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VALENTINE'S DAY around the world

Valentine's Day is said to have originated as far back as 496AD and is celebrated (in one way or another) in nearly every country in the world, resulting in many marriages and births which enforces the saying that "its love that makes the world go round"


In AMERICA - Valentine's Day did not get to America until 1629 with the Puritans and then went against some of the church elders. Now consumers spend an average of $14 billion on Valentines Day ($15.8 BILLION Australian) just for the one day !!

In AUSTRALIA - Valentine's Day is a much-celebrated festival in Australia and its popularity is said to be increasing by the year. About 90 per cent of the people in the age group of 18-24 and 45 per cent of people above 50 are said to celebrate the day. Valentine's Day Festival has a history of extravagant celebrations in Australia. It is said that during the Australian gold rush period miners became extremely rich due to the new wealth found from the Ballarat Mines. These miners ordered extravagant Valentines amounting to thousands of pounds at a time

In BRAZIL - the Dia dos Namorados "Day of the Enamored", or "Boyfriends'/Girlfriends' Day") is celebrated on June 12 when couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. This day was chosen probably because it is the day before the Festa juninas Saint Anthony's day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. The February 14's Valentine's Day is not celebrated at all, mainly for cultural and commercial reasons, since it usually falls too little before or after Carnival, a major floating holiday in Brazil

In BRITAIN - around £503m ($773 million Australian) is spent on cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts for Valentine's Day. Traditionally these were sent anonymously, but nowadays it is often made clear who is sending each 'Valentine'

In CANADA - 60% of Canadians will buy a gift with the majority spending less than $50, ($53 Australian) whereas the average person in the U.S. will spend $103 ($116 Australian) on traditional Valentines Day merchandise

In CHINA - the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or both to the woman that he loves

In DENMARK & NORWAY - Valentine's Day is known as Valentinsdag. It is not celebrated to a large extent but many people take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one

In ESTONIA - Valentine's Day is called Sõbrapäev, which is about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones

In FINLAND - Valentine's Day is called Ystävänpäivä which translates into "Friend's day". As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones

In FRANCE - a traditionally Catholic country, Valentine's Day is known simply as "Saint Valentin" and is celebrated in much the same way as other western countries

In GREECE there is a lot of love in the air, young men and women spend the day in each other's company, reveling in their love for each other. It is said that Cupid is the cause of the emotion of love and Valentine's Day in Greece is intricately connected with him

In GUATEMALA - it is known as the "Día del Cariño" (Day of the Affection)

In INDIA - in past Valentine's Day has been explicitly discouraged by some of the Hindu fundamentalists, mainly the Shiv Sena, the Bajrang Dal and the Vishva Hindu Parishad. Since 2001 there has been each year violent clashes between shopkeepers dealing in Valentine related items and Shiv Sena die-hards, who oppose it as "cultural pollution from the west".

In IRAN - the Sepandarmazgan, or Esfandegan, is an age-old traditional celebration of love, friendship and Earth. It has nothing in common with the Saint Valentin celebration, except for a superficial similarity in giving affection and gifts to loved ones and its origins and motivations are completely unrelated. It has been progressively forgotten in favour of the Western celebration of Valentine's Day

In IRELAND - Valentine's Day in Ireland has some traditions. From the olden times St. Valentine is connected with the concept and emotion of love. Several hotels arrange special Valentine's Day packages which are appreciated by the couples

In ISRAEL - According to Jewish tradition the 15th day of the month of Av - Tu B'Av (usually late August) is the festival of love. In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them. In modern Israeli culture this is a popular day to pronounce love, propose marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers

In ITALY - This day is reserved exclusively for the lovers and family and friends do not take part or exchange gifts. On Valentine's Day in Italy couples go out for dinners at pizzeria or ristorante. 14th February has become very commercialized in Italy but traditionally gifts like chocolates, diamonds, perfumes and flowers are exchanged

In JAMAICA - they head for Montego Bay. People from all over the world gather at Jamaica to witness and to be a part of the Valentine celebrations that takes place in Montego Bay. Beach parties are organized at the Montego Bay, on Valentines Day that is accompanied with drinks and music.

