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Re- Your Irish Coat of Arms

In the words of Edward MacLysaght, the first Chief Herald of Ireland ...

"The subject of Irish families is one in which much interest is evinced, but the popular books usually consulted and regarded as authoritative, particularly in America, are in fact unreliable. The inaccurate and misleading information thus imparted with cumulative effect is, however, much more deplorable in the armorial sphere than in the genealogical.
It is an indisputable fact that the publication presenting colour plates of Irish arms which is probably most widely consulted is no less than seventy per cent inaccurate, not only in mere detail, but often in points of primary importance and of an elementary kind. Apart from their many grotesque heraldic blunders the compilers of this work seem to have had a sort of rule of thumb; if they could not find arms for one Irish sept they looked for the name of another somewhat resembling it in sound: thus, for example, they coolly assigned the arms of Boylan to Boland. This frequently resulted in the arms of some purely English family being inserted in their book of 'Irish Arms' the Saxon Huggins being equated with O'Higgins, and so on. When this arbitrary method failed them they fell back on the arms of some great Irish sept. To quote one instance of this: Gleeson, Noonan and McFadden are all given the arms of O'Brien, though none of these septs had any connexion whatever with the O'Briens or with each other. Consequently many Americans of Irish descent are in good faith using erroneous and often English arms derived from the spurious source in question.
A certain cachet has been given to this because, in the more recent editions of O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees [published after the author's death - Ed], these same coloured plates have been inserted as if they were an integral part of O'Hart's book.
The serious genealogist uses O'Hart with caution, if at all, for he is a far from reliable authority except for the quite modern period. John O'Hart, however, undoubtedly did a vast amount of research, no matter how he used the information he acquired: I know that some of these errors of ascription can actually be traced to him, but it is surely an injustice to him that his well known name should be used as a cover for the propagation of false and often ludicrous heraldic statements."

The distortion of Irish Surnames

In 1957 Edward MacLysaght published in the Irish Academic Press a series of papers entitled Irish Families (Their Names, Arms & Origins)
As a matter of interest to historians and genealogists I've extracted this part of his publication dealing with the distortion of Irish surnames.

Even in Ireland, where there is a genealogical tradition, it is quite common for people to be uncertain of their ancestry for more than three generations. Consequently a man in these circumstances whose name is, say, Collins or Rogers, to take two common in Ireland, cannot assert with certainty that he bears a native Irish surname. However, if he is a Collins, born and living in Dublin perhaps, whose people came from West Cork the odds are very strongly in favour of the true name being the Gaelic ? Coile?in. Smith, the commonest surname in England, comes high up in the Irish list - fifth in that given by Matheson. There can be no doubt that many of our Irish Smiths are the descendants of English settlers and traders, but it is equally probable that at least eighty per cent of the Smiths of County Cavan are of native stock, being MacGowans or O'Gowans who, under pressure of alien legislation or social influence, accepted the translated form and have used it ever since.

Many of the dual origin surnames are translations, like Smith and Oaks, or more often pseudo-translations such as Kidney and Bird. Some indeed of the latter are very far-fetched, even ridiculous, as for example the grotesque transformation of Mac Giolla Eoin into Monday from a fancied resemblance of the last part of that name to the Irish word "Luain".

So far we have been considering English names which in Ireland may conceal those of genuine Gaelic families. In a smaller number the converse obtains. Such names as Moore, Hart, Hayes and Boyle, which are, of course, genuinely Irish and are often regarded as exclusively so, are also found as indigenous surnames in England. So here again there is no certainty in the absence of an authentic pedigree, or at least of a well-founded tradition, as a guide. It has been pointed out for example that Guinness, which stout has made world-famous as an Irish name, and is in that case probably rightly derived from Magennis or MacGuinness of County Down, occurs in English records of some centuries ago in the rural county of Devonshire.

Probably the most reliable and scholarly work on English surnames is that of Professor Weekley. Yet he includes in his lists, without any mention of Ireland, several like Geary, Garvin, Grennan and Quigley: typical Gaelic-Irish surnames which, while they are no doubt occasionally found with the French or Anglo-Saxon background he indicates, when met in England at the present time are much more likely to have been brought there by Irish immigrants.

Apart from these surnames of possible English origin there are many indisputably Irish surnames not indigenous in England which assumed in their anglicised form a completely English appearance. What, for example, could be more English in appearance than Gleeson, Buggy, Cashman, Halfpenny and Doolady, to cite only a few examples. All of these are genuine Gaelic surnames and surprisingly numerous.

Once again the converse of this is also true. No one unacquainted with the subject would doubt that such very Irish sounding names as Gernon, Laffan, Gogan, Henebry and Tallon, and even O'Dell, all quite common in Ireland, are Irish, yet none of them is of Gaelic origin. This list, however, is not so long.

Some Gaelic surnames in their modern anglicised form have acquired an equally un-Irish guise but have a foreign rather than an English look. Coen, a variant of Coyne, and Levy, a common abbreviation of Dunlevy, suggest the Jew; I know a Lomasney who is always refuting the erroneous belief that he is of French origin, and I expect Lavelles and even Delargys and Delahuntys may have the same difficulty; Hederman and Hessian have rather a German sound, while Nihil, well known in County Clare, and Melia, synonym of O'Malley, might be Latin words. Most of this class, however, are occasional variants, such as Gna and Gina for (Mac) Kenna or Manasses for Mannix, or rare surnames like Schaill, Thulis and Gaussen.

In some cases the anglicisation process has had very unfortunate results. The beautiful name Mac Giolla ?osa, for example, usually rendered as MacAleese, takes the form MacLice in some places. The picturesque and heroic ? Dathlaoich in County Galway ridiculously becomes Dolly and the equally distinguished Sealbhaigh which is anglicised Shelly in its homeland (Co. Cork) is Shallow in Co. Tipperary. Schoolboys of these families, unless they use the Irish form, need no nicknames; Grimes, too, is a miserable substitute for its Gaelic counterpart Greachain, which has also Grehan as a more euphonious anglicised form.

These corruptions, of course, are due to the influence of the English language, the spread of which in Ireland was contemporary with the subjection and eclipse of the old Catho1ic Irish nation: names of tenants were inscribed in rentals by strangers brought in to act as clerks, who attempted to write phonetically what they regarded as outlandish names; in the same way Gaelic speaking litigants, deponents and witnesses in law cases were arbitrarily dubbed this and that at the whim of the recording official. It was not until the nineteenth century that uniformity in the spelling of names began to be observed, but the seventeenth century was the period during which our surnames assumed approximately the forms ordinarily in use in Ireland today.

The corruptions we have noticed above have been cited as examples of the tendency to give Irish names an English appearance. Most of them have at least some phonetic resemblance to their originals or else were frankly translations or supposed translations. There is, too, a large class of Irish surnames anglicised in a way which makes them quite unrecognisable. Often these distortions are aesthetically most unpleasing, as Mucklebreed for Mac Giolla Bride and Gerty for Mag Oireachtaigh.

Citing only official registrations with the Registrar-General, Matheson notes a particularly flagrant example, viz. a family of O'Hagans in County Dublin who have actually become Hog, which in the absence of his testimony one would naturally assume to be simply the well-known English surname of Hogg (O'Hagan is unlucky in this respect. According to Woulfe the very English and plebian-sounding Huggins is one of its synonyms in Ireland). Rather less cacophonous is Ratty for Hanratty. Forker for Farquhar (in County Down) may perhaps be regarded as comparable to the contraction in England of Cholmondeley to Chumley and Featherstonehaugh to Fanshawe in less aristocratic circles, these of course being phonetic spellings. The most curious instances of phonetic abbreviation recorded by Matheson is the birth registration of a Dalzell child at Dundalk "tout court" as "D.L.", that being the peculiar pronunciation of Dalzell in its native Scotland. The commonest of all Irish surnames, though not aesthetically objectionable, is a good illustration of decadence, for Murphy is a far cry from MacMurrough and 0'Morchoe, as is Dunphy from its synonym O'Donoghue. My own name, which I am glad to say is a true Dalcassian (Co. Clare) one, is an excellent example of the distortion we are considering, for no one would readily connect MacLysaght, especially when shorn of its Mac, with Mac Giolla Iasachta. The seventeenth century officials did at first render it as McGillysaghta, etc. in documents in English, but this proved too much of a mouthful to last long.

This name is also an example of that fairly numerous class in which the initial letter (excluding the prefix) is misleading. The L of Lysaght and of Leland derives from the gioLLa. The origina1 L of Lally on the other hand is to be found in the MaoL of the original. In the same way the C of Clancy, the K of Keogh and the Q of Quaid are from MaC; the G of Gaynor and Gorevan from the MaC prefix (Mag is a form of Mac frequently used with names beginning with a vowel), while the Il of Ilhenny can again be traced to the gIOLla of the Gae1ic form.

Another tendency in the anglicisation of Irish surnames is the absorption of uncommon names in common ones. Blowick, for example, tends to become Blake, Kildellan is merged in Connellan, Cormican in McCormick, Sullahan in Sullivan, Kehilly and Kilkelly in Ke1ly, and so on. Certain well-known family names such as Courtney, Conway and Leonard have gobbled up in the course of time, not one, but half a dozen or more minor ones. We must presume that this was a result of the general Gaelic depression, part of the same indifference and hopelessness which acquiesced in the lopping off of the Mac and O from so many old Irish surnames.

I have said that the mutilation and corruption of Irish surnames took place in the seventeenth and to a lesser extent in the eighteenth centuries. It must be admitted, however, that even today, fifty years after the foundation of the Gaelic League, the gradual re-gaelicization of names resulting from its influence is to some extent counterbalanced by the opposing forces of de-nationalisation. This is found more in pronunciation than in spelling: though even in this official registration age pronunciation does tend to affect spelling. A notable example of what I have in mind is the internal H. The English seem unable to cope with this sound which presents no difficulty to an Irishman: for Mahony they say Mah-ney (or, as they would write it, Marney, since the internal R is also dead in England). Now Dublin and suburbs with over 650,000 people contains more than one fifth of the population of the Republic and one seventh of the whole country; and Dublin for a11 its genuine political nationalism is in most ways more English, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say, more cosmopolitan, in character. The contrast between Connacht and Dublin is as marked as that between Dublin and England. Of course the good old Dublin accent has lost none of its distinctive raciness, but it is only to be heard in the mouths of one section of the citizens. The gradual disappearance of regional Irish accents is much to be deplored: it is due to a number of causes including the B.B.C., the cinema, the much increased intercourse with England resulting from the recent mass emigration to that country, and perhaps I may add the "refinement" aimed at in convent education. However, I must not allow myself to go off at a tangent on this interesting topic, which is irrelevant except in so far as it is concerned with the pronunciation of surnames.

In America the distortion of the name Mahony takes a different form, for it is often mispronounced Ma-honey, just as the wrong vowel is stressed in Carmody and Connell. In Ireland one does not hear Ma(r)ney for Mahony or Clossey for Cloghessy, but boggling at the internal H has come to Dublin now. I know a family in Dublin named Fihilly: the parents insist quite rightly that there are three syllables in the word, but the younger generation are content to answer to "Feeley" and so pronounce the name themselves; Gallaghers in Sydney, after a long losing battle with Australian philistinism, have had to accept "Gallagger" with the best grace they could. This, however, may be partly due to the ocular influence of the middle G. There is another difference in these two cases, besides the fact that the Fihilly deterioration took place in Ireland itself: Feeley has actually become a recognised way of spelling that name. Similarly there are Dawneys who were originally Doheny.

The surnames Hehir and Cahir in Thomond are still dissyllables, but the latter when denoting the town of that name in Co. Tipperary has become immutably "Care". This again prompts a long digression on place names: but that subject, so full of pitfalls for all but the most learned, would be out of place in this text.

The internal H is not the only stumbling-block for English people and anglicised Dubliners. They pronounce Linnane as Linnayne and Kissane Kissayne. Our "ane" sound, which is intermediate between the English "Anne" and "aunt", is not heard in English speech. Similarly O'Dea is called O'Dee. These emasculated pronunciations sound like affectation to people who come from the places where those names originated and still abound. This is not to deny that there is actually a name O'Dee, but that is not a Clare name, as O'Dea emphatically is.

Some English inspired innovations fortunately do not last. During the first World War a neighbour of mine in Co. Clare named Minogue joined the British army; in due course he returned as Capt. Minogue - Captain "Minnow-gew", if you please, not "Minnoge"! He may have got the idea from the mistake of a fellow soldier but he adopted the monstrosity and even insisted on it.

One of the most irritating of the examples of capitulation to English influence is the adoption of the essentially Saxon termination "ham" for the Irish "ahan", "ann", etc. This is not confined to surnames: the Gaelic word "banbh", called bonnive in English in the less anglicised counties, is bonham in most places. Rathfarnham, recte Rathfarnnan, is the best known place so anglicised; while on our own ground we have the very English-looking Markham, a Clare surname of which the normal version should be, and indeed formerly was, Markahan (cf. the place name Ballymarkahan in Co. Clare).

