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ROBERT EDWARD KERR; At Bondi Junction

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JUNE 1, 2011

Prolog

I was fourteen years of age when my Grandfather, Robert Edward died in November 1945. Luckily I had grown up in his presence and had got to know and love him. Since about 1934 I had lived only two doors away from his home in Gowrie Avenue, Bondi Junction and I saw him on a daily basis.

But I did not really know him as a person and to understand what a wonderful and dedicated family man he was. It was only until my late years when I started Family research and switched from the Dumbrell family to the Kerrs that I fully understood what a wonderful person he was.

I was fascinated when I found Roberts father, Samuel and discovered the things that he had experienced when he left Northern Ireland by joining the British army in 1842. My interest suddenly soured to a maximum when I read his exploits during the Maori War and his early days in Sydney in the 1850s where he commenced his business and family.

I got to know were they lived and understand the conditions that confronted them when he opened his bootmaking shop in North George Street, The Rocks. But, Robert Edward was a baby in the family and he was mainly hidden by his elder siblings activities.

My research, since then, has concentrated on his family and it has discovered many wonderful aspects that I never knew.

I have and still am very close to Robert and his family and I can recall many loving happenings and people that I was associated with over the years.

I look back knowing how lucky I was to have a wonderful grandfather and to thank him and his wife, Elizabeth for developing such as a group of family that continues in his footsteps.

Robert Dumbrell


ROBERTS SINGLE DAYS.
.

Like many Babies in families, little is known about his childhood except Robert was born in Sydney on September 14, 1872 His parents Samuel and Jane had lived in Sydneys Rocks since the early 1850s and with six older siblings arriving progressively. Roberts first few years were spent at 187 George Street North which was a ground floor bootshop with dwelling on the upper floor. The combined business and dwelling moved to 728 George Street Haymarket in 1875. Samuel then opened another site at 92 Miller Street, Victoria (North Sydney). The family remained in the Lower North Shore for about 10 years but still conducted the business section in Sydney and North Sydney. Im sure that the domestic area was much more space that in their early years.

NOTE: Samuel's Journal is available on this site.

So Roberts earlier years were spent moving his home to a number of locations. Perhaps this constant change became part of his culture as it continued right to his final destination at Bondi Junction in the early 1930s

Robert was the second last child in the family. The last was Catherine who was born in 1876 but died the next year. However, his six older siblings ranged from two years to 19 years older than him.

Samuel business progress had steadily increased since his first days in The Rocks. By 1880 he had purchased a number of premises in Cumberland Street and in 92 Miller Street, Victoria which is now part of North Sydney. He had moved into the furniture dealing area and had operated a number of warehouses for this practice. One was at 187 Cumberland Street next to his home at 189.

This gave Robert the opportunity to enter a new field of employment that would be very handy in the family business I believe that Robert was signed up as a carpenters apprentice about 1886 and joined his elder brother in the Kerrs enterprise. His occupation was noted by his daughter, Wynne in her family Journal when she remarked that during the 1929 depression Dad found it hard to earn a living as a builder.

Like most families of the age, music was a great part of their lives. The Kerrs were in this category. Robert was able to develop a very good baritone voice which he put to great use by giving many musical recitals. He also was gifted as a good flute player.

His most determined action that I have found so far was to sailed to Western Australian when he left Sydney at the age of 19 to go prospecting at Kalgoolie and Coolgardie. Stepping ashore at Freemantle he and his mates commenced the walk across the desert. How long that he was panning is not known but is known that he and his mates found no gold to speak of. Only food was damper. He was broke.
Luckily, he had a gold sovereign that his mother had sowed into his jacket That lasted a short time. How he got home is a story to be told.

The next few years would probably be put to good use with Robert developing his musical skill, work in the family business especially with his eldest brother Samuel Joseph and learning building techniques. His father was in his 70s and mother in her 60s. They moved to Paddington in the mid 1890 where Jane, his mother died in 1896

His future had a dramatic change on one occasion as reported in this extract from his daughter, Wynne Linda family document:

My father, Robert Kerr and my mother Annie Robson met at a ball in the Paddington Town Hall in 1898. My mother was a good pianist and she was asked to play the piano to accompany a man to sing, while the orchestra was at Supper."

The next year they were married at Paddington and had seven daughters.

Their story that my mother told me was very similar:

However, before one performance his partner was unable to attend so he obtained the temporary services of a Anne Elizabeth Robson who lived around the corner at 53 Elizabeth Street, Paddington. Some how, this situation became permanent and the two became closer.

It is not known if the couple were acquainted but as they lived only a stones throw from each other in Paddington so the odds were favorable. They married in Paddington in 1899. It is not known which church that they were wed. They were of different religions but all the children were baptized Catholics. Whats your guess?

Annes parents were born in North Ireland. John Robson was a policeman attached to Paddington Police and he was born in County Fermanagh. His wife, Margaret nee McAdam was born at Derrycorr in County Armargh. Anne had five sisters of which she was the second eldest.

Robert courted Elizabeth until they married in Paddington on September 22, 1899. It is not known which church that they were wed. They were of different religions but all the children were baptized Catholics. Whats your guess?







THE FIRST FEW YEARS OF MARRIAGE. (1899 - )

Their first residence may have been in Paddington but they soon moved to Newtown.
The NSW Sands Directory shows that Robert operated a Draper shop at 198 Enmore Road, Newtown and was there until 1902. Im sure that his experience assisting his father in the shoe trade was a big help. His first baby and the first of eight daughters and no sons was born in 1901 and register at Enmore. She was Florence Doris and I believe that she was named after her mothers aunt, Sarah Florenda who was born in 1873 and died in 1874.

Florenda was baptized at St. Patricks at Church Hill which opens an interesting story to this document. Robert and Anne were living at their business site at Newtown and Father Samuel at Paddington. Yet St Patricks was chosen as the venue for the ceremony. Well remember that the family had spent many years living at George Street North and St Patricks was their old Parish Church. And this leads to the fact that Roberts elder brother, John Alexander had married Sophia Carlson in the same church the previous year. These two facts open the door to Sophias family story and the couples future married life.

The second item is that Roberts eldest brother, Samuel Joseph was living in Erskinville and he may have been an influence in attraction his much younger sibling to the busy shopping area of Newtown. Also, Samuel Joseph had many years experience in the retail industry and this could help Roberts early days in his first business.

1903 was a sad one for the Kerr family with the passing of Samuel at Paddington. He was 80 years of age and had a very colourful life that embraced Ulster, England, NSW and the first Maori wars in northern island of New Zealand and back to Sydney. He was buried with his wife and children at Rookwood cemetery Joy did arrive with John Alexander and Sophias first born with John Alex (junior) coming that same year.

Robert, Annie and baby Florenda carried on their lives at Newtown over 1902 and then moved back to their family from whence they came in Paddington. Samuel and the remaining single family were living at 83 Paddington Street near Elizabeth Street. Roberts actual residence has not been found as yet. This seems to be the start of a number of times that they moved over the over the next twenty years.

But things were not all bad as Mabel (Mamie) Roberta was born there in 1903.

The Sands Directory then records Robert and Anne residing at 141 Denison Street, Camperdown and then Adelaide Street, Woollahra in 1905 with their third child and daughter, Anne Esma arriving in that year.

My early research could not find any evidence relating to the work that Robert was engaged in since he left Newtown. Examining the Sands report it shows no details of the old family shoe and furniture business being conducted in the Sydney area after for a number of years before Samuels death. Sure, it does reveal that Samuel owned a number of properties in the Rocks area and that they were rented out. But these disappeared from the directory after Samuels passing.

My initial thoughts are that Robert followed his eldest brother, Samuel Joseph in the shoe trade. I remember seeing a host of good shoe implements and tools in his Gowrie Avenue home in the forties. Then recently I received a copy of the Kerrs family history written by his daughter, Winifred, She stated that Robert worked as a builder and watchmaker in the twenties. There is no indication if he preformed this work in this these early years.

I have a number of the Kerrs musical sheets and one collection of about a dozen items bound to form a set has Roberts writing with the date, 1900 and address, Enmore Road. They are well worn but worn well. Again, my thoughts are that he used the large, home made album in his recitals over the coming years and in the entertainment welfare of his guests at Katoomba- which I will discuss below.

The movements between residences and the girls kept coming in before 1911.
They spent 1906 in Adelaide Street, Woollahra and then made a surprise move to the Dulwich Hill area and remain local until the twenties. 1907 was Wardell Road where Dorothy Margaret was born on July 11.

The next few years is shown below:

1908 to 1909 5 Pile Street, Marrickville
1910 to 1914 246 Livingston Road, Marrickville
1915 to 1916 8 Barnsby Grove, Dulwich Hill
1918 to 1920 5 Pile Street, Marrickville
1921 to 1922 141 Wardell Road, Dulwich Hill

In this period of time, the daughters kept coming:

1910 July 5 Wynne and Zophia
1914 October 4 Vida

Florenda being the eldest was elected to help with the growing family. She left school after completing her primary education and then was a regular carer of her younger siblings.


THE NEXT BIG MOVE

Florenda Doris celebrated her 21st birthday on March 13, 1921 and Robert was sitting in a draughty position in the home in Wardle Street on that day.. He became ill and was taken to Marrickville Hospital where he was diagnosed with pneumonia. It was a very serious illness at that period as there were no drugs to assist in his care. He nearly died. Luckily, with careful nursing he recovered.

Even so, he needed time to be nursed back to good health. The decision was made to sell the house and leave Sydney to move to the Blue Mountains which were very popular at that time. The family sold their Wardell Street house and bought a house at 22 Loftus Street, Katoomba. The year was 1923.

They settled in number 22 and to maintain their financial level they took in borders.
It must have been a reasonable large cottage with Robert and Anne with seven daughters between the ages of 21 down to seven years of age. And then the borders.
At last, Robert Edward occupation is clearly understood.

Florenda, the eldest daughter was need in the household and Mamie at 19, opened a Millinery and dressmaker Academy in Katoomba and probably at Loftus Street.
Esma, in her final year at school was 16 and helping at home and also helped caring for her younger sisters, Dorothy, 14. Winifred and Sophia (Zoe), the twins 10 and Vida 7 at school.

Sometime in those early years as the business became more popular it was advertised as the Wrexham Guest House. The building was extended and the Tennis Court was a great social area. The girls all played tennis and photos in my possession show many happy occasion on or in group photos outside the court.


A Tourist advertisement is a follows:

WREXHAM GUEST HOUSE

22 LOFTUS STREET,

KATOOMBA

Description
Wrexham House is full of 19th Century charm secluded, peaceful and quiet. Nestled in extensive mature gardens offering shaded outdoor eating areas and a clay tennis court. Quaint rooms sleep up to 7 with private entrance. Includes 2 bathrooms, cosy sitting/TV/library room as well as self contained kitchenette with cooking facilities.
Centrally located in the heart of South Katoomba with an easy five minute walk to Katoomba village, cafes, transport, magical cliff top walks and Scenic rail/skyway.



Dont forget the familys musical ability. It was an important segment of the Guest house facilities which was a major part of attracting guests. Robert and Anne was still a musical couple and this feature was handled down to their off springs. It wasnt just the parents who provided the musical entertainment in the evenings as the girls had a very experienced and professional teacher in her mother and she developed and directed them into ablely be part of the evenings show.

And then there were the car tours to take the guest to see the wonderful mountain views and facilities that had attacked them to the area. The Guest House provided a tourist car with one of the older girls driver to ensure that no view was not missed

My Kerr musical relics include many of the Kerrs musical sheets and many have the owners name and date written on the front cover. From what I was told and examining the many photos taken on the premises it appears that the Kerrs were a very happy group and made many friends. One family that remained very close to Anne and the girls in the mid 1960s was Lillie Rankins and her two daughters Dorothy and Lillian. They too can be seen in a number of snaps in and around the mountains,

Contact was maintained with their family in Sydney. Being a popular area and now within easy reach a number of family would visit and stay at the Wrexham.

The younger girls who attended the local primary school would sit for the Qualifying Certificate at the end of their primary training. Most students left school at that stage and looked for work. But, finding a position proved very difficult.

This was particularly difficult for the twins, Wynne and Zophia. They were unable to find a job outside the Guest House responsibilies.


Let me insert a section of Wynnes Family Journal describing the familys predicament at the time.

My mother decided to take us to Sydney to get work. Mum, Mamie, Dorothy and us twins found a flat in Woollahra. Mamie had been trained as a Millinery, Dorothy found work at Anthony Horderns And Sophia at a photographers and me (Wynne) in an office and I went to business College at night to train as a shorthand typist


However, the link to the Wrexham was not immediately broken. Sands Directory stated that a Mrs. Robert Edward Kerr was the proprietor until 1931. Robert stayed on with Florenda, Esma and young Vida. My thoughts are that this happened in 1928 as Vida was 16 and completing her at the local school. Qualifying Certificate
at the local school.

Winfred continues:


We moved to Dulwich Hill and Dad, Flo, Esma and Vida came down and we rented a house (at 34 Kays Street) so we were all together again.

But the depression was beginning about 1930. I lost my position but was fortunate having a friend of the family working as Secretary of the Public Service Board. I had a dictation and typing test and passed so was given a position in the Family Endowment Department.

To aid confusion to this situation Sands Directory stated that a Mrs. Robert Edward Kerr was the proprietor of the Wrexham until 1931.












The Thrifty Thirties

The 3rd GENERATION


Early 1930 were to prove a very difficult time the whole world. But it started with tragic circumstances for the Kerrs when Mamie suddenly died in Sydney in October of that year she was a young beautiful woman of 28 years with the world at her feet.

The girls talked of her to me on many occasions and their deep loss of their beloved sister was evident over many decades. Although gone, she was still around and part of the ever day activities of the Kerr family.

Mamie as laid to rest in Sutherland Cemetery.


Earlier in the year on March 1 saw Florenda become the first of the girls to marry. The lucky man was Garnet Stanley Grover Dumbrell, a joiner / cabinet maker by trade. His first wife, Alice Cooper had also died suddenly the previous year in Brookvale leaving Garnet with a 7 year son, Allan. Mamie had been Florendas matron of Honor at the wedding at St Bridgets Marrickville. The reception was held at the Marrickville Masonic Hall.

The most popular honeymoon area was Katoomba but Im sure that Florence and Garnet did not go there.

The newly married, with Allan in tow repaired to 62 Hill Street, Dulwich Hill, a house that I believe, but cant prove, is where Garnet and Allan lived before the wedding..

Garnet, a carpenter and cabinet maker had built and contracted the building of a number of fine houses including two for his father, Henry. The first was at Victoria Street, Greenwich about 1920 and the other at Roger Street, Brookvale.