In JAPAN - in 1936, Morozoff Ltd. introduce the holiday when it run an advertisement directed to foreigners. Later in 1953 it started promoting the giving of heart-shaped chocolates. Other Japanese confectionery companies followed suit later. In 1958 the Isetan department store ran a "Valentine sale". Further campaigns during the 1960s popularized the custom. The custom that only women give chocolates to men appears to have originated from the typo of a chocolate company executive in the initial campaigns. In particular, office ladies give chocolate to their co-workers. Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards, candies, flowers, or dinner dates are uncommon, and most of the activity about the gifts is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person

In NEW ZEALAND - Visiting exotic locations to spend quiet moments together is one of the ways of celebrating Valentine's Day in New Zealand. There are innumerable tour operators who offer game fishing, bush safari, paragliding and wine tours. The choices are many and each couple can decide in what way they want to spend the day. Several picnic spots are agog with revelers on Valentine's Day.

In NORFOLK - a character called 'Jack' Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving treats many children were scared of this mystical person

In PAKISTAN - The Jamaat-e-Islami political party has called for the banning of the holiday and has called it "a shameful day. They claim that the holiday is an insult to Islam. Despite this the celebration is increasingly popular and the florist shops expect to sell a great amount of flowers, especially red roses

In POLAND - Poland had been behind the Iron Curtain for quite some decades, but that has not stopped the young adults in Poland exchange love vows with each other. Valentine cards and Valentine flowers are exchanged with the beloved and there are many couples who opt for dinners in restaurants. The day is spent with each other and the main issue is just being together

In PORTUGAL - it's more commonly referred to as "Dia dos Namorados" (Boy/Girlfriend's Day)

In the PHILLIPPINES - Valentine's Day is called "Araw ng mga Puso" or "Hearts Day". It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of flowers

In ROMANIA - the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name is the word drag ("dear"), which can also be found in the word dragoste ("love"). In recent years Romania has also started celebrating Valentine's Day, despite already having Dragobete as a traditional holiday

In RUSSIA - Most of the buildings of Russia are adorned with lights for the occasion of Valentines Day. The shows and the musical concerts that are organized on Valentines Day in Russia are attended by large numbers of people. The shops of Russia on Valentines Day displays different kinds of gift items, as well as flowers and cards

In SAUDI ARABIA - in 2002 and 2008, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items as the day is considered a Christian holiday. In 2008 this ban created a black market of roses and wrapping paper

In SLOVENIA - a proverb says that "St Valentine brings the keys of roots," so on February 14th plants and flowers start to grow. Valentine's Day has been celebrated as the day when the first work in the vineyards and in the fields commences. It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. Nevertheless, it has only recently been celebrated as the day of love. The day of love is traditionally March 12, the Saint Gregory's day

In SOUTH AMERICA - Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador etc, Valentine's Day is known as "Día del Amor y la Amistad" (Day of Love and Friendship). Although it is similar to the United States version in many ways, it is also common to see people do "acts of appreciation" for their friends.

In SOUTH KOREA - women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 (White Day). On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on the 14th of Feb or March go to a Chinese restaurant to eat black noodles and "mourn" their single life

In SPAIN - Valentine's Day is known as "San Valentín" and is celebrated the same way as in the U.K, although in Catalonia it is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George's Day)

In SWEDEN - it is called Alla hjärtans dag ("All Hearts' Day") and was launched in the 1960s by the flower industry's commercial interests and due to the influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday but its celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this holiday are only exceeded by those for Mother's Day.

In TURKEY - Valentine's Day is called Sevgililer Günü which translates into "Sweethearts' Day"

In VENEZUELA - in 2009 President Hugo Chavez said in a meeting to his supporters, for the upcoming referendum vote on February 15, that "since on the 14th there will be no time of doing nothing, nothing or next to nothing ... maybe a little kiss or something very superficial", he recommended people to celebrate a week of love after the referendum vote

In WALES - many people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen (St Dwynwen's Day) on January 25 instead of or as well as St Valentine's Day. The day commemorates St Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers. Wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February 14th. Hearts, keys and keyholes were favourite decorations on the spoons. The decoration meant, "You unlock my heart!"