In the same way, but less noticeably, the final S so dear to English tongues degaelicizes Higgin(s), while the addition of an unnecessary D has somewhat the same effect on Boland. This D seems to have been a matter of chance for Noland is almost as rare as Bolan.

Quite often the anglicisation of a Gaelic surname resulted in the adoption in English, whether consciously or not, of one which carried a certain social cachet like D'Evelyn for the usual Devlin, Molyneux for Mulligan or Delacour for Dilloughery. Montague for MacTadgh or Mactague probably arose in the same way, the sound Montag at some period giving way to Montagew through the ocular influence of the spelling. The cognate Minnogew for Minogue was just "swank". We may assume that the good captain's descendants have gone back to plain Minnoge, as it is only a matter of pronunciation in their case.

There are other examples of this tendency which cannot be shed so easily. When Mulvihil has thus become Melville and Loughnane Loftus, resumption of the true patronymic necessitates (in practice, though not in strict law) certain legal formalities. - am told that there are people whose name was originally Mullins (Maolain) using the form de Moleyns. I have not met a case myself. According to Burke's peerage the best known family of the name, the head of which is Lord Ventry, are not true Irish Mullinses at all, and they presumably had justification for assuming the form de Moleyns in place of Mullins, a step which they took in 1841.

Some people with Mac names insist on the Mac being written in full, others prefer Mc, and formerly M' was quite usual. It is hard to understand why any objection should be taken to Mc or even M', since these are simply abbreviations of Mac. The practice of some indexers, notably in the Century Cyclopaedia of Names, of differentiating between Mac and Mc is to be deplored, since the reader must seek the name he wants in two places - in the Macs, which are interspersed among such words as Maccabees and Macedonia, and in the Mcs many pages further on. It is impossible to differentiate satisfactorily. Take MacGillycuddy for example: it appears in the work in question as MacGillycuddy's Reeks, yet the Chief of the Name always subscribes himself McGillycuddy of the Reeks. The idea that Mac is Irish and Mc Scottish is just another popular error. Mcc, however, may fairly be called an affectation, being merely the perpetuation of a seventeenth century scribe's slip of the pen.

The most prevalent of peculiarities in the spelling of names - the use of two small f's for a capital F - would seem to have arisen not through snobbery but from ignorance: the originators of this now carefully treasured blunder were probably unaware of the fact that in seventeenth century documents the normal way of writing F was ff, a symbol almost indistinguishable from f f.

The Irish Information website an excellent website with many free resources also has a page on the Origin of Irish Names

Mac and O in Irish Surnames

In 1957 Edward MacLysaght published in the Irish Academic Press a series of papers entitled Irish Families (Their Names, Arms & Origins)
As a matter of interest to historians and genealogists I've extracted this part of his publication dealing with the use of Mac and O in Irish surnames.

The successive invasions of Ireland from Strongbow to Cromwell, culminating in the final destruction of the Gaelic order and the long drawn out subjection of the Irish people under the eighteenth century penal code, together with the plantations of foreign settlers and the more peaceful infiltration of Englishmen in the commercial life of the country, have made Irish surnames more mixed than those of a nation with a less disturbed history. The situation can no doubt be paralleled in several mid-European states, but there is nothing comparable to it in any of our nearer neighbours such as England, France, Germany, Holland or Spain, where foreign names are exceptional and native ones are seldom hidden under alien guise. This latter is a phenomenon which is extremely common in Ireland.

It has often been stated that surnames were introduced into Ireland by King Brian Boru. Though this cannot be accepted as historically accurate it is a fact that Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt a system of hereditary surnames or perhaps it would be truer to say that such a system developed spontaneously. At any rate the Macs and O's were well established as such more than a century before the Cambro-Normans or, as they are more usually called, the Anglo-Normans, came.

It is hardly necessary to state that these prefixes denote descent.
Therefore Mac (son) indicating that the surname was formed from the personal names, or sometimes calling, of the father of the first man to bear that surname, while O names are derived from a grandfather or even earlier ancestor, O or ua being the Irish word for grandson, or more loosely male descendant.

Many instances occur of Mac names and some of O names in the Annals, lists of bishops and other records relating to the centuries between the time of St. Patrick and that of Brian Boru. These, however, were not hereditary surnames, but merely indicated the father (or grandfather) of the man in question. Thus to take, by way of example, two successors of St. Patrick in the see of Armagh, Torbac MacGormain (d. 812) and Diarmuid O Tighearnaigh (d. 852), these were not members of families called MacGorman and O'Tierney, but were respectively son of a man whose baptismal name was Gorman and grandson of one who was christened Tierney.

Prior to the introduction of surnames there was in Ireland a system of clan-names, which the use of surnames gradually rendered obsolete except as territorial designations. Groups of families, many of them descended from a common ancestor, were known by collective clan-names such as D?l Cais (whence the adjective Dalcassian), Ui M?ine (or Hy Many), Cinel Eoghain, Clann Cholgain, Corca Laidhe. The expression "tribe-names", used by John O'Donovan in this connection, is perhaps more expressive, though a more modern authority, Professor Eoin MacNeal, objected to this term as misleading. In some cases the tribe-name did subsequently become the surname of a leading family of the clan or tribe, but as a rule this did not happen and, as the tribe name was usually identical with the surname acquired by some quite unrelated sept in another part of the country, confusion is apt to arise. Thus the Clann Daly embraced the O'Donnells and other northern septs, Clann Cahill became O'Flanagans etc., Munter Gilligan was chiefly composed of the O'Quins of Annaly and Hy Regan was the tribe name of the O'Dunns.

The first of the major invasions of Ireland in historical times (1169-1172) resulted in the formation of a new set of surnames belonging to the Norman families which in due course became 'Hiberniores Hibernicis ipsis' (more Irish than the Irish themselves). The old Latin clich? is applicable to the names as well as to the people who bore them, for no one to-day would regard Fitzgerald or Burke as any less Irish than O'Connor or MacCarthy.

Names in this category are numerous and widespread in Ireland, and most of them have in the course of time become exclusively Irish, as for example Burke, Costello, Cusack, Cogan, Dalton, Dillon, Fitzgerald, Keating, Nagle, Nugent, Power, Roche, Sarsfield and Walsh. Some of them, of course, like Barry and Purcell, though generally regarded as Irish, are found in England also since the twelfth century. Today, no doubt, almost all the Norman-Irish surnames which are increasingly common in England became established there as a result of nineteenth century and particularly of recent emigration from Ireland.

The second great upheaval, five hundred years later, was of a more devastating character. In the seventeenth century the dire effects of conquest were intensified by religious persecution, and the three main events of that century resulting from military aggression - the Plantation of Ulster, the Cromwellian Settlement and the Williamite forfeitures - followed by the Penal Code which was at its severest in the first half of the eighteenth century, inevitably led to a lack of accord between the new settlers and the old inhabitants of the country. The natural process of assimilation was thus retarded, indeed it is not too much to say that it was deliberately prevented. Thus the Elizabethan immigrants and those that followed them in the next century did not become hibernicized as the Normans had.

A feature of the degradation of the Gael and the inferiority complex it produced was the wholesale discarding of the distinctive prefixes O and Mac. Nor was this confined to the downtrodden peasantry. The few Catholic gentry who managed to maintain to some extent their social position, while keeping their O's and Macs within the ambit of their own entourage (usually in the remoter parts of the country), were so deeply conscious of belonging to a conquered nation that they frequently omitted the prefixes when dealing with Protestants, not only in legal matters but also in ordinary social intercourse. Thus we find Daniel O'Connell's uncle, that picturesque figure universally known as "Hunting Cap", signing himself Maurice Connell as late as 1803 when approaching the Knight of Kerry to enlist his influence in a court case while MacDermott, Chief of the Name, though ranking as a prince among his own people and himself a prominent banker in the middle of the eighteenth century, invariably signed himself simply Anthony Dermott.

It has been stated that one of the causes of the disuse of the prefixes Mac and O in the eighteenth century was the inclusion in the Penal Code of a provision to that effect. I can find no such clause in any of the relevant Acts. No legislation dealing with this question was ever passed except in so far as the Statute of Kilkenny (1367) affected the Irish of the Pale. This indeed had no bearing on the use of Mac and O but it did, no doubt, mark the beginning of the practice of translating Irish names into English, which in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries became widespread and, I may add, proved more often to be mistranslation than translation. Nevertheless pressure was exerted in other ways to bring about the degaelicization of surnames. For example, even two generations before the Penal Code was in full force we find O'Conor Roe entering into a composition in which he binds the Irish chiefs under his influence to "forego the customs and usages of their Brehon Law . . . and to give up prefixes to their surnames" (5 January 1637. This quotation taken from Genealogical Office MS. 178, p. 293, is by no means an isolated case). We may be sure that this undertaking was made by O'Conor with his tongue in his cheek and that it was ignored, but it serves to indicate the official outlook in this respect.

I may refer here to the widespread belief outside Ireland that Mac is essentially a Scottish prefix. To us this idea is absurd, for many of our foremost Irish families bear Mac names such as MacCarthy, MacGuinness, MacGrath, MacGillycuddy, MacKenna, MacMahon, MacNamara and so on. evertheless, it is a fallacy widely held. It is true, of course, that many Mac names in Ulster are Scottish in origin, having come in with the seventeenth century planters and these tended to retain their Gaelic prefix when those of Catholic Ireland fell into disuse. In any case the Scottish Gaels are originally of Irish stock and Scotland herself took her name from the word 'Scotia' which in Latin was at first used to denote the land inhabited by the Irish race.

At the beginning of the present century under the growing influence of the Gaelic League a general reversal of the process began to be perceptible. Yet even today there are scores of Gaelic names with which the prefix is seldom, if ever, seen, e.g. Boland, Brophy, Connolly, Corrigan, Crowe, Garvey, Hennessy, Kirby, Larkin, to mention a few of the commonest. The extent of this resumption can best be illustrated by the mere fact that while in 1890, according to Matheson's calculations, there were twice as many Connells as O'Connells, today, (judging by such texts as directories) we have nine O'Connells for every Connell. I do not know the present proportion of O'Kellys to Kellys, but I am sure it is very much higher than it was in 1890 when the official estimate for all Ireland was 55,900 Kellys and only a mere 400 O'Kellys.

I will pass now to another class of Mac surnames which is of considerable interest. This is the assumption by Norman families of surnames of a Gaelic type and the formation under those designations of what practically amount to septs or sub-septs on the Gaelic model. The majority of these, such as MacSherone ex Prendergast and MacRuddery ex Fitzsimon, are nearly extinct today, as are the various offshoots of the Burkes, though no doubt some of their descendants did revert to their original surnames. Berminghams, however, survive under the name of MacCorish or Corish, Stauntons as MacEvilly, Archdeacons as MacOda or Coady and Nangies as Costello (formerly MacCostello). Woulfe says that the latter was the first Norman Mac name. Not all such Norman name assumptions retained a Gaelic form, for d'Exeter, first gaelicized as MacSiurtain, eventually became Jordan (now a common name in the West) and the Jenningses, formerly MacSeoinin, were originally Burkes.

This practice of forming sub-septs was not confined to Norman families. Among the offshoots of O'Brien were MacConsidine and MacLysaght. MacShane stemmed from O'Neill: in due course this was turned by translation into Johnson and as such is found in that numerous class of concealed Gaelic surnames. So the name MacShera, now rare, was adopted by some of the Fitzpatricks. MacSherry (whence the place name Courtmacsherry) on the other hand was a Gaelic patronymic assumed by the English family Hodnett. MacSherry, it should be noted, is also an indigenous Gaelic surname in Breffny.

Fitzpatrick, which up to the seventeenth century was MacGilpatrick, is in a class by itself, being the only Fitz name which is Gaelic: otherwise Fitz (from French fils) also denotes a Norman origin. It is possible, however, that some of the Fitzhenrys may originally have been MacEnery.

Unless we adopt an exclusive and doctrinaire attitude we must admit Fitzgerald, Fitzgibbon and Fitzmaurice as Irish. As I have already remarked many other Norman surnames are among our best known surnames today. It would be ridiculously pedantic to regard these as anything but Irish. Not only have they been continuously in Ireland for seven or eight centuries, but they are also not found in England except, of course, when introduced by Irish settlers there. The Norman name Power, indeed, holds first place for County Waterford.

One of the most striking and interesting of the phenomena to be observed in a study of our subject is the tenacity with which families have continued to dwell for centuries, down to the present day, in the very districts where their names originated. This obtains in almost every county in Ireland. Thus, according to Matheson's returns, the births registered for the distinctive Kerry names of Brick, Brosnan, Culloty, Kissane, MacElligott and MacGillycuddy, to take more or less random examples, are entirely confined to that county.