Again, Wynne comes to our aid by reporting:

In spite of the very gloomy financial condition:

we managed to enjoy ourselves, playing tennis and moved out to Bondi when Mamie died. We could go swimming at weekends and then there ewer Balls on, held in the Ballrooms of the large stores.

An example was the Empress Ballroom at Mark Foys Department Store in Liverpool Street, Sydney where the popular venue was situated on the top level.

Their new home was at 9 Gowrie Avenue, Bondi Junction a large three bedroom semi very close the Oxford Streets busy shopping centre.


Early 1931 saw the family situation suddenly improve with the arrival of the first grandchild to the family. Florenda and Garnet, still living in Dulwich Hill saw the arrival of a son that they named after several family members:

Robert after Robert Edward his mothers father
Henry after Henry Dumbrell his fathers father
John after John Alexander his mothers cousin

Robert Henry John was not only the first grandchild but the first boy born in Robert Edward direct line since his birth in 1873 and the first boy born in Annie Elizabeth direct line since her fathers birth in 1837

What a change in the household with some glad tiding putting a thin sheet over the sadness that they had experience the year before. But Mamie was still strongly in their thoughts.

In the meantime what was Robert Edward doing?

(Remember, there are two Roberts now!)

In 1932 he was 60 years of age and had gone through a life-time of adventures including raising seven daughters. The Wrexham was behind him and Anne Elizabeth was back to complete the present day family. Now a boy had arrived. What could be next?

The family were a very close group but I believe that Florenda felt isolated living in Dulwich Hill and yearned to be closer to them. Dulwich Hill to Bondi was a long way in those days. This probably persuaded Garnet to move to the Eastern Suburb. This was achieved by finding and opening a hardware shop on the north-west corner of Oxford and Adelaide Street, Bondi Junction. A flat on the second floor of the building was included in the contract. This was a ten minutes walk to Gowrie Avenue and they were sitting in Bondi Junction major shopping centre.


(This is now part of the large Westfield shopping Complex)


My judge is that I was 3 years old when we moved to the Junction. The Flat was on the second floor and looking across Oxford Street to Pine Street. About 10 narrow, dark steps led down from Adelaide Street to a dim backyard. For some reason I was given a three wheel metal bike with the handle bars taller than I. I found it great but it was soon retrieved when I was discovered riding it on the downhill footpath of Adelaide Street towards Grafton Street.

Next image is Gowrie Avenue with me licking a McNivenss icecream bucket and viewing the empty one on the window ledge when I was recovering from the popular adenoid and tonsillitis operation at the War Memorial Hospital in Waverley. Actually, I believe I was the first of our family to be admitted to this hospital.

In the mean time, Dorothy Margaret was keeping company with Patrick Francis (Frank) Moran, a young Clerk of Petty Sessions Officer with the NSW Government Legal Department. The association developed and they were married at Holy Cross Catholic Church in Adelaide Street, Woollahra in 1932. I believed that they lived at Bondi. Beach. Frank was born and raised in Mudgee. His early rural life seemed to be a great influence in his later life.

Their first child, a boy they named John who was born in 1934.

Amazing, two boys in a row. Keep it up!

The War Memorial Hospital was the local general hospital for the Bondi population and I would image that John was born there.

The remaining single girls were all working in the city. Esma used her dressmaking skills to work in the industry with the workshop situated near Elizabeth and Reserve Street. Wynne was still in the Public Service, Zoe at the photographers and Vida was employed as a shop assistant at Coles Liverpool Street.

The depression was still hurting but the girls were still the happy group and getting around enjoying themselves. I have a number of photos taken at Bondi Beach showing the girls with family and many friends, And they had two young babies to enjoy.









1935

As this decade slowly moved onwards, things also slowly continued to improve for Robert Edward and his slowly increasing family. Luck was in when the semi just two down from Robert at number 5 Gowrie Avenue became vacant. Garnet and especially Florenda jump in very quickly and moved into the rented property. My initial recollection of the new home was very happy as it was very similar to my Grand parents place which included a small backyard which I could put good use to.
I also clearly remember being hospitalized at the War Memorial with the common young childs (in those days) illness Adenoids and tonsils.


TO BE CONTINUED


Tradition returned back in 1936 when Janice was born at The War Manorial to Dorothy and Frank. The family was still living at North Bondi.



but this changed when Frank was commissioned to the Law Court at Milton.



THINGS TO COME.

JANICE WAS BORN IN 1936, WHERE ? War Memorial
FRANK MOVES TO MILTON WHEN ? Mid 1939
ANNE WAS BORN IN 1939. WHERE ? MILTON
WW2 STARTS IN 1939
Zoe married Harry in 1939



TO BE CONTINUED 07 MAY 2011



NEW CHAPTERS

* 1940 to 1945

Margaret McAdam from Derrycorr, County Armagh

MARGARET McADAM

Produced by Robert H. Dumbrell November 14, 2008


Margaret was my mothers grandmother who was born in the small village of Derrycorr, County Armagh, Ulster on 8.10.1837. Derrycorr is southwest of Belfast and about 10 miles northwest of Portadown and part of the parish of Tartaragham. She was the fifth child of nine born to Henry and Judith McAdam . She was a Protestant and in 1863 she migrated to NSW with her elder sister, Sarah, sailing on the Sir John Moore.

The two girls initially stayed with their cousin, Isaac Stevenson at Surry Hills, on the then outfringe of Sydneys east. Sometime in the next year or two, they moved a few miles east to a rapidly growing village named Paddington. The area at that time was very rural and not part of Sydney Town. It was situated on South Head Road that was the path to the old lighthouse at South Head.

The original George Street Military Barracks, were in the middle of Sydney Town (Barrack Street) and as Sydney expanded, it was decided to move the soldiers out of Sydney Town and build new barracks adjacent to settlement.. This was done in the 1840s along South Head Road (now named Oxford Street) at Paddington just a short distance from Darlinghurst..

Paddington expanded with the new troops and their families. The soldiers wives used to set up roadside stalls there to sell preserved plums and home-made pies to the gentry who rode pass on their way to Bellevue Hill or Watsons Bay. Around the barracks clustered the first sandstone cottages that were built for the Scottish sand-masons that built the barracks. (See Shadforth Lane where some original stone houses is still there and in good condition)

After the George Street Barracks were closed, the military tailors, saddlers etc, moved to be near their customers. Taverns like the Britannia and the Greenwood Tree did a roaring trade near the barrack gates. Shops opened and people were attracted to settle in the new buildings sitting in the narrow streets.

Margaret was part of this growth.

Margaret had met and was courted by another young Irishman named John Robson who also lived in Paddington. John was born in 1837 in Ireland and raised in the adjoining county of Fermanagh. He arrived in Morton Bay in 1863 on the Duke of Newcastle. The family rumour is that he enlisted as a mounted policeman in Queensland. The Queensland Police Museum has no record of this but their records did not start until 1865. Let me include an email that I received from the Queensland Police Museum after my initial inquiry:

We do not have any record of a John Robson in 1860. The Queensland Police Force came into being in 1864. Records prior to this time are in NSW. There was a John Matthew Robson sworn in on the 04.03.1885 as a constable. He resigned on the 15.06.1885.

Regards
Virginia

Qld Police Museum
Qld Police Service
200 Roma St


However, in 1867, he appeared in Sydney when he married Margaret at the Church of England, Paddington. John joined the NSW Police Force later in that year on 26 November.

The NSW police Archives gives a good description of John. I quote:

John was born in Ireland in 1837, was 5 feet eleven tall, with brown eyes and hair and fresh complexion and smart appearance. He was married, a Protestant by faith and assigned to the Sydney Metropolitan area.

His initial rank was probational constable.

The police area that John was assigned was Darlinghurst and my family told me that John was outposted to work in Paddington where he stayed until he retired in 1898.

MARRIED LIFE.

I am not sure where John and Margaret first lived after their marriage but as they were married in Paddington and I imagine that they lived there. Also, Paddington police station did not exist in those days and the control station for the area was Darlinghurst. There may have had an outpost at Paddington as the area was rapidly growing. My family told me that John worked in Paddington until he retired. They also said that he was in charge of the station but even so, he could have been at a low rank. NSW police records show that he retired as a special 1st class constable.

Family life really started in 1869 when their first daughter, Sarah was born. The records say Sydney. Unfortunately, Sarah died in the same year.

Margaret Jane followed in 1870 and was the first of the family to be born in Paddington. A years break and my grandmother, Anna Elizabeth arrived in 1871, also in Paddington as are the girls that followed. Another Sarah, Sarah Florence was born in 1873 but died next year. Edith arrived in 1875 and finally, Mabel G in 1879..

Result, six girls of which four survived.

Of the six girls, five were named after Margaret and her sisters back in Ireland.

Anna, my grandmother told me that John was officer-in-charge at Paddington. and lived with his family in a number of houses in Paddington. Eventually, in 1884, the first record that I found was in the Sands Directory states that he lived in Underwood street and he moved to 53 Elizabeth in 1888 where he remained for the rest of his days. The three-storey building at 53 Elizabeth Street, Paddington is still there and in good condition.

The family grew as Paddington grew.. The period from 1870 to 1885 saw rapid expansion in the area but mainly on top of the hill near Oxford Street (South Head Road). The stone Police Station and Court were built in the 1890s.



THE YEARS OF MARRIAGES

The four remaining girls married.

Margaret Jane in 1889 Paddington to George Begg.
Anna Elizabeth in 1899 Paddington to Robert Edward Kerr
Edith in 1902 Paddington to Thomas Malony
Mabel G in 1922 Paddington to Thomas John Cubitt

Margaret Jane married George Begg and into a very interesting family. The first mentioned that I found was when a John Elly Begg, in 1860, rented the old tannery in Paddington, which, with its adjoining land, formed a large portion of the Underwood Estate and extended from Glenmore Road and Cascade Street to Point Piper Road. Sometime afterwards he purchased the block and subdivided it. He sold a large portion of the surrounding land, some for as much as 10 pounds a foot and enlarged the tannery.

In 1868 he purchased the Engerhurst Estate property in Glenmore Road and later Ormandy House (now a trust property in Oxford Street)which was immediately behind his property. He put Begg Street, now Ormandy Street, through to South Head Road.

Anna Elizabeth in marrying Robert Edward Kerr also married into a business family. Her father-in-law was Samuel Kerr was born in county Fermanagh, Northern Ireland which is adjacent to Annas familys county Armagh.. Samuel was a shoemaker by trade and had joined the British Armys 58th Regiment (The Black Cuffs) in 6 August 1842 and trained at the army barracks at Chatham, Kent. The 58th provided the guards for 19 convict ships that left Deptford in London docks for NSW & Tasmania. He had travelled to NSW in 1844 on the convict ship Maria Somes which left Deptford on 10 April to arrive in Sydney on 17 August that year. He was stationed at the Old Barracks (now the Lancer) at Parramatta for 7 months before being sent to Auckland to fight in the Maori War. He was discharged in Auckland on 31 December, 1849 where afterwards he married Jane OConner, a native of Glasgow.. They sailed to Sydney about 1851 with the first of their children arriving the next year.

She married Robert Edward Kerr, the youngest son of Samuel & Jane at Paddington in 1899.

Robert Edward was raised in The Rocks where his fathes flourished running his successful bootmaking business for over 35 years. Robert Edward and his two brothers learnt the trade and used it to further enhance their own futures.

I recently was told by a cousin how the two met. It seems that Robert Edward was a popular baritone and conducted musical receitals in the area. Om one occassion his accompanist was not well so Robert in his endeavour to find a fine pianist found one in Anna Elizabeth. From that time fate was sealed and the pair became engaged and married.

They both exhibited their musical skills many time to their enthrolled family and friends.


Edith married Thomas Maloney at Paddington in 1902.


Mabel G married Thomas John Cubitt at Paddington in 1922.



Constable John Robson

Although very little is known about Johns police work, it must be remembered that he was in the midst of the every growing Paddington area where it progressed from a quite rural area with only South Head Road wandering along its ridge on its way to Watsons Bay. With the comings of Victoria Barracks came the rapid expansion that opened up the eastern parts of Sydney.
His police records show that he started as a Probational Constable on 26.11.1867, promoted to 1st class constable on 01.02.1875. Family hand-downs state that John was Officer-in-Charge at Paddington. However, this is not been proved.. He retired on 27 May, 1898, aged 60, living at 53 Elizabeth Street, Paddington. He received a pension of seven & sixpence.




The end of the generation.

There is a very strange factor to the end of this generation. John died in his Elizabeth Street home on 6 October, 1910 and Margaret, his wife followed him 11 days later on the 17th. They are buried in the Anglican section (20) of Waverley cemetery together with their daughters Margaret Begg & Mabel Cubitt. The site is in very good condition.



TO BE CONTINUED.





RECOMMENDED OTHER KERR DOCUMENTS:

Samuel Kerr: Soldier, Business and Family Man
Robert Edward Kerr: My Grandfather

IN PREPARATION:

* Carl Carlson:

William Dumbrell from Lewes, Sussex : A New Beginning

A NEW BEGINNING.


The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the Illawarra.


Compiled and edited by Robert Dumbrell Email : robertd9@bigpond.net.au

Part 3 of 4 parts : 3 March, 2009


INTRODUCTION :
This draft document, number three in a series, is a record of my great grandfather, William Dumbrell who left Sussex in 1843 and arrived in Sydney in February, 1844. Ken Brown of Chatswood, NSW, contributed the original document with additions by the editor.
This document follows Dumbrell Origins by Ken Brown and Dumbrells in Lewes by the Editor.

EARLY DAYS IN SUSSEX.

William Dumbrell was born in Lewes the chief town in East Sussex on 24th May 1815 to Richard and Jane. He was a carpenter by trade. His siblings were Francis (b 1803), Jane (b 1805) George (b 1809), Sarah (b 1811), Edmund (b 1813) and Martha (b 1818). All except Francis and George were christened in All Saints Church, Lewes. Francis and George were christened at St. Michaels, Lewes.

Lewes is about 20 miles north east of Brighton and is situated in a hilly area on the Ouse River. The river cuts through the hills to the Channel and passes the eastern edge of Lewes. Until recent times it was navigable by coastal vessels but today gives little evidence of that. In early times there were several villages in very close proximity to Lewes, those being Southover to the south and Cliffe rising across the river to the east. Today, they are all one major town. Situated on High Street sits the remains of the impressive Lewes castle.

The town tradition centres mainly around three sectarian events but most prominently Guy Fawkes and the failed Gunpowder Plot (1605) to destroy Parliament. Each year on November 5th, Lewes remembers these events with spectacular Bonfires and the parade of Bonfire Boys (and girls) with their tar barrels and effigies.

