janilye on Family Tree Circles
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Honora COLLINS The daughter of Michael COLLINS 1722-1815 and Ann RYAN b:1730 was born in 1763 in Kerry, Ireland d:5 September 1837 at Castlereagh. married by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, using the name Norah Collins on the 3 July 1801 at St.John's Parramatta to Thomas FRANCIS b:4 April 1764 in Warwickshire d:3 September 1820 at Castlereagh. Honora arrived 11 February 1796 on the 'Marquis Cornwallis'which had left Cork on 9 August 1795. She had been tried at Kerry and sentenced to 7 years. Cannot find her crime recorded. Her husband Thomas arrived with the third fleet on the 'Admiral Barrington' 16 October 1791.
See below for a copy of the entry in the marriage register at St.John's Parramatta.
The eldest son of James EATHER 1811-1899 and Mary Ann HAND 1815-1894.
Thomas was born in Richmond, New South Wales on the 17 January 1836.
Thomas married Charlotte Margaret HOWELL on the 22 November 1860 at Parramatta. Charlotte was born in Richmond, New South Wales on the 3 October 1842, the daughter of Thomas HOWELL 1809-1876 and Elizabeth CROWLEY 1815-1891.
The children of Thomas and Charlotte were:-
1. Emily Ann Eather 1862?1944 m. James Cousins DUNCAN 1856-1909 at
Baan Baa, New South Wales, on 5 April 1882.
2. Albert Eather 1863?1949 m.Harriett PRATT 1869-1937 at
Narrabri, New South Wales in 1886.
3. Laura Lavinia Eather 1864?1950 m. William Francis BOYLE 1860-1928 at Narrabri, New South Wales, in 1885.
4. Thomas Charles Eather 1866?1943 m. Hannah Mary McGINNITY 1871-1929 at Narrabri, New South Wales,in 1890.
5. Jane Charlotte Eather 1868?1954 m. John Reading 1863-1936 at
Narrabri, New South Wales, in 1889.
6. James Vincent Eather 1870 ? 1870
7. Celia Eather 1871 ? 1871
8. Julia Eather 1871 ? 1872
9. James Hilton Eather 1873?1950 m. Ada Amelia NELSON 1866-1944 at
Boggabri, New South Wales, in 1893.
10. Arthur Howell Eather 1874 ? 1900
11. Sydney Eather 1876?1960 m. Susannah Anastasia BENNETT 1879-1931 at Boggabri, New South Wales, in 1906.
12. Alexander Eather 1878 ? 1942 m. Linda Pearle BRACKENREG 1881-1965 at Boggabri, New South Wales,in 1905.
13. Edith May Eather 1879?1952 m.James Robert NELSON 1868-1950 at
Boggabri, New South Wales,in 1899.
14. Julia Eliza Eather 1880?1955 m. Leopold GUEST 1869-1932 at
Boggabri, New South Wales, in 1899.
15. Eva Elizabeth Mary Eather 1884?1919 m. Sidney A EATHER 1889-1944 at Sydney, New South Wales,in 1911.
After the death of George Eather 1834-1912, his widow Dorothy (Dora),nee KINSELA 1839-1915 recalled her experience during the Hawkesbury flood of June 1867 in which 12 members of the EATHER family lost their lives:
" The waters crept up until only three rows of shingles were out. Then, the roof collapsed and twelve were drowned. It was a new slab house, just built at the time and when the waters began to rise they regarded it as the safest shelter. The water overflowed the flats and they were cut off. George CUPITT was taking some men away in a boat when one said to Mrs. EATHER, " You had better go up in the boat to your sister's and take the four children with you." At first she refused, saying she would have to bake some bread and get everything in the loft before morning. However, they prevailed upon her to go, her husband staying. When they were getting into the boat, Tom and Bill Eather came over with their families to take refuge in the new house. Mrs. Bill EATHER said. "You won't forget us if the water's come over the ridge?" she was asked to get into the boat too, but she refused. They pulled away at 4 in the afternoon.