In many cases local association has been perpetuated in place names. Indeed it is a characteristic of Irish place names, particularly those beginning with Bally, Dun, Clon etc., that a large proportion of them are formed from personal names. Ballymahon, Lettermacaward, Drumconor, Toomevara are a few examples to illustrate this point. It is dangerous to jump to conclusions and easy to make mistakes in this field: thus Kilodonnel in Co. Donegal is the church of O'Toner, not of O'Donnell as would appear at first sight. Similarly Doonamurray has nothing to do with the surname Murray, being a corruption of D?n na m?na: nor has Drumreilly any etymological connection with the sept of O'Reilly. Of course the association, especially in the case of the Kil words, is often ecclesiastical rather than genealogical, for many are formed from the names of pre-surname saints and hermits, and so have no interest for the student of surnames. Those place names beginning with Bally and other Irish words were almost all formed before the seventeenth century and too often when a family was thus distinguished it has ceased to exist or has almost died out in the immediate neighbourhood of the particular townland so designated, but in many cases they are still numerous there. Nearly an such are Gaelic or Hiberno-Norman family names. There are, however, some exceptions such as Ballybunion and Ballyraddock which are formed from the English surnames Bunyan and Maddock.

After the 1602 debacle, as we must regard the battle of Kinsale, place names with the prefix Castle and Mount or the suffix Town and Bridge like Castlepollard and Crookstown, and occasionally a combination of both like Castletownconyers, began to be used. For the most part these names honoured planter families, with whom must be classed renegade Gaels who forsook their own people and religion and backed the winning side though where they represent translations from older Irish place names, as in the case of O'Brien's Bridge and Castledermot, this of course does not apply. This aspect of our subject can be dismissed without further examination: it can be studied by anyone interested in it by a perusal of a map or gazeteer, or better still the Index of Townlands, Parishes etc. officially published in connection with the decennial censuses of the nineteenth century.

Of more interest to us here is the converse, i.e. those surnames which were actually formed from places. In England they constitute one of the most numerous classes in Ireland they are comparatively rare: so much so indeed that all of them that I know can be enumerated here. Apart from Anglo-Irish names taken from places in England like Welby, Preston etc., the only Irish place names so used I have met are Ardagh, Athy, Bray, Corbally, Finglas, Galbally, Sutton, Rath, Santry, Slane and Trim, some of which are very rare. Dease (and Deasy), Desmond, Lynagh, Meade, and Minnagh, formed from extensive territories, may also perhaps be included. Not all place names found as surnames can be accepted in this category. Cavan for example is not taken from the town but is a synonym of Keevane or occasionally an abbreviation of Kavanagh: Navan is Mac Cnaimhin, Limerick is O Luimbric, Kilkenny is Mac Giolla Choinnigh and Ormonde is found in County Waterford oddly enough as a corruption of O Ruaidh. The most numerous of these in Ireland today is Galway or Galwey. It does, it is true, derive from a place, but the place is Galloway in Scotland.

Deasy, mentioned above, might be placed in the class which we may call descriptive. It indicates "a native of the Decies ', as Lynagh means "a Leinster man", Moynagh ."a Munsterman" and Meade (with its earlier form Miagh) "a Meath man". These have a topographical significance, as have Spain, Switzer, Wallace, Brett, London. Quite a number of descriptive surnames, which at some period must have superseded a normal family surname, are formed from adjectives such as Bane (white), Begg (small), Crone (brown), Creagh (branchy) Duff (black), Gall (foreign), Glass (green), Lawder (strong), Reagh (brindled). Phair or Fair is also one of these, but it has been subjected to translation, being the Irish adjective fionn.

Akin to adjectives are names in the genitive case, of which a few are found among genuine Irish surnames, e.g. Glenny (sometimes Glenn) for a' ghleanna and Maghery for an mhachaire. Here also the process has in some cases been carried a stage further, an chnuic becoming Hill and an mhuillinn Mills but when met today Hill and Mills are more likely to be of English origin.

Everyone knows the old rhyme which ends with the lines "And if he lacks both O and Mac no Irishman is he". Like most general statements this is not wholly true for, disregarding the undoubted claims of the Burkes, Fitzgeralds etc., we must admit Creagh, Deasy, Crone, Maghery and the other descriptive surnames as genuinely Gaelic. Indeed two of the best known and essentially Irish names, Kavanagh and Kinsella, have neither O nor Mac, for they are the descriptive type. Both of these, however, sometimes have an O tacked on to them erroneously. There are some curious instances of this error. A' Preith (meaning "of the cattle spoil") is well known in County Down for generations under the anglicised form of O'Prey. Gorham was formerly credited with an O in Co. Galway. De Horseys became O'Horseys before ever the influence of the Gaelic League revival brought bogus O's and Macs into being. Two of the most remarkable, not to say ridiculous, of these mistakes are to be found in Limerick city and county where Mackessy (in Irish O Macase and recte O'Mackessy in English) appears as McKessy and Odell, a purely English name, as O'Dell.

In this connection, I should refer to those Mac names which through long usage in the spoken language have become O's. The best known of these are O'Growney and O'Gorman.

We have already noticed instances of the subdivision of the great septs and the consequent formation in the middle ages of new surnames like MacConsidine. This arose for various reasons, not the least of which was the desirability of readily distinguishing between a number of people of the same name. For a similar reason a system of nomenclature exists today, particularly in the western counties, whereby the father's christian name is added to a man's legal name. Thus in Clare, where there may well be several Patrick O'Briens in a single townland, they are known as Patrick O'Brien John, Patrick O'Brien Michael and so on. This is not merely a colloquial convenience, for these designations are used in ordinary business transactions such as completing an order form or supplying milk to a creamery, and they appear very frequently in the official voters' lists. A similar practice, very much in vogue in Limerick in the seventeenth century, has misled some writers unfamiliar with Irish conditions. The normal method was to add the father's name, as in the example given above, but with the prefix Fitz. Thus, to take a well known Limerick surname, John Arthur son of Stephen Arthur was almost invariably described as John Arthur FitzStephen, so that to the uninitiated the man's surname appears to be FitzStephen.

There are many examples in the sixteenth and seventeenth century records of persons whose names as set down therein are a veritable genealogy. John MacMahon MacWilliam MacOwen MacShane was, of course, John MacMahon whose father's christian name was William and his great grandfather's was Shane. Ignorance of this practice on the part of the enumerators probably accounts for the extraordinary number of MacShanes and MacTeiges returned as surnames in such records as the 1659 census all over the country. According to this there were large numbers of MacWilliams, MacEdmunds, MacDavids MacRichards etc., and in the same way Fitzjames (sometimes alias MacJames) appears as a common surname. The prevalence, according to the returning officers, of Oge as a surname bears out this assumption. Similarly Bane is given as a common surname, though there is little doubt that it was in fact, like Oge, merely an epithet. Bane does exist as a modern surname, Oge, however, does not, though it may have occasionally survived by translation, as Young. The Ormond Deeds, especially those of the sixteenth century, contain a great many names formed by prefixing Mac to a christian name. Besides those mentioned above, MacNicholas, MacPhelim, MacRory, MacThomas and MacWalter are of most frequent occurrence. Of all these names the only two to be found in any considerable numbers as surnames today are MacShane and MacTigue, as it is now spelt. The latter has in some places been shorn of its Macs and is written Tighe.

In this connection it must not be forgotten that a not inconsiderable number of people in the lower stratum of society did not use hereditary surnames even as late as 1650. In examining family documents I have met with cases of this: a witness signs himself James MacThomas, whom we know to be the son of Thomas MacTeige - or more probably being illiterate he makes his mark beside the name. Nevertheless it can safely be stated that the great majority even of the labouring class did have hereditary Mac and O surnames at least from the middle of the sixteenth century. By the eighteenth, of course, the cottier and small farmer class had come to include a considerable pro-portion of the old Gaelic aristocracy.

More on Irish surnames Epithets, Surnames and prefixes from Wikipedia

Owen Cavanough 1762-1841

Born 20 June 1762 at Gosport, Hampshire. His parents were Owen and Grace CAVENDER
seaman on the H.M.S. Sirius, the flagship of the First Fleet (1788)
Legend has him first man ashore at Sydney Cove.
Discharged and farming on Norfolk Island, he married Dubliner Margaret DOWLING (1766-1834) already a mother of a son by marine Charles GREEN.
Margaret, in London, had stolen cutlery from a shop: Old Bailey 1786, 7 years: Prince of Wales.

Children of Margaret and Owen were:-
Charles Green Cavanough 1788 - 1864
Owen Cavanough 1792 - 1794
Grace Cavanough 1794 - 1828. m. Ralph TURNBULL 1791-1840
Mother of Mary Ann (Cavanough) Gurney, Ralph Turnbull, John Turnbull, Elizabeth (Turnbull) Dunstan and
Ann Turnbull
Elizabeth Cavanough 1797 - 1828. m. Thomas JOHNSTON
children unknown
Owen Cavanough Jr. 1799 - 1885 m. Celia COLLINS
Father of James Thomas Cavanough, Margaret Ann Cavanough, Matilda Rebecca (Cavanough) Everingham, Elizabeth Celia (Cavanough) Thomas, Esther (Cavanough) Aspery, Owen Cavanough,
Charlotte Cavanough, Sophia Jane Cavanough, Frances Lenora (Cavanough) Mitchell and Grace (Cavanough) Chapman
Richard Cavanough 1802 - 1880 m. Ann CROSS
Father of Richard John Cavanough, Grace Sarah (Cavanough) Saunders, William David Cavanough, John Alexander Cavanough, Henry Schofield Cavanough, Mary Ann Cavanough, Frederick Samuel Cavanough, James George Cavanough, Charles Innes Cavanough, Harold S Cavanough, Robert Joseph Cavanough and Rebecca Cavanough
James Henry Cavanough 1804 - 1858 m. Esther HUXLEY 1817-1884
Father of Elizabeth Cavanough, Sophia Isabella (Cavanough) Buttsworth, George Cavanough, James C Cavanough, Thomas Henry Cavanough, Ann (Cavanough) Buttsworth, Charles Cavanough, Samuel Cavanough, Richard Cavanough, Elizabeth (Cavanough) Greentree, Mary Ann (Cavanough) Gillard, Margaret Jane (Cavanough) Cobcroft, John Henry Cavanough, John Cavanough, Esther Amelia (Cavanough) Halpin, William Henry Cavanough and Frederick Robert Cavanough
George Cavanough 1807 - 1879 married Jane GOSPER 1820-1896
Father of Jane Cavanough, George Cavanough, Thomas Cavanough, Mary Ann Cavanough, Celia (Cavanough) Smallwood, James Cavanough, Esther (Cavanough) Simson and Sophia (Cavanough) Hilton

Owen was probably farming at Bardonarrang in 1796, as well as transporting grain to Sydney. The boat that gave his family livelihood was stolen in January 1798 but, still financially afloat two years later, he was of those who asked, presumably unavailingly, to share in a spirits import with the officers. As a farmer he signed the appeal of 1801 to have the civil courts deferred.
Rated industrious in 1803, he was awarded 100 acres on the left of Swallow Rock Reach, adjoining Coramandel Settler Davison. By 1804 he was also proprieter of the grainboat UNION, but farming had become his prime concern. Little involved in the Rum Rebellion he tilled his ground with the help of growing sons, and the stepson on whose behalf in 1810 he sought confirmation of a land grant. Charles Green was a sober, industrious young man, he wrote, quite capable of managing a farm.

Himself Anglican and Margaret a Catholic (reason enough for no recorded marriage) the Presbyterian Ebenezer Church stands on four acres donated from his farm. The Cavanoughs left Portland Head a short time afterwards. The farm was advertised but perhaps not sold in 1811. During 1814-1815 as lessee of the South Creek Bridge, Owen probably lived in Windsor. At all events the future of the Cavanough clan lay down river on the Colo. Well known and highly regarded on their area, the widowed Owen lived on among them until the waters so often braved claimed him in his eigthieth year.

Owen drowned on the 27 November 1841 in Wheeny Creek (ironic)
Some of the info above came from Bobbie Hardy's book 'Early
Hawkesbury Settlers' published about 1985 which is still available. janilye
First person to Set foot in Australia !!
On May 13, 1787, eleven ships, soon to be known as the First Fleet, began an eight-month journey from Southampton, bound for Botany Bay. Arriving on January 18, 1788, they found Botany Bay highly unsuitable, lacking a safe, deep harbour but just as important, no fresh drinking water. A longboat dispatched to search for an alternative settlement site, soon returned with news of the discovery of one of the great harbours of the world. On January 26, 1788, in Sydney Harbour, Governor Arthur Phillip was rowed ashore from the flagship H.M.S Sirius to raise the Union Jack and lay claim to Australia in the name of "Mother England". After much controversy it has now been firmly established that the first person actually ashore to secure the longboat on that historic day, was able seaman Owen Cavanough.