During the 1840s Lewes became a major railway junction fostering a host of family firms, managed and owned by local residents. Manufacturing enterprises, breweries, a shipyard and printing works all saved the town from decline as shopkeepers faced stiff competition from Brighton, Hastings and Tunbridge Wells. It has been the administration centre of East Sussex for many years.

William's father, Richard, a master cooper, was born in Lewes in 1782. In those days there were several breweries in Lewes but only one remains today. William followed tthe family tradition of cooper makers. William's mother, Jane Myles, was born about 1785, probably in Lewes. Richard was the 7th child of an older William Dumbrell, born about 1742 in Lewes whose wife, Catharina probably was a Huguenot like William. They were married in Lewes on May 2, 1803 at All Saints Church.

About 1830 Richard, again in the family tradition, arranged for his son William to be apprenticed as a carpenter & joiner. This was a seven-year apprenticeship. It was customary for an apprentice to leave his master on completing his servitude. William left Lewes to work as a tradesman and reappeared in Brighton where he married Henrietta Grayling in St Nicolas Church on 17 March, 1839, aged 27. This lady died shortly after the marriage believingly of child birth & this tragedy seems to have caused William to decide to emigrate to Australia.

Henrietta was born in Lewes on 20 July 1810 and was nearly 5 years older than William. Her parents, William and Sarah, nee Ellis, had 6 children, four being daughters.

England was then in the grip of a depression and had a large unemployment problem. With resources under stress the government had to find a way to relieve the pressure of this situation. They saw depopulation as a means to this end and with the Australian colonys labour shortage, a solution was found. They encourage migration to the colonies. The Bounty migration Programme was instituted. (See later in this document).


1843 : THE VOYAGE TO SYDNEY

William migrated to Sydney in 1843 & sailed on the Barque "Neptune" a bounty migrant. His parents were still living. The ship sailed from Deptford, on the Thames near London's docklands with the British passengers & called at Cork, Ireland to pick up the Irish passengers. It left Cork on 26th October, 1843 with 294 passengers including crew & a surgeon, John Birwhistle .
The voyage took 110 days out of Cork & appears to have been a good passage for those days. The passengers consisted of free paying, & single male / single female / family bounty passengers. In charge was Master W.I. Ferris. (Contact Editor for his Report )

On board was Harriett Dearling, aged 20, from Wotton near Dorking, Surrey. She was travelling with her sister, Rebecca Knight who was aged 24. Rebecca had her two children from a first marriage with her as well as her second husband, George Knight with his four children from his previous marriages. The eldest was Joseph, aged 16. The Knights also were giving official protection to an 18-year-old London girl named Elizabeth Ann Couch, whose parents were deceased. Harriet was to marry William in Sydney in 1847.

Rebecca had married, firstly, a William Gregory in 1837 at Mickleham in Surrey and two children were born. Rebecca then married George Knight, a carpenter, in 1842 at Peckham, Surrey. George's first wife, Mary Ann Bassett, had died after producing six children. Only four of George's children accompanied them to Sydney as two had died as infants in the U.K. Five of the children were aged between three and twelve years

Harriett's motivation to immigrate to Australia must have been due to the previous death of her parents in 1842, marriage of her sisters and brothers and the impending departure of Rebecca, her closest relation and friend.

At this time an Englishman and an Englishwoman who had made their home in Australia, influenced their lives. He was Captain Robert Towns (1794-1873), sea captain, ship-owner and merchant, entrepreneur and developer. He also was one of the first to import Kanakas (natives from the Solomon Islands) into Queensland to work in the canefields. He played an leading part in founding Townsville around 1864 and is remembered by the town being named after him. She was Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877) whose humanity and guidance helped female pioneers to establish themselves in Australia society.

THE BOUNTY SYSTEM.

The bounty system was developed to encourage migration from UK to the NSW colony. Working conditions had been changing in England for over one hundred years.
The American War of Independence had ended in 1783 but the cost to the U.K. was enormous. Then came the French Revolution and the War with France 1793-1815 which continued the drain on resources. The government opposed emigration at those times, as men were needed for the Army and the Navy and to produce war supplies.

However, after these wars the government was broke and unemployment was high as those ex-servicemen needed jobs and the population began increasing.

Industrialisation increased so that prosperity passed the ordinary labourer by. Bad harvests led to an agricultural depression. The Corn Laws were passed so that food prices rose, wages fell, starvation set in.
Relief for the poor became urgent. In 1834 new Poor Laws led to the rise of Workhouses. The condition of village labourers continued to deteriorate until many reached such a state of despair that they were ready to revolt.

One factor contributing to the economic distress in the counties of southern England, was the decline in the demand for English Southdown wool. This was being ousted from the market by wool from German sheep crossed with Spanish merinos.

This period became so distressing for agricultural labourers and tradesmen that the Parish officials began encouraging them to emigrate to N.S.W.
In NSW there had developed a strong pastoral climate that created an effective economic organisation where the labour shortage was critical.

The Bounty Immigration Scheme was first suggested by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He suggested that:
The system of free land grants should cease and Colonial land should be sold.
The revenue from these sales should be used to boost emigration from the U.K.
Certain conditions should apply to the type of emigrant accepted.
This scheme was gradually adopted. The first set of Bounty Regulations was gazetted by Governor Bourke in October 1835:

The persons accepted should be mechanics tradesmen, or agricultural labourers.
They should have references as to their character from responsible persons, such as the local magistrate or clergyman.
To prove their age they should have Certificates of Baptism.
At first, before 1835, the passage money was advanced to emigrants by the Government, to be paid back out of their salary, but many refused to pay it back, so the Government converted this Loan into a Free Bounty.

Settlers in N.S.W. were allowed to recruit their own workers in the U.K. Most employed agents to do so. The Government also had an Agent-General in London after 1837 and Agents in other embarkation ports.

Under the Bounty Scheme the settler who wanted workers paid the Emigrants' passages. On arrival these workers were examined by a Board appointed by the Governor and, if the Board were satisfied, the settler would be issued with a Certificate entitling him to claim the Bounty money back from the Government.

Complaints from the settlers before 1841 were uncommon. The Bounty was refused on only about 1% of applications, mostly on grounds of age.

This system lasted until 1845.



CHAPTER 2. 1844 : ARRIVAL IN SYDNEY

The Neptune entered in Sydney Harbour on 11th February 1844. Sydney Coves development was nearing completion with only the general cleanup of the whole-reclaimed area between Bridge Street and the harbour yet to finished.

The following excerpt from George Scotts book Sydneys Highways of History details the huge improvement in the new Circular Quay wharf structure.


Before 1840 the shipping and commerce of Sydney had far outstripped the primitive wharfage facilities of the Cove and Tank Stream. Early in 1841 the "clerical Ulysses", the Rev. T. Atkins, counted no less than 120 ships in the harbour when he arrived to begin his missionary labours among the benighted colonists. There were sloops with wheat and maize from the Hawkesbury; there were schooners and brigs loading maize, oranges, flour, clothing, boots, muskets and ironware for Hobart Town and the infant settlement of Port Phillip. The Hunter River Steam Company's little
paddlewheelers, the Rose, Shamrock and Thistle, belched smoke over Darling Harbour. Out in the stream, the big, square-sailed ships rode at anchor after months-long voyages from London, Liverpool, Boston and New York.
Some of the goods were lightered to the anchored ships from wooden jetties built out into the Cove. Sometimes the ship were connected to the jetties by pontoons, over which rumbled the reeking barrels of tallow and whale oil and the wool that had been pressed into bales in cumbersome hand-worked presses on the wharf. Only the smallest boats could lie close to the shore of the Cove, and the mouth of the Tank Stream had become a stinking and useless quagmire. Governor Bourke had long been badgering the Home Government for a competent engineer to reorganise the harbour works and defences of Sydney, and eventually he was rewarded by the presence of Colonel George Barney, an army engineer who had served for nearly 20 years in the West Indies.

In February, 1839, 180 convicts shuffled down from the Hyde Park barracks to begin building the stone-walled crescent of Circular Quay. Barney's work transformed the Sydney waterfront. Now the big wool clippers could tie up alongside the wharf itself. Great brick and stone warehouses grew up round the Quay, giving the approach to Sydney from the sea the characteristic appearance that lasted until only a few years ago, when the massive concrete screen of railway and roadway was flung across the quayside, crushing the ferry wharves and Customs House.


Before the passengers and crew left the ship, they were interrogated by custom officers who recorded their details on official immigrant documents. Their bounty money would be a great help in settling into their new home.

Williams landing papers show that he was 28 years old, a native of Sussex, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, a carpenter by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds 14 shillings. Another document contained signatures confirming that he was baptised in Lewes, Sussex, certifying his healthy condition and character and finally certifying the correctness in the form by a clergyman.

Harriets papers show that she was 20 years old, a native of Surrey, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, Home Duties by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds and 14 shillings. She would had produced the second document with her Surrey details.
The Knight family was also recorded but had a total increased bounty payment for two adults and four children.

The ship was met by Captain Robert Towns and Caroline Chisholm who were creating a farming colony on land granted to the Wentworth family at Peterborough Estate, now Shellharbour about 80 kilometres south of Sydney. Caroline had previously travelled to England to find 47 families that were willing to join in this development. According to the 1844 Governor Gipp's Despatch Papers, William and George Knight with Robert Carnall were employed by Captain Towns as immigrant workers on this package. They were to be employed as tradesmen to work on his Shellharbour development so a memorandum of agreement was made for William and George, both carpenters and Robert as a stonemason to work for Captain Towns in the Wollongong area, which was founded eight years earlier. They would be paid 17 pounds per annum for approximately three years. Other families on the "Neptune" to go to the Illawarra were the Fishlocks, and George. In early 1843 a system of clearing leases was began by which about 30 acres was given by the large landholders to the immigrate settlers rent free for six years

The Sydney Morning Herald of 7 December, 1843, reported the departure of Chisholm and the 23 families by steamer:

..... twenty-three families, who are to be located on land near Wollongong on clearing leases, left Sydney by the steamer last night, accompanied by Mrs Chisholm, through whose exertions this arrangement has been made.

George and Robert travelled with their families and William alone.

The land of 13,060 acres was originally owned by Darcy Wentworth, Towns father-in-law After his death in 1827, his lands were divided among his children, one being Sophia who had married Robert Towns in 1833. Towns had offered 4000 acres of land - part of Peterborough Estate. He also provided rations for the families for the first five months. Chisholm engaged a schoolmaster to open a school and employed three bushman to show the settlers how to clear and crop the land. As clearing lease tenants, the families were given the land rent-free for six years in exchange for clearing the land.

During the tenancy period, a family could also establish a small farm, grow basic crops and raise a few animals. At the end of the lease, tenants could pay rent or purchase the land as it became available. Chisholm later reported that the project was successful so it can be assumed that many of the 23 families remained and became self-supporting. Tenants later shipped their goods from Shellharbour, which soon became a prosperous port.

William with George, his family of four children with Joseph 18 years old and Robert Carnel had arrived after the original migrant families had settled in Shellharbour. They purpose may have been to construct what was known as the Lake House or Peterborough House which was to be occupied by Towns brother-in-law and sister-in-law Stephen Addison and Mary Ann nee Wentworth between 1845 and 1848. They sailed by steamer three months after the earlier tenants and ferried to the shore by oared boat. Even though the area had been populated for a number of years, conditions must have been very harsh for the new arrivals at first. Rebecca's landing papers reveal that she was a nurse so her profession would have been a great advantage to the pioneer settlers in the Shellharbour area. Her six children were aged three to twelve years and to make things harder for the Knights, Rebeccas next child, John was born there on March 17, 1844. No further children were born in on the estate.

At the same time, Harriet remained in Sydney and on 16 February 1844 found a live-in housekeeper position with Mr William Patten and his wife, Anne at 254 Pitt Street, between King and Market Streets, for fourteen pounds per annum. This position is also stated in Governor Gipp's Depatch Papers of 1844. There is a good chance that Caroline Chisholm arranged this for Harriet. Good domestic help from free settlers was in great need in those days as the female convicts that the gentry had used for many years was very unreliable. William was a marble mason and operated a store at this address. This appears to been a happy arrangement as the original agreement was for three months. It has since been found that Anne Patten was dying and Harriet remained with William through the ordeal of his wife's death.

William, George and Robert were not part of Captain Towns original tenant scheme so the benefits of that scheme did not apply to them. When their project drew to a conclusion, the three and their families would have considered moving on. Robert turned south to nearby Kiama where he employed in his stonemason activities. Georges young family had live in a very pioneer existence for the last two years and very different to rural Surrey. The family was growing with the eldest child, Joseph aged 14 and John only 2. I believe that they may have looked for an upgrade to the family life.

Not too far away was a progressive township where conditions were much improved and work was available. It was situated on the main road to Sydney and had extra comforts as Churches, better schools, a mill and, of course, a brewery with a hotel. The village was Woodstock that Jamberoo later overgrew. Woodstock was a tiny village a little more than a kilometre north-west of Jamberoo. It was established west of the current Jamberoo Albion Park road and north of the Minnamurra Falls road. On the estate of John Ritchie a flour and timber mill was erected in 1838. The water wheel was operated in the Minnamurra River. The mill had a cooperage, a piggery, a bacon factory and a two-storey barn. Soon the Man of Kent hotel with its own brewery appeared. A little settlement grew up around the mill and brewery with a school near-by. Some time before October 1846, the Knights moved to Jamberoo where Rebecca's next child, Thomas was born on 31st of that month.

Harriet was still in Sydney working and living in the Pattens in Pitt Street. About 1846, William would have moved to Sydney to do his courting after completing his contract at Wollongong. It is unlikely that Harriet had visited her sister in Shellharbour in that period. The journey was very hazardous as the overland route was via Liverpool, Campbelltown, Appin and Bulli Mountain. The section east of Appin was only a rough track and the descent of Bulli Mountain extremely dangerous. Some years earlier, Governor Bourke had travelled overland to visit Wollongong and when there, had refused to return to Sydney by land instead going by ship.

William and Harriet were married at the St Andrews Church, Sydney on the 5th April, 1847 by Banns by Rev John McGarvie While they were both Episcopalians and would have attended the Church of England, they did not marry in an Anglican church as William had failed to bring his previous marriage certificate or his first wife's death certificate. The Anglicans declined from marrying him but the Presbyterians obliged.

On 21st November 1848, their first child, William was born in Camperdown where they were living and baptised on 31st January 1848. No doubt tiny Harriet, who was only about 4 foot 9 inches (1.46m) tall and William thought little about the number of descendants who would result. At the time of Harriet's death, fifty-two years later, she had forty-two grandchildren and three great grandchildren.

George and Rebecca had moved to Woodstock (Jamberoo) where their new arrivals, Alfred and Franklin were born on 8th February 1848 and 11th August, 1849 respectively.