In ZIMBABWE - Valentine's Day in Zimbabwe is celebrated by the young people with great passion althoug the celebration is beynd the means of many

*Valentines Day is the most popular day of the year for people to marry, over twice as many people marry then as the next most popular day - New Years Eve
*More than 37 million men will purchase flowers on Valentins Day in America alone
*In Japan many men feel embarrassed if they don't receive any chocolate on Valentine's Day. Women usually make sure to give giri-choco (obligation chocolate) to men around them so that they don't feel left out
*In In the U.S. chocolate and candy sales will climb to an estimated $935 million (over $1 billion Australian)
*The first man an unmarried woman saw on 14th February would be her future husband;
*If the names of all a girl's suitors were written on paper and wrapped in clay and the clay put into water, the piece that rose to the surface first would contain the name of her husband-to-be.
*If a woman saw a robin flying overhead on Valentines Day, it meant she would marry a sailor. If she saw a sparrow, she would marry a poor man and be very happy. If she saw a goldfinch, she would marry a rich person.
*In the Middle Ages, young men and women drew names from a bowl to see who their valentines would be. They would wear these names on their sleeves for one week.
*Men spend nearly twice as much for Valentine's Day gifts as women do
*If you are a star sign believer - Babies born on Valentine's Day are chatty, very bright, original and independent. They will learn things quickly and absorb information with great energy. A Valentine baby can be very stubborn at times and, despite valuing the company of others, also enjoys time alone. They can often appear detached from others but, despite appearances, are often thinking about those close and are extremely loyal

And one would think that 9 months later mid November would be the most common birthday around the world but it is actually beaten by early October (meaning conception of around New Years Eve) - but still ensuring that genealogsits have pleanty of work to keep them going forever ...

William Henry ANCELL, aged 4 months at Old Gorge Cemetery, Woodville

William Henry Ancell was born in April 1890 to
Charles & Mary Ann Ancell

their (known) children were:

1890-1890 William Henry Ancell
- died aged 4 months
- he is buried in Plot 97 at Old Gorge Cemetery

1892-1968 John Joseph Ancell
- married Margaret Wylie in 1914

1894-1913 Mary Violet Ancell
- married Samuel Edward Smith in 1911
- Mary died aged 20 in 1913.
- Her sister Norah married Samuel 4 years later

1895-1974 George Ancell

1897-1985 Alice Ancell
- married Robert Craill (1891-1975) in 1915
- he was a son of Thomas Craill & Ida Elizabeth Longher
- some known children of Thomas & Ida Craill were:
1891-1975 Robert - as above
1893-1969 David - married Juanita Hampton Barwick
1900-1975 Archie - married Edna Hadfield
1903-1985 Daphne Alice - married Walter Henry Ellis
1904-1996 Harold
1907-1990 Evan

1899-1992 Norah Ancell
- married Samuel Edward Smith in 1917
- he was married to her sister Mary Violet until Mary's death in 1913

1900-1976 James Patrick Ancell

1902-? Margaret Christina Ancell
- married Robert Henry Seymour Coker (1895-1972) in 1919
- his mother was Alice Elizabeth Coker, father not recorded

1903-? Eveline Mabel Ancell

1905-1952 Ivy Jane Ancell
- didn't marry

Thomas AMBROSE & Elizabeth MURRAY, buried Woodville New Zealand

Elizabeth Murray was born about 1845

She married Thomas Ambrose Ambrose in 1876
their (known) children were:
1877-1950 Spencer James Ambrose
- married Ada May Corner in 1903
they had Spencer William Ambrose in 1904, died 1972
- Ada died aged 38 in 1915
- he married Emily Ure (1885-1979) in 1917
- daughter of Robert & Emily Ure

1879-1918 Albert Thomas Ambrose
- served in WWI as a Private
- serial number 47384
- NZEF, 26th Reinforcements Wellington Infantry Regiment, B Company
- embarked 9-6-1917 on the Willochra
- DIED OF WOUNDS 1-10-1918 in France
- buried II.G.10.
Ribecourt British Cemetery, Nord, France

1881-1935 Ada Ethel Ambrose
- died aged 53, didn't marry

1886-1886 Ella Celia Ambrose
- died aged 5 weeks

Elizabeth was living at 50 Coromandel St, Wellington when son Thomas enlisted. She was at 138 Owen St, Wellington when he died in France

- Elizabeth is buried next to her husband Thomas who died aged 75, 13 years before her, in the Old Gorge Cemetery in Woodville.
Her details were provided by her son Spencer James Ambrose on 27-1-1927

