs. Ellen Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Grady Nicholas Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Grady Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Grant Mary Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Grattan Catherine Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Grimes Judith Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Guilfoyle Anastasia Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Guilfoyle John Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett James Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Mary Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Michael Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Patrick Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Thomas Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett Thomas, Sr. Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hackett William Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Hall Mary Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Harding Ellen Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Harding Nicholas Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Harrington Mary Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Harrington Michael Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Harrington Michael Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Hayde Matthew Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Hayden Martin Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Hayden Martin Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Hayden William Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Heafey John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Heafey Mary Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Heafey Patrick Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Healy John Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Herin Catherine Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hickey John Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Hickey Mrs. Judith Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Hickey Thomas Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hickey Thomas Longford Pass East Kilcooly Tipperary
Hickey Timothy Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Hill Mary Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Hill Mrs. Mary Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Hogan Ellen Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Hogan Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Houlahan John Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Houlahan Matthew Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Hunt Frederick Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Hunt Mary Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Hunt Vere Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Hunt William Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Hynes James Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Hynes Michael Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Hynes Mrs. Margaret Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Hynes Richard, Sr. Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Hynes Thomas Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Ireland Richard Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Kearney John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Keeffe Edmund Grangecastle Kilcooly Tipperary
Keeffe Edmund Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Keely Catherine Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Catherine Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Eleanor Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Hugh Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly James Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Malcahy Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Margaret Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Michael Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Mrs. Ellen Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Mrs. Mary Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Patrick Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Kelly Thomas Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kenna Richard Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Kenna Thomas Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Kennedy Edward Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Kennedy Eleanor Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Kennedy Patrick Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Keogh Mary Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Denis Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Denis, Jr. Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Patrick Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Paul Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Timothy Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Timothy, Sr. Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kervick Going Denis Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kiely Laurence Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kiely Laurence Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Kiely Michael Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Kiely Richard Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Kiely Thomas Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
King Charles Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Kirwan Laurence Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Laffan Michael Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
Lahard William Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Lane Vere, Esq. Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lane Vere, Esq. Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Langley Henry, Esq. Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Langton Thomas Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lanigan James, Esq. Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lannen Michael Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Lanton John Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Lathem Michael Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Laurence Harriett Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Lawler William Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Lawless Robert Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Leahy Denis Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Liston Michael Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lonergan James Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Long Thomas Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Long William Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Loughnane Edward Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Loughnane Thomas Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Lowry Michael Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lynch Michael Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Lyster William, Esq. Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Magrath Thomas Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Catherine Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Cornelius Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Edward Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Eleanor Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher James Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher James Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher John Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher John Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Mary Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Michael Kilbrannel Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Michael Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Mrs. Margaret Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Mrs. Mary Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Patrick Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher Philip Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Maher William Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahoney Richard Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony Alice Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony Jeremiah Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony Jeremiah Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony Richard Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony William Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony William Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mahony William Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Manton John Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Manton Judith Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Manton Mrs. Margaret Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Mara Thomas Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Marah John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Marnell John Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason Edward Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason John Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason Robert Grangecastle Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason Robert Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason Robert, Esq. Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason William Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Mason William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Carthy William Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Cormick Richard Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Cormick Richard Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Donnell Catherine Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Donnell John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Donnell Owen Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Evoy Eliza Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Evoy Eliza Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Evoy Patrick Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Gee Thomas Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Namara Edward Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mc Namara Mary Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Meara John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Meara Thomas Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Miller George Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Miller John Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Miller Peter Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Miller Peter Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Millet James, Esq. Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Minchin William Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Moloney Eliza Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Moloney Jeremiah Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Moloney Mrs. Anne Kilbrannel Kilcooly Tipperary
Morris Richard Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Morris William Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mullally Edward Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mullally John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mullally Mary Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Mullin Michael Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Catherine Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy John Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy John Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Laurence Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Mary Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Mary Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Mary Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy Philip Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Murphy William Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Murray Anastasia Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Noonan Eliza Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Noonan Eliza Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Noonan Mrs. Eliza Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Noonan Rev. John Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Norton Michael Sallybog Kilcooly Tipperary
O'Flynn William Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
O'Flynn William Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
O'Flynn William Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