That night the river rose fast. In the morning Mrs. SMITH and Mrs ? EATHER came from Clarendon into Richmond and tried in vain to get a boat sent over. At night they went back to Clarendon. About 1 o'clock they saw a signal light away over the water, in the direction of the house. It was the family still on the roof. They put rags and papers on the end of a fishing rod. Lit them and returned the signal.
They rushed down to a man with a boat and told him. A dozen men were standing around and none offered to go. It was dark and raining. Mr. DIGHT's coachman, named RILEY, came along and when he was told of the trouble, he went to Mr.DIGHT, who sent him galloping away to try and secure the public boat when it came to shore and offer the crew 50 pounds to go out at once , and save the Eathers. The boat was got about 10 o'clock. and three men offered to go out. To help them to steer across a fire was lit at DIGHT's. They reached the house about half an hour too late."
The Mr. DIGHT mentioned by Dora is Arthur DIGHT 1819-1895 to whom the Eather's will be forever grateful. Although it was too late by this time. He rallied when others turned their backs. When Thomas Eather 1828-1916 remarried Caroline MCKELLAR 1847-1915 he named his second son Arthur after the brave Mr. Dight.
MARGARET CATCHPOLE was born in Suffolk on the 14 March 1762 the daughter of Elizabeth Catchpole. She was transported for life and arrived in Sydney onboard the 'Nile' on the 14 December 1801. She worked at one time for a very good friend of the Eather's (my ancestors), Arthur DIGHT 1819-1895 at 'Mountain View' Richmond. She was a prolific letter writer and chronicler. paper, back in those days was not cheap and Margaret used every space on the paper first writing across the page and then down. There are several stories online about Margaret. For the interest of the members of Family Tree Circles I wanted to show you part of one of her letters, unfortunately I was not able to attach the whole page. All her letters have been transcribed. What a painstaking job that would have been.
For those interested, there are several stories about her online.
Some people believed that finding gold would be easy!
Indeed! The reality was hard work. Intense heat and dust in the summer, bringing clouds of flies and mosquitoes then very cold winters and of course there was the mud.
Wives and children had little choice but to accompany their men to the diggings and they were among the thousands of people who became ill with dysentery and typhoid.
Drinking water was polluted by panning and by sewage that escaped from the thousands of holes the miners dug to use as toilets. The diet was inadequate, the basic food was mutton, damper, tea and sugar and nobody escaped the inflated food prices. You truly had to find more than a few specks to afford fruit and vegetables. Most diggers didn't bother to wash and shared their beds with fleas. 'Cures" for just about every imaginable ailment were available from the 'quacks, Sunday was observed everywhere as a day of rest. On this day men repaired their equipment mended their clothes and wrote letters home. Some sought out the sly-grog shops and drank away their aches and pains and blot out the fact they had failed to find gold and relieve their homesickness. Overall, the diggings were not a very pleasant place to be for most people.
Even getting to the goldfields was a life and death struggle.
As news of Australian gold rushes swept the world all available ships were crammed with people hoping to make their fortunes. Up to half of the children on those ships died of contaminated food and water and diseases like Scarlet fever, measles and typhoid. On the diggings children continued to be at risk. In the first half of the 1850s 200 European and chinese children under two died at the Mt.Alexander diggings alone. Goldfields cemeteries are today resting places for thousands of children.
Official estimates have reckoned the total population on the Victorian goldfields in 1853 as 46,550 men, 10,747 women, and 11,590 children. Gold digging was an almost exclusively male activity.
Women on the goldfields have often been stereotyped as entertainers and prostitutes but most women were wives of miners or single women accompanying their families. Many women died in childbirth and had to cope with poor diet, the threat and fact of disease, the loneliness and the worries of trying to bring up a family on the goldfields. As towns developed , women played an active role in changing them into places where children could go to school and where the sick could be properly looked after.