William ALDERMAN & Sarah Jane WEST - Hawkes Bay, Manawatu

William Alderman (1848-1912)
married Sarah Jane West (1862-1929) in 1884

their (known) children were:
1885 - Lucy

1886 - Ada Harriet

1887-1948 William - orchardist
- served in WWI as a Rifleman
- serial number 20072
- NZRB, 10th Reinforcements 2nd Battalion, F Company
- embarked 19-8-1916 for Devonport, England on the Aparima
- mother: Mrs W. Alderman, Havelock North, Hawkes Bay
- married Annie Jane Trethewey (1882-1960) in 1929
- she was a daughter of Robert & Selina Trethewey

1889-1964 Richard
- married Bessie Franklin in 1917
- a daughter of Walter Franklin & Emily Williams

1890-1891 Frederick
- died aged 11 months
- he is buried at the Old Gorge Cemetery in Woodville

1894-1929 Arthur - clerk
- married Annie Jones in 1916
- served in WWI as a Corporal
- serial number 49135
- NZEF, 27th Reinforcements Wellington Infantry Regiment, B Company
- embarked 12-6-1917 for Devonport, England on the Tahiti
- next of kin: wife Annie, Don Bank Private Hotel, Wellington

1896-1897 Joseph
- Joseph died at 5 months

1898-1899 Donald OR Daniel Robert
- he died aged 6 months

1902-1980 Thomas Robert

1904- 1904 Ernest
- Ernest died aged 5 days

Thomas ASKEW 1841-1891 - buried Woodville, New Zealand

Thomas Askew was born about 1841
he died in 1891 and is buried in the Old Gorge Cemetery in Woodville

- 3rd October 1891

A settler named Thomas Askew, says the Woodville Examiner, who had a section and house in the settlement, died on Sunday night. Mr and Mrs Askew have been living at Ashhurst but deceased came to the settlement to prepare the way for their return.
Mr Goff who lives near, sent a child over for some vegetables and on her knocking at the door she heard groans and opened it, when deceased was found to be dying. He was attended to but died as above,
Deceased had been complaining of being unwell for sometime and a post mortem examination conducted by Dr Davemport revealed the fact that death resulted from cancer. He has four sons occupying responsible positions at Lyttelton

Please leave a comment if you can help with his wife, children and life in Ashhurst and Woodville

When Thomas died his details were provided by Joseph Barrott on 30-9-1891 - who was Joseph Barrott?
Who was Mr Goff, Thomas's' neighbour

1 comment(s), latest 5 years ago

James Cook ALLOTT 1903-1948 buried Old Gorge Cemetery, Woodville

Jabez Allott (1848-1934) and
Mary Jane Duffell (1851-1928)
- married in New Zealand in 1872
- they were living in Wigan St, Gore in 1914 & 1917 when sons Spencer & Lemuel went to war

- their (known) children were:
1875-1948 Jabez William Allott
- married Agnes McDonald Cook (1873-1967) in 1900
- their (known) children were:
1901-1975 Jabez Miller Allan Allott
- married Daisy Bell Brooks in 1927
- daughter of Samuel & Jane Brooks
1903-1948 James Cook Allot Allott
- married Agnes Jane Coventry Dowdle in 1928
- daughter of WIlliam Dowdle & Jane Coventry Kerr
James is buried in the Old Gorge Cemetery in Woodville with his wife Agnes

1877-1879 George Heathcote Allott
- George's death notice reads: ALLOTT - At Heathcote Farm, Upper Pareora, [South Canterbury]on 26th October, George Heathcote, the son of Jabez and Mary Allott, aged 2 years and 10 months

1878-? Edward Duffell Allott
- married Beatrice McLeod in 1901
their (known) children were:
1901 - Mabel Tui Allott
1902 - Keith Clifton Allott
1907 - Pearl Florence Allott
1909 - Royce Allott

1879-1928 Alice Eliza Allott
- married William Milne in 1903
- son of John Milne & Elizabeth McDonald
their (known) children were:
1904 - Ronald Milne
1906 - Kenneth Milne
1908 - James Milne

1880-1947 Edith Emma Allott
- married Edward Robert Smith in 1903
- son of John Hancock & Mary Smith
they had a daughter in
1907 - Mavis Alice Smith
- probably other children