O'Reilly Catherine Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Parker Thomas Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Payne Thomas Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Pembrick Mary Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Pimlott William Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Pimlott William Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Pollard John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Pollard Joseph Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Pollard Mrs. Catherine Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Pollard William Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Power Edward Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Power Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Poyne Edward Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell John Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell Michael Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell Michael Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell Patrick Grangecastle Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell Philip Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell William Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Purcell William Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Daniel Ballyrickane Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Denis Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Judith Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Judith Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Judith Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Mrs. ??? Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Nicholas Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinlan Nicholas Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinn James Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Quinn Robert Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Quirk Thomas Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Radcliff Rev. John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Rafter Fanny Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Rafter James Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Rahill Edward Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Ready Mary Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Reid Michael Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Reid Michael Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Reilly Edward Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Reilly Michael Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Reilly William Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Renahan Thomas Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Ringwood Mrs. Bridget Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Rooney Eleanor Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Ruckle James Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Ruckle John Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Russell Patrick Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Russell Thomas Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Russell William Ballinunty Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Andrew Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Anne Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Catherine Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Catherine Coonagun Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Catherine Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Daniel Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Edmund Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Edward Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Edward Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Edward Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Edward, Jr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan James Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan James Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan James Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Grangecastle Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan John Pound Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Michael Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Mrs. ??? Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Patrick Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Philip Longford Pass North Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Sarah Coonagun Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Thomas Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Thomas Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Thomas Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan Timothy Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Ryan William Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Sausse Richard Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Sausse Richard Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Sausse Richard Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Scanlan James Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Scott John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Scott Mrs. Ellen Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Semple James Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Semple James Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Shanahan Cornelius Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Shanahan Thomas Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Shannahan John Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Shannahan Margaret Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Shea Daniel Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Shea Mary Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Sheehan Daniel Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Sheehan Jeremiah Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Sheehan Michael Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Sherry Anne Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Shortall Cornelius Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Shortall Mary Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Shortall Matthew Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Skehan Patrick Longford Pass South Kilcooly Tipperary
Smee James Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Smee Thomas Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Smeltzer John Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Smeltzer Philip, Jr. Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Smeltzer Philip, Sr. Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Smeltzer Thomas Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Smith Bridget Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Smith Erasmus Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Smith James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Sparling Peter Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Sparling Samuel Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Sparling Samuel Garransilly Kilcooly Tipperary
Sparling Samuel Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
St. John Edward Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
St. John Mrs. Judith Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Steep Michael Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Steep Peter Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Stokes Matthew Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Sullivan Denis Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe John Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe John Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe Joseph Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe Joseph, Jr. Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe Joseph, Sr. Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe Joseph, Sr. Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe Williaam Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Sutcliffe William Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Sweeney Charles Grangecrag Kilcooly Tipperary
Sweeny John Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Switzer John Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Switzer John Newpark Kilcooly Tipperary
Talbott William Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
Tehan John Springfield Kilcooly Tipperary
Thompson Robert Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Thompson Robert Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Tierney Lawrence Derryvella Kilcooly Tipperary
Tierney Lawrence Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Tracey Thomas Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Tracey Thomas Crossoges Kilcooly Tipperary
Tracy Philip Graigaheesha Kilcooly Tipperary
Tyne Denis Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Luke Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Margaret Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Mary Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Michael, Sr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Thomas Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Wall Thomas, Jr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Walsh Francis Glengoole South Kilcooly Tipperary
Watson John Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Watson Patrick Kilcoolyabbey Kilcooly Tipperary
Webster Catherine Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Webster James Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Webster John, Jr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Webster John, Sr. Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Webster Thomas Blackcommon Kilcooly Tipperary
Wellwood Eliza Renaghmore Kilcooly Tipperary
Whelan John Main Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Whelan Mary Back Street Kilcooly Tipperary
Whelan Patrick Lisduff Kilcooly Tipperary
White Joseph, Esq. Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
White Joseph, Esq. Newhall Kilcooly Tipperary
Williams Patrick Glengoole North Kilcooly Tipperary
Wilson Rev. J. Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Young Joseph Bawnlea Kilcooly Tipperary
Young Joseph Grangehill Kilcooly Tipperary
Young Joseph Knockatooreen Kilcooly Tipperary
Anna Dorothea Sophia Sigglekow 1863 - 1951
Born on the 15 April 1863. The daughter of Ernst Johann Christian SIGGLEKOW b:1834 d:2 July 1897 NZ and Sophia Dorothea SCHWASS 1836-1924 and married on the 11 September 1857 in Hope, New Zealand.
Ernst Sigglekow and his wife lived in Hope, New Zealand. and raised seven children;
1.Elenora Margaretha Marie SIGGELKOW 1858?1921 m. John William Henry LANKOW 1850-1921
2.August Christian SIGGLEKOW 1861 ? 1877
2. Anna Dorothea Sophia SIGGLEKOW 1863 ? 1951 m. Albert Henry Cresswell 1861-1942
4. Emma Heinrietta Friedericke Louise SIGGLEKOW 1865-xxxx m. Thomas WALKER in 1887
5. Wilhemina Fredricka Johanna SIGGLEKOW 1867?1949 m. Albert Stephen BEBARFIELD 1865-1950
6. Friederich Ludwig Theodor SIGGELKOW 1870 ?
7. Elsie Emma SIGGLEKOW 1878 ?
The Rev. W KIRK married Anna to Albert Henry CRESSWELL 1861-1942 at the Wesleyan Church in Richmond, New Zealand on the 25 December 1883.
Anna Died on the 22 January 1951 at Palmerston North, Wellington,NZ
I believe it's important to write your own story whilst you are able. Otherwise people like me will come along after you've gone and put together a story about your life with the only tools we have available which is your ancestry and the events of the day gathered through research.
Beyond that it is just imagination and speculation.
My personal view, about your life can quite frankly be way off, but who's around to dispute it. Only you know your life and what it was really like.
How many times have you thought, "Gee! I wish I had asked my grandmother or grandfather about that" or "I know there was something about uncle Fred, but I was too young and not paying attention".
If we think hard enough we can come up with many things we'd like to be remembered for. Even if it just your recipe's, your garden, your work, your childhood memories or how you scrimped and saved to buy the dining room table the relatives all have their eye on.
Nobody is ordinary, we are all unique. Our lives are completely different from our parents and our children, even though we may have all lived in the same house and the same town and been part of the same events.
So write your story. It doesn't have to be a huge tome or make the best seller list.
Otherwise, I might write it and you can't come back and tap me on the shoulder and say, "You've got it all wrong, janilye".
In the words of Edward MacLysaght, the first Chief Herald of Ireland ...
"The subject of Irish families is one in which much interest is evinced, but the popular books usually consulted and regarded as authoritative, particularly in America, are in fact unreliable. The inaccurate and misleading information thus imparted with cumulative effect is, however, much more deplorable in the armorial sphere than in the genealogical.
It is an indisputable fact that the publication presenting colour plates of Irish arms which is probably most widely consulted is no less than seventy per cent inaccurate, not only in mere detail, but often in points of primary importance and of an elementary kind. Apart from their many grotesque heraldic blunders the compilers of this work seem to have had a sort of rule of thumb; if they could not find arms for one Irish sept they looked for the name of another somewhat resembling it in sound: thus, for example, they coolly assigned the arms of Boylan to Boland. This frequently resulted in the arms of some purely English family being inserted in their book of 'Irish Arms' the Saxon Huggins being equated with O'Higgins, and so on. When this arbitrary method failed them they fell back on the arms of some great Irish sept. To quote one instance of this: Gleeson, Noonan and McFadden are all given the arms of O'Brien, though none of these septs had any connexion whatever with the O'Briens or with each other. Consequently many Americans of Irish descent are in good faith using erroneous and often English arms derived from the spurious source in question.