A woman by the name of Ellen Clacy recorded her observations of life on the goldfields in Victoria in 1852:-
"But night at the diggings is the characteristic time: murder here-murder there- revolvers cracking-blunderbusses bombing-rifles going off-balls whistling-one man groaning with a broken leg.....Here is one man grumbling because he brought his wife with him, another ditto because he left his behind, or sold her for an ounce of gold or a bottle of rum. Donnybrook Fair is not to be compared to an evening at Bendigo. Success at the diggings is like drawing lottery tickets-the blanks far outnumber the prizes; still, with good health and strength, and above all perseverance, it is strange if a digger does not in the end reap a reward for his labour. Meanwhile he must endure almost incredible hardships. In the rainy season, he must not murmur if compelled to work up to his knees in water, and sleep on the wet ground, without a fire, in the pouring rain, and perhaps no shelter above him more waterproof than a blanket or a gum tree.....In the summer, he must work hard under a burning sun, tortured by the mosquito and the little stinging March flies....."
Some women were successful miners in their own right. Alice CORNWELL 1852-1932 known on the goldfields as "Princess Midas" or "Madam Midas" began mining on her father George CORNWELL's lease at Ballarat. She supervised miners who worked for her and instructed them where to dig for gold. She was so good at finding gold that she once paid 20,000 for a mine. The mine yielded her 100,000 in one year.
In 1887 she went to London and listed her Midas mine on the stock exchange. She also owned the London newspaper, The Sunday Times for five years.
She was enormously wealthy, with many financial and industrial enterprises.
Her financial operations were not less notable than her diamonds which were the talk of London. There is a book and a stage play based on her life.Also the National Gallery does own some biographical cuttings which may be viewed.
*The Photograph of Alice Ann Cornwell, below, was taken in 1900.
Lee Macdonald Cooke was born on 26 February 1890 at Patricks Plains New South Wales. The son of George B COOKE 1865-1925 and Mary May CLARK 1865-1951 and sister to Lyndall Dorothy COOKE who married Stanley Common CLARK.
Lee married Mary Edith Isabel MERRICK 1896-1976 in 1916
I have attached a photo of Lee Cooke's bullock team. This great photo shows the team crossing the creek at Milbrodale - a tributary of Parson's Creek. Lee's family home "Leeholme" is about a kilometre up over the hill and on the right hand side of the road. This is the Putty Road. Once again, I don't have a date for ths photo either. The older generation never named or dated photos unfortunatley. So it is always an educated guess as to what year it was. He may have been in his 20's or early 30's which makes the photo about 1910-1930.
Lee died on the 25 April 1936 aged 46 - not very old. Lee reared Berkshire pigs. He used to show them at the Royal Easter Show in Sydney. At the Easter Show in 1936, he got wet and developed pneumonia, and died soon after.
Lee's grave stands alone in St Mark's Church graveyard at Bulga as his widow Mary married Pat ARCHINAL in 1938 after Lee died, and she is buried at Whittingham with Pat.
Peter CLARK one of 12 children and second son of William CLARK 1811-1879 and Catherine MCALPIN 1814-1893 : In 1863 Peter, who was over 6' tall & age 25 years was engaged to Susannah CLARK 1838-1910 daughter of James Swales Clark. of Bulga (Susanna later married William Thomas SQUIRE on 7 April 1875).
After attending a wedding feast of friends, which lasted 3 days, he set out for "Guie" and "Doondi" two of his Uncle Wellow's (Wellow BALDWIN) stations. He was shot in the neck by the Bushranger WILSON on Warland?s Range, Blandford near Murrurundi. The news of his death was wired to Paddy CULLEN of the Fitzroy Hotel in Singleton, who rode out to tell Peter's parents as well as his fianc?e, who hurriedly got ready & went to Muswellbrook where Peter was subsequently buried.in Muswellbrook Cemetery where an elaborate sandstone monument stands over his tomb.
within days of Clark's death, A public subscription raised enough money to create one of the Hunter's most unusual memorials.
A stonemason erected the impressive Warland Range memorial which today still stands a few metres from where Clark fell, mortally wounded, 148 years ago.