A Newspaper dated 26 January, 1842 has the following paragraph:
The Government have ordered a pension of one shilling a day to be paid to the survivors of those who came on the first Fleet to the colony. The number of these really old hands is now reduced to three, of whom two are now in the Benevolent Asylum, and the other is a fine old fellow, who can do a days work more spirit than many of the young fellows lately arrived in the colony. We are glad the Government have commemmorated the auspicious day of our anniversary in so handsome a manner.
The Sydney newspaper approbation was occasioned by the publicity given of the death at Sackville Reach, Hawkesbury River, of Mr Owen Cavanough (I) who died on 27.11.1841, not too well endowed with the worlds riches. Mr Cavanough was a pioneer free seaman and was attached to the HMAS SIRIUS (1788) The pioneer who was drowned in a small rivulet which ran into the Hawkesbury on rented property adjoining Mr Charles Turnbull's 'Kelso' orchard (Lambs Grant) A very historic property made famous by more than one onslaught made on the Lambs by the Maroota Blacks.

Establishment of Ebenzer Church
Settlement of Portland Head was undertaken by free settlers, most of whom arrived on the Coromandel on 13th June, 1802. They were instructed by Governor King to settle on the Government Farm at or near Toongabbie, where they could plant wheat, maize and potatoes. The following year they were each granted 100 acre allotments on either side of the Hawkesbury River at Portland Head. The river formed the major means of transport between farms. The Society was formed at a meeting held in the home of Thomas Arndell on 22nd September, 1806. It was decided to erect a schoolroom and chapel on four acres of land donated by Owen Cavanagh. James Mein acted as Pastor until John Youl took up his position as minister and schoolmaster. The Church was completed in 1809 and the schoolmaster's residence in 1817. Both were designed by Andrew Johnston. Ebenezer was the first non-conformist, then Presbyterian, Church in the colony.
Those who covenanted to build Ebenezer Church were the families of Dr. Thomas Arndell, Paul Bushell, Owen Cavanagh, James Davidson, Capt. John Grono, George Hall, John Howe, William Jacklin, Andrew Johnston, John Johnstone, Lewis Jones, James Mein, William Stubbs, John Studdis and John Turnbull.
The Ebenezer Church is now the oldest operating church in Australia.
Built on four acres of the original first
grant of 100 acres to Owen Cavanough (I.).

The following verbatim copy of an original record throws an historical sidelight
on one of the most famous of all the old Hawkesbury characters, Owen Cavanough (I.)
This pioneer settler of the River will be introduced again in the series of articles
being written for the 'Gazette' by Mr. Geo. G. Reeve, the well-known historian,
along with his favorite son, James Cavanough, and Thomas Chaseling, David Dunstan (I.),
of the inn at Wilberforce, and other notables of that famous village.
It may be mentioned that Mr. Owen Cavanough (I.) held the Colo (Wheeney) grant
of land by deeds made in the year 1833, although he had been settled there for
many years, after leaving the original 100 acre grant of land whereon stands
Ebenezer Church. In the far-off days of the boyhood of the first Owen Cavanough,
the schoolmaster was not abroad as he is to day, and that the men of those early
times were somewhat illiterate is nothing to their shame: —
Copy of letter from Owen Cavanough
(I.) to Surveyor General John. Oxley (writ
ten during Governor Brisbane's time), date
16th October, 1825: —
Pardon me Sir for Writing to you, My
present aflictions not admiting mee to wait
upon you my self. It appears, Sir, that I
meet (met) you in a boat in company with
Govener Macquearie (Macquarie) Captn.
Shaw an other gentleman in the second
Branch when you came down the River
with the 'Lady Nelson,' were I applied for
a farm at Weny (Wheeney) Creek as the
Governer had ordered mee one. You pro
duced the Chart, sir, where it aperred (ap
peared) to be rocky and swampy. The
Governer ordered mee to go and look at it
again, and if I did not like it that you, Sir,
or Mr. Mehen (Meehan) would mesuere
(measure) it any where I thought proper
I aproved of it, Sir, although there is near
(nearly) forty ecres (acres) of rocks out
of eighty and I have occupied it ever
since an.d it aperes (appears) now, Sir,
that forceable possession is taken of part
of the land in question and my grin (grain)
cut up, my fence burned down, and my
pigs destroyed. The Barrer (bearer) of
this, Sir, my Son, whom marked the bound
ris (boundaries) that was ordered by Mr.
Mehen (Meehan). The creek boundary
not being marked at all as Mr.
Mehen (Meehan) had all redy (already)
struck that line in the Chart and shoued
(showed) it to mee, but I dont No (know)
the distance of that line. I have drawd
(drawn) a skecth (sketch) of the land,
Sir, as fur (far) as my abilitis . (abilities)
will admit, my not having any pilot to go
by. Which is in the hands of the Bearer
whom can inform you of all particulars
and if, Sir, you can be pleased to order it
so that the Bearer my son can get the out
lines of my farm I shall ever find myself
in duty bound to pray. And am, Sir your
obedient, Humble Servant
Formerly a seaman of His Majesty's ship
'Sirius,' Weney Creek, second Branch,
October the 16, 1825.
To Mr. Houxley (Oxley) Esq., Surveyor
General of New South Wales, Sydney.]

1 comment(s), latest 6 years, 12 months ago

Martha Needle 1863-1894

On the 13 June 2011, I stood outside the premises at 137 Bridge Road, Richmond in Melbourne. These premises once belonged to a saddler called Louis Juncken who lived with his brother Otto and just across the road at 124 is the building, where the Toole Brothers had their grocery store and where Martha bought her rat poison, namely "Rough On Rats".

Martha NEEDLE was beautiful, manipulative and ruthless. She poisoned her husband and her three little girls. She watched as they died excruciatingly painful deaths. When she couldn't get what she wanted using her good looks she turned to rat poison. Martha Needle was insane.
She was born Martha CHARLES on the 9 April 1863 on the Murray River near Morgan in South Australia, she was raised in a violent household, her father, a mystery, but registered as Joseph Henry Charles, had left the marital home sometime in 1861, May Charles, nee Newlands had been drawing rations for herself as a destitute and applied to the court for funds to bury year old baby Dina in 1862. The couple had parted at Julia Creek, near Anlaby. When there Mrs. Charles accused her husband of an attempt to poison her. She told him that she was ill, and that she suspected him, as she had discovered that some poison, which was kept in the place for destroying dogs, had been taken away. She states that he did not deny the charge, and remarked that as they were living so unhappily she could expect nothing else. The separation lasted about twelve months, when a reconciliation was effected and they lived together at Kapanda, but only for a few months, when they again parted, this time on account of the husband once more threatening his wife, who then went to Mr. Glen's North-west Bend Station, on the River Murray, where seven months after the second separation Martha (Mrs. Needle) was born. It is my view that when Joseph Henry Charles left this last time he also took with him his children, William b: 1854, Mary b: 1856, and Ellen b: 1859 as there is no mention of them being with mother, May at all.
About 1865 May Charles hooked up with soldier from the 40th, 2nd Somersetshire regiment of foot, Daniel Foran an Irishman from near Limerick, whom she later married on the 15th March 1870. Thus began a series of dreadful abuse for the young Martha Charles.
At the age of 12 she went into domestic service at Port Adelaide. She met and married Henry Needle 1857-1889, a carpenter, some years her senior at North Adelaide in 1882.
Three children were born of the marriage, Mabel 1882-1885, Elsey 1883-1890, and May 1886-1891, and the family moved to Melbourne.

During the first years in Melbourne living at Cubitt Street Richmond, Needle and his very attractive wife were apparently happy in each other's company, and their neighbours looked upon them as a comfortably situated and well-matched couple. When a year or two had passed, however, the relations were noticed to be less cordial. Mrs Needle went out more often unaccompanied by her husband than had formerly been her practice, and Needle became jealous and morose.

On the 28 February 1885 one of the children, Mabel, sickened and died. She was attended by a local doctor in his capacity as physician to one of the lodges of the Independent Order of Oddfellows, of which Needle was a member. About the time of the death of the child, Needle went to Sydney in search of employment, but he did not remain long away, and when he returned the relations of the husband and wife were, it is said, less happy than they had been before.

A few months later Henry Needle was seized with sickness, and he, too, was attended by the lodge doctor. His illness did not last long, but it was remarkable for a circumstance set down by the doctor to irritability and obstinacy on the part of the patient. He refused to take any nourishment handed to him by his wife. Anything she offered to him he would wave aside, or when pressed into anger would dash it over the floor or against the wall. The reason of this was not known. Some friends of Mrs. Needle, who helped her in the nursing, remarked it as peculiar, but the dying man gave no explanation, and it was believed to be due to his ill- temper and his irritable disposition. Its effect was certainly disastrous, for as he only took nourishment when asked to do so by strangers, he was not sufficiently fed, and he died ultimately, as the doctor's certificate set forth, of "subacute hepatitis, enteric fever, and exhaustion due to obstinacy in not taking nourishment. In plainer language, the patient died from inflammation of the liver and of the intestines, and from exhaustion due to lack of nourishment.

Upon Needle's death Mrs Needle obtained the services of The Trustees, Executors, and Agency Company to administer for her. A sum of ?60 odd was paid to her as her third share of the ?200 of the life policy, less expenses. The balance was invested by the company for the benefit of the two children then living.

On the 9th December, 1890, Elsie, one of the children, died. She was six years old, and she died after a three weeks' illness from "gangrenous stomatitis and exhaustion." Mr Hodgson attended her. After Elsie's death Mrs Needle received the child's share of the ?200?about ?60.

On the 27th August, 1891, the little girl May, aged 4 years and 11 months, died from "tubercular meningitis.''
In January, 1892, Mrs Needle became house keeper to the two Junckens, Otto and Louis, at Bridge road, Richmond, where Louis carried on the business of a saddler. The family came from Lyndoch, South Australia. In April of that year she became engaged to Otto, but Louis said he objected to his brother marrying any person who exhibited such frightful outbursts of temper as she displayed. The mother also objected by letter on the ground of Mrs Needle's weak health. Louis appears to have been first poisoned on August 18, 1893, and was ill for 10 or 13 days, but as he consented to the marriage, he was given another chance until April 1894, when the same symptoms of violent and unexplained vomiting came on. A relative came to attend him, and he speedily got better, until she left on May 10. The same night, about 7.30, Mrs Needle went to a shop and purchased a box of Rough on Rats. The following morning she prepared breakfast, and Louis was again seized with the same vomiting fits. He died on May 15, and Dr McColl stated in his certificate of death that it was due to exhaustion and inflammation of the stomach and membranes of the heart.

The next step was the arrival of Louis and Otto?s brother, Hermann Juncken and his mother from South Australia, and as the mother refused to agree to the marriage, and Hermann backed her up and said Mrs Needle and Otto had better part, the removal of Hermann became a part of the criminal's programme. Arsenic was again used. Strange to say not one of the medical men who attended the various victims of Martha Needle had suspected her of being a poisoner. Luckily Dr Boyd was sharper than the general run of his brethren, and the woman was caught by the police in the very act of offering a cup of tea containing 10 grains of arsenic to Hermann.

Later the bodies of Henry Needle, and the prisoner's two children were exhumed, and traces of poison were found in all except that of May, who had been too long dead to allow of analysis. Detectives WHITNEY and FRYER disinterred Louis JUNCKEN's body from the cemetery of Lyndoch in South Australia and 34 grains of arsenic were found.
As to her conduct since her condemnation to death at the end of 1894 a Melbourne newspaper of that time said:?"None of those who are thrown into contact with Martha Needle can fathom her character. The condemned woman's mask of impenetrable reserve has confessedly baffled the governor of the gaol. Dr Shields, the Government medical officer, and both her spiritual advisers (Mr H. F Scott, Church of England chaplain, and Mrs Hutchinson, of the Salvation Army). Even to these experienced eyes the extraordinary woman is as inscrutable as the Sphinx. No hope of a reprieve has been expressed by her at any time in fact she has firmly stated that she prefers death. This sentiment does not appear to be, as is so often observed in prisoners similarly situated, the outcome of religious conviction. Mrs Needle has not manifested any of the fervency which distinguished Mrs Knorr and the young man Knox, who were recently hanged in the Melbourne Gaol. She is, notwithstanding, taking some interest in matters spiritual, as is evidenced by her choice of a Bible, a prayer book, and hymn book for regular reading.

Her only reference to the crimes for which she has been condemned is the oft-repeated and unfaltering statement that she is entirely innocent, and she expresses the conviction that she will go to heaven."

Martha Needle after a four day trial before Mr. Justice HODGES at the Melbourne Criminal Court was pronounced GUILTY.
She was hanged on Monday the 22 October 1894 at Old Melbourne Gaol.

Oddly enough Martha spent most of the insurance money on an elaborate grave for her family, which she visited almost every day.

Otto JUNCKEN stuck by Martha throughout saying," She didn't know what she was doing".