A certain cachet has been given to this because, in the more recent editions of O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees [published after the author's death - Ed], these same coloured plates have been inserted as if they were an integral part of O'Hart's book.
The serious genealogist uses O'Hart with caution, if at all, for he is a far from reliable authority except for the quite modern period. John O'Hart, however, undoubtedly did a vast amount of research, no matter how he used the information he acquired: I know that some of these errors of ascription can actually be traced to him, but it is surely an injustice to him that his well known name should be used as a cover for the propagation of false and often ludicrous heraldic statements."
In 1957 Edward MacLysaght published in the Irish Academic Press a series of papers entitled Irish Families (Their Names, Arms & Origins)
As a matter of interest to historians and genealogists I've extracted this part of his publication dealing with the distortion of Irish surnames.
Even in Ireland, where there is a genealogical tradition, it is quite common for people to be uncertain of their ancestry for more than three generations. Consequently a man in these circumstances whose name is, say, Collins or Rogers, to take two common in Ireland, cannot assert with certainty that he bears a native Irish surname. However, if he is a Collins, born and living in Dublin perhaps, whose people came from West Cork the odds are very strongly in favour of the true name being the Gaelic ? Coile?in. Smith, the commonest surname in England, comes high up in the Irish list - fifth in that given by Matheson. There can be no doubt that many of our Irish Smiths are the descendants of English settlers and traders, but it is equally probable that at least eighty per cent of the Smiths of County Cavan are of native stock, being MacGowans or O'Gowans who, under pressure of alien legislation or social influence, accepted the translated form and have used it ever since.
Many of the dual origin surnames are translations, like Smith and Oaks, or more often pseudo-translations such as Kidney and Bird. Some indeed of the latter are very far-fetched, even ridiculous, as for example the grotesque transformation of Mac Giolla Eoin into Monday from a fancied resemblance of the last part of that name to the Irish word "Luain".
So far we have been considering English names which in Ireland may conceal those of genuine Gaelic families. In a smaller number the converse obtains. Such names as Moore, Hart, Hayes and Boyle, which are, of course, genuinely Irish and are often regarded as exclusively so, are also found as indigenous surnames in England. So here again there is no certainty in the absence of an authentic pedigree, or at least of a well-founded tradition, as a guide. It has been pointed out for example that Guinness, which stout has made world-famous as an Irish name, and is in that case probably rightly derived from Magennis or MacGuinness of County Down, occurs in English records of some centuries ago in the rural county of Devonshire.
Probably the most reliable and scholarly work on English surnames is that of Professor Weekley. Yet he includes in his lists, without any mention of Ireland, several like Geary, Garvin, Grennan and Quigley: typical Gaelic-Irish surnames which, while they are no doubt occasionally found with the French or Anglo-Saxon background he indicates, when met in England at the present time are much more likely to have been brought there by Irish immigrants.
Apart from these surnames of possible English origin there are many indisputably Irish surnames not indigenous in England which assumed in their anglicised form a completely English appearance. What, for example, could be more English in appearance than Gleeson, Buggy, Cashman, Halfpenny and Doolady, to cite only a few examples. All of these are genuine Gaelic surnames and surprisingly numerous.
Once again the converse of this is also true. No one unacquainted with the subject would doubt that such very Irish sounding names as Gernon, Laffan, Gogan, Henebry and Tallon, and even O'Dell, all quite common in Ireland, are Irish, yet none of them is of Gaelic origin. This list, however, is not so long.
Some Gaelic surnames in their modern anglicised form have acquired an equally un-Irish guise but have a foreign rather than an English look. Coen, a variant of Coyne, and Levy, a common abbreviation of Dunlevy, suggest the Jew; I know a Lomasney who is always refuting the erroneous belief that he is of French origin, and I expect Lavelles and even Delargys and Delahuntys may have the same difficulty; Hederman and Hessian have rather a German sound, while Nihil, well known in County Clare, and Melia, synonym of O'Malley, might be Latin words. Most of this class, however, are occasional variants, such as Gna and Gina for (Mac) Kenna or Manasses for Mannix, or rare surnames like Schaill, Thulis and Gaussen.
In some cases the anglicisation process has had very unfortunate results. The beautiful name Mac Giolla ?osa, for example, usually rendered as MacAleese, takes the form MacLice in some places. The picturesque and heroic ? Dathlaoich in County Galway ridiculously becomes Dolly and the equally distinguished Sealbhaigh which is anglicised Shelly in its homeland (Co. Cork) is Shallow in Co. Tipperary. Schoolboys of these families, unless they use the Irish form, need no nicknames; Grimes, too, is a miserable substitute for its Gaelic counterpart Greachain, which has also Grehan as a more euphonious anglicised form.
These corruptions, of course, are due to the influence of the English language, the spread of which in Ireland was contemporary with the subjection and eclipse of the old Catho1ic Irish nation: names of tenants were inscribed in rentals by strangers brought in to act as clerks, who attempted to write phonetically what they regarded as outlandish names; in the same way Gaelic speaking litigants, deponents and witnesses in law cases were arbitrarily dubbed this and that at the whim of the recording official. It was not until the nineteenth century that uniformity in the spelling of names began to be observed, but the seventeenth century was the period during which our surnames assumed approximately the forms ordinarily in use in Ireland today.