The isolated monument, restored in the 1920s, is no longer on the main road. It can be reached by crossing the railway line at Blandford and following a signposted if rough road
There are many, many accounts published of the death of Peter Clark. This one, told by the decendants of Ashton CLARK 1844-1925:-
"On the 9th April 1863 a party of young men & a boy camped at Captains Lagoon near the foot of Warland?s Range. They were all residents of Bulga, & were now engaged on a droving trip, going from Bulga to the Gwee station owned by Mr. Baldwin on the Balonne River near the Queensland border, to take charge of 2 mob of cattle. The party consisted of 2 brothers James & Ashton CLARK, Peter CLARK & Samuel PARTRIDGE. James Clark was 23 years of age, Ashton was 19, Peter was nearly 26 & Samuel was 17 & was a drover?s boy for Peter Clark. Peter was no relation to James & Ashton, though at the time he was engaged to be married to a sister of the Clark brothers & was an intimate friend. All 4 were accustomed to the roads from childhood & bore unblemished characters. Until the 9th April the journey had passed without incident worth recording. The travelling had been pleasant & the party were full of good will to each other & the world in general. On the morning of the fatal day, the journey was resumed as usual, & a few miles on the party were joined by a man named John Conroy who was riding to Breeza & was travelling the same road. When near the site of the monument, up the long slope of the hill in the direction of Murrurundi, perhaps a quarter of a mile away, they saw 2 men galloping towards them. Both were mounted on good horses & to all appearances it seemed as though a race was in progress. one of the riders appeared to be a black. One of the number called out "Oh look at the race look at the race". All of them sat on their horses & enjoyed the sport. Another called out as the riders drew nearer "I'll back the blackfellow". In a few moments the situation was taken in at a glance. What to them appeared to be harmless sport was nothing else than a life & death ride between a bushranger with a revolver in his hand & a young man who preferred to ride for it rather than tamely obey the summons to "Bail up" & hand over to a bush blackguard even at the point of a pistol. The bushranger wore black crepe over his face, hence the mistaken identity, when the facts of the case were made known it transpired the pursued man was a young GORDON, the son of Doctor GORDON of Murrurundi, the bushranger gave his name as Wilson, but was believed on good authority to be MCMANUS. As they passed the party, the bushranger pulled up & young Gordon rode on. The bushranger rode slowly back toward them, Samuel PARTRIDGE imitated the example of Gordon & rode for it. Instead of keeping to the road he turned into the bush to escape & raise the alarm. The bushranger immediately gave chase & opened fire. Partridge said he heard the bullet whistle close past him. He galloped straight for a steep gully & the horse jumped it safely. Later it was measured & found to be 14 feet wide. After firing at Partridge & seeing he had small chance of overtaking him, he rode back to the remainder of the party. Seeing him fire & knowing he was a desperate man & riding towards them, they quietly dismounted, CONROY & James CLARK who was leading the packhorse, were a short distance in the rear. The bushranger jumped off his horse, threw the reins down & with the revolver in his hand walked up to Peter Clark & roughly ordered him to hand over. Peter delayed as long as possible as he saw James Clark quietly closing in on the bushranger from behind. He was wearing a big silver watch with a long chain around his neck, as was the fashion of the times. "Hand over that watch & be quick about it" Wilson said offensively. Peter slowly unwound the chain from his neck & held both the watch & chain in his left hand. "Hurry up there said Wilson" aggressive as before. Ashton Clark was standing a few yards away in full view of both men. he saw his brother about a rod behind the bushranger, & he saw the deadly gleam in Peter's eye, and the grim set countenance seem to denote a man who had made up his mind & counted the cost, whatever it might be. he shuddered for instinctively he felt a tragedy impending & the chances were against Peter. If only his brother could get up first. However brave a man might be, the chances were in favour of the man who was armed. He looked at the big powerful revolver in the bushrangers hand & knew he would shoot without hesitation if the necessity arose, for no one knew better than the robber what capture meant to him. Ashton Clark looked at his friend & in his heart said "God help him". The Bushranger also seemed to feel the strength of the man he was up against. With very bad grace, Peter held the watch & chain out to him with his left hand. For several seconds the robber hesitated to take it. Then he held out his hand to take it & Peter sprang at him. Just as quickly