1882-1974 George Walter Allott
- married Florence Painter in 1906
- daughter of James Painter & Ruth Rodgers
their (known) children were:
1907 - Pearl Florence Allott
1908 - George Walter Allott

1883-1941 Agnes Bertha Allott
- married Frederick William Jackson in 1911
- son of Charles Jackson & Hannah Clark

1885-1918 Lawrence Heathcote Allott
- married Jessie Metcalfe in 1910
- Lawrence died 2-12-1918, possibly during the flu pandemic

1886-1928 Mary Margaret Allott
- married Horace Guy Day in 1913
- son of John & Constance Day

1888-1969 John Wesley Allott
- married Alice Lloyd in 1914
- daughter of Thomas Lloyd & Annie Bradley

1890-1973 Freddy Evans Allott

1891-1965 Lemual Morgan Allott
- served in WWI as a ifleman
- serial number - 55890
- NZ Rifle Brigade, Reinforcements G Company
- married Georgina Alexandria Hanton in 1923

1893-1962 Spencer Mortimer Allott - was a teacher
- served in WWI as a Corporal
- serial number 8/164
- Otago Infantry Battalion
- married Beatrice Uren in 1918
- daughter of Joseph Philip Uren & Edith Alicia Symes
- An article from the Otautau Standard & Wallace County Chronicle dated 17th September 1918:
The empoyees of Thomson & Beattie, Ltd, Gor, met at the residence of Mr J. Allott, Wiggon St, on a recent evening for the dual purpose of bidding farewell to Miss B Uren and of making her a presentation on the eve of her marriage. Mr E. C. Glen (manager) referred to Miss Uren's faithful service and pleasant manner during the three years she had been employed in the dressmaking departmnet and on behalf of her fellow-employees presented her with a silver-mounted cut glass condiment set and sugar dredger and a dainty china ornament. He also asked her acceptance of a gift of household linen from the firm to mark its appreciation of her services. Mr Spencer Allott suitably replied for Miss Uren. A pleasant evening was spent in music and games. Miss Uren has since been married to Mr Spencer Allott, teacher, Heddon Bush and is now a resident of the Western District

1895-1936 Daisy Blanche Allott
- married Arthur Watson in 1921

Elizabeth Emma BARKWITH at Old Gorge Cemetery Woodville, New Zealand

Elizabeth Emma Barkwith was born in 1875

Elizabeth married
- Henry Walter Allan (1871-1948i) in 1898
- Henry was born in New Zealand but his parents names were not recorded

their (known) children were:
1899-1979 Ivan Campbell

1901-1971 Walter Drummond
- married Myrtle Emma Cave in 1924

15-3-1905-1980 - Colin Barkwith
- twin with Gwendoline
- married Rita Alice Fuller in 1928

15-3-1905-? - Gwendoline Mary
- twin with Colin
- married Thomas Allan Mack in 1928
- may have remarried

8-1-1909-1999 Dorothy Isabel
- didn't marry

Elizabeth died 5 years after Henry, not known at this time where Henry is buried

At the time of her death her details were provided by E. Morris jnr (on 28-1-1953) - can you help on who he was, if he was related to her

DAIRY WORKERS at the ARBITRATION COURT 1909 - Manawatu New Zealand

The following article was taken from PAPERS PAST
- additional explanations in brackets are mine -

The Arbitration Court sat in Palmerston (North) yesterday in connection with the Dairy Workers' dispute

Mr Justice Sim presided, with Messrs Brown and McCullough. Mr Pryor acted for the employers and Mr Reardon for the Union

In opening the case for the Union, Mr Reardon dealt with its demands and specially emphasised the demand for preference to unionists
William Dick, first assistant cheese-maker at the Dried Milk Factory, Bunnythorpe, said he had worked at Levin as a butter-maker for £2 10s, accommodation and firing (given fire wood) and 80 hours per week, starting at 4am and working seven days a week. he was not now doing fifty hours a week and the work was as well done. No overtime was given at Levin while at Bunnythorpe he got off at 10am one day weekly with a fortnight off on full pay once a year. That was a general practice. To Mr Pryor: It was 6 years since he worked at Levin. He was quite satified with his present hours but his factory was an exception. It would pay the men if the employers
offered to pay overtime for what they worked over the statutory number of hours in the busy season and have a deduction for hours worked short in the slack season. He had received a letter from his company stating that as the working cost of the factory was too high he was to be dismissed. He supposed that was a reason for his dismisal, but another man was being put on in his place.