The corruptions we have noticed above have been cited as examples of the tendency to give Irish names an English appearance. Most of them have at least some phonetic resemblance to their originals or else were frankly translations or supposed translations. There is, too, a large class of Irish surnames anglicised in a way which makes them quite unrecognisable. Often these distortions are aesthetically most unpleasing, as Mucklebreed for Mac Giolla Bride and Gerty for Mag Oireachtaigh.
Citing only official registrations with the Registrar-General, Matheson notes a particularly flagrant example, viz. a family of O'Hagans in County Dublin who have actually become Hog, which in the absence of his testimony one would naturally assume to be simply the well-known English surname of Hogg (O'Hagan is unlucky in this respect. According to Woulfe the very English and plebian-sounding Huggins is one of its synonyms in Ireland). Rather less cacophonous is Ratty for Hanratty. Forker for Farquhar (in County Down) may perhaps be regarded as comparable to the contraction in England of Cholmondeley to Chumley and Featherstonehaugh to Fanshawe in less aristocratic circles, these of course being phonetic spellings. The most curious instances of phonetic abbreviation recorded by Matheson is the birth registration of a Dalzell child at Dundalk "tout court" as "D.L.", that being the peculiar pronunciation of Dalzell in its native Scotland. The commonest of all Irish surnames, though not aesthetically objectionable, is a good illustration of decadence, for Murphy is a far cry from MacMurrough and 0'Morchoe, as is Dunphy from its synonym O'Donoghue. My own name, which I am glad to say is a true Dalcassian (Co. Clare) one, is an excellent example of the distortion we are considering, for no one would readily connect MacLysaght, especially when shorn of its Mac, with Mac Giolla Iasachta. The seventeenth century officials did at first render it as McGillysaghta, etc. in documents in English, but this proved too much of a mouthful to last long.
This name is also an example of that fairly numerous class in which the initial letter (excluding the prefix) is misleading. The L of Lysaght and of Leland derives from the gioLLa. The origina1 L of Lally on the other hand is to be found in the MaoL of the original. In the same way the C of Clancy, the K of Keogh and the Q of Quaid are from MaC; the G of Gaynor and Gorevan from the MaC prefix (Mag is a form of Mac frequently used with names beginning with a vowel), while the Il of Ilhenny can again be traced to the gIOLla of the Gae1ic form.
Another tendency in the anglicisation of Irish surnames is the absorption of uncommon names in common ones. Blowick, for example, tends to become Blake, Kildellan is merged in Connellan, Cormican in McCormick, Sullahan in Sullivan, Kehilly and Kilkelly in Ke1ly, and so on. Certain well-known family names such as Courtney, Conway and Leonard have gobbled up in the course of time, not one, but half a dozen or more minor ones. We must presume that this was a result of the general Gaelic depression, part of the same indifference and hopelessness which acquiesced in the lopping off of the Mac and O from so many old Irish surnames.
I have said that the mutilation and corruption of Irish surnames took place in the seventeenth and to a lesser extent in the eighteenth centuries. It must be admitted, however, that even today, fifty years after the foundation of the Gaelic League, the gradual re-gaelicization of names resulting from its influence is to some extent counterbalanced by the opposing forces of de-nationalisation. This is found more in pronunciation than in spelling: though even in this official registration age pronunciation does tend to affect spelling. A notable example of what I have in mind is the internal H. The English seem unable to cope with this sound which presents no difficulty to an Irishman: for Mahony they say Mah-ney (or, as they would write it, Marney, since the internal R is also dead in England). Now Dublin and suburbs with over 650,000 people contains more than one fifth of the population of the Republic and one seventh of the whole country; and Dublin for a11 its genuine political nationalism is in most ways more English, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say, more cosmopolitan, in character. The contrast between Connacht and Dublin is as marked as that between Dublin and England. Of course the good old Dublin accent has lost none of its distinctive raciness, but it is only to be heard in the mouths of one section of the citizens. The gradual disappearance of regional Irish accents is much to be deplored: it is due to a number of causes including the B.B.C., the cinema, the much increased intercourse with England resulting from the recent mass emigration to that country, and perhaps I may add the "refinement" aimed at in convent education. However, I must not allow myself to go off at a tangent on this interesting topic, which is irrelevant except in so far as it is concerned with the pronunciation of surnames.
In America the distortion of the name Mahony takes a different form, for it is often mispronounced Ma-honey, just as the wrong vowel is stressed in Carmody and Connell. In Ireland one does not hear Ma(r)ney for Mahony or Clossey for Cloghessy, but boggling at the internal H has come to Dublin now. I know a family in Dublin named Fihilly: the parents insist quite rightly that there are three syllables in the word, but the younger generation are content to answer to "Feeley" and so pronounce the name themselves; Gallaghers in Sydney, after a long losing battle with Australian philistinism, have had to accept "Gallagger" with the best grace they could. This, however, may be partly due to the ocular influence of the middle G. There is another difference in these two cases, besides the fact that the Fihilly deterioration took place in Ireland itself: Feeley has actually become a recognised way of spelling that name. Similarly there are Dawneys who were originally Doheny.
The surnames Hehir and Cahir in Thomond are still dissyllables, but the latter when denoting the town of that name in Co. Tipperary has become immutably "Care". This again prompts a long digression on place names: but that subject, so full of pitfalls for all but the most learned, would be out of place in this text.