Wilson sprang straight back & fired point blank. The bullet passed through Peter's throat and out his neck to one side. Instantly he fired again, the bullet this time passed through the heart. No Sooner was the second shot fired that James Clark was on the bushranger from behind & seized him by the left arm. Instantly the bushranger turned the revolver over his left shoulder & fired at James. With wonderful presence of mind, James had thrown the bushrangers own arm before the muzzle & the bullet passed through the fleshy part of the thumb & out near the wrist. Then began a life & death struggle as Clark closed on him. James Clark was a trained wrestler & his skill stood him in good stead. The bushranger was thrown & in falling, his head struck the hard road. This in all probability, dazed him for a moment. Conroy rushed forward & secured the revolver, throwing it away. James Clark then quickly overpowered him & called on his brother to bring the saddle straps. Between the 3 of them they bound him securely & left him lying on the side of the road in the water table. From the time the 2nd shot was fired, Peter sank quietly to the ground & died without speaking a word & without a struggle. He died like a very tired man sinking into heavy sleep. Ashton ran to him & placed his head on his knee. He called out "Oh Jimmy he's dying! he's dying!" But his brother at that moment was at death grips with the murderer. In perhaps a minute from the time the shots were fired, the murderer was lying on the road securely bound with his victim lying in his blood a few paces away, quite dead. It was only now that the actors in the grim tragedy began to realise the full horror of the situation. It was a beautiful autumn day between 9 & 10 o'clock in the morning. What bitter irony, the bright sunshine, the soft air of the morning, & the unbroken calm of the hills seemed to those horror stricken men. Even though the murderer was bound, their friend was dead, and to them the whole world was desolate. How the passing of one soul can often change the course of many lives. Both men took grave risks in attempting to capture a man so desperate, whom they saw only a few minutes before attempt to shoot down an unarmed boy. Both were equally brave & in the strength of their manhood , and now one was taken & the other left. With the report of the revolver, the strong arm had fallen, the strength of manhood departed, and between then now rolled the great ocean of eternity. Soon they were brought back to the grim reality of the situation by the foul curses of the wounded wretch lying on the side of the road. James Clark, calm & collected, picked up the revolver & turned to the murderer "Now" he said sternly "You have shot one man & tried to shoot 2 others. There is still one shot left & that is for you if I hear another word out of you" . The threat had the desired effect. reverently they laid their dead friend on their blankets , covered his face, and left him lying almost where he fell. Soon the bushranger began to lament his fate & begged his captors to loosen the straps that secured him. "No" said James firmly, "I am going to take no risks with you. When the police come they can please themselves what they do with you". " I didn't think this was going to happen when I rode out this morning" said WILSON. "If you didn't think it was going to happen why did you bring this thing along with you?" said James quietly holding out the revolver. There was no answer. After safely jumping the gully, & feeling pursuit was at an end, Partridge turned onto the main road a short distance on & fell in with some men with a horse & dray repairing the road. He told them what had happened & they in turn informed him that a trooper had ridden past them only a short while before towards Murrurundi. Partridge galloped on & overtook the trooper about a couple of miles further on. Quickly he told his tale. "Boy" said the trooper as he looked to his revolver. "Ride for your life to the police station at Murrurundi & I will go back". He was a brave resolute man, worthy of the highest traditions of the force he honoured. Without a moments hesitation he galloped back to the scene of the encounter. Dismounting & putting back the revolver in the holster, he grimly surveyed the scene. "Well done boys" he said. Those simple words of recognition conveyed all that was necessary from a brave man to brave men & spoke volumes. Unbuckling the handcuffs from his belt, he remarked to the murderer as the steel snapped on his wrists, " A bloody morning's work you have made of it." He then commissioned one of the men who had been working on the road to bring the horse & dray. Meanwhile Partridge galloped to the Murrurundi police station, only a few miles away & delivered his message. 