William John Neilson, (1835-1909) manager for Nathan & Co at Raumai, was getting £2 7s 6d per week with free house, firewood and milk. Had been three years managing for Nathan & Co at Whakaronga at £2 5s per week, free houe, firewood and milk with 10s a week allowance for carting. He worked for the Dairy Union in Wellington, getting £6 a month to start and rose to £9. He worked from 5am to 4.30pm and sometimes to 9pm. He got 6d an hour overtime. He worked for the Dairy Union at Palmerston North at from £8 to £9 per month. He was on standard wages for nine months but for 3 months was cut down to half pay. For holidays he got a fortnight on full pay or a month on half pay. The creamery manager got preference for the carting contract.

Ralph Thompson, creamery manager NZ Farmers Dairy Union, Otaki, got £10 per month, had worked for Fresh Food & Ice Company at Upper Hutt, Colyton and Tokomaru, wages from £2 2s to £2 5s with whare (house) and 2lb (907 grams) butter, firing and milk when "batching" (wife away) When the factory was closed he got a month on full pay and always a fortnights holiday on full pay. The men got better wages in Otago than in the North Island. To Mr Pryor: he pasteurised cream at Otaki. This was a common practice for creamery managers. To Mr Reardon: That took about an hour a day

Edward Henry Buckley, (1879-1933) creamery manager, NZ Dairy Union, Shannon got £10 per month. Had been 5 years with the Company as general worker at £2 5s per week with usual holiday allowances. To Mr Pryor: Had worked at Linton, £8 per month and usual accommodation allowances

W. Timms, head butter maker at Makino £3 5s per week. Had worked for the Company at various places for 8 or 9 years, wages averaging from 30s to £2 5s for about 12 hours a day. At Makino they worked about 8½ hours

George Maston, creamery manager for Nathan & Co, Fitzherbert East, £9 15s per month for 9 months and £8 15s for 3 months with house, firewood and milk. He also had carting contract for £5 per month but had to find his own horse, cart and harness

Henry Ernest Harvey, (1877-1956) first assistant, NZ Federated Dairy Union. Worked with them for 7 years. Now got £2 15s per week without allowances except a fortnight holiday on full pay. Hours 8½ Summer, 7½ Winter

Michael P Reardon testified that at the conference between employers and employees, he taxed Mr Nathan with threatened dismissal. Mr Nathan denied this, saying that he merely told them "they could choose between the Union and himself but they couldn't serve both". To Mr Pryor: He had no evidence on that point as it would be difficult to get witnesses to give this evidence against their employer. Mr Pryor, commencing his case, pointed out the importance of the case as dealing with one of the largest industries in New Zealand. The hard and fast conditions laid down had proved unsuccessful in Taranaki and Canterbury. It was the farmers who would have to pay increaed working cost. The existence of the industry was at stake as an award might cause the closing down of a large number of factories, thus bringing ruin to the dairy farmers. The conditions might be possible in the larger factories but would not do for the small factories and if the small ones went the large ones must follow.

Mr Pryor likened the present conditions of the dairy industry to that of the flax industry since the award came into force. There were already reductions in the industry and to base an award on present conditions spelt disaster. There had been an increase in the wages earned by dairy factory hands witout an award. He asked that no award be made.
He called: Cyril Robert Beattie,Woodville, (1863-1945) who had been associated with dairy companies since 1895. Local factories would show no profits on the past 3 years, parly due to speculative buying on the part of outide firms, thus giving fictitious values to some factories. The factories who adopted the consignment policy had to pay out on their butter fat at the same basi as those selling to fictitious buyers. Future prospects showed a probable reduction in cheese and certainly in butter, because the experience of speculative firms would not encourage speculation. The failure of large London firms and one large NZ firm would have a serious effect on the industry and prospects for the coming winter were bad as the supply was so abundanct that the local market would be glutted. Up to now his company had always found work and kept their 25 to 30 employees on when the creamery was closed down but they had pointed out that if the award asked for by the Union came into force they would be no
longer able to do that. Any increase in the cost of labour at present would cause directors of small companies to consider closing down, which would be injurious to the industry. His latest advice showed butter at 104s or 10d f.o.b. NZ and it would probably go lower. To Mr Reardon: The price of butter had gone up 100% in the past 13 years and labour had not gone up accordingly
- Cyril married Ethel Bartlett in 1895
- they had Malcolm Barlett Beattie in 1896 & Cyril George Beattie in 1898