The internal H is not the only stumbling-block for English people and anglicised Dubliners. They pronounce Linnane as Linnayne and Kissane Kissayne. Our "ane" sound, which is intermediate between the English "Anne" and "aunt", is not heard in English speech. Similarly O'Dea is called O'Dee. These emasculated pronunciations sound like affectation to people who come from the places where those names originated and still abound. This is not to deny that there is actually a name O'Dee, but that is not a Clare name, as O'Dea emphatically is.
Some English inspired innovations fortunately do not last. During the first World War a neighbour of mine in Co. Clare named Minogue joined the British army; in due course he returned as Capt. Minogue - Captain "Minnow-gew", if you please, not "Minnoge"! He may have got the idea from the mistake of a fellow soldier but he adopted the monstrosity and even insisted on it.
One of the most irritating of the examples of capitulation to English influence is the adoption of the essentially Saxon termination "ham" for the Irish "ahan", "ann", etc. This is not confined to surnames: the Gaelic word "banbh", called bonnive in English in the less anglicised counties, is bonham in most places. Rathfarnham, recte Rathfarnnan, is the best known place so anglicised; while on our own ground we have the very English-looking Markham, a Clare surname of which the normal version should be, and indeed formerly was, Markahan (cf. the place name Ballymarkahan in Co. Clare).
In the same way, but less noticeably, the final S so dear to English tongues degaelicizes Higgin(s), while the addition of an unnecessary D has somewhat the same effect on Boland. This D seems to have been a matter of chance for Noland is almost as rare as Bolan.
Quite often the anglicisation of a Gaelic surname resulted in the adoption in English, whether consciously or not, of one which carried a certain social cachet like D'Evelyn for the usual Devlin, Molyneux for Mulligan or Delacour for Dilloughery. Montague for MacTadgh or Mactague probably arose in the same way, the sound Montag at some period giving way to Montagew through the ocular influence of the spelling. The cognate Minnogew for Minogue was just "swank". We may assume that the good captain's descendants have gone back to plain Minnoge, as it is only a matter of pronunciation in their case.
There are other examples of this tendency which cannot be shed so easily. When Mulvihil has thus become Melville and Loughnane Loftus, resumption of the true patronymic necessitates (in practice, though not in strict law) certain legal formalities. - am told that there are people whose name was originally Mullins (Maolain) using the form de Moleyns. I have not met a case myself. According to Burke's peerage the best known family of the name, the head of which is Lord Ventry, are not true Irish Mullinses at all, and they presumably had justification for assuming the form de Moleyns in place of Mullins, a step which they took in 1841.
Some people with Mac names insist on the Mac being written in full, others prefer Mc, and formerly M' was quite usual. It is hard to understand why any objection should be taken to Mc or even M', since these are simply abbreviations of Mac. The practice of some indexers, notably in the Century Cyclopaedia of Names, of differentiating between Mac and Mc is to be deplored, since the reader must seek the name he wants in two places - in the Macs, which are interspersed among such words as Maccabees and Macedonia, and in the Mcs many pages further on. It is impossible to differentiate satisfactorily. Take MacGillycuddy for example: it appears in the work in question as MacGillycuddy's Reeks, yet the Chief of the Name always subscribes himself McGillycuddy of the Reeks. The idea that Mac is Irish and Mc Scottish is just another popular error. Mcc, however, may fairly be called an affectation, being merely the perpetuation of a seventeenth century scribe's slip of the pen.
The most prevalent of peculiarities in the spelling of names - the use of two small f's for a capital F - would seem to have arisen not through snobbery but from ignorance: the originators of this now carefully treasured blunder were probably unaware of the fact that in seventeenth century documents the normal way of writing F was ff, a symbol almost indistinguishable from f f.
The Irish Information website an excellent website with many free resources also has a page on the Origin of Irish Names
In 1957 Edward MacLysaght published in the Irish Academic Press a series of papers entitled Irish Families (Their Names, Arms & Origins)
As a matter of interest to historians and genealogists I've extracted this part of his publication dealing with the use of Mac and O in Irish surnames.
The successive invasions of Ireland from Strongbow to Cromwell, culminating in the final destruction of the Gaelic order and the long drawn out subjection of the Irish people under the eighteenth century penal code, together with the plantations of foreign settlers and the more peaceful infiltration of Englishmen in the commercial life of the country, have made Irish surnames more mixed than those of a nation with a less disturbed history. The situation can no doubt be paralleled in several mid-European states, but there is nothing comparable to it in any of our nearer neighbours such as England, France, Germany, Holland or Spain, where foreign names are exceptional and native ones are seldom hidden under alien guise. This latter is a phenomenon which is extremely common in Ireland.
It has often been stated that surnames were introduced into Ireland by King Brian Boru. Though this cannot be accepted as historically accurate it is a fact that Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt a system of hereditary surnames or perhaps it would be truer to say that such a system developed spontaneously. At any rate the Macs and O's were well established as such more than a century before the Cambro-Normans or, as they are more usually called, the Anglo-Normans, came.
It is hardly necessary to state that these prefixes denote descent.
Therefore Mac (son) indicating that the surname was formed from the personal names, or sometimes calling, of the father of the first man to bear that surname, while O names are derived from a grandfather or even earlier ancestor, O or ua being the Irish word for grandson, or more loosely male descendant.
Many instances occur of Mac names and some of O names in the Annals, lists of bishops and other records relating to the centuries between the time of St. Patrick and that of Brian Boru. These, however, were not hereditary surnames, but merely indicated the father (or grandfather) of the man in question. Thus to take, by way of example, two successors of St. Patrick in the see of Armagh, Torbac MacGormain (d. 812) and Diarmuid O Tighearnaigh (d. 852), these were not members of families called MacGorman and O'Tierney, but were respectively son of a man whose baptismal name was Gorman and grandson of one who was christened Tierney.