3 troopers with their horses saddled were just ready to ride off on patrol Instantly they were on the road with partridge & in less than an hour were also on the scene. One can better imagine than describe the feelings of Samuel Partridge as he rode up to his mates. Ages seem to have rolled by since he left them not more than 2 hours before. There was all that was mortal of the man who had been as loving, gentle & considerate as a father to him , lying in the stillness of death. henceforth his name was to be only a softened & tender memory. Truly the boy could say "Every remembrance of thee I cherish". With a breaking heart he turned away. Almost 80 years have passed over his head & still the memories of that dead friend is soft & tender. Gently the police laid the corpse in the dray & seated the murderer beside it & set off for Murrurundi. Almost all the way, the bushranger lamented his fate & the pain of his wound. Small pity was bestowed on him by the enraged public as the news spread. Deep & bitter was the sorrow for the death of CLARK & bitter was the hatred for the murderer, who was taken to the police station & confined in the cells. The corpse was taken to Whiteman's Hotel at Murrurundi & laid on a table. An Inquest was held the same day & a verdict of wilful murder returned against Wilson. As the Doctor was removing the clothes from the body of CLARK, the bullet that had inflicted the fatal wound was found among them. It had pierced the heart, passed clean through the body, & was spent. The weapon used was a big powerful muzzle loading 5 chambered trauter revolver, & was one of the best of it's day. Under any circumstances, it was a truly formidable weapon. It was so constructed that the hammer was raised by drawing back a spur that projected through the trigger guard by the 2nd finger of the hand that grasped it. By simultaneously drawing back the spur with the 2nd finger & pressing the trigger with the index finger, the weapon could be discharged with the speed of a modern double action revolver. Hence the speed with which the 2 shots were fired. In all probability, had the bushranger been armed with a single action revolver & have been forced to cock it with his thumb, Peter Clark could have closed with him before the 2nd shot was fired. After the inquest at Murrurundi, the corpse was removed to Eaton's Hotel at Muswellbrook to a wait burial. Mrs Eaton being some connection of Peter Clark's family. While there it was visited by a great number of Friends & sympathisers, some coming long distances to pay their respects to his memory".
* Patrick(Paddy)CULLEN 1822-1893 son of Patrick CULLEN 1770-1822 and Elizabeth MCNAMARA 1783-1860 both from Ireland, they married in Sydney on 20 September 1811. Paddy was one of eight children, he was born at Windsor,NSW he married Caroline Hopkins HORNE 1827-1824 at Singleton 10 July 1847 the daughter of Samuel Horne 1798-1868 the chief constable of Patricks Plain and Elizabeth Evans 1804-1841
** Samuel Partridge 1850-1928 married Jane Charlotte EATHER 1851-1907 the daughter of Thomas EATHER 1824-1909 and Eliza nee CROWLEY 1822-1897
Ashton CLARK married Sarah Elizabeth EATHER 1861-1923
James Clark 1840-1911 married Mary DAWES 1848-1936
*** The fate of Harry WILSON:- From Murrurundi he was brought to the gaol at East Maitland to await trial. A few months later he was brought to trial, a miserable, wretched broken looking man. He was found guilty of murder by a jury within ten minutes, condemned to death & was executed at the East Maitland goal on October 4th 1863.When searched he also had in his possession a gold watch which was taken from a man during the hold-up of a coach a few weeks before he was captured. It was believed that Harry Wilson was an alias and he looked to be much older than 25, however, no matter his name or his age he hanged for his crime.
Wilson's second claim to fame? According to author Greg Powell, secretary of Hunter Bushrangers, Australia's longest running re-enactment group, Wilson holds the dubious honour of being among the first to be hanged on the new private gallows inside old East Maitland Gaol.
****In recognition of their bravery in capturing the bushranger, James Clark & Conroy were each awarded 50 pounds by the NSW Government.
Below a photograph of Peter Clark's memorial on Warlands Range
John Thomas, the youngest child of John William EATHER 1845-191 and Harriet nee CLARK 1849-1928, was born on 3 October 1891.
At the age of 25 and still unmarried he enlisted in the Australian Army on 17 October 1916, approximately a year after his brother Ivo mack had enlisted. He was posted to the same Battalion as his brother, the 35th, and went overseas amongst reinforcements. He saw Ivo in England while he was convalescing after having been wounded at Villers-Bretonneux. Back in Australia in 1919 after having been discharged from the Army, he returned to life on the land.
On Sunday the 13th June 1920 John was in the paddock at Bulga threshing lucerne seed, when the drive belt on the machine snapped.
John put his arm in the air to ward off the whip of the belt and fell into the thresher. His cries brought nearby workers to a most horrific scene, but nothing could be done to save John.