In her Will, made five days before the date of death and was witnessed by the sub-matron of the gaol and a law clerk. After the customary introduction the testatrix says, " I give, devise and bequeath all my real and personal property to Otto Juncken, of Bridge Road, Richmond, for his own absolute use. I appoint the said Otto Juncken sole executor of this my will." The only property left by the deceased is an amount of ?25 payable under a policy of insurance on the life of the deceased by Citizens' Life Assurance Co.
Below is the letter written by Martha to Otto penned a few hours before her execution, which he received the next day.

Melbourne Gaol, Monday, 4 o'clock.
"My Darling? As you wished me to write I will do so, but truly I do not know what to say to you on this my last morning on earth. In a few hours I shall be free from all sorrow, but you, dear Otto, must live on for as time. It may be a very long time or it may not, but whichever way God wishes it will be. But, never mind try to bear up under the very sad blow. Rest assured we shall meet again where there is no parting. Your good father, also poor Louis and my dear little ones will welcome you. You know, dear, Elsie and May loved you on earth they will do so in heaven. Think how they will all welcome you to our happy home on high. I must ask you not to think unkindly of me for saying what I did last night to Mr Scott. I think it right that you should know what that man did say about you but I want you to thoroughly understand that I did not believe that you ever did say so to him, and I told him so. You must not think what he said upset me, for it did not, only it annoyed me to think that such a man would tell an untruth. True, he may think he was doing right we must hope he did think so. Now you will want to know what sort of a night I have had ? fairly good. You and all dear ones have been in my thoughts and prayers, dear Otto. Please read the 139th Psalm from the 7th to the 13th verse, as I have asked God to forgive me anything that I have done to displease Him, and trust to His forgiveness, so do I forgive all that have ever done me any sort of unkindness, for I know that they are very sorry now for me, be the wrong little or big. Give my everlasting love to all enquiring friends. I must now say good-by to you for a time. When you receive this you can think of me as being in a happy home with my loved ones waiting and watching for you. I know, dear Otto that you will get ready for that happy meeting with us all. With love and sympathy from your loving

In June 1894 Martha's mother Mrs FORAN formerly CHARLES who had re married David FORAN in Port Lincoln in South Australia, in 1870 told a reporter at the Melbourne Argus.
"Of the first marriage six children were born?four girls and two boys. Only three of the girls are living?namely, in order of age Mary, wife of James Hall, who resided at or near Hoyleton, Ellen, wife of Joseph Lee, who resides at Marrabel, and Martha (Mrs Needle). The boys died young. The father is said to have frequently told his wife that he was heir to some property in Chancery, and he promised to take her to his friends in England. The couple parted at Julia Creek, near Anlaby/Kapunda.
Whilst there, Mrs Charles accused her husband, Joseph of an attempt to poison her. She told him that she was ill, and that she suspected him, as she had discovered that some poison which was kept in the place for destroying dogs, had been taken away. She states that he did not deny the charge, and remarked that as they were living so unhappily she could expect nothing else. The separation lasted about 12 months, when a reconciliation was effected and they lived together at Kapunda, but only for a few months, when they again parted, this time on account of the husband once more threatening his wife, who then went to Mr Glen's North-west Bend Station, on the River Murray where seven months after the second separation Martha was born. About four months after the birth of this daughter Mrs Charles removed to Port Lincoln, and had her daughter living with her until, when about 12 years of age, she went into the service of Mrs Drew at Port Adelaide.
Mrs FORAN complains bitterly of Martha's treatment of her, and says that she was cruel and headstrong, with an ungovernable temper. She accuses her also of threatening her life, and inciting her half-brother to join her in most cruel acts towards her mother.

Otto Johann Wilhelm YUNCKEN 1865-1945 was the son of Danish born Otto YUNCKEN 1826-1890 and Irish born Margaret Mary FITZGERALD 1835-1913. He had 5 brothers Herman, Louis, Charles, Franz Thomas and Albert. and three sisters, Augusta Amalia, Emma Louisa and Anna Ellen. Their father emigrated from Schleswig in 1855, then a duchy of Denmark though predominantly German-speaking. Their mother emigrated from Mitchelstown, County Cork, in Ireland at about the same time.

Otto married Bertha ABRECHT 1880-1949 on the 31 July 1901 in Melbourne.
The name YUNCKEN was always reported as JUNCKEN but it seems the family spell it with a 'Y'
"Otto Johann Wilhelm Juncken changed the spelling of his name to "Yuncken" about the time of the First World War but the South Australian Junckens generally still retain the original spelling."
Source: grandson, Andy Yuncken

Henry NEEDLE born in 1860 at Weedon, Northamptonshire, the son of Thomas Wilson NEEDLE b:1823 and Hannah Margaret BRAIN 1822-1908. They arrived on Ship "Forfarshire" with 5 children, Fanny, Martha, Caroline, Thomas and Henry.

Martha's mother was born Mary/May NEWLAND/NEWLANDS daughter of Duncan NEWLAND married her first husband Joseph Henry CHARLES on the 5 December 1853 at Inverbrackie, South Australia.
I believe Joseph Henry CHARLES died about 1865.

May Foran with her husband Daniel were well known to the police. Both spent time locked up for drunkeness and the children put into care.
From the SA Register 13 July 1876: Mary Foran, married, woman, was charged with leaving her son Daniel, aged 10, without means of support. Mrs Foran was ordered to be imprisoned for one calendar month with hard labour, and her two children (the other a boy of five years) are to be sent to the Industrial School till they are 12 yoars of age.
From the SA Register 3 April 1875: Mary Foran, married woman, was similarly punished for a like offence and mulcted in 20s. for uttering foul words, on March 31, in Sussex-street.
From the SA Register 15 March 1877: Mary Foran, an old offender, for a similar offence was fined 10s. and was sent to prison and kept at hard labor for two calendar months for being an habitual drunkard.

The second husband Daniel FORAN was born Caherconlish, Limerick, Ireland we have to go by military records in 1826 and arrived in Australia with the 2nd Somersetshire Regiment of Foot. He deserted 3 times and each time had a 'D' tatooed under his arm FORAN had two 'D' tatoos. He lived with May Charles till he married her in Port LIncoln on the 15 March 1870. He died on the 9 January 1927 telling people he was over 100 years old. He was charged and went to gaol for two years for indecently assaulting Martha when she was 13.
British Army Soldiers guilty of desertion were branded with the letter "D" (until 1871). Originally the branding was done by the drum major using needles and gun powder. In 1840 marking instruments were used and it became more like a tattoo. Daniel Foran had at least 2 such marks.

Here is a bit more info regarding Daniel Foran's assault of Martha Needle. From: the South Australian Advertiser Tues 4 April 1876 Daniel Foran, who was charged with indecently assaulting his stepdaughter, Martha Charles, aged 13 years, at Adelaide, in December, 1875, and found guilty, was next brought up for sentence. His Honor alluded to the enormity of the crime of which prisoner had been found guilty, and sentenced him to the full term allowed by the Act, viz., two years with hard labor. two years? she should have given him a dose of Rough on Rats.

According to police reports, Mrs Foran was "addicted to drink and has many convictions for drunkenness, indecent language and wilful damage recorded against her" From the SA Register 13 July 1876: Mary Foran, married, woman, was charged with leaving her son Daniel, aged 10, without means of support. Mrs Foran was ordered to be imprisoned for one calendar month with hard labour, and her two children (the other a boy of five years) are to be sent to the Industrial School till they are 12 yoars of age. From the SA Register 3 April 1875: Mary Foran, married woman, was similarly punished for a like offence and mulcted in 20s. for uttering foul words, on March 31, in Sussex-street. From the SA Register 15 March 1877: Mary Foran, an old offender, for a similar offence was fined 10s. and was sent to prison and kept at hard labor for two calendar months for being an habitual drunkard.

PUBLISHED IN The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA) Thursday 22 March 1900

Mary Foran, aged 63. who said she was a Highland Lady, was charged by M.C. Wells with being idle and disorderly. The evidence showed she was frequently drunk, and earned a small living by knitting and telling fortunes. She was sent to gaol for two months. Daniel Foran, aged 31, was charged with a similar offence, and was sent to gaol for one month.

Martha's half brother also named Daniel Foran a chronic alcoholic died in a cell at Wallaroo, South Australia on the 29 March 1902.


Wallaroo, March 29.

Daniel Foran was brought into Wallaroo yesterday from Alford, and handed over to the police. He was acting strangely, and ' Dr. Fulton attended him in the police cell this morning, in the presence of the police and Mr. James Malcolm, who came to hold an enquiry.

Some time afterwards Foran died, and an inquest will be held tomorrow. Dr. Fulton at the request, of Mr. Malcolm will conduct a post-mortem examination this afternoon.

Deceased was at times a heavy drinker. He called at Mr. Mudge's Farm, Tickera, and told them he wanted to give himself up to the police. The last words he mentioned this morning were, "I did not do it."


Wallaroo, March 30.

On Sunday morning Mr. James Malcolm held an inquest at Wallaroo on the body of Daniel Foran. John St. Jagor Mudge, of Wiltunga, said he recognised the body as that of a man he handed over to Mr. McKee. He came to his farmhouse about 2 a.m. on Friday last. Witness said the man was a lunatic, and took care of him.'

When daylight came he started with him to Wallaroo, and meeting Mr. Wm. McKee, handed him over to him. He did not notice any sign that deceased had been drinking. William McKee deposed to taking charge of the deceased and handing him to the police at Wallaroo. He saw at once that the man was a lunatic.

Thomas Kensington Fulton, M.D., said he visited deceased on Friday and Saturday last. He made no complaint, but witness saw he was insane. He had in the cell all that he required. He was a complete wreck. Some of the wounds were on his body on Friday, and were nearly healed.

He made a post mortem examination, and found that the body was very filthy and emaciated. There were evidences of failure of the heart's action, also of alcoholism, self-abuse, and reckless living. Mounted Constable Joseph Richard Jemison said Mr. McKee had taken the deceased to the station on Friday morning. The man appeared to be insane. He locked him up on a charge of lunacy, and gave him his dinner about 1 p.m. Dr. Fulton examined him for lunacy, and witness saw him at intervals, and attended to him, giving him meals. On Saturday morning he went into the cell with some gentlemen, and found deceased in a sitting position. He was either fainting or dying. He gave him some water and brandy, but the man expired before the doctor arrived. He had every care and attention.

The jury returned the following verdict:-"The said Daniel Foran came to his death by failure of the heart's action, accelerated by self abuse and reckless living." The coroner commended the police for their great kindness to deceased while in the cell.

Below is a photograph of Martha NEEDLE nee CHARLES 1864-1894

16 comment(s), latest 3 years, 5 months ago

Joseph Andrew GRANTER 1875-1948

Joseph Andrew GRANTER was born on the 16 January 1875 at Warnambool the eigth child and youngest son of twelve children born to Joseph GRANTER 1832-1879 and Ann HOLLY 1844-1916.

When Joseph joind the Australian Imperial Forces on the 12 May 1915 he was forty years and four months of age an Importer by profession and had attended the Melbourne University.

Joseph had married Edith Macrae in 1899 and had three sons
Eric Macrae 1900-1965 Joseph Kenneth 1902-1971 and Alan David 1904.
and whilst Joseph was fighting for his country Edith and the boys were living in East Malvern a suburb of Melbourne.

Joseph embarked as a private with the 24 Infantry Battalion - 13 to 18 Reinforcements on the 1 August 1916 on the vessel HMAT Miltiades. On 26 June 1917 he was seconded for duty with the 1st Anzac Corps School and on 17 July 1917 he rejoined the 24th Battalion and was promoted to a lieutenant on 5 September 1917.Joseph came through the war unscathed apart from a severe bout of tonsilitis in February 1918. He returned to Australia on 23 September 1919.

Joseph's son Eric Macrae GRANTER also joined the AIF on the 14 June 1918.

Joseph Andrew GRANTER died at Randwick, New South Wales in 1948.

2 comment(s), latest 7 years ago

Martin KINSELA 1793 - 1860 Wexford to Windsor

Martin KINSELA was born in Wexford, Ireland in 1793 and that's about all I know about his beginnings.
Martin died on the 13 October 1860 at Windsor, New South Wales

In 1819 in Dublin, Ireland Martin married Ellen HENDLING born in 1794 in Wicklow, Ireland.
The couple had two children;
1.Catherine 1820-1896 and
2.Thomas born in 1822, both in Wicklow. Unfortunately I have not as yet been able to trace Thomas.

7th February 1824 Martin KINSELA, ploughman, was tried and convicted in Dublin, Ireland and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Description: Origin: Wexford, Ireland. Height 5'6", complexion fresh and freckled, brown hair and dark grey eyes.
In 1819 in Dublin, Ireland Martin married Ellen HENDLING born in 1794 in Wicklow, Ireland.

Martin, aged 32 sailed from the Cove of Cork on the "Ann and Amelia" under the command of William Ascough on the 8th September 1824.