Prior to the introduction of surnames there was in Ireland a system of clan-names, which the use of surnames gradually rendered obsolete except as territorial designations. Groups of families, many of them descended from a common ancestor, were known by collective clan-names such as D?l Cais (whence the adjective Dalcassian), Ui M?ine (or Hy Many), Cinel Eoghain, Clann Cholgain, Corca Laidhe. The expression "tribe-names", used by John O'Donovan in this connection, is perhaps more expressive, though a more modern authority, Professor Eoin MacNeal, objected to this term as misleading. In some cases the tribe-name did subsequently become the surname of a leading family of the clan or tribe, but as a rule this did not happen and, as the tribe name was usually identical with the surname acquired by some quite unrelated sept in another part of the country, confusion is apt to arise. Thus the Clann Daly embraced the O'Donnells and other northern septs, Clann Cahill became O'Flanagans etc., Munter Gilligan was chiefly composed of the O'Quins of Annaly and Hy Regan was the tribe name of the O'Dunns.
The first of the major invasions of Ireland in historical times (1169-1172) resulted in the formation of a new set of surnames belonging to the Norman families which in due course became 'Hiberniores Hibernicis ipsis' (more Irish than the Irish themselves). The old Latin clich? is applicable to the names as well as to the people who bore them, for no one to-day would regard Fitzgerald or Burke as any less Irish than O'Connor or MacCarthy.
Names in this category are numerous and widespread in Ireland, and most of them have in the course of time become exclusively Irish, as for example Burke, Costello, Cusack, Cogan, Dalton, Dillon, Fitzgerald, Keating, Nagle, Nugent, Power, Roche, Sarsfield and Walsh. Some of them, of course, like Barry and Purcell, though generally regarded as Irish, are found in England also since the twelfth century. Today, no doubt, almost all the Norman-Irish surnames which are increasingly common in England became established there as a result of nineteenth century and particularly of recent emigration from Ireland.
The second great upheaval, five hundred years later, was of a more devastating character. In the seventeenth century the dire effects of conquest were intensified by religious persecution, and the three main events of that century resulting from military aggression - the Plantation of Ulster, the Cromwellian Settlement and the Williamite forfeitures - followed by the Penal Code which was at its severest in the first half of the eighteenth century, inevitably led to a lack of accord between the new settlers and the old inhabitants of the country. The natural process of assimilation was thus retarded, indeed it is not too much to say that it was deliberately prevented. Thus the Elizabethan immigrants and those that followed them in the next century did not become hibernicized as the Normans had.
A feature of the degradation of the Gael and the inferiority complex it produced was the wholesale discarding of the distinctive prefixes O and Mac. Nor was this confined to the downtrodden peasantry. The few Catholic gentry who managed to maintain to some extent their social position, while keeping their O's and Macs within the ambit of their own entourage (usually in the remoter parts of the country), were so deeply conscious of belonging to a conquered nation that they frequently omitted the prefixes when dealing with Protestants, not only in legal matters but also in ordinary social intercourse. Thus we find Daniel O'Connell's uncle, that picturesque figure universally known as "Hunting Cap", signing himself Maurice Connell as late as 1803 when approaching the Knight of Kerry to enlist his influence in a court case while MacDermott, Chief of the Name, though ranking as a prince among his own people and himself a prominent banker in the middle of the eighteenth century, invariably signed himself simply Anthony Dermott.
It has been stated that one of the causes of the disuse of the prefixes Mac and O in the eighteenth century was the inclusion in the Penal Code of a provision to that effect. I can find no such clause in any of the relevant Acts. No legislation dealing with this question was ever passed except in so far as the Statute of Kilkenny (1367) affected the Irish of the Pale. This indeed had no bearing on the use of Mac and O but it did, no doubt, mark the beginning of the practice of translating Irish names into English, which in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries became widespread and, I may add, proved more often to be mistranslation than translation. Nevertheless pressure was exerted in other ways to bring about the degaelicization of surnames. For example, even two generations before the Penal Code was in full force we find O'Conor Roe entering into a composition in which he binds the Irish chiefs under his influence to "forego the customs and usages of their Brehon Law . . . and to give up prefixes to their surnames" (5 January 1637. This quotation taken from Genealogical Office MS. 178, p. 293, is by no means an isolated case). We may be sure that this undertaking was made by O'Conor with his tongue in his cheek and that it was ignored, but it serves to indicate the official outlook in this respect.
I may refer here to the widespread belief outside Ireland that Mac is essentially a Scottish prefix. To us this idea is absurd, for many of our foremost Irish families bear Mac names such as MacCarthy, MacGuinness, MacGrath, MacGillycuddy, MacKenna, MacMahon, MacNamara and so on. evertheless, it is a fallacy widely held. It is true, of course, that many Mac names in Ulster are Scottish in origin, having come in with the seventeenth century planters and these tended to retain their Gaelic prefix when those of Catholic Ireland fell into disuse. In any case the Scottish Gaels are originally of Irish stock and Scotland herself took her name from the word 'Scotia' which in Latin was at first used to denote the land inhabited by the Irish race.