Walter Henry Duncan, (1859-1956) manager of the Glen Oroua Dairy Company, corroborated the previou witness. Welington price had dropped a farthing in the last ten days and last night he got information of a further drop form 10d to 9½d. His company considered Siberia a most dangerous competitior. WHen the company first started in 1900 its first year's profit was £12 3s 9d after paying 8d per lb for butter fat. If the wages claimed by the award had been in force the company would have lost £152 or reduce the price of butter fat 1d per lb and would have ceased to exist. In the 4 months of the busy season his company worked 10 hours daily, the second 4 months 7¼ and the last 4 months 5¼ hours. Except in the winter the men worked every Sunday. In the slack time some some factories could only work 16 hour per week. The men got a fortnights holiday on full pay.
- Walter married Maria Neill in 1884
- they had a daughter Gladys
- possibly more

Anthony Edward O'Neale, (1845-1919) a supplier to the Featherston cheese factory said that in 1906-07 his receipts were £1258, including stock in hand at beginning of term, and his outgoings were £1079, including stock in hand, without any drawings by himelf or family. He allowed £177 at cost of living, leaving a margin of £1 7s 1d. In 1907 the revenue was £344 and outgoing £1198, leaving £146 for the maintenance of his family. He had 2 sons, 16 and 13 and 3 daughters partly or wholly employed on the farm.
- his children with wife Louisa were:
1880 - 1960 Ethel
... didn't marry
1881 - 1968 Harold Richard
... married Theresa Ann Hodder in 1915
- she was a sister to Francis John who married Hilda (below)
1882 - 1958 Hilda Frances
... married Francis John Hodder in 1920
- he was a brother to Theresa who married Harold (above)
1884 - ? Ettie
1886 - 1972 Lottie Kathleen
... married Alfred Cyrus Silverwood in 1913
1895 - 1950 Raymond Carrol
... married Dorothy Bona Dyson in 1921

Walter Elliott, Rongokokako, near Eketahuna, submitted balance sheets showing that in 1906-07 his income was £386 and expenditure £186 leaving a gross profit of £200. From this had to be deducted interest on capital, his own wages, loss on stock, etc leaving a loss of £55. In 1907-08 the recipts were £287, expenditure £200, leaving £87 balance. After deducting interest, wages of wife and self, loss of stock, there remained a net loss of £176. If his returns from the factory were reduced owing to increased wages he would have to close down. Two of his nieghbours had already given up dairying for sheep.
To Mr Reardon: He paid £5 15s p.a. for the farm and now valued the farm at £17 10s. He had not put all his time on the farm, having to work outside for parts of years to keep the farm going.

James Elliott, Mauriceville, farmed 129 acres freehold and 30 acres leasehold. In 1908-07 he received £215 and spent £98. When interest at 5%, loss on stock and depreciation were allowed for, the net profit was £31. In 1907-08 the receipts were £191, expenditure, wages, rent etc, £136, leaving a balance of £55. When interest etc was allowed there was a debit of £20

Peter Morensen, a Mauriceville supplier, in 1906-07 had £22 loss. In 1907-08 £97 loss

William Alfred Mason, Nireaha, said that in 1906-07 he had a credit balance of £3 11s ... more at link

.. The employers also objected to the holidays on Christmas Day and Good Friday. Against the long hours of the busy season there were the short hours in the slack season and the 14 days holidays. He claimed that the union was not dissatisfied with the present conditions...

James Branch, (1881-1951) manager of the Mauriceville butter factory said the staff consisted of one assistant and himself. The assistant started at £2 and was now receiving £2 5s. He did not wish to come under an award. That was the general feeling. The hours were 10 a day for 3 months, 8 for 4 months and 6 for 2 months. The temperature affected the time taken to cool the cream and sometimes it was necessary to mark time till the proper temperature was reached. If the wages went up the factory would have to close down. To Mr Reardon: The men's claims would increase the wages bill £1 a week. He did not wish to come under an award. He was receiving quite enough. If directors sacked the assistant and put on a youth the factory could come under the award without increasing the wages bill.

C.H.J. Johnston, secretary and general manager Waverley Dairy Co, gave evidence that the hours at the butter factory varied from 35 per week up to 57 as at present

Arthur Cecil Perry, (1868-1942) director, Rongotea factory said last years output was 185 tons. The staff consisted of a manager, who was also the butter-maker, at £250 a year, first assistant £2 10s, third £2 and casual men at £1 15s.

James Adamson, manager on contract, Featherston cheese factory ... (more at link) as far as he knew there were no members of the union in the Wairarapa

Alexander McKenzie, manager Taratahi Dairy Co, Carterton .. (more at link)

OF INTEREST - 100 hundreds years later
£2 a week in 1909 is the same in 2009 as $298
- for a 50 hour week (as they were doing in the slack times) that would be $5.98 an hour.

the SETTLERS cemetery - Dannevirke, New Zealand

The SETTLERS cemetery is also known as the Dannevirke Old Cemetery
It is in George St, Dannevirke in the Manawatu

Dannevirke meaning "Danish creation" or "Danes' work" is known for its Scandinavian heritage, which dates back to 1872 when 21 Danish and Norwegian families arrived at the port of Napier and built their initial settlement in a clearing of the Seventy Mile Bush.
Dannevirke for which the town was named is an extensive Viking-age fortification line which had a strong emotive symbolic role for 19th Century Danes, especially after the site had fallen into German hands in the German-Danish War of 1864 - a recent and very painful event for these settlers.

The settlement quickly earned the nickname of "sleeper town", as the town's purpose was to provide totara sleepers for the Napier - Wellington railway line. At one stage the area had 50 operating sawmills. After the native bush was cleared, the land was turned into pasture for grazing animals.

The town's cemeteries are of considerable importance historically, and the settlers' cemetery attracts many visitors

A list of all those buried in the Settlers Cemetery

- includes
Alfredton Rd - Eketahuna
Alfredton Memorial
Kaitawa - Pahiatua
Kumeroa - Woodville
Mangaoranga - Eketahuna
Mangatianoka - Pahiatua
Mangatera - Dannevirke
Newman - Eketahuna
Old Gorge - Woodville

Pinfold Rd Lawn - Woodville
RSA Woodville
Settlers - Dannevirke

John CHALMERS - from Linlithgow, Scotland to pioneer Woodville, New Zealand

John Chalmers was born 1819 in Linlithgow, Scotland
He was married to Anee Drew ? probably in Scotland
(maybe Drew is her surname)

All their children are not known
- can you help with info ?

John died in his garden in Woodville in 1900
his details were provided by his son in law
- Robert Elliot Beattie (1855-1945) on 30-3-1900
- (married Jane Chalmers in 1892)
- Jane was born 1859

- 31st July 1884
MARRIAGE - McPherson-Chalmers - At the Manse, Waipukurau, on the 29th July, by the Rev. Alexander Grant, Presbyterian minister, James McPherson, Dannevirke (formerly of Strathspey, Scotland) to Agnes Drew, elder daughter of John Chlamers (formerly of Linithgowshire, Scotland)
- Agnes was born 1855

- 3rd September 1887
Mr John Chalmers wrote claiming £1 damages for the use of a gravel pit - The Council declined to pay more than had been paid to Messrs Sainsbury and Logan and would be glad of further explanation in the Magistrate's Court
(by 2009 that £1 was worth $182)

- 30th March 1900
DEATH OF A PIONEER - Woodville, Thursday
John Chalmers, a pioneer settler, was found dead in hs garden. He was over 80 years of age. His wife predeceased him by a couple of months
- (she actually died 14 months before him)

- 10th April 1900
CHALMERS - At Hopeton Farm, Napier-road, Woodville, suddenly, on March 28th ult., John Chalmers, aged 80 years. Much respected and deeply regretted

Also buried in Old Gorge is his wife Ann, a son John, (1859-1908)
his daughter Jane (1859-1945) and members of her family, his daughter Agnes Drew McPherson (1855-1925) is buried at the Settlers Cemetery in Dannevirke with members of her family