On Muster held on 3rd January 1825 in Sydney Cove the prisoners declared that they had been well treated. The Muster records 197 men + 3 men in hospital; the arrival of the full complement of 200 convicts on embarkation in Ireland.

Martin was assigned to Lane (Windsor) as a labourer.
His Ticket of Leave was recorded on the Microfilm No. 914/5/6 Ticket of Leave Butts 1827-75.

Martin petitioned the Governor to allow his family to come to New South Wales and on the 6 August 1833 Ellen and her daughter Catherine arrived in Port Jackson from Cove of Cork on board the vessel 'Caroline' which was carrying 120 female convicts and 13 of their children. In addition, there were 14 wives and their children sailing 'free' to join their convict husbands in the colony.

By this time Martin has settled at the small village of Agnes Banks which runs alongside the Nepean River between Richmond and Penrith.
Martin and Ellen Had four more children;
3.Mary Agnes Kinsela 1834 – 1888
4.John Martin Kinsela 1835 – 1917
5.Ann Amelia Kinsela 1838 – 1917
6.Dorothy Kinsela 1839 – 1915

Martin's wife Ellen died on the 17 November 1862 at Windsor, New South Wales

1. Catherine KINSELA on the 11 October 1838 at Windsor, NSW married Samuel DEAN, born in 1811 at Whitechapel, London the eldest of seven children born to Samuel DEAN 1785 a butcher and his wife Susannah DUCK 1787 living in St.Osyth, Essex.

Samuel as a 15 year old errand boy was transported for breaking and entering. He arrived in the Colony on the 19th April 1833 on the 6th voyage of the ship "Mangles" leaving London on 14th December 1832. The ship's Master was William Carr. When Samuel DEAN was tried he was described as 4'11" and when he gained his Ticket of Leave on the 13 January 1840, he was 5'6".

Samuel And Elizabeth were farmers at Kurrajong and together had twelve children:-
George Dean 1839–1883
Susanna Dean 1841–1884
Ellen Catherine Dean 1842–1923
Thomas Dean 1844–1931
Samuel Dean 1846–1918
John Dean 1848–1910
William Dean 1851–1925
Mary Ann Dean 1853–1931
Martin Dean 1856–1946
Emma Dean 1858 – 1935
Elizabeth Dean 1860–1931
James Dean 1862–1934

Samuel and Catherine left Kurrajong about 1863 and went over the Blue Mountains by bullock dray and settled Greghamstown near Blayney with some of their children.
Catherine DEAN nee KINSELA died at Greghamstown on the 11 July 1896.
Her Husband Samuel died on the 4 November 1899.

2. Thomas KINSELA b:1822-UNKNOWN

3.Mary Agnes KINSELA married John MADDEN in Penrith in 1850. John was born in Parramatta, New South Wales in 1828, the son of Dublin born convict John MADDEN 1778-1852 and Elizabeth BIDWELL EVANS 1798-1856.
The children of Mary Agnes and John MADDEN were:-

Elizabeth Madden 1850 –
Mary A Madden 1852 –
John Malcolm Madden 1857–1931 m Charlotte KIRK
Alfred E Madden 1859-1922
Linder Agnes Madden 1866–
Frederick Martin Madden 1869–1941 m. Catherine BRADY
Mary Agnes MADDEN, nee KINSELA died at her home in Hancock Street, Balmain, Sydney on the 22 May 1888. She was buried on the 24th at Rookwood.
John MADDEN died on the 29 January 1901 and is buried with Mary Agnes at Rookwood.

4. John Martin KINSELA was born at Agnes Banks on the 25th August 1835.
John Martin married Martha BURRELL in Sydney in 1857. Martha was born on the 17 February 1838 at Castlereagh, NSW, the daughter of John BURRELL 1798-1884 and Mary HORTON 1806-1876.
Children of John Martin KINSELA and Martha BURRELL were:-
Martha Kinsela 1859 – 1900
Mary Ann Kinsela 1859 – 1940
Ellen M Kinsela 1862 –
John Martin Kinsela 1864 – 1937
George Henry Kinsela 1866 – 1941
James Reuben Kinsela 1869 – 1955
Bernard Mark Kinsela 1872 – 1940
Dora Kinsela 1875 – 1952
William Joseph Kinsela 1877 –

Martha KINSELA, nee BURRELL died on the 10 October 1894 at Manildra, NSW and John Martin Kinsela died on the 12 November 1917 at Manildra. Both are buried at Molong General Cemetery, Cemetery Rd, Molong, New South Wales, Australia

5.Ann Amelia KINSELA was born 0n the 19 April 1838. Ann Amelia married Alfred SMITH on the 11 October 1854 at St.Matthews Catholic Church, Windsor. Alfred was born on the 13 July 1831 at Hobartville, the illegitimate son of Adelaide Eliza de la Thoreza who was born in Madrid, Spain in 1808 she married John MASTERS 1811-1869 in Richmond in 1836.
The children of Ann Amelia KINSELA and Alfred SMITH were:-

Dora Smith
Eleanor Theresa Smith 1855 – 1920
Mary Elizabeth Smith 1861 – 1945
Alfred Adolphus Smith 1864 – 1942
George M Smith 1868 –
Clarence John Smith 1871 –
Frederick Thomas Smith 1874 –
Francis Joseph Smith 1878 –
Eugenie Agnes Smith 1881 –

Ann Amelia Smith nee KINSELA died on the 6 October 1917 at North Sydney Alfred followed on the 24 December 1917
6.Dorothy KINSELA always called Dora was born in Windsor, NSW in 1839. Dora married George EATHER on the 17 April 1860 at St. Matthews Catholic Church, Windsor. George was born in Richmond in 1834 the son of Charles EATHER 1800-1891 and Ann GOUGH nee CAIN 1797-1871.

The children of George EATHER and Dora were:-

Louisa Eather 1861 – 1950 m. Arthur Frederick Carr
Arthur G Eather 1862 – 1901 m Florence Hunt
Ellen Theresa Eather (registered as Helen)1864 – 1936 m. 1. Edward Leopold Perry. (divorced) 2. Charles Baldwin
Walter Leslie Eather 1865 – 1940
James William Eather 1867 – 1949 m. Sarah Wright (divorced).
Ambrose M Eather 1869 – 1941
Emma M Eather 1872 – 1961 m. Allan McNiven
Florence Ann (Pop) Eather 1873 – 1901
George Raphael Eather 1875 – 1877
Henry V Eather 1877 – 1878
Dorothy May Eather 1879 – 1924 m. Richard Fahy
Charles George Eather 1881 – 1881
Margaret Veronica Eather 1883 - 1927 m. Simmons

George EATHER died on the 17 May 1912 at Richmond NSW and
Dorothy EATHER nee KINSELA died on the 23 August 1915 at her daughter's home 44 Despointes St, Marrickville.

William Glas MCALPIN 1810-1902

William Glas McALPIN, the son of Peter MCALPIN 1768-1850 and Elizabeth, nee ELTON 1778-1817 was born on 6 October 1810 in Stirling, Perthshire, Scotland, died on 2 Feb 1902 in Bulga, NSW, Australia. He died on the 2 February 1902 at the age of 91. He was buried on 5 February 1902 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW, Australia.

William Glas McALPIN arrived age 18 months with his parents and 2 siblings, Peter and Sarah, arrived from London as free settlers on the ship "General Graham" 29 January 1812.

William was known generally in life as 'Billy Mack' and When Archibald BELL and his party discovered the alternate route over the Blue Mountains (Bells Line of Road) William Glas McALPIN was a member of his party.

William married Susannah ONUS, daughter of Joseph ONUS 1781-1835 and Ann EATHER 1793-1865, on 1 February 1833 in Christ Church, Church of England, Castlereagh, New South Wales.

Susannah was born on 28 October 1815 in Cornwallis, NSW. died on 10 August 1882 in Bulga, NSW. at age 66, and was buried on 12 August 1882 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
William McALPIN built a brick home in 1834 in the main street of Richmond, NSW with financial help from Joseph ONUS (the father of his wife) and set up a blacksmiths shop at the rear.

Their first 3 children all died within 3 years

The children of William Glas MCALPIN and Susannah, nee ONUS were:-

1.Elizabeth McALPIN was born on 25 October 1833 in Richmond, NSW. died on 11 March 1835 in Richmond, NSW, at age 1, and was buried on 1 April 1835 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.

2.Ann McALPIN was born on 21 January 1836 in Richmond, NSW, and died on 6 February 1838 in Richmond, NSW, at age 2, and was buried on 8 February 1838 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.

3.Peter McALPIN was born on 16 November 1838 in Richmond, NSW, died on 25 November 1838 in Richmond, NSW and was buried on 26 November 1838 in St Peter's, Church of England cemetery, Richmond, NSW.

4.William McALPIN was born on 19 February 1840 in Richmond, NSW. died on 12 August 1923 in Bulga, NSW, at age 83, and was buried in 1923 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.

William married (1)Eva Mary PEBERDY born 1846, at Halls Creek.
on 10 September 1867 in St Matthew's Church, Mount Dangar, NSW. Eva died the following year at Bulga on the 15 October 1868.
William next married (2)Eliza CHAPMAN on 29 April 1874 in Burrowell, Howes Valley, NSW. Eliza was the daughter of Robert Chapman 1816-1888 and Mary, nee Kelk 1816-1906;
born 4 December 1850 at Penrith, died 29 July 1933 at the Dangar Cottage Hospital, Singleton. Buried at St.Mark's Bulga.
Their children were: -
Eva Mary McALPIN 1875-1878
Alpin Glas McALPIN 1877-1947 (Inspector of Police Newcastle)
William Leo McALPIN 1879-1968 ( Police Constable, Hamilton)
Hope Chapman McALPIN 1881-1947
Kenneth Omar McALPIN 1883-1886
Hilton May McALPIN 1886-1962
Essie Mahala McALPIN 1889-1891
Nellie Pearl McAlpin 1891-1971
Hilda Aileen McALPIN 1894-1950

5.Susannah McALPIN was born on 13 May 1842 in Richmond, NSW, Australia, died on 18 January 1882 in "Oreel" Station, Narrabri, NSW, at age 39, and was buried on 19 January 1882 in "Oreel" Station, Narrabri, NSW.
Susannah married MacDonald CLARK b: 20 September 1836, d: 10 February 1918. on 2 Apr 1863 in St Mark's, Church of England, Bulga, NSW.
These are their children:-
Amy Hilton Clark 1864-1935
Mary May CLARK 1865-1951
James McAlpin Clark 1866-1925
William Edward Clark 1868-1941
Susannah Eliza Clark 1869-1956
Harriet Swales Clark 1872-1948
Georgina Flora Clark 1874-1875
MacDonald Clark 1877

6.Sarah McALPIN was born on 28 July 1845 in Richmond, NSW. and died on 3 July 1922 in Singleton, NSW. at age 76.
Sarah married William WOODS b: 4 March 1844, d: 7 May 1933.
on 16 Sep 1868 in St Mark's, Church of England, Bulga, NSW, Australia.
These are their children:-
Miriam Julia Susannah Onus Woods 1869-1947
Eva Mary McAlpin Woods 1871-1962
Elsie Maud Woods 1872-1945
Ethel Sarah Woods 1874-1969
Joseph David McAlpin Woods 1876-1948
Elizabeth Ann Woods 1878-1964
Peter Woods 1880-1951
Linda Hope Woods 1882-1889
William Woods 1885-1948

7.Joseph McALPIN was born on 31 January 1849 in Bulga, NSW, Australia, died on 12 February 1913 in Bulga, NSW, Australia at age 64, and was buried in 1913 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
Joseph married (1)Elizabeth Jane DAWES b: 1849, d: 19 April 1884.
Their children were:-
Xenodochy McAlpin 1882-1942
Joseph Eclipse McAlpin 1884-1970
On 25 June 1873 in All Saint's, Church of England, Patricks Plains, NSW. Joseph next married (2)Amelia Therese ROGERS b:20 September 1861, d:8 September 1945.
on 15 July 1886 in Roman Catholic Church, Patricks Plains, NSW.
Their children were:-
Leslie Hastings McAlpin 1886-1968
Cecil Charles McAlpin 1889-1974
William Glass McAlpin 1891-1966

8. Mary McALPIN was born on 12 January 1852 in Bulga, NSW. died on 3 January 1915 in Bulga, NSW at age 62, and was buried in 1915 in St Mark's, Church of England cemetery, Bulga, NSW.
Mary married Edward ROSER b: 13 March 1848, d: 9 November 1930 on 14 December 1870 in All Saint's, Church of England, Singleton, NSW.
Their children were:-
Edward McAlpin ROSER 1872-1944
Myra Mildred ROSER 1873-1939
Una Mary Roser 1876-1950
Roy Roser 1879-1967
Malcolm McAlpin Roser 1882-1959
Frank McAlpin Roser 1884-1967

At the end of 1841 the family moved to Bulga - they settled close to their relatives on Wollombi Brook.
William's life long hobby and interest was the breeding and showing of Clydesdale horses - showing horses at many shows including Maitland, Mudgee and Sydney - and acting as a judge at many country shows.