At the beginning of the present century under the growing influence of the Gaelic League a general reversal of the process began to be perceptible. Yet even today there are scores of Gaelic names with which the prefix is seldom, if ever, seen, e.g. Boland, Brophy, Connolly, Corrigan, Crowe, Garvey, Hennessy, Kirby, Larkin, to mention a few of the commonest. The extent of this resumption can best be illustrated by the mere fact that while in 1890, according to Matheson's calculations, there were twice as many Connells as O'Connells, today, (judging by such texts as directories) we have nine O'Connells for every Connell. I do not know the present proportion of O'Kellys to Kellys, but I am sure it is very much higher than it was in 1890 when the official estimate for all Ireland was 55,900 Kellys and only a mere 400 O'Kellys.
I will pass now to another class of Mac surnames which is of considerable interest. This is the assumption by Norman families of surnames of a Gaelic type and the formation under those designations of what practically amount to septs or sub-septs on the Gaelic model. The majority of these, such as MacSherone ex Prendergast and MacRuddery ex Fitzsimon, are nearly extinct today, as are the various offshoots of the Burkes, though no doubt some of their descendants did revert to their original surnames. Berminghams, however, survive under the name of MacCorish or Corish, Stauntons as MacEvilly, Archdeacons as MacOda or Coady and Nangies as Costello (formerly MacCostello). Woulfe says that the latter was the first Norman Mac name. Not all such Norman name assumptions retained a Gaelic form, for d'Exeter, first gaelicized as MacSiurtain, eventually became Jordan (now a common name in the West) and the Jenningses, formerly MacSeoinin, were originally Burkes.
This practice of forming sub-septs was not confined to Norman families. Among the offshoots of O'Brien were MacConsidine and MacLysaght. MacShane stemmed from O'Neill: in due course this was turned by translation into Johnson and as such is found in that numerous class of concealed Gaelic surnames. So the name MacShera, now rare, was adopted by some of the Fitzpatricks. MacSherry (whence the place name Courtmacsherry) on the other hand was a Gaelic patronymic assumed by the English family Hodnett. MacSherry, it should be noted, is also an indigenous Gaelic surname in Breffny.
Fitzpatrick, which up to the seventeenth century was MacGilpatrick, is in a class by itself, being the only Fitz name which is Gaelic: otherwise Fitz (from French fils) also denotes a Norman origin. It is possible, however, that some of the Fitzhenrys may originally have been MacEnery.
Unless we adopt an exclusive and doctrinaire attitude we must admit Fitzgerald, Fitzgibbon and Fitzmaurice as Irish. As I have already remarked many other Norman surnames are among our best known surnames today. It would be ridiculously pedantic to regard these as anything but Irish. Not only have they been continuously in Ireland for seven or eight centuries, but they are also not found in England except, of course, when introduced by Irish settlers there. The Norman name Power, indeed, holds first place for County Waterford.
One of the most striking and interesting of the phenomena to be observed in a study of our subject is the tenacity with which families have continued to dwell for centuries, down to the present day, in the very districts where their names originated. This obtains in almost every county in Ireland. Thus, according to Matheson's returns, the births registered for the distinctive Kerry names of Brick, Brosnan, Culloty, Kissane, MacElligott and MacGillycuddy, to take more or less random examples, are entirely confined to that county.
In many cases local association has been perpetuated in place names. Indeed it is a characteristic of Irish place names, particularly those beginning with Bally, Dun, Clon etc., that a large proportion of them are formed from personal names. Ballymahon, Lettermacaward, Drumconor, Toomevara are a few examples to illustrate this point. It is dangerous to jump to conclusions and easy to make mistakes in this field: thus Kilodonnel in Co. Donegal is the church of O'Toner, not of O'Donnell as would appear at first sight. Similarly Doonamurray has nothing to do with the surname Murray, being a corruption of D?n na m?na: nor has Drumreilly any etymological connection with the sept of O'Reilly. Of course the association, especially in the case of the Kil words, is often ecclesiastical rather than genealogical, for many are formed from the names of pre-surname saints and hermits, and so have no interest for the student of surnames. Those place names beginning with Bally and other Irish words were almost all formed before the seventeenth century and too often when a family was thus distinguished it has ceased to exist or has almost died out in the immediate neighbourhood of the particular townland so designated, but in many cases they are still numerous there. Nearly an such are Gaelic or Hiberno-Norman family names. There are, however, some exceptions such as Ballybunion and Ballyraddock which are formed from the English surnames Bunyan and Maddock.
After the 1602 debacle, as we must regard the battle of Kinsale, place names with the prefix Castle and Mount or the suffix Town and Bridge like Castlepollard and Crookstown, and occasionally a combination of both like Castletownconyers, began to be used. For the most part these names honoured planter families, with whom must be classed renegade Gaels who forsook their own people and religion and backed the winning side though where they represent translations from older Irish place names, as in the case of O'Brien's Bridge and Castledermot, this of course does not apply. This aspect of our subject can be dismissed without further examination: it can be studied by anyone interested in it by a perusal of a map or gazeteer, or better still the Index of Townlands, Parishes etc. officially published in connection with the decennial censuses of the nineteenth century.
Of more interest to us here is the converse, i.e. those surnames which were actually formed from places. In England they constitute one of the most numerous classes in Ireland they are comparatively rare: so much so indeed that all of them that I know can be enumerated here. Apart from Anglo-Irish names taken from places in England like Welby, Preston etc., the only Irish place names so used I have met are Ardagh, Athy, Bray, Corbally, Finglas, Galbally, Sutton, Rath, Santry, Slane and Trim, some of which are very rare. Dease (and Deasy), Desmond, Lynagh, Meade, and Minnagh, formed from extensive territories, may also perhaps be included. Not all place names found as surnames can be accepted in this category. Cavan for example is not taken from the town but is a synonym of Keevane or occasionally an abbreviation of Kavanagh: Navan is Mac Cnaimhin, Limerick is O Luimbric, Kilkenny is Mac Giolla Choinnigh and Ormonde is found in County Waterford oddly enough as a corruption of O Ruaidh. The most numerous of these in Ireland today is Galway or Galwey. It does, it is true, derive from a place, but the place is Galloway in Scotland.