CHAPTER 3. 1850s : WOODSTOCK, JAMBEROO & KIAMA

There was a very close link between the two families and William and Harriet decided to join the Knights in Woodstock, Harriet to be near her sister and William work association with George.

The big decision was how to travel to Woodstock. Their first born, William was one year old and Harriet was carrying their second, Henry, my grandfather. There were two modes of transport. The hard trek was overland which would take a number of days. The second was by sea to the new port of Kiama then 30 kilometres over Saddleback Mountain to Woodstock.
Lets look at the two options:

OPTION 1 : Overland

The initial journey was by Campbelltown, Appin then west to Bulli Mountain and down the mountain to the growing town of Wollongong and the Illawarra. A rough trip.

W.A.Bayley describes the journey from Wollongong in those days in his book Green Meadows:

"Travellers in the forties going southward from Wollongong crossed the shallow waters at the mouth of Lake Illawarra, swimming their horses, passed by Shellharbour which was then only a name and reached the Locking Hill, where all drays descending had a wheel locked, and then followed the public road to Turpentine Creek and so to Jamberoo. The farms of settlers flanked the tracks. Occasionally the mouth of Lake Illawarra was closed and traffic would become more frequent by that route. Settlers took advantage of the mouth of the lake to swim cattle across so that they would not return in those days when fences were few.

The route from Wollongong to Jamberoo through Terry's Meadows at that time was well described by the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, who as a boy was taken to live on a farm at Jamberoo. The journey from Sydney in 1843, he wrote, was made in a "rough cross-benched cart". Her Majesty's mail was thus carried to Wollongong. His father followed on horseback, whilst the furniture and luggage followed in other drays. At Wollongong a change was made to a bullock dray for the journey to Jamberoo. The family sat on sacks stuffed with maize husks whilst "slowly the patient beasts drew us along the seeming lengthening way'. "From Wollongong to Jamberoo the road was a mere dray track through a forest of tropical foliage; gum trees 200 feet or more in height, gigantic indiarubber trees with broad shiny dark green leaves, lofty cabbage palms and many another kind of tree
towered above us so that their tops made a twilight canopy impenetrable to the sunlight, save for an infrequent clearing in the forest made by the settler's axe. Huge lianas, some as thick as a man's arm, hung down snake-like from the trees. Magnificent ferns, clinging to the fork or trunk and branches were pointed out to me."

A very rough journey for most people but more so for Harriet in her condition.

OPTION 2

Port Jackson to Shellharbour or Kiama was about 100 kilometres by sea so the time factor depended on the weather. Then a days trip over Razorback Mountain into Jamberoo Valley and they were there.

WHAT DID THEY DO ? THE EXPECTED.

I expect that this change in life would have been very difficult for Harriet even though she had been raised in the country environment of Wotton, west of Dorking in Surrey. First, she had spent the last five years in the busy growing atmosphere of Sydney Town and then to travel for several days and settle in a small bush town with little comforts compared to Pitt Street. This would have been a great experience.

The area had been settled since the early 1820s and had many village facilities such as Churches, schools and a brewery. Opportunities seemed endless for the Dumbrells. The area was growing quickly with work available for building and cedar getting in the forests.
The sisters and their families were back together and this relationship would last for many years. William's second son, Henry, my grandfather, was born in Woodstock on June 18, 1850.

Note : For detailed information on Woodstock/Jamberoo read W. A. Bayleys book Blue Haven, Chapter Tangling Vines.

Also, as my father, Garnet Dumbrell told me, William worked as a local carpenter and a red cedar timber getter in the Jamberoo forests where he spent long periods away from home leaving tiny Harriet to look after the children. The local aborigine tribe would enter their cottage at times to help themselves to household items. Harriet had no way of stopping this practice. William would have made furniture and built houses etc in the developing Jamberoo Vallet area.

The advent of gold being discovered near Bathurst in 1851 did not appear to disrupt family life as three more sons were born to Harriet and William in Jamberoo in the next few years. Edmund arrived in 1852 and the twins, John and George in 1854.



CHAPTER 4. THE MOVE TO KIAMA.

1856 was an important year for William and Harriet. First, young John died in Jamberoo and second, the family moved to nearby, coastal Kiama. Perhaps they moved because the Knights had also moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff.

The family settled in "Porters Garden" at Kiama where their first daughter, Jane Myles was born. Their fellow carpenter, Robert Carnell went to live and work in Kiama. He is reputed to have built a few substantial buildings in the town. Perhaps his presence may have influenzas William to move there. Also, William's father, Richard passed away in Sussex, with his mother, Jane already deceased.

Nowra was a quickly growing town with the shipping traffic the main factor. Chains were firstly laid on the harbour bed to allow the securing of a ship for loading and unloading.
The growth of Kiama saw the need to construct a wharf to store and handle freight as trade increased. James & John Colley built a small wharf in 1849 for fifty pounds. In 1853, the farmers & business people formed the Kiama Steam Navigation Company Captain. Charles was sent to Scotland in 1855 to supervise the launching of the S.S. Kiama, a paddle wheel steam, with a keel of 121 feet, beam 20 feet and on the register at 104 tons (carrying capacity). The Kiama arrived in Sydney under sail on 3 April, 1855 having taken 144 days for the passage from Scotland.

William & Harriet would have found Kiama more attractive than the quieter Jamberoo and with the good prospects of on going work and better schooling for the growing family.
(The cedar had disappeared from the forest in this period).

1856 was also an important year for the colony as the first parliament Assembly sat in NSW. Captain Robert Towns was a member of that parliament.
[It is interesting to note that Tom Plunkett and Hugh Nichols, who were in the same district at that time, probably knew the Dumbrells and Knights]

The next few years were happy years for Harriet having her first daughter, Jane Myles and another, Anne Eliza, to arrive in 1858. At this time there were four sons ranging from William aged 10, Henry aged 8, Edmund aged 6 to George aged 4 and the two girls.
However tragedy was around the corner when young Jane died on November 3, 1859.

[It is interesting to note that Tom Plunkett and the Pugh Nicholos, who were in the same district, probably knew the Dumbrells and Knights].

The 1860s:

The situation was helped with the arrival of Charles Vincent born in Kiama in 1860 but again fate intervened with the death of young Anne Eliza on March 13, 1862. Arthur Frederick was born in 1863 to put the count at 6 living sons, 1 deceased son and 2 deceased daughters.

The Knights had moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff (between 1855-1857) then further south to Milton in the late 1850s where he bought a property. A post office was opened there with the name The Settlement on January 1,1860. George was appointed the first postmaster and suggested that the name be changed to Milton, the name of his own property. The name was immediately changed. In October of that year, the post office went to Frederick Hall.
(refer to William Bayleys book Shoalhaven, page 79)

George Knight then established a flourmill further south at Ulladulla in 1861. Shortly afterwards they moved north to Bulli with their family of 10 children with George serving as a Methodist local preacher in all parts of the Illawarra. It was here that Rebecca died on 27th June, 1863 and aged only 43. She was buried from the Bulli Temporary Wesleyan Chapel and now lies with George in the Old Wollongong cemetery. Their gravestone is still in very good condition in Cemetery Avenue.

During her 19 years in Australia, Rebecca gave birth to ten children, the youngest being only two years at the time of her death. The children of their previous marriage had all left home. All the older children at home were boys. George Knight was then fifty-six. We know the Dumbrells had moved to Sherbrooke by 1867, however, it is very likely that they moved there within a few months of Rebecca's death and before George's next matrimonial move. No doubt, Harriet wished to be near Rebecca's children as soon as possible. As seemed to be the custom in those days, George remarried in just over a year aged fifty seven. He wed Anna Philips at Wollongong on 19 June, 1864. George made the seating for the Bulli Methodist church when it opened in 1865 and about 1867 moved to Bulli Mountain, later named Sherbrooke where he opened a sawmill.

As was the case with the two families, William, Harriet and their sons also moved to Bulli Mountains about the same time.



CHAPTER 5. SHERBROOKE : (BULLI MOUNTAIN) LATE 1860s - 1876

William and Harriet must have still detained their pioneer characteristics as the Mountain was only settled at that time and they are stated to be among the original settlers whose names appear on early Parish maps. Other families include the Reeves, Spinks, Loveday, Wales, Blinkco, King, Roberts, Allen, Browns and Campbell and, of course, the Knights. There were 16 families living in the area initially but the numbers grew as time passed on.

It was situated one and a half miles west of the top of Bulli Pass and extending south on both sides of Cataract Creek, it consisted mainly of 40 acres of land-blocks, some settlers buying as many as three 40-acre blocks. A dirt road heading west from the top of Bulli Pass, known as Sherbrooke Road followed a path up steep hills and down dales, through thick virgin forest until a second road branched off and travelled south along the east ridge.

The main three industries that developed in the area were (in this order)
Timbergetting and saw-milling.
Fruit and vegetable growing.
Bee-keeping and honey production.

William purchased two 40-acre blocks, numbered 115 and 118, which straddled the Cataract Creek. Block 115 was on the eastern side of the creek and on Sherbrooke Road just south of the first school that was built in 1869. He would have had considerable help from his four elder sons, William Junior, Henry, Edmund and George, aged from 21 to 15.

George Knight opened a sawmill at Sherbrooke in the late 1860s and a second in the 70s. Some of his sons carried on the work after his death in 1881. There grew to be five families of Knights at Sherbrooke where they actively supported the Union Church there and walked or rode down and up Bulli Pass to participate in the activities of the church at Bulli on Sundays.

Sherbrooke, has always has great natural beauty. Farmlets and orchards were carved out of the rain forest and dense bush. There was the school, later a hotel and soon used as a stop-over for travellers between Sydney and the South Coast. The Cataract River rises there.


The residents of Sherbrooke were genuine pioneers. If a home was needed the men would go into the bush and fell a suitable tree or trees. Then such a work of sawing, chopping, adzing and planing would be done. All the work of loading and transporting would be done with drays and the aid of faithful bullock, frequently a road had to be made to the site of operations. In those days the neighbours who were disengaged would be there bright and early to lend a helping hand. Later on Germans, Norwegians and other nationalities moved into the locality bringing with them new ideas concerning building and painting, so gradually more modern homesteads appeared.
The settlers cultivated acres of fruit trees and grapes. The ground was very fertile. plums grew in abundance. They also had more than a hundred hives of bees.

We had no shops at Sherbrooke. A butcher with his horse and cart appeared periodically, but mostly the established people killed their own meat, and of course, when there was a surplus shared it with their neighbours. Fuel stoves and open fires were used in every home. Kerosene lamps and candles were the only lighting we had.
The Dumbrells property was along the banks of the Cataract River and because of the abundant rainfall they were never short of water. There were no tanks, water for domestic use was collected in large woodencasks.

Sherbrooke was a very hilly place. The cabbage tree palms grew very tall there. Quite a number of the residents plaited the leaves of the palms and made very neat serviceable hats from the strands, which proved a useful shade during the hot summer days.

The road down Bulli pass was very picturesque, but had to be negotiated carefully for some of the bends were difficult to manipulate, but there was no accidents, perhaps because there were no hotels about. The Lookout on the top of the pass is really world renowned, and truly breathtaking. In the early stages of occupancy the residents made the roads to their properties and kept them in repair.


Birds of all kinds and wild animals were plentiful in Sherbrooke and on the Bull Mountain.
Wild animals did not often come near our home. One half starved looking dingo (native dog) once paused at our door fence, but quickly disappeared when shouted at. The people of Sherbrooke had to shut away young calves and goats from the dingoes. There are stories told of Sherbrooke people carrying supplies of meat up Bulli Mountain and being followed by dingoes. The villagers eventually shot, trapped and poisoned the dingoes until they became extinct.
It was here that the last two children were born to Harriet, more boys, Thomas 1867, who later worked drove the Sydney-Melbourne Express train and Alfred Sydney on 28 March, 1870, who later developed a successful butchery business on the Pacific Highway, Woonona across from the present-day Woonona RSL Club.
The propertys rich, red volcanic soil could support intensive farming. Being near the edge of the coastal range there was usually good rainfall. To maintain his farm it is likely that William continued with some work as a joiner and builder at Sherbrooke and the Bulli area.

In 1870 Harriet turned 46 and William 55.
William (Junior) was 22 years, Henry 20, Edmund 18, George 16, Charles Vincent 10, Arthur Frederick 7, Thomas 3 and Alfred Sydney only a few months.

The six elder Dumbrell boys seem to be well provided for as they were mostly tall and well built despite their diminutive mother. William often rode down to Bulli probably to work and regularly visited the library. The boys were always anxious to accompany him, as the journey was still an adventure and the scenery spectacular. The four elder sons could be employed on farming on their two sites or helping out in the surrounding farms as the numbers increased.

A factor to be considered at this period of time would be the social life of the Sherbrooke community and the three elder boys, William, Henry and Edmund. In that era, most social activities was centred around the local church .

To tend the religious aspects of Sherbrooke :

Protestant ministers from Bulli, such as Reverend Hugh Walker Taylor, would make the journey up Bulli Pass on Sundays to preach in the sawn slab and shingled roof chapel.
The Rev Taylor would make the arduous trip to Sherbrooke to provide the spiritual needs of the parishioners such as William Dumbrell who was one of the first settlers of the valley and owned two 40 acres properties along Cataract Creek.
William was in his mid 60s when he came to Bulli Mountain in the late 1860s to grow vegetables and fruit, later introducing blackberries that would one day become a major industry in the region.

While at Sherbrooke, William senior heard that Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and a doctor from Sydney had imported blackberry vines. He remembered seeing blackberries in his native Sussex and decided to plant them in Sherbrooke. Of course, the blackberries flourished but an unexpected and far-reaching situation was to result. In a short time the Currawongs, who fly regularly from the coastal strip to the hills and return, found the berries to their liking and unwittingly caused them to spread. It was only a matter of time before the berries could be found through the whole Illawarra district. As children, we picked those blackberries little knowing who started it all. From that simple beginning, the blackberry vines soon developed into a major industry in north Illawarra, suppling the needs of Sydney jam factories and bringing many pickers to the area. A special train was employed to carry the berries to Sydney most nights. The vines were eventually eradicated in the 1940s.

I must include a section of an (2001) email from Andrew Jessups, a descendant of George Dumbrell.

"I've just returned from a holiday in Kiama. Visited the Family History Centre, there. Got the name of a researcher into the history of Sherbrooke where the Dumbrells lived for a while. Sherbrooke doesn't exist anymore but its church, which the early Dumbrells helped build, was moved to a place called Slakey Creek - in a "Grevillea Park".

On inquiring further, I found that Grevillea Park is a new garden development situated behind the Showground at Bulli and opened in late April 2002. The chapel is used as a refreshment centre.

As quoted from its Website:

"The Park has many hundreds of Grevilleas and also a wide range of other natives. Increasingly popular is the rainforest walk at the rear of the Park which loops over Slacky Creek and displays a wealth of indigenous rainforest species. Drinks on sale at the old Sherbrook chapel "

Also, an extract from the Illawarra Mercury of 21 April, 2001 :

The Blincko family moved to Bulli in 1914 from Sherbrook (now Cataract) before the Cataract dam was built.The family, which included five daughters and a number of sons, brought a church from Sherbrook to Bulli - its home now is in the Grevillea Park Gardens

NOTE : See attachment 1 Sherbrooke : The lost Village by W. A. Bayley

A well as the Church offering the religious aspect to the community, it also offered the social requirements for families and especially the young men and women of the area. There were many church meeting and outings where the two sexes could assemble to have the chance of getting to know their follow churchgoers better. The older Dumbrell lads and their Knight cousins certainly used these function to meet the opposite sex.

Around 1868, when William was in his early 50s, he received severe sunstroke. The resulting headaches and other discomforts plagued him until his death. He visited several doctors but nothing could be done to alleviate his problem.

Edmund was the first of the sons to marry (27.1.1874). His wife was Mary Ellen Burless daughter of William Burless and Emmeline Vidler. Mary was born in Gerringong in 1853.

The first grandchild to William and Harriet was Ellen Jane who was born in Wollongong to Edmund and Mary Ellen in 1875.They produced ten children over the next 22 years. For a while they settled on the family farm at Sherbrooke before he became a railway fettler. His family moved west to the Parkes district about 1880.


CHAPTER 6. BULLI : 1875 1900

Move to Bulli and the Death of William senior. 1876 and a new arrival.

At this stage William received a legacy from a Mr Charles Cooke of Guildford, UK, amounting to 100 pounds, a significant sum in those days. On moving to Bulli or shortly before, William built a small house fronting the main road at Bulli. The 100 pounds probably paid for the land and materials and must have been a factor in their decision to move. The house is still intact with some modification.
In early 1875 William Senior, Harriet and most of the family left Sherbrooke and moved to Bulli, leaving William junior (Bill) to carry on. William was nearly sixty years of age but his health was failing. His elder sons would have been working in Bulli most probably at the Coal mine.

On 19 July, 1876 William Dumbrell passed away. The sunstroke and possibly the exertion from the rapid construction of the weatherboard cottage may have weakened his heart. Heart trouble had been diagnosed for the previous nine months. Perhaps an additional reason for moving to Bulli was to be nearer a medical practitioner. As there was not yet a church or general cemetery at Bulli, William was buried in Wollongong general cemetery, in the old section. No headstone exists for William and probably never did as particulars for William were also inscribed on Harriet's headstone at Bulli. (see photo attached).


A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.



Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but alaso to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years.

Edmund and Mary Jane were blessed with a son, William Arthur in July 1876, again born in Wollongong. William senior had died on the 19th July but I am unsure of the date that William Arthur was born.

At the time of William's death, Harriet would have a number of her sons living with her. Of the elders, Bill was 28 and probably working for the mining company. Henry was 26 and most likely doing the same and George, who took up school teaching was about 22. He was to rise to School principal at Manly High. He would have left home.
Harriett would have had three or four young offsprings living with her
Charles was 16 and possibly working. 13 years old, Arthur later became an engine driver for the NSW railways and drove the "Melbourne Express" from Central. He later lived at Erskineville near where he worked.
Thomas was 9, Alfred Sydney (Sid), the future butcher in Woonona was 6 years.





THE NEXT FEW YEARS.

Harriet was 52 when her husband died but her life was not over. In fact, the next few years would see a tremendous increase in the family numbers with her sons marrying and producing many more grandchildren.

Let's start with 1878.

Edmund and Mary Ann provided the impetus with the arrival of Edmund Charles
There were two marriages that year.
* Henry and William.

Henry married Martha Susannah Organ in Wollongong in 1879 and their first son, Herbert was born there in 1880. The small family moved to Sydney where Henry joined the Sydney Tramway in 1882 as a conductor and retired as a starter in 1914.
Martha's mother was Anne Grover who arrived in Sydney with her brother, Edward from Brighton in Sussex in 1853 aboard the "Meteor" with Edward's wife, Eleanor from Lewes. She married William Henry Organ in Wollongong in 1855.
(Contact Editor for Organ family history)

William Junior (Bill) married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879.. Like Henry, their first child, Arthur Stanley was born in Wollongong in 1880. William and Ann went on to bear 6 children, five of which were girls. William lived all his life in Wollongong / Bulli.
I learnt recently from Ken Brown that Bill was a very good athlete and excelled in running. He won many foot races that were popular in those days and was rewarded with good cash prizes. On one occasion when he had reached a final he found that the first prize wasnt to his liking and he preferred the second prize. As luck or good judgement had it, he finished safely in second place to secure his wanted reward.

Edmund's son, William Arthur died as an infant as a result of croup in Bulli in 1879.

George Knight passed away in 1881 and is buried with Rebecca in the old section at the southern end of Wollongong cemetery. Their headstone is still very legible.

George, our schoolteacher married Mary Ellen Ross in Woonona in 1881 and his first child, George Garnet soon followed when he was born in Maitland in 1882. Seven more children were born in Maitland up to 1894. In 1899 he taught at Ermington public school.

Charles married Mary Bell in Wollongong in 1887. Their first child, Oliver was born in Woonona in 1888. Clara arrived in 1892, Charles in Waterloo in 1897, Wilfred in Helensburgh in 1892 and finally Ivy in Woonona in 1890.

Arthur was to move around during his early life. Perhaps his occupation as a train driver was the reason for this. After wedding Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889, they bore 7 children around NSW including 4 in Sydney
.

Thomas was the last to marry, this being on Boxing day 1892 and he and his wife, Emma, continued on with Harriett and provided for her until her death. She spent some of her time with her sons in Sydney. She had been staying with Arthur at his home in Erskineville when she contracted bronchial pneumonia and pleurisy and died five days later on 24 October, 1900, aged 77. She was buried in St. Augustine's Churchyard, Bulli. (which is behind the church) This churchyard has been reclaimed and turned into a memorial lawn. Her sons erected a headstone for her and William (who was buried at the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli) and this headstone, in good condition, is placed on the southeastern wall of the lawn.
I believe that Harriet & William were removed to Wollongong when the St. Augustines Churchyard was updated. Their grave is yet to be found.

William Dumbrell senior's cottage at Bulli was auctioned exactly one month after Harriets death along with the furniture doubtless made by him years before.

In my research, I obtained a copy of the estate agent's newspaper advertisement stating :-


Notice of House and Furniture.

ESTATE OF LATE W. DUMBRELL,
BULLI.

By Public Action, on the Ground

Saturday, 24th November (1900)
at 2 p.m.

Strongly built and Comfortable W.B. Cottage
of ? Rooms and ??? ???? ???. the
allocation of Land with 54 ft Frontage to
Main South Coast Road (next J. Glass's
Store) and 4 chains 5 links depth, suit-
ably divided into garden, poultry yards
etc. Large Underground Tank, Grape
and other vines, out houses very shel-
tered and shaded position. Also, same
time, Household Furniture in Cedar
Drawers, Tables, Chiffonier, Cedar
Clothes Closets, Double and Single
Bedsteads, Chairs, Toilet Wares Etc.

H.F. Cofferell is instructed by the
Trustees to sell the above very
desirable Property, in order to close
the estate.

S. C. Times




A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.



Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but also to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years.




A Death Report

HARRIETT DUMBRELL.
The late Mrs. W. Dumbrell -- The announcement of whose death
is made in this issue was interred in the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli, on Thursday last in the presence of a large concourse of mourning relatives and friends. The deceased lady arrived in the colony in 1844 and has been a resident of the Illawarra district for the past 53 years. She has left eight sons, 42 grandchildren and three great grandchildren, in addition to an extensive circle of personal Friends to mourn her loss. Mrs. Dumbrell was on a short visit to one of her sons, who resides at Erskineville, when she caught a cold and after an illness of only five days succumbed to a severe attack of bronchial pneumonia and pleuraay notwithstanding the constant care and attention of Dr. Trindall of Newtown. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Coffil and Co. of Sydney -- The remains were brought to Bulli.

Harriett Dumbrell (nee) Dearling, died 24th October 1900 aged 77 years.

Sydney Morning Herald -- Obituary

DUMBRELL -- 24 October 1900, at her son's residence, Erskineville, of pneumonia and pleurisy, Harriett Dumbrell, relict of the late William Dumbrell of Bulli, aged 77 years.


POSTSCRIPTS

Following the death of Harriet Dumbrell in 1900, the family was as follows :

William :
Married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879. He had 6 children of which 5 were daughters. Living at Main South Coast Road, Bulli. One of the first churchwardens at St. Augustine Church of England, Bulli. A farmer at Bulli.

Henry :
Married to Martha Susanah Organ since 1878 with 5 sons. Living in Forest Lodge, Sydney and working for the Sydney Tramways as a Starter. Aged 50 years.

Edmund :
Was 48 years old. Married Mary Burless at Wollongong in 1874 when he was 22 years old. They had 5 daughters and two sons, one son died in 1879. Living in Parkes and working as a fettler with the government railways.

George :
46 years old and a schoolteacher in Ermington. Married to Mary Ellen Ross since 1881 having eight children including 5 sons. Completed his career as Headmaster at Manly High School.

Charles Vincent:
Was 40 years, married to Mary J with three girls and two sons. Location is unsure but it was either Bulli or Helensburgh

Alfred Sydney :
Was 30 years old, living in Bulli and was working as a butcher and soon owned butchery business on Main Road, Woonona, later continued by his sons.. Married in 1891 to Elizabeth Rebecca Plunkett with six children. More to come.
Her father was Thomas Plunkett. (See Woodstock report)

Arthur Frederick :
Was 37 years of age, living in Erskineville and was a train driver. Drove the Melbourne Express
Married Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889 and had four children. More to come.

Thomas Richard
Was 33 years, living in Bulli with his wife, Emma Collison and four children.

The end of an Era

Harriets death marked almost 60 years since her arrival in NSW and the Illawarra on 12 February, 1844. Those years had seen a huge change throughout the colony and the Illawarra. William and Harriet had arrived at the end of the convict era and the family had seen the disappearance of the convicts and the chain gangs. They had experienced the pioneer days with the development of the Illawarra, the great migration due to the gold rush in the early 1850s, the birth of responsible government with the colonys self determination also in the 50s.

Harriet had arrived in NSW as a single immigrate but had left with 42 grandchildren and 3 great-grand children





HARRIET AND WILLIAM, BORN IN ENGLAND, WERE TRUE PIONEERS OF THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT

Ann Grover from Brighton, Sussex life in Wollongong, NSW

THE STORY OF ANN GROVER & WILLIAM HENRY ORGAN.

EDITED: DECEMBER, 28, 2009


INTRODUCTION.

This is my record of my great-grand mother, Ann Grover. She was born to Edward and Martha Grover at Brighton, Sussex on 3 September 1829.

Little is known of her younger years in Brighton. But like many English of the time, she and her younger brother, Edward, born 1833 with his wife, Eleanor Baldook decided to migrate to NSW. Edward, a carpenter/joiner by trade, had married Eleanor Baldook in Brighton in 1852.

They joined 323 other emigrants aboard the barque "Meteor" on 27 March, 1853 at Southampton to travel to Sydney. On arrival at the semi-completed Circular Quay in Sydney on 3 July they were each paid one pound for self as they stepped ashore. Her ships landing papers show her as a dressmaker / milliner and a Baptist by religion.

The three spend a short time together in Sydney before, for some unknown reason, Ann left her family and moved south to Wollongong, a rapidly growing new town about 80 kilometres south of Sydney. Edward /Eleanor remained in Sydney to start their family with Charlotte arriving in 1856 and Mary in 1860.

THE ILLAWARRA


By 1853 the Illawarra district butts onto southern Sydney and extended a further 50 kilometres south between the coast and the coastal ranges. The population had grown considerable from its early days in the 1820s. The region was composed basically of working class free settlers, emancipists, soldiers and convicts. It presented many opportunities to anyone who wanted to settle there. It had many beautiful beaches and a temperate climate with an expanding economy. The area had been sub-divided and Wollongong township rapidly developing.

It is unknown why Ann moved there but being a dressmaker / milliner she would have a ready market. She met William Henry Organ, son of George and Maria whose family had been in NSW since 1839. George and family including his parents, a brother and two sisters and his own wife and two children arrived in Sydney on the Bussorah Merchant. They joined two of Georges brothers and one sister-in-law in Wollongong.

The family settled into the pioneer coastal area very well with George leading the way with many successful outgoing business ventures.

George and family rented a farm from a James Brooker at Fairy Meadow, the area then extending from the Wollongong Township to present Bulli.
Young William Henry joined his father with the farm work whilst his younger sister, Emily settled with her mother, Maria who retrieved her dressmaking materials.

In the oncoming years, George initialling carried on his farming at Fairy Meadow but gradually devoted more to developing his assets by the purchase of land at Wollongong and the surrounding districts. William Henry took more control of the farm as he matured into adulthood.


THE MARRIAGE

On the 3rd January 1855 Ann married William Henry Organ of Wollongong, the ceremony was performed by Cunningham Atchinson, the local Presbyterian Minister and took place in George's house of Fairy Meadow.


THE BRIDAL PAIR.

Ann was 25 years old, a seasoned dressmaker / milliner and a mature young woman. She had been raised in the busy English south coast town of Brighton.

William Henry was 21 and had arrived from the rural North Dursley, Gloucestershire at the age of 7 and since had helped his father on their farm at Fairy Meadow. George bought the 152-acre farm in 1849 for a paltry 164 pounds and as his fortunes increased he with Maria and Emily moved closer to the actions in Wollongong leaving William Henry with control.

ANNS REALITY.

One of Georges newer estates was a farm at Bellambi on the Towradgi Creek, which he developed into a dairy farm meantime building a comfortable cottage fit for a respectable tenant.

William Henry and Anne settled here into their matrimonial home.

I wonder what Anns thoughts were at that time. She had wed a young hard working English man with no financial worries in a lovely coastal area. Her new family was rather large and very busy and the environment was so different to what she had been raised.

Alright, it was very rural and quiet but still she had her own dressmaker/milliner business to organise and get going.

THE FIRST FEW MARRIAGE YEARS.

The first year at Towradgi was busy for the household: George with his business commitments, William with the farm upkeep, Maria and Anne with home duties and the initial stages of the millinier / dressmaking business. Change occured in 1856 with George and Maria moving to their house in Barella Street, Wollongong and Ann delivering the first of her family and named after William Henry's sister, Emily. George was very busy with his first major project relating to a proposed hotel on the corner of Crown & Corrimal Streets, Wollongong. This was a prime site being at that time part of the main route connecting Wollongong harbour to Dapto Road.

George also sold the Towradgi farm so William and family moved to another of George's farms at Bulli. For some unknown reason this seemed to unlock a feature within William's future life when he summoned a Mrs Mark Hanks for violent behaviour. She was found guilty and bound over to keep the peace for six months.

Year 1858 was also a busy one for George and his immediate family.Initially, George had opened a general store in Bulli which is believed to be the first in the area. William with Ann's great assistance managed the store for George. Ann's second child, another girl, Ann Maria arrived and George's hotel in Crown Street was nearing completion.

Their second child arrived in 1858. She was Ann Maria. George spent his that year mortgaging his properties and raising money for a new venture.The impact on Ann and William Henry was that George sold his farm at Bulli and Ann, William Henry and the two girls moved locally most probably to the General store that George had bought in Bulli. There was little detail of the store's financial and management situation at this stage but it seems that Ann was the key factor in the store's success.

George's plans were realised when James Rixon, his son-in-law applied for a licences for a hotel that was planned to be built on the corner of Corrimal and Crown Streets, Wollongong. It was to be named "The Cricketer's Arms"

But things were not good on William's home front.

George owned two houses near the proposed hotel and Ann left home at Bulli with her two girls to move into one of these houses. There she set up her Millinery and Dressmaking business. Why did she move? Was William getting too uncontrolable? This left William to run the General Store at Bulli.

Sport was a rapidly growing activity in the Illawarra and William Henry replied by joining the local cricket club with his brother-in-law,James Dixon.


THE 1860s

The decade opened well for George with the Cricketer's Arms in operation. Ann, for some reason in August, 1860, "left her dressmaking and millinery shop in Corrimal Street and opened an "EATING HOUSE" in Crown Street, nearly opposite the "Sportsman's Arms" where Tea, Coffee, Dinners and Refreshments may be obtained at any hour of the dayon most reasonable terms".

Mrs Ann Organ seemed to have been a very indepentant women and George would have respect for her.

William Henry was still playing cricket for Bulli Club with frequent reference made of his cricketing explots.

The year in important to the author as it saw the birth oh his grandmother, Martha Susannah Organ. Martha has the distinction of not being recognised by family researchers until mid 2009 when her details were found on the NSW Government Archives under a misspelt name. She in now inplace with her family.




1861: Bad Times Continued for William Henry and Ann:

On the 16th August William Henry Organ's wife Ann had finally left her husband, and on the same day he published a notice in the Illawarra Mercury disowning any of her debts. Obviously there was some friction in the family. On Monday 26th August, she took him to Wollongong Court of Petty Sessions and the case was reported in the Illawarra Mercury as follows:

"Mrs Ann Organ appeared against her husband for the purpose of obtaininq an order from the Court for a separate maintenance. Mrs Organ, being sworn, deposed that she was married to defendant [William Henry Organ] on the 3rd January, 1855, but that she left her husband's roof about 10 days since owing to his threatening to do her some grievous bodily harm. She had made an application to him for a maintenance but had received no reply from him. Her husband was a small storekeeper [at Bulli] and doing a small business. He professed to own the property on which he lived, but it belonged to his father; he, however, lived rent Free. She had taken a house in Corrimal Street and intended to carry on the millinery and dressmaking business. When she separated from her husband he had agreed to let her have her wearing apparel, and half the furniture, together with the millinery goods. He had also promised to let her have half the rents of the small cottages which were on the farm, the rents of which amounted to 12/- per week; and he had further promised her to give her a start. He had given her 2 in part payment, but had afterwards taken the money hack again as he wanted to pay for some goods that he had bought in Sydney. Mrs Organ had 3 children to support, the eldest being 5 years old and the youngest nearly 18 months [Ann was also 6 months pregnant at the time].
100

Elisabeth Lynch stated that she had lived with the couple at Bulli and now lived with Ann Organ in Corrimal Street. She had known unpleasantness to occur between her master and mistress on several occasions. She was present when an agreement was come to that they should separate.

Walter Duglan was called and examined by William Henry Organ. He admitted that he had seen Mr Organ shake his wife on one occasion when laboring under provocation. The provocation consisted in Mrs Organ's refusal to give Mr Organ money to purchase some things in town. The Witness on several occasions had heard cries of murder! coming from Mrs Organ, but. did not know what they were caused by. When the boxes [with Ann's belongings] were brought from Bulli William Henry had protested against it.

In arriving at a decision the Bench said that the case was a painful one; as, however, the balance of testimony was in favour of the wife, they would make an order for the payment of 5/- a week for six months."

This case reveals a wealth of information about the family of William Henry Organ at: that time - Ann seems to have been a very independent woman, hut also William's behaviour seems to have been rather eratic and helps to explain why he was institutionalized later in life. The day after the Court case the following appeared in the Illawarra Mercury:



TO LET

THE STORE at present occupied by W.H. ORGAN, at BULLI, with 21 ACRES OF GROUND, on reasonable terms. The WELL-SELECTED STOCK OF GENERAL STORE GOODS, at: present in the Store, is also for SALE at COST PRICES.

For further particulars apply to

W.H. ORGAN, Bulli; or to
GEO. ORGAN, Cricketers Arms, Wollongong.




Apparently William Henry, or Willie as he was known, wasn't prepared to run the store without his wife and family. The store was eventually leased out to the Cockerton Brothers from Sydney. Bulli was bristling with activity around this time (see Black Diamonds, W. A. Bay.ley) due to the opening of coal mines at Bellambi and Bulli and an influx of people hoping to work on the mines. The whole character of Wollongong's northern suburbs was to change during the 1860s from that of a rich rural setting to an urban mining community.



William Henry Organ and the Bellambi Robbery Incident:


How was William Henry feeling during this time? We can gather an impression of his state of mind from reports in the Illawarra Mercury on the 6th and 8th September concerning a case in which William Hester, alias BIG BILL, was charged with stealing two purses, two sovereigns, 3 half sovereigns, a quantity of silver and other articles from William Henry on the previous weekend.


At the Court of Petty Sessions, W. H. Organ was sworn in on the 4th September and stated that he lived in Wollongong at present and followed no occupation; but. had until recently been a farmer and storekeeper at Bulli. On Saturday and Sunday last he was at Bellambi Hotel and had been drinking with the accused, William Nester. When William Henry arrived at the public-house he had between 1 shilling and 7 shillings in money. He had spent his money pretty freely during the day and had slept at the Bellambi Hotel on the Saturday night. When he woke up Sunday morning "he felt somewhat stupid" and did not drink much on the Sunday morning. When he left Bellambi "he was very stupid and did not know what he was about". Willie and Big Bill left the hotel together and they had not gone far before Big Bill gave William a bottle of rum, of which he drank very freely. At some point. Nester struck him a blow which knocked him off his horse into the hush. William slept for the greater part of the day and upon waking found that he had been robbed and his horse, saddle and bridle was also gone. He later found the horse walking towards home and the saddle and bridle were located at
Nester's house and given to him by Nester's wife. Elizabeth Allen, barmaid at the Bellambi Hotel, was called to give evidence. She swore that "on Friday evening Mr Organ had treated alL the persons in the bar, and there were a good many of them. [Perhaps he was celebrating his wife leaving him.] On the Sunday morning Nester purchased a bottle of rum and he and Organ left the hotel together, Nester walking and Organ riding. They took the hush road, not the road leading by the sea beach, and the witness noted that Organ was quite sober at the time."

Due to the inconclusive evidence and W.H. Organ's state of mind at the time of the incident, William Nester was found not guilty of the charge of stealing the money, however as soon as he left the Court he was re-arrested and charged with stealing William's horse, bridle and saddle. This time in his testimony William Henry stated that "the accused offered me some rum out of a bottle, after which he asked to look at my whip, and on its being handed to him he struck me a blow which knocked me off my horse. The prisoner then dragged me a few yards off the road and poured some more liquor down my throat, which made me stupid and I went to sleep."

Once more the Court dismissed the case, reflecting somewhat badly upon William, as though he was wasting their time. Meanwhile his wife Ann re-opened her millinery and dressmaking business this time at Moores Lane, just off Crown Street, as of the 10th September.

Again, in the midst of all this turmoil, Ann found time to bear another child to William Henry - a son named George Edward.


1862:

William Henry Organ's Insolvency - 20th January 1862:

Even though George had escaped the fate of business failures, his son was not so lucky for on 29th November 1861 he voluntarily applied to be declared insolvent, which was granted on the 20th January 1862. The details of William's insolvency are very interesting because they detail some of the workings of a storekeeper in Bulli during 1861. At the time of his declaration he presented the following information:

A. Assets

Total 32. 5. 2



B. Creditors


Total: 172.15. 7

This left William Henry with a deficiency of 129.5.5. It seems as though his wife Ann was also included in his insolvency, even though they had separated and she was carrying on a business of her own. On the 5th March William explained his insolvency to the Supreme Court as follows:

"I attribute my insolvency to beinq sued by a Creditor of mine, Mr Audsley, for 50 on account of goods he sold me in Wollongong. I received a verdict against me. I could not pay the verdict. Some other Creditors pressed me. I brought land in the area last August but it was sold by the time Mr Audsley reversed charges against me. I have been out of business for four months. The debts noted are debts owed to me before I went out of business. I have applied for them but cannot get them in."

William Henry signed his testimony with a cross, being his mark, indicating that he could not write - not very good for a so-called storekeeper!


"The details of William Henry Organ's insolvency reveal some aspects of the running of a general store in the outlying areas of the Illawarra in 1861. William's store had a wide range of stock, including groceries, hardware, meat, tobacco, confectionery, draperies, bread, dairy products, books etc., as would be expected for a store which was the only one in the area of Bulli at that time. The store was situated on the corner of the Princes Highway and Molloy Street Bulli, however in 1861 and until this century Molloy Street was named George Street, after George Organ. Following William Henry's bankruptcy the store was taken over by the Cockerton Brothers of Wollongong who saw the potential of a store in the rapidly expanding mining village of Bulli. W.A. Bayley in Black Diamonds (1956) states that "Cockerton & Co. opened the first store in Bulli village in 1861 as a branch of their Wollongong store". However I believe that William Henry Organ's store was actually the first and may have been operating since as early as 1856".

William's wife Ann (nee Grover) was obviously the brains behind the running of the store and when she left him in August of 1861 the business at Bulli fell apart. It seems as though William Henry Organ did not possess the same business acumen as his father George.

THE UNCERTAIN YEARS: 1863 ON.

From 1862 Ann's details become very uncertain. The break from William continued with Ann living and working in Wollongomg and William Henry employed on farm work in the Bulli area. George and James Dixon united again to becomre the official mail contractors for the Wollongong-Campbelltown run. this was the most important run in the district and the main communication between Wollongong and the outside world.

1864 was a hard year for the Illawarra region They suffered drought then floods, low price of produce and people generally disturbed by having difficulties with rent payment because of unemployment.

March was also a bad time for Wiliam Henry. He wa sfound guilty of assult and fined 100 pounds in Wollongong Court of Petty Sessions. This was a lot of money in those days.

Then George was driving down Market Street when he suddenly was thrown out of the vehical with one of the wheels passing over him.
Luckily he only sustained severe bruising. The situation inproved when Ann delivered another daughter named Henrietta. This was three years after George arrived in 1861.

Which make one ponder on the relatioship between Ann and William Henry. Ann separated and raising four children probably in Wollongong whilst William's in Bulli doing farm work and ocassionally getting into the haedlines.

But, in spite of this situation, the babies continued to arrive. There was Jehoida in 1867 with Albert and Alice, both in 1869.

Henrietta born 1864 died in 1866.

CONCLUSION


Overall, the Organ family flourished in the district.

George remained in Wollongong, living in his house in Bureli Stret and still active in his business. He died in 1889.

Jehoida and Alice died in 1869.

William Henry was reported to have entered a mental institution in later years. He died on 27 January, 1899 in Sydney.



THE CHILDREN


1. EMILY

She married Arthur Bray, from Browral in Bulli in 1878.
The couple moved to Berrima where they had a daughter, Henrietta and a son, George.
Emily died in 1880 and Arthur in 1883.

2. ANN MARIA

Ann married Henry Watson in Paddington in 1882. They produced four children: Alice, Gladys, Albert & Myra.
She died in 1934 and he in 1925, both in Wollongong.

3. MARTHA SUSANNAH

Martha married Henry Dumbrell in Bulli in 1879 and had four boys,: Herbert, Lesley, Percy and Garnet.
Martha died in Brookvale in 1929 and Henry followed later in 1945 in Randwick.

4. GEORGE EDWARD

George married Catherine Turner in Wagga Wagga in 1887 and died in 1940 in Bankstown. Catherine died in Randwick in 1935

5. HENRIETTA

Born in 1865 she died in Wollongong in 1886

6. JEHOIDA

She was born in 1867 and died in 1860 in Wollongong.

7. ALICE

Born and died in 1869 in Wollongong

8. ALBERT

Albert married Louisa Holman in 1890 in Tamworth.
He died in 1932 in Canterbury whilst Louisa in 1939 in Annandale.


Ann and William produced 8 children and the three that died were all very young and died in the uncertain time between 1866 and 1869.
The other five all married and lived normal family lifes.


The mystery is with Ann. I have not found one trace of data since her last child was born in 1869. Most of her family moved from Wollongong from 1880 on to various places in the State. The exception was Ann Maria who married in Paddington but returned with her husband to bear and raise their family in Wollongong.

Perhaps Ann remained with them in her last days?





PS

What happened to Ann's brother, Edward and sister-in-law, Eleanor?

3 comment(s), latest 1 month, 1 week ago

A NEW BEGINNING.The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the...

A NEW BEGINNING.


The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the Illawarra.


Compiled and edited by Robert H Dumbrell Email : robertd9@bigpond.net.au

Part 3 of 4 parts : 05 January, 2008 & 20 July, 2008


INTRODUCTION :
This draft document, number three in a series, is a record of my great grandfather, William Dumbrell who left Sussex in 1843 and arrived in Sydney in February, 1844. Ken Brown of Chatswood, NSW, contributed the original document with additions by the editor.
This document follows Dumbrell Origins by Ken Brown and Dumbrells in Lewes by the Editor.

EARLY DAYS IN SUSSEX.

William Dumbrell was born in Lewes, East Sussex on 24th May 1815 to Richard and Jane. He was a carpenter by trade. His siblings were Francis (b 1803), Jane (b 1805) George (b 1809), Sarah (b 1811), Edmund (b 1813) and Martha (b 1818). All except Francis and George were christened in All Saints Church, Lewes. Francis and George were christened at St. Michaels, Lewes.

William's father, Richard, a master cooper, was born in Lewes in 1782. William's mother, Jane Myles, was born about 1785, probably in Lewes. Richard was the 7th child of an older William Dumbrell, born about 1742 in Lewes whose wife, Catharina probably was a Huguenot like William. They were married in Lewes on May 2, 1803 at All Saints Church.

Richard was a descendant of Thomas Dumbrell born about 1600 in New Shoreham, a coastal town a couple of miles west of Brighton, Sussex and ten miles south west of Lewes.
Thomas family were very heavily engaged in barrel making for the local shipping industry.
The trade was followed by his sons down to Richard. About 1830 Richard arranged for his son William to be apprenticed as a carpenter & joiner. This was a seven-year apprenticeship and would follow the family tradition.

It was customary for an apprentice to leave his master on completing his servitude. William left Lewes to work as a tradesman and reappeared in Brighton where he married Henrietta Grayling in St Nicolas Church on 17 March, 1839 This lady died shortly after the marriage believingly of child birth & this tragedy seems to have caused William to decide to emigrate to Australia.

Henrietta was born in Lewes on 20 July 1810 and was nearly 5 years older than William.
Her parents, William and Sarah, nee Ellis, had 6 children, four being daughters.

England was then in the grip of a depression and had a large unemployment problem. With resources under stress the government had to find a way to relieve the pressure of this situation. They saw depopulation as a means to this end and with the Australian colonys labour shortage, a solution was found. They encourage migration to the colonies. The Bounty migration Programme was instituted. (See later in this document).


1843 : THE VOYAGE TO SYDNEY

William migrated to Sydney in 1843 & sailed on the Barque "Neptune" a bounty migrant. The ship sailed from Deptford, on the Thames near London's docklands with the British passengers & called at Cork, Ireland to pick up the Irish passengers. It left Cork on 26th October, 1843 with 294 passengers including crew & a surgeon, John Birwhistle .
The voyage took 110 days out of Cork & appears to have been a good passage for those days. The passengers consisted of free paying, & single male / single female / family bounty passengers. In charge was Master W.I. Ferris. (Contact Editor for his Report )

On board was Harriett Dearling, aged 20, from Wotton near Dorking, Surrey. She was travelling with her sister, Rebecca Knight who was aged 24. Rebecca had her two children from a first marriage with her as well as her second husband, George Knight with his four children from his previous marriages. The eldest was Joseph, aged 16. The Knights also were giving official protection to an 18-year-old London girl named Elizabeth Ann Couch, whose parents were deceased. Harriet was to marry William in Sydney in 1847.

Rebecca had married, firstly, a William Gregory in 1837 at Mickleham in Surrey and two children were born. Rebecca then married George Knight, a carpenter, in 1842 at Peckham, Surrey. George's first wife, Mary Ann Bassett, had died after producing six children. Only four of George's children accompanied them to Sydney as two had died as infants in the U.K. Five of the children were aged between three and twelve years

Harriett's motivation to immigrate to Australia must have been due to the previous death of her parents in 1842, marriage of her sisters and brothers and the impending departure of Rebecca, her closest relation and friend.

At this time an Englishman and an Englishwoman who had made their home in Australia, influenced their lives. He was Captain Robert Towns (1794-1873), sea captain, ship-owner and merchant, entrepreneur and developer. He also was one of the first to import Kanakas (natives from the Solomon Islands) into Queensland to work in the canfields. He played an leading part in founding Townsville around 1864. She was Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877) whose humanity and guidance helped female pioneers to establish themselves in Australia society.

THE BOUNTY SYSTEM.

The bounty system was developed to encourage migration from UK to the NSW colony. Working conditions had been changing in England for over one hundred years.
The American War of Independence had ended in 1783 but the cost to the U.K. was enormous. Then came the French Revolution and the War with France 1793-1815 which continued the drain on resources. The government opposed emigration at those times, as men were needed for the Army and the Navy and to produce war supplies.

However, after these wars the government was broke and unemployment was high as those ex-servicemen needed jobs and the population began increasing.

Industrialisation increased so that prosperity passed the ordinary labourer by. Bad harvests led to an agricultural depression. The Corn Laws were passed so that food prices rose, wages fell, starvation set in.
Relief for the poor became urgent. In 1834 new Poor Laws led to the rise of Workhouses. The condition of village labourers continued to deteriorate until many reached such a state of despair that they were ready to revolt.

One factor contributing to the economic distress in the counties of southern England, was the decline in the demand for English Southdown wool. This was being ousted from the market by wool from German sheep crossed with Spanish merinos.

This period became so distressing for agricultural labourers and tradesmen that the Parish officials began encouraging them to emigrate to N.S.W.
In NSW there had developed a strong pastoral climate that created an effective economic organisation where the labour shortage was critical.

The Bounty Immigration Scheme was first suggested by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He suggested that:
The system of free land grants should cease and Colonial land should be sold.
The revenue from these sales should be used to boost emigration from the U.K.
Certain conditions should apply to the type of emigrant accepted.
This scheme was gradually adopted. The first set of Bounty Regulations was gazetted by Governor Bourke in October 1835:

The persons accepted should be mechanics tradesmen, or agricultural labourers.
They should have references as to their character from responsible persons, such as the local magistrate or clergyman.
To prove their age they should have Certificates of Baptism.
At first, before 1835, the passage money was advanced to emigrants by the Government, to be paid back out of their salary, but many refused to pay it back, so the Government converted this Loan into a Free Bounty.

Settlers in N.S.W. were allowed to recruit their own workers in the U.K. Most employed agents to do so. The Government also had an Agent-General in London after 1837 and Agents in other embarkation ports.

Under the Bounty Scheme the settler who wanted workers paid the Emigrants' passages. On arrival these workers were examined by a Board appointed by the Governor and, if the Board were satisfied, the settler would be issued with a Certificate entitling him to claim the Bounty money back from the Government.

Complaints from the settlers before 1841 were uncommon. The Bounty was refused on only about 1% of applications, mostly on grounds of age.

This system lasted until 1845.


CHAPTER 2. 1844 : ARRIVAL IN SYDNEY

The Neptune entered in Sydney Harbour on 11th February 1844. Sydney Coves development was nearing completion with only the general cleanup of the whole-reclaimed area between Bridge Street and the harbour yet to finished.

The following excerpt from George Scotts book Sydneys Highways of History details the huge improvement in the new Circular Quay wharf structure.


Before 1840 the shipping and commerce of Sydney had far outstripped the primitive wharfage facilities of the Cove and Tank Stream. Early in 1841 the "clerical Ulysses", the Rev. T. Atkins, counted no less than 120 ships in the harbour when he arrived to begin his missionary labours among the benighted colonists. There were sloops with wheat and maize from the Hawkesbury; there were schooners and brigs loading maize, oranges, flour, clothing, boots, muskets and ironware for Hobart Town and the infant settlement of Port Phillip. The Hunter River Steam Company's little
paddlewheelers, the Rose, Shamrock and Thistle, belched smoke over Darling Harbour. Out in the stream, the big, square-sailed ships rode at anchor after months-long voyages from London, Liverpool, Boston and New York.

Some of the goods were lightered to the anchored ships from wooden jetties built out into the Cove. Sometimes the ship were connected to the jetties by pontoons, over which rumbled the reeking barrels of tallow and whale oil and the wool that had been pressed into bales in cumbersome hand-worked presses on the wharf. Only the smallest boats could lie close to the shore of the Cove, and the mouth of the Tank Stream had become a stinking and useless quagmire. Governor Bourke had long been badgering the Home Government for a com-petent engineer to reorganise the harbour works and defences of Sydney, and eventually he was rewarded by the presence of Colonel George Barney, an army engineer who had served for nearly 20 years in the West Indies.
In February, 1839, 180 convicts shuffled down from the Hyde Park barracks to begin building the stone-walled crescent of Circular Quay. Barney's work transformed the Sydney waterfront. Now the big wool clippers could tie up alongside the wharf itself. Great brick and stone warehouses grew up round the Quay, giving the approach to Sydney from the sea the characteristic appearance that lasted until only a few years ago, when the massive concrete screen of railway and roadway was flung across the quayside, crushing the ferry wharves and Customs House.

Before the passengers and crew left the ship, they were interrogated by custom officers who recorded their details on official immigrant documents. The received their bounty money later.

Williams landing papers show that he was 28 years old, a native of Sussex, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, a carpenter by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds 14 shillings. Another document contained signatures confirming that he was baptised in Lewes, Sussex, certifying his healthy condition and character and finally certifying the correctness in the form by a clergyman.
Harriets papers show that she was 20 years old, a native of Surrey, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, Home Duties by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds and 14 shillings. She would had produced the second document with her Surrey details.
The Knight family was also recorded but had a total increased bounty payment for two adults and four children.

The ship was met by Captain Robert Towns and Caroline Chisholm who were creating a farming colony on land granted to the Wentworth family at Peterborough Estate, now Shellharbour about 80 kilometres south of Sydney. Caroline had previously travelled to England to find 47 families that were willing to join in this development and I believe that William and George Knight & family with Robert Carnall & family were part of this package. They were to be employed as tradesmen to work on his Shellharbour development so a memorandum of agreement was made for William and George, both carpenters and Robert as a stonemason to work for Captain Towns in the Wollongong area, which was founded eight years earlier. They would be paid 17 pounds per annum for approximately three years. Other families on the "Neptune" to go to the Illawarra were the Fishlocks, and George. In early 1843 a system of clearing leases was began by which about 30 acres was given by the large landholders to the immigrate settlers rent free for six years

The Sydney Morning Herald of 7 December, 1843, reported the departure of Chisholm and the 23 families by steamer:

twenty-three families, who are to be located on land near Wollongong on clearing leases, left Sydney by the steamer last night, accompanied by Mrs Chisholm, through whose exertions this arrangement has been made.

The land of 13,060 acres was originally owned by Darcy Wentworth, Towns father-in-law After his death in 1827, his lands were divided among his children, one being Sophia who had married Robert Towns in 1833. Towns had offered 4000 acres of land - part of Peterborough Estate. He also provided rations for the families for the first five months. Chisholm engaged a schoolmaster to open a school and employed three bushman to show the settlers how to clear and crop the land. As clearing lease tenants, the families were given the land rent-free for six years in exchange for clearing the land.

During the tenancy period, a family could also establish a small farm, grow basic crops and raise a few animals. At the end of the lease, tenants could pay rent or purchase the land as it became available. Chisholm later reported that the project was successful so it can be assumed that many of the 23 families remained and became self-supporting. Tenants later shipped their goods from Shellharbour, which soon became a prosperous port.

William with George, his family of four children with Joseph 18 years old and Robert Carnel had arrived after the original migrant families had settled in Shellharbour. They purpose may have been to construct what was known as the Lake House or Peterborough House which was to be occupied by Towns brother-in-law and sister-in-law Stephen Addison and Mary Ann nee Wentworth between 1845 and 1848. They sailed by steamer three months after the earlier tenants and ferried to the shore by oared boat. Even though the area had been populated for a number of years, conditions must have been very harsh for the new arrivals at first. Rebecca's landing papers reveal that she was a nurse so her profession would have been a great advantage to the pioneer settlers in the Shellharbour area. To make things harder for the Knights, Rebeccas next child, John was born there on March 17, 1844. No further children were born in on the estate.

At the same time, Harriet remained in Sydney and on 16 February 1844 found a live-in housekeeper position with Mr William Patten and his wife, Anne at 254 - 256 Pitt Street, between King and Market Streets, for fourteen pounds per annum. There is a good chance that Caroline Chisholm arranged this for Harriet. William was a marble mason and operated Australian & Italian Marble Works store at this address. The drawing of this building can be found in Joseph Fowles (1848) publication in 1848 (Plate 30A) Also note the attachment on the opposite page His wife Ann, was also in business operating a Millinery and Dressmaking Establishment at Rochester House, 100 Pitt Street.

The original possibly trial agreement was for Harriet to work for three months. Good domestic help from free settlers was in great need in those days as the female convicts that the gentry had used for many years were very unreliable. Harriet remained with the Pattens through the ordeal of Anns illness and death on 24/5/1845 at the age of 41 years. She was buried in the Parish of Petersham. No records can be traced as to children of the marriage.
William married a second time, to Barbara Brown in 1846.


In the mean time, William, George and Robert were still in the Shellharbour area. They were not part of Captain Towns original tenant scheme so the benefits of that scheme did not apply to them. When their project drew to a conclusion, the three and their families would have considered moving on. Robert turned south to nearby Kiama where he employed in his stonemason activities. Georges young family had live in a very pioneer existence for the last three years and very different to rural Surrey. The family was growing with the eldest child, Joseph aged 18 and John only 3. I believe that they may have looked for an upgrade to the family life.

Not too far away was a progressive township where conditions were much improved and work was available. It was situated on the main road to Sydney and had extra comforts as Churches, better schools, a mill and, of course, a brewery with a hotel. The village was Woodstock that Jamberoo later overgrew. Woodstock was a tiny village a little more than a kilometre north-west of Jamberoo. It was established west of the current Jamberoo Albion Park road and north of the Minnamurra Falls road. On the estate of John Ritchie a flour and timber mill was erected in 1838. The water wheel was operated in the Minnamurra River. The mill had a cooperage, a piggery, a bacon factory and a two-storey barn. Soon the Man of Kent hotel with its own brewery appeared. A little settlement grew up around the mill and brewery with a school near-by. Some time before October 1846, the Knights moved to Jamberoo where Rebecca's next child, Thomas was born on 31st of that month.

Harriet was still in Sydney working and living in the Pattens in Pitt Street. William would have moved to Sydney to do his courting after completing his contract at Wollongong. It is unlikely that Harriet had visited her sister in Shellharbour in that period. The journey was very hazardous as the overland route was via Liverpool, Campbelltown, Appin and Bulli Mountain. The section east of Appin was only a rough track and the descent of Bulli Mountain extremely dangerous. Some years earlier, Governor Bourke had travelled overland to visit Wollongong and when there, had refused to return to Sydney by land instead going by ship.

William and Harriet were married at the St Andrews Church, Sydney on the 5th April, 1847 by Banns by Rev John McGarvie While they were both Episcopalians and would have attended the Church of England, they did not marry in an Anglican church as William had failed to bring his previous marriage certificate or his first wife's death certificate. The Anglicans declined from marrying him but the Presbyterians obliged.

On 21st November 1848, their first son, William was born in Camperdown where they were living and baptised on 31st January 1848. No doubt tiny Harriet, who was only about 4 foot 9 inches (1.46m) tall and William thought little about the number of descendants who would result. At the time of Harriet's death, fifty-two years later, she had forty-two grandchildren and three great grandchildren.

George and Rebecca had moved to Woodstock (Jamberoo) where their new arrivals, Alfred and Franklin were born on 8th February 1848 and 11th August, 1849 respectively.


CHAPTER 3. 1850s : WOODSTOCK, JAMBEROO & KIAMA

There was a very close link between the two families and William and Harriet decided to join the Knights in Woodstock, Harriet to be near her sister and William work association with George.
The big decision was how to travel to Woodstock. Their first born, William was one year old and Harriet was carrying their second, Henry, my grandfather. There were two modes of transport. The hard trek was overland which would take a number of days. The second was by sea to the new port of Kiama then 30 kilometres over Saddleback Mountain to Woodstock.
Lets look at the two options:

OPTION 1 : Overland

The initial journey was by Campbelltown, Appin then west to Bulli Mountain and down the mountain to the growing town of Wollongong and the Illawarra. A rough trip.

W.A.Bayley describes the journey from Wollongong in those days in his book Green Meadows:

T
ravellers in the forties going southward from Wollongong crossed the shallow waters at the mouth of Lake Illawarra, swimming their horses, passed by Shellharbour which was then only a name and reached the Locking Hill, where all drays descending had a wheel locked, and then followed the public road to Turpentine Creek and so to Jamberoo. The farms of settlers flanked the tracks. Occasionally the mouth of Lake Illa-warra was closed and traffic would become more frequent by that route. Settlers took advantage of the mouth of the lake to swim cattle across so that they would not return in those days when fences were few.
The route from Wollongong to Jamberoo through Terry's Meadows at that time was well described by the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, who as a boy was taken to live on a farm at Jamberoo. The journey from Sydney in 1843, he wrote, was made in a "rough cross-benched cart". Her Majesty's mail was thus carried to Wollongong. His father followed on horseback, whilst the furniture and luggage followed in other drays. At Wollongong a change was made to a bullock dray for the journey to Jamberoo. The family sat on sacks stuffed with maize husks whilst "slowly the patient beasts drew us along the seeming lengthening way'. "From Wollongong to Jamberoo the road was a mere dray track through a forest of tropical foliage; gum trees 200 feet or more in height, gigantic indiarubber trees with broad shiny dark green leaves, lofty cabbage palms and many another kind of tree
towered above us so that their tops made a twilight canopy impenetrable to the sunlight, save for an infrequent clearing in the forest made by the settler's axe. Huge lianas, some as thick as a man's arm, hung down snake-like from the trees. Magnificent ferns, clinging to the fork or trunk and branches were pointed out to me.

A very rough journey for most people but more so for Harriet in her condition.

OPTION 2

Port Jackson to Shellharbour or Kiama was about 100 kilometres by sea so the time factor depended on the weather. Then a days trip over Razorback Mountain into Jamberoo Valley and they were there.

WHAT DID THEY DO ? THE EXPECTED.

I expect that this change in life would have been very difficult for Harriet even though she had been raised in the country environment of Wotton, west of Dorking in Surrey. First, she had spent the last five years in the busy growing atmosphere of Sydney Town and then to travel for several days and settle in a small bush town with little comforts compared to Pitt Street. This would have been a great experience.

The area had been settled since the early 1820s and had many village facilities such as Churches, schools and a brewery. Opportunities seemed endless for the Dumbrells. The area was growing quickly with work available for building and cedar getting in the forests.
The sisters and their families were back together and this relationship would last for many years. William's second son, Henry, my grandfather, was born in Woodstock on June 18, 1850.

Note : For detailed information on Woodstock/Jamberoo read W. A. Bayleys book Blue Haven, chapter Tangling Vines.

Also, as my father, Garnet Dumbrell told me, William worked as a local carpenter and a red cedar timber getter in the Jamberoo forests where he spent long periods away from home leaving tiny Harriet to look after the children. The local aborigine tribe would enter their cottage at times to help themselves to household items. Harriet had no way of stopping this practice.

The advent of gold being discovered near Bathurst in 1851 did not appear to disrupt family life as three more sons were born to Harriet and William in Jamberoo in the next few years. Edmund arrived in 1852 and the twins, John and George in 1854.










CHAPTER 4. THE MOVE TO KIAMA.

1856 was an important year for William and Harriet. First, young John died in Jamberoo and second, the family moved to nearby, coastal Kiama. Perhaps they moved because the Knights had also moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff.

The family settled in "Porters Garden" at Kiama where their first daughter, Jane Myles was born. Their fellow carpenter, Robert Carnell went to live and work in Kiama. He is reputed to have built a few substantial buildings in the town. Perhaps his presence may have influenzas William to move there. Also, William's father, Richard passed away in Sussex, with his mother, Jane already deceased.

Nowra was a quickly growing town with the shipping traffic the main factor. Chains were firstly laid on the harbour bed to allow the securing of a ship for loading and unloading.
The growth of Kiama saw the need to construct a wharf to store and handle freight as trade increased. James & John Colley built a small wharf in 1849 for fifty pounds. In 1853, the farmers & business people formed the Kiama Steam Navigation Company Captain. Charles was sent to Scotland in 1855 to supervise the launching of the S.S. Kiama, a paddle wheel steam, with a keel of 121 feet, beam 20 feet and on the register at 104 tons (carrying capacity). The Kiama arrived in Sydney under sail on 3 April, 1855 having taken 144 days for the passage from Scotland.

William & Harriet would have found Kiama more attractive than the quieter Jamberoo and with the good prospects of on going work and better schooling for the growing family.
(The cedar had disappeared from the forest in this period).

1856 was also an important year for the colony as the first parliament Assembly sat in NSW. Captain Robert Towns was a member of that parliament.
[It is interesting to note that Tom Plunkett and Hugh Nichols, who were in the same district at that time, probably knew the Dumbrells and Knights]

The next few years were happy years for Harriet having her first daughter, Jane Myles and another, Anne Eliza, to arrive in 1858. At this time there were four sons ranging from William aged 10, Henry aged 8, Edmund aged 6 to George aged 4 and the two girls.
However tragedy was around the corner when young Jane died on November 3, 1859.

The 1860s:
The situation was helped with the arrival of Charles Vincent born in Kiama in 1860 but again fate intervened with the death of young Anne Eliza on March 13, 1862. Arthur Frederick was born in 1863 to put the count at 6 living sons, 1 deceased son and 2 deceased daughters.

The Knights had moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff (between 1855-1857) then further south to Milton in the late 1850s where he bought a property. A post office was opened there with the name The Settlement on January 1,1860. George was appointed the first postmaster and suggested that the name be changed to Milton, the name of his own property. The name was immediately changed.
In October of that year, the post office went to Frederick Hall. ( refer to William Bayleys book Shoalhaven, page 79)
George Knight then established a flourmill further south at Ulladulla in 1861. Shortly afterwards they moved north to Bulli with their family of 10 children with George serving as a Methodist local preacher in all parts of the Illawarra. It was here that Rebecca died on 27th June, 1863 and aged only 43. She was buried from the Bulli Temporary Wesleyan Chapel and now lies with George in the Old Wollongong cemetery. Their gravestone is still in very good condition in Cemetery Avenue.

During her 19 years in Australia, Rebecca gave birth to ten children, the youngest being only two years at the time of her death. The two children of her previous marriage (Gregorys) had both left home. All the older children at home were boys. George Knight was then fifty-six. We know the Dumbrells had moved to Sherbrooke by 1867, however, it is very likely that they moved there within a few months of Rebecca's death and before George's next matrimonial move. No doubt, Harriet wished to be near Rebecca's children as soon as possible. As seemed to be the custom in those days, George remarried in just over a year. He wed Anna Philips at Wollongong on 19 June, 1864. George made the seating for the Bulli Methodist church when it opened in 1865 and about 1867 moved to Bulli Mountain, later named Sherbrooke where he opened a sawmill.
As was the case with the two families, William, Harriet and their sons also moved to Bulli Mountains about the same time.


CHAPTER 5. SHERBROOKE : (BULLI MOUNTAIN) LATE 1860s - 1876

William and Harriet must have still detained their pioneer characteristics as the Mountain was only settled at that time and they are stated to be among the original settlers whose names appear on early Parish maps. Other families include the Reeves, Spinks, Loveday, Wales, Blinkco, King, Roberts, Allen, Browns and Campbell and, of course, the Knights. There were 16 families living in the area initially but the numbers grew as time passed on.

It was situated one and a half miles west of the top of Bulli Pass and extending south on both sides of Cataract Creek, it consisted mainly of 40 acres of land-blocks, some settlers buying as many as three 40-acre blocks. A dirt road heading west from the top of Bulli Pass, known as Sherbrooke Road followed a path up steep hills and down dales, through thick virgin forest until a second road branched off and travelled south along the east ridge.

The main three industries that developed in the area were (in this order)
(1) timbergetting and saw-milling.
(2) Fruit and vegetable growing
(3) Bee-keeping and honey production

William purchased two 40-acre blocks, numbered 115 and 118, which straddled the Cataract Creek. Block 115 was on the eastern side of the creek and on Sherbrooke Road just south of the first school that was built in 1869.

George Knight opened a sawmill at Sherbrooke in the late 1860s and a second in the 70s. Some of his sons carried on the work after his death in 1881. There grew to be five families of Knights at Sherbrooke where they actively supported the Union Church there and walked or rode down and up Bulli Pass to participate in the activities of the church at Bulli on Sundays.

Sherbrooke, has always has great natural beauty. Farmlets and orchards were carved out of the rain forest and dense bush. There was the school, later a hotel and soon used as a stop-over for travellers between Sydney and the South Coast. The Cataract River rises there.


The residents of Sherbrooke were genuine pioneers. If a home was needed the men would go into the bush and fell a suitable tree or trees. Then such a work of sawing, chopping, adzing and planing would be done. All the work of loading and transporting would be done with drays and the aid of faithful bullock, frequently a road had to be made to the site of operations. In those days the neighbours who were disengaged would be there bright and early to lend a helping hand. Later on Germans, Norwegians and other nationalities moved into the locality bringing with them new ideas concerning building and painting, so gradually more modern homesteads appeared.
The settlers cultivated acres of fruit trees and grapes. The ground was very fertile. plums grew in abundance. They also had more than a hundred hives of bees.

We had no shops at Sherbrooke. A butcher with his horse and cart appeared periodically, but mostly the established people killed their own meat, and of course, when there was a surplus shared it with their neighbours. Fuel stoves and open fires were used in every home. Kerosene lamps and candles were the only lighting we had.
The Dumbrells property was along the banks of the Cataract River and because of the abundant rainfall they were never short of water. There were no tanks, water for domestic use was collected in large woodencasks.
Sherbrooke was a very hilly place. The cabbage tree palms grew very tall there. Quite a number of the residents plaited the leaves of the palms and made very neat serviceable hats from the strands, which proved a useful shade during the hot summer days.

The road down Bulli pass was very picturesque, but had to be negotiated carefully for some of the bends were difficult to manipulate, but there was no accidents, perhaps because there were no hotels about. The Lookout on the top of the pass is really world renowned, and truly breathtaking. In the early stages of occupancy the residents made the roads to their properties and kept them in repair.

Birds of all kinds and wild animals were plentiful in Sherbrooke and on the Bull Mountain.
Wild animals did not often come near our home. One half starved looking dingo (native dog) once paused at our door fence, but quickly disappeared when shouted at. The people of Sherbrooke had to shut away young calves and goats from the dingoes. There are stories told of Sherbrooke people carrying supplies of meat up Bulli Mountain and being followed by dingoes. The villagers eventually shot, trapped and poisoned the dingoes until they became extinct.
It was here that the last two children were born to Harriet, more boys, Thomas 1867, who later worked drove the Sydney-Melbourne Express train and Alfred Sydney on 28 March, 1870, who later developed a successful butchery business on the Pacific Highway, Woonona across from the present-day Woonona RSL Club.
The propertys rich, red volcanic soil could support intensive farming. Being near the edge of the coastal range there was usually good rainfall. To maintain his farm it is likely that William continued with some work as a joiner and builder at Sherbrooke and the Bulli area.

In 1870 Harriet turned 46 and William 55.
William (Junior) was 22 years, Henry 20, Edmund 18, George 16, Charles Vincent 10, Arthur Frederick 7, Thomas 3 and Alfred Sydney only a few months.

The six elder Dumbrell boys seem to be well provided for as they were mostly tall and well built despite their diminutive mother. William often rode down to Bulli probably to work and regularly visited the library. The boys were always anxious to accompany him, as the journey was still an adventure and the scenery spectacular. The four elder sons could be employed on farming on their two sites or helping out in the surrounding farms as the numbers increased.

A factor to be considered at this period of time would be the social life of the Sherbrooke community and the three elder boys, William, Henry and Edmund. In that era, most social activities was centred around the local church .

To tend the religious aspects of Sherbrooke :

Protestant ministers from Bulli, such as Reverend Hugh Walker Taylor, would make the journey up Bulli Pass on Sundays to preach in the sawn slab and shingled roof chapel.
The Rev Taylor would make the arduous trip to Sherbrooke to provide the spiritual needs of the parishioners such as William Dumbrell who was one of the first settlers of the valley and owned two 40 acres properties along Cataract Creek.
William was in his mid 60s when he came to Bulli Mountain in the late 1860s to grow vegetables and fruit, later introducing blackberries that would one day become a major industry in the region.

While at Sherbrooke, William senior heard that Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and a doctor from Sydney had imported blackberry vines. He remembered seeing blackberries in his native Sussex and decided to plant them in Sherbrooke. Of course, the blackberries flourished but an unexpected and far-reaching situation was to result. In a short time the Currawongs, who fly regularly from the coastal strip to the hills and return, found the berries to their liking and unwittingly caused them to spread. It was only a matter of time before the berries could be found through the whole Illawarra district. As children, we picked those blackberries little knowing who started it all. From that simple beginning, the blackberry vines soon developed into a major industry in north Illawarra, suppling the needs of Sydney jam factories and bringing many pickers to the area. A special train was employed to carry the berries to Sydney most nights. The vines were eventually eradicated in the 1940s.

I must include a section of an (2001) email from Andrew Jessups, a descendant of George Dumbrell.

"I've just returned from a holiday in Kiama. Visited the Family History Centre,there. Got the name of a researcher into the history of Sherbrooke where the Dumbrells lived for a while. Sherbrooke doesn't exist anymore but its church, which the early Dumbrells helped build, was moved to a place called Slakey Creek - in a "Grevillea Park".

On inquiring further, I found that Grevillea Park is a new garden development situated behind the Showground at Bulli and opened in late April 2002. The chapel is used as a refreshment centre.

As quoted from its Website:