In 1871 William Glas McALPIN, purchased 465 acres of land at Bulga. It was land that had been Thomas TAILBY's and George EATON's grants, along with land that Joseph ONUS had owned and willed to his sons. William had purchased the land from Thomas Alexander ONUS 1849-1934, the son of his sister Elizabeth 1825-1884., which had been left to him by his father.

From then on William and his family resided on this land, which he named "Glen Alpin", and were next-door neighbours to Thomas Eather 1824-1909 and his wife Eliza, nee CROWLEY at 'Meerea'

William Glas McALPIN and His wife Susannah are both buried in the Anglican Cemetery at Bulga their epitaph reads;

"Kind Hearts are More than Coronets".
On Wednesday last after the proceedings in connection with the laying of the foundation stone of the Bulga Public School, had been successfully completed, the whole assembled company proceeded to the new bridge, situated a few hun dred yards from the site whereon ;the picnic had been held, Mr. Stavely, the contractor, having invited Mrs. M'Alpin to perform the pleasent task of naming it. The following particulars, respecting the new structure which will, be a valuable acquisition to all travellers through Bulga towards Sydney, may be given here. The total length of the bridge without approaches is' 264 feet, and the total length of approaches is 280 feet including a small bridge of 64 feet over a blind channel. The material used is hardwood timber, the roadway being, supported on six piers, each, excepting the abutment piers which contain five, consisting of six piles driven down to the rock. There are five spans, three of 70 feet each, and two of 25 feet each, and the height of the deck from the summer level of the water is 31 feet. The width of the deck between the trusses is 16 feet, and 18 feet outside measure ment. The piles are about 45 feet long, and the banks into which they are driven consist of a sandy loam. The deck is two or three feet above the level of the highest known flood. The work has been a long time in hand, about twelve months we believe, owing to unexpected difficulties in the supply of timber, and other unforseen delays. The bridge had been handed over to, and passed, by Mr. Whiteside on the previous Saturday. It is declared to be soundly, well and faithfully built; and it is expected will stand as long as the timber lasts, there being little likelihood of its being washed away. The total cost was about £1900; and the contractor was Mr. F. Staveley, of Mount Victoria.
The name of the bridge having been completed by Mrs. M'Alpin, who gave it the above title, rounds of cheers were given for the Queen, for Mr. Staveley, for Mr. W.C. Browne, M.L.A., for the Ladies, for Mr. M'Alpin, and for the Press. Wines and spirits flowed freely at Mr. Staveley's expense, and most of the cheers were accompanied with toast drinking by those on the bridge. Mr. W. M'Alpin, son's health was proposed by Mr. Joseph Clarke, who spoke in high terms of praise of the straight forward, upright and honorable career of his old friend. Mr. M'Alpin, in replying, said he had seen a great many changes in Bulga. He had arrived there in 1826, when there was nothing , but bush where they now saw open grass land, at that time the haunt of numerous kangaroos. He then speculated upon the greater changes that the young people present might see, and alluded to the chances of their being fortunate enough to have the railway to Sydney pass that way. Acknowledging the compliment paid him by Mr. Clark, he addressed some words of good advice to the young men present, and strongly advised. them never to break their word. Let them always endeavour as far as they could to keep their promises, and never deceive any man. Then men would always have faith in them. He hoped they would try and steer as straight a course as old Mac had done, and then, they would do no harm. (Cheers.) The toasting and cheering being over, Mr. Dawes produced his violin, and, for an hour and more after, the dancing of quadrilles, Scotch reels, etc, gave a lively and novel finish to a very enjoy able day, the Bulga people, (we had almost written Bulgarians,) being models of neighbourly kindness and amity.
Source: The Singleton Argus and Upper Hunter General Advocate
Saturday 19 April 1879

*Extracts from "Among the Pastoralists and Producers," an account from the roving reporter, Harold M MacKENZIE.

"On leaving Mr THORLEY's property intending to shape a course for Warkworth, I was persuaded to alter it, upon learning from that gentleman that one of the oldest and best men for recounting events of the past lived at Bulga, in the person of Mr. William Glass [sic] McALPIN, so hither I hied myself without delay".

At the time, 1895/1896, the road between Singleton and Bulga was in good condition and the weather was hot. Bulga, an Aboriginal name for "Mountain," had a Public School, Church of England, a Wesleyan Chapel and a School of Arts. The "Band of Hope" numbered from 300 to 400 people, with William Glas McALPIN taking a leading role. Bulga was a sober place and publicans and sly groggers got short shift: "Young man, we wouldn't have 'em near us" said William Glas, who MacKENZIE found enjoyed fishing and was a fit 85-year-old. Getting produce to market was a problem and William sent his wheat to Maitland over a bad road. However cattle were no problem -they were driven over the Putty to the Hawkesbury, thence to the stock markets at Homebush.

William Glas McALPIN related that he arrived in Sydney on the ship "General Graham" in January 1812, which carried stores for the colony and a small number of passengers, who were all free settlers with a trade. His father he said was a blacksmith and he had been a smithy at Windsor. William Glas learnt the trade there. He bought a piece of land from George BOWMAN and moved to Richmond where he lived to 1841. He made his first droving trip to Bulga on Mr ONUS's account, the first in 1826 and he finally settled there in 1841. He said droving wasn't a bad life, people were very honest and he never had any problem getting paid.

William related that his sister, Sarah McALPIN, was the first white woman at Bulga and that he and his brother-in-law Mr ONUS had 1,200 acres between them at Bulga.

Between Bulga and Warkworth.
The first week of January 1896.
"The first week in January will be remembered as one of the hottest, if not the hottest, I have ever experienced." After leaving John HAYES' "Rock View," MacKENZIE journeyed to fellow orchardist George PARTRIDGE. George's 80-acre property was considered to be better than HAYES for it had two good creeks on both sides. While at PARTRIDGE's place MacKENZIE was shown a huge apricot tree which bore 1,700 dozen apricots in 1895 - plus many that fell to the ground in wind storms. He had very little problem with disease and pests but the 12 acres planted with oranges of Mr ETHER [sic] who lived thereabout was almost entirely destroyed by caterpillars. His pumpkin crop went the same way "even though a very determined Mr EATHER re-planted the crop three times, the thirty acres were ravaged on each occasion."

In The Bulga District. Among the Pastoralists and Producers.
By Harold M MacKENZIE.
15th February 1896
"In {one of my past articles} it will be remembered, I dealt chiefly with reminiscences of Bulga when Mr William McALPIN came to the place as far back as 1826 - a man of whom it may be said landed with the proverbial half-crown in his pocket, apprenticed himself to a trade, bought land, and so with thrift and perseverance gradually worked himself to the front-and stayed there. Now, in his declining years, he has the pleasure of seeing his grandchildren around him with peace and comfort reigning in the household. Can a man be expected to do more in a general way?
Amongst the various stock which this old gentleman has concerned himself through life his "hobby" seems to have been breeding draughts. Without any undue flattery, it may be stated that Mr McALPIN has taken more prizes at populous centres, such as Mudgee, Maitland, Sydney etc, than any one else in the same line. Conversing in reference to the different breeds, Mr McALPIN's experience has been solely with the Clydesdale, and as compared with the Suffolk Punch, from what he has seen, he would not be inclined to make a change. To give one instance of his success as a prize taker, it may be stated that a Clydesdale filly, now a two year old, obtained when a yearling no less than three prizes in succession. Talking of horses, concerning which the old gentleman made more pertinent remarks, he said nothing more to the point than when he exclaimed, "I don't believe in breeding mules, my friend." Latterly, of course, Mr McALPIN has not concerned himself much with horse breeding, being content to take a rod and wander forth to enjoy the pursuit that old Isaak (sic) loved.

[Research Notes: The Discovery of (St) Patrick's Plains.
John HOWE, with his party, discovered a route from Windsor to the Hunter River in March 1820 which varies little to the present day Putty Road. During 1887 several letters were published in the Maitland Mercury pertaining to the discovery.

The correspondents were "Jus Sanguinis" (anonymous) William Glas McALPIN, George Thomas LODER, Elizabeth YEOMANS (Mrs.) and William COLLINS. William Glas McALPIN's first letter of July 5, 1887, "trusting that "Jus Sanguinis" would not feel aggrieved at {his} correction "brought forth a response on July 16, to both prior letters from George Thomas LODER. Four days later, July 20, Benjamin SINGLETON's daughter, Elizabeth YEOMANS entered the dispute then she was followed by William COLLINS. The following letter, written by William G McALPIN, was his reply to two articles published in the Maitland Mercury that originated from George T LODER and Elizabeth YEOMANS.

July 26, 1887.
To the Editor of the Maitland Mercury.
"Sir - I observe that my letter to you on the subject of the discovery of Patrick's Plains has called forth, - first, a reply from Mr G T LODER, and secondly, from Mrs E YEOMANS. Both of whom seem to think I have been misinformed on the subject, and as I have good reason to believe that the information which I conveyed was perfectly correct, I beg that you will again allow me space in your valuable columns to make reply. Now, as Mr LODER was the first to take exception to what I had written, I purpose to deal with him first. In confirmation of his information he has sent you various extracts on the subject from the journal of the late Mr John HOWE, but strange to say, he has not given one date; and not a word is said about the journey from the point at which the party crossed the branch at TURNBULL's farm, till they reached a point some forty miles further on, namely, "Puttee". The extract then states that they were unable to proceed further, on account of the numerous lagoons and creeks in the way. Now although I have travelled the road many times, (and my first trip dates back as far as 1826), I have never seen anything in the shape of creeks or lagoons to impede my progress. I have travelled the road in company with two of the party who first found it, namely, the late Messrs G LODER and T DARGAN (sic), and although we often conversed on the subject, I have never heard of either of them state that they met with any such difficulties, or that they went by any other but that known as the Bulga. I am not therefore much inclined to place much confidence in what is supposed to be Mr HOWE's journal. The information I afforded you in my last was collected from the late Mr Phillip THORLEY just about a year before his decease, and as that gentleman was noted for his sterling truth and integrity, I do not see why I should doubt that which he told me with his own lips. So much for Mr LODER: now for Mrs YEOMANS".
"The lady states that her father was the first white man who ever set foot upon Patrick Plains, and discovered the grand country that it comprises, but I can tell Mrs YEOMANS that the Government were well aware already of the fertility of the Hunter River valley, and were only endeavouring to find an overland route to it. Regarding any desire on my part to cast a slur upon the memory of the late Mr B SINGLETON on account of his determination to return when his blackfellow told him how close he was to the river, I must state that far from any such thought entering my head, I rather, on the other hand, commend him for his common sense. For undoubtedly, had he gone on with PARR he would never have received any compensation for his discovery (having no appointment in the expedition) and that the honour of the discovery should have been his, had he gone on, has been proved by the fact that PARR failed in finding a road. As to Mrs YEOMANS ignorance of PARR, I must inform her that she has not studied Australian history very closely, or she would know that PARR was a mineralogist in the service of the Government, and that previous to the expedition which I mentioned in my last (of which he was the head), he had been with OXLEY in his exploring excursions in the east. With reference to the Randel PARR of whom Mrs YEOMANS speaks, I may say that I probably knew him as well, if not better than she did. This lady also says that her mother, the wife of the late Mr B SINGLETON, and Mrs Phillip THORLEY were the first white women who set foot on Patrick's Plains. But though her memory is so green, I must yet refresh it by asking her if another white woman by the name of * HOYLE did not accompany them? Mrs YEOMANS also states that her father was the leader of the expedition, who found the track over the Bulga; but if such was the case it is singular that the Government in granting members of the party compensation awarded Mr SINGLETON only 200 acres, and Mr HOWE 700 acres. Another significant fact regarding this matter is that not one place along the route bears the name SINGLETON, while no less than three were named after Mr HOWE - namely Howe's Waterhole, Howe's Valley, and Howe's Mountain - all of which names have been retained to the present day. In my opinion, it is evident that Mr HOWE was the leader of the party, though Mr SINGLETON, no doubt, rendered valuable assistance as a guide".

"In conclusion, I may state that I have no wish to enter a controversy on the subject, but I am fully convinced that neither * Mr HOWE nor Mr SINGLETON ever stood on Patrick's Plains till they did so together when they crossed the Bulga in the expedition mentioned in my last". (* The date given by William in his prior letter was 1818. Ed.).

"Apologising for again trespassing upon your space - I am, etc.,"

Glen Alpin, Bulga, 26th July, 1887.

* In a published answer (Maitland Mercury) to William G McALPIN's question about the woman named HOYLE, Elizabeth YEOMANS replied:-
"She was the wife of the man who brought Mr H BALDWIN's sheep over. She was a nurse, and came to attend my mother at the birth of a ** son in January 1823 and she returned with her husband shortly after.