Deasy, mentioned above, might be placed in the class which we may call descriptive. It indicates "a native of the Decies ', as Lynagh means "a Leinster man", Moynagh ."a Munsterman" and Meade (with its earlier form Miagh) "a Meath man". These have a topographical significance, as have Spain, Switzer, Wallace, Brett, London. Quite a number of descriptive surnames, which at some period must have superseded a normal family surname, are formed from adjectives such as Bane (white), Begg (small), Crone (brown), Creagh (branchy) Duff (black), Gall (foreign), Glass (green), Lawder (strong), Reagh (brindled). Phair or Fair is also one of these, but it has been subjected to translation, being the Irish adjective fionn.
Akin to adjectives are names in the genitive case, of which a few are found among genuine Irish surnames, e.g. Glenny (sometimes Glenn) for a' ghleanna and Maghery for an mhachaire. Here also the process has in some cases been carried a stage further, an chnuic becoming Hill and an mhuillinn Mills but when met today Hill and Mills are more likely to be of English origin.
Everyone knows the old rhyme which ends with the lines "And if he lacks both O and Mac no Irishman is he". Like most general statements this is not wholly true for, disregarding the undoubted claims of the Burkes, Fitzgeralds etc., we must admit Creagh, Deasy, Crone, Maghery and the other descriptive surnames as genuinely Gaelic. Indeed two of the best known and essentially Irish names, Kavanagh and Kinsella, have neither O nor Mac, for they are the descriptive type. Both of these, however, sometimes have an O tacked on to them erroneously. There are some curious instances of this error. A' Preith (meaning "of the cattle spoil") is well known in County Down for generations under the anglicised form of O'Prey. Gorham was formerly credited with an O in Co. Galway. De Horseys became O'Horseys before ever the influence of the Gaelic League revival brought bogus O's and Macs into being. Two of the most remarkable, not to say ridiculous, of these mistakes are to be found in Limerick city and county where Mackessy (in Irish O Macase and recte O'Mackessy in English) appears as McKessy and Odell, a purely English name, as O'Dell.
In this connection, I should refer to those Mac names which through long usage in the spoken language have become O's. The best known of these are O'Growney and O'Gorman.
We have already noticed instances of the subdivision of the great septs and the consequent formation in the middle ages of new surnames like MacConsidine. This arose for various reasons, not the least of which was the desirability of readily distinguishing between a number of people of the same name. For a similar reason a system of nomenclature exists today, particularly in the western counties, whereby the father's christian name is added to a man's legal name. Thus in Clare, where there may well be several Patrick O'Briens in a single townland, they are known as Patrick O'Brien John, Patrick O'Brien Michael and so on. This is not merely a colloquial convenience, for these designations are used in ordinary business transactions such as completing an order form or supplying milk to a creamery, and they appear very frequently in the official voters' lists. A similar practice, very much in vogue in Limerick in the seventeenth century, has misled some writers unfamiliar with Irish conditions. The normal method was to add the father's name, as in the example given above, but with the prefix Fitz. Thus, to take a well known Limerick surname, John Arthur son of Stephen Arthur was almost invariably described as John Arthur FitzStephen, so that to the uninitiated the man's surname appears to be FitzStephen.
There are many examples in the sixteenth and seventeenth century records of persons whose names as set down therein are a veritable genealogy. John MacMahon MacWilliam MacOwen MacShane was, of course, John MacMahon whose father's christian name was William and his great grandfather's was Shane. Ignorance of this practice on the part of the enumerators probably accounts for the extraordinary number of MacShanes and MacTeiges returned as surnames in such records as the 1659 census all over the country. According to this there were large numbers of MacWilliams, MacEdmunds, MacDavids MacRichards etc., and in the same way Fitzjames (sometimes alias MacJames) appears as a common surname. The prevalence, according to the returning officers, of Oge as a surname bears out this assumption. Similarly Bane is given as a common surname, though there is little doubt that it was in fact, like Oge, merely an epithet. Bane does exist as a modern surname, Oge, however, does not, though it may have occasionally survived by translation, as Young. The Ormond Deeds, especially those of the sixteenth century, contain a great many names formed by prefixing Mac to a christian name. Besides those mentioned above, MacNicholas, MacPhelim, MacRory, MacThomas and MacWalter are of most frequent occurrence. Of all these names the only two to be found in any considerable numbers as surnames today are MacShane and MacTigue, as it is now spelt. The latter has in some places been shorn of its Macs and is written Tighe.
In this connection it must not be forgotten that a not inconsiderable number of people in the lower stratum of society did not use hereditary surnames even as late as 1650. In examining family documents I have met with cases of this: a witness signs himself James MacThomas, whom we know to be the son of Thomas MacTeige - or more probably being illiterate he makes his mark beside the name. Nevertheless it can safely be stated that the great majority even of the labouring class did have hereditary Mac and O surnames at least from the middle of the sixteenth century. By the eighteenth, of course, the cottier and small farmer class had come to include a considerable pro-portion of the old Gaelic aristocracy.
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