** This son would have been John SINGLETON who married in 1844 Jane Ann ROTTON and died of dysentery in 1849 whence returning to NSW from the Californian Gold Fields. (according to our other records John SINGLETON died at sea during the voyage to the Californian Gold Fields !!!). The later would be correct as John SINGLETON & Jane Ann ROTTON had 3 daughters born between 1845 and 1850.

Lee Macdonald Cooke 1890-1936 grandson of Susannah McAlpin 1842 - 1882 and Macdonald Clark 1836 – 1918.
Thomas Eather 1800 - 1886

Now, at this time their shadows fall
Across the intervening years,
Bringing remembrance that stirs
The blood; let memory call
Back, back from out the shadowy past These men who tilled the virgin soil,
Blazoned new trails; by dint of toil
Gave us our heritage, so that at last
We who follow on may reap
The harvest sown by those who gave
E'en of life's blood; yet, o'er their graves
Do monumental stones that mark their sleep
Give greater tribute than this land,
Primeval yet-but for their hands.
-Thomas Wentworth.

Charlotte EATHER 1797-1862

The many decendants through this female line include links with very well known Hawkesbury families - MARKWELL, FARLOW, DEVLIN and MCQUADE. It appears, too, that Elizabeth and Jane, two of the children of Robert and Charlotte WILLIAMS, married into the EATON family, already allied through the ONUS connection,( Ben RICHARDS, son of Mary Ann EATON, married Elizabeth WILLIAMS and Susannah EATON, daughter of Daniel EATON, married James WILLIAMS.

Charlotte EATHER Daughter of Thomas EATHER 1764-1827 and Elizabeth LEE 1771-1860, was born on the 5 June 1797.
At the age of twenty Charlotte gave birth to a daughter Mary Ann WINDSOR 1817-1791. Little is known about her father Joseph WINDSOR apart from his name on Mary Ann's Christening record. Mary Ann although born WINDSOR was raised as Mary Ann WILLIAMS.

On the 24 August 1818 at Windsor, Charlotte married Robert WILLIAMS the son of Robert WILLIAMS born in England in 1765 and married Elizabeth YOUNG born 1765 at Parramatta on the 11 September 1791.
When son RObert was 19 months old his mother Elizabeth was murdered by a neighbour at 'The Ponds' Parramatta. Robert's father died on the 8 July 1811.
So when Robert and Charlotte were married Robert had no living relatives, he had inherited his father's property of 60 acres of land at Castlereagh.

In partnership with Joseph Onus Robert Williams began to send cattle across the mountains to the Hunter River district where they established a run of 1,000 acres near the junction of Wollombi Brook and Parson's Creek, in the Bulga area.

It is a gauge of Robert Williams prosperity that in 1828 he was in control of 1200 acres of land, 13 horses, 400 head of cattle and 200 sheep.
The children of Charlotte and Robert Williams were:-

1.Mary Ann WILLIAMS 1817-1891 m. William FREEMAN 1812-1881

2.Robert Eather WILLIAMS 1819-1899 m. Mary Ann Williams 1819-1911

3.Elizabeth WILLIAMS 1821 - 1896 m. Benjamin RICHARDS 1818-1898

4.Thomas WILLIAMS 1824 - 1888 m. Jane CRIBB 1826-1873

5.Ann Eather WILLIAMS 1826-1882 m. Thomas George MARKWELL 1826-1908

6.James Eather WILLIAMS 1829-1913 m. Susannah EATON 1831-1916

7.Charles EATHER WILLIAMS 1831-1887 m. Sarah CRIBB 1831-1898

8.Charlotte WILLIAMS 1834-1918 m. Peter EATHER 1831-1911

9.John WILLIAMS 1836-1917 m. Maria Elizabeth FARLOW 1843-1923

10.George Eather WILLIAMS 1838-1887 m. Elizabeth Janet BRAND 1855-1911

Robert WILLIAMS died on the 28 November 1839 at Agnes Banks, Richmond.

On the 17 April 1841 Charlotte WILLIAMS nee EATHER married William James MALONEY 1818-1883. William was only 23 when he married Charlotte, 21 years his senior. Charlotte, from her previous marriage had been left a very rich widow. William signed a Deed of separation from Charlotte on the 6th August 1850 registered with the Supreme Court of NSW.

Charlotte WILLIAMS, nee EATHER died on the 8 November 1862 at Richmond. She is buried at St.Peter's Church of England Cemetery, Richmond, New South Wales.
To view some of my Family Tree Images

Below is a photograph of daughter Charlotte WILLIAMS 1834-1918 holding one of her granddaughters. taken at Boggabri around 1910

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Joseph ONUS 1782-1835 Last Will and Testament

On Monday, 22 September 1834, Joseph ONUS wrote his last will and testament.
He evidently thought that it was time that he safeguarded the fruits of his years of endeavour for the lasting benefit of his children and grandchildren. In drawing up his will he appointed his son-in-law John EATON, and his eldest son, Joseph ONUS Jnr, as his
executors. In the introduction to his will, which was quite a lengthy document, Joseph stated that he was "in good health and sound of mind and understanding". The document was witnessed by John EATON, George PAWLING, Joseph ONUS Jnr and James GRIFFITTHS.

In the autumn of 1835, Ann and Joseph had their daughter Mary Ann back with them again for another lying-in. On 8 May she was delivered of another daughter who was named Mary Ann Elizabeth.
Five weeks later, on 17 June 1835, Joseph ONUS added a codicil to his will. Perhaps he took advantage of the presence of John EATON in town to add the codicil while both of his executors were able to be present to witness it. Perhaps his health had declined since he had drawn up his will in the previous year.
The codicil was witnesed by the same four persons who had witnessed the will itself.

On 22 June 1835, just five days after he had added the codicil to the will, Joseph ONUS died. Ann ONUS was a widow at the age of forty-two. Her three sons were still teenagers. Joseph had become a well-known identity in Richmond, and indeed, throughout the whole of the Hawkesbury district. It was a large crowd that gathered for the funeral when his mortal remains were interred in the burial ground that is now St Peter's Cemetery, and where the ONUS family vault still stands. Recorded as being fifty-four when he died, Joseph had failed to live long enough to enjoy the experience of seeing his sons reach adulthood, marry and have children of their own; an experience that is dear in the hearts of most fathers.

Transported across the seas to permanent exile from his native land for a part in the theft of stores to the paltry value of less than six pounds sterling, Joseph had died a farmer and pastoralist of prestige and honour, and had earned for himself a minor place in the pages of Australian history. Many of the landed gentry in England would have envied him the extent of his estates; the number of stock that he grazed upon them, and the size of his bank account.
It is obvious from the wording of his will, which Joseph appears to have written himself, that he was determined to be the progenitor of a dynasty of land-owners. Repeatedly in his will he stressed that the lands which he bequeathed were "not to be sold, exchanged, mortgaged or given away on any pretence whatsoever but shall fall from heir to heir and in default of any issue then to the next eldest brother's son and so on in the succession of heirship".

It would have been a sad occasion when the family gathered soon after the funeral to hear the contents of Joseph's will. The reading of it would have been rather tedious because of the spelling errors, inconsistent punctuation and some quaint modes of expression that he had used.
The codicil which he had added just prior to his death, covered the disposal of lands which he had apparently bought after he had made his will the previous year. At that time he had appointed another executor, his son-in-law William McALPIN. However, both John EATON and William McALPIN withdrew from their responsibilities, so Joseph ONUS Jnr was left as the sole executor. Because he was a minor, the court granted, on 28 September 1835, Ann ONUS widow of the deceased, administration of the estate during the minority of Joseph ONUS.

Under the terms of the will the following allocation of property and stock was made:-

To Ann ONUS, widow of the deceased:-
- the house and outbuildings in Francis Street, Richmond, and all the lands belonging thereto, namely farms known as LANGLEY's and GILE's, which Joseph had purchased;
- Andrew NORTH's allotment in the township. These were to be passed on to William ONUS upon the decease of Ann; or if she remarried she was to forfeit all right to them and they were to go to Joseph ONUS to hold until William turned 21.
- 560 acres of land in Howe's Valley known as Welsh's Farm which was a purchase from the Crown ;
- 50 of the best cows; 7 horses or mares; and a fourth of the remaining cattle.

Ann was to receive all rent and pay all debts on land allocated to the children until they turned 21. Presumably Ann received also the money in Joseph's bank accounts, although the will does not stress this specifically.

To Elizabeth TOWN, eldest daughter, aged 24:-
- 50 acres at Kurrajong (the grant made in 1821), to go to John TOWN Jnr when he turned 21; - 20 cows.

To Mary Ann EATON, second daughter, aged 22:-
- 300 acres (the northern part of the 1000 acres on the west bank of Cockfighter Creek or Wollombi Brook, that Joseph had been granted in 1825). Upon her death it was to be divided amongst her three eldest children not including the deceased one or any other deceased.
- 5 cows.
- husband John EATON received half the sheep.

To Susannah McALPIN, third daughter, aged 19:-
- 40 rods of land, being part of 4 acres in the main street (George Street), to go to her eldest surviving child when it turned 21;
- 20 cows.

To Joseph ONUS, eldest son, aged 17:-
-25 acres, part of Dight's Farm, currently held by Daniel EATON;
-45 acres known as Reeve's Farm, currently held by Jacob INNESS;
-3 allotments facing George BOWMAN's - "one where they are making bricks at present; one occupied by Henry CRICKETT and one occupied by Daniel EATON".
- 650 acres adjoining Festus TONG's purchase, "part of it is 100 acres grant from the Crown and THomas SPICER's and sold by auction";
- 500 acres in Howels Valley, known as Welsh's Station, adjoining Mrs ONUS's land;
- a third of the remaining horses and a fourth of the remaining cattle;
- 3 allotments (currently held by Daniel SWEET, Arthur ELLINGHAM and John CORNWELL) until William turned 21 when they were to go to him.

To Thomas ONUS, second son, aged 15:-
-190 acres at Wollombi Brook, 100 acres of which was George EATON's grant next to John EATON's and 90 acres of which were Thomas TAILBY's grant next to Thomas EATHER's farm;
- 300 acres "at the back of Thomas EATHER's land at Wollombi";
- 5 acres purchased from John WATTS adjoining Daniel SWEET's land and bounded by the Lagoon on one side and the Government Road on the other;
- 35 acre farm purchased from John WATTS, bounded on two sides by Government Roads; on one side by Mr WILSON and on one side by Mr SKUTHORPE;
- three and three-quarter acres ofthe 4 acres in the main street (George Street) of Richmond "which I purchased from Mr Edward POWELL;
a third of the remaining horses and a fourth of the remaining cattle.

To William ONUS, third son, aged 15:-
- 700 acres lying "around the big lagoon and bordered on one side by Mr WILLIAMS; on one side by the creek; on one side by Mary Ann EATON and on the other side by Government land" (the southern half of the 1000 acres on the western side of Cockfighter Creek at Bulga);
- 300 acres adjoining Thomas ONUS's 300 - "my last purchase on the Wollombi";
- 10 acres now held by Daniel SWEET lying by Kirby's Lagoon; 9 acres known as Kirby's Farm, now rented by Arthur ELLINGHAM; 25 acres known as part of Dight's Farm now let to John CORNWELL;
- a third of the remaining horses and a fourth of the remaining cattle;
- the gold watch, chain and keys, engraved with "my name, Mrs ONUS's name and William ONUS's name";
- the big iron boiler fixed to the brickwork behind the house;
- the house and land belonging thereto when his mother died, or if she remarried, when he turned 21.

The "remainder of the horses" were those left after Ann ONUS had had her pick of them, and the "remainder of the cattle" were those left after Ann had selected 50 and the three daughters had made their selections. The three ONUS sons, still in their teenage years, found themselves in the position in which they had no need to be concerned about their respective futures. All would, upon reaching their respective majorities, be able to establish themselves as well-to-do farmers with extensive acreages and adequate stock.

Mary Ann and John EATON found their position in life suddenly improved, with their farm increased from 100 to 400 acres and their flock of sheep greatly increased in size. Elizabeth and Susannah were able to add to the sizes of their respective husband's dairy herds. William McALPIN could give up his life as a smithy and turn to being a dairy farmer if he so desired. Elizabeth's husband was already established as a very successful dairy farmer in the Richmond

The will reveals that Joseph ONUS had at least one acquaintance in the district whom he had known in the days before he had been transported over thirty years previously. Jacob INNESS, who was leasing from him 45 acres in the Richmond district, hailed from his home town of Sheerness, and was one of the other three men tried and convicted with him in 1801 for stealing naval stores.


Thomas EATHER and Elizabeth LEE
by John St PIERRE
for the EATHER Family history committee.

Below is a map of ONUS's land holdings in Bulga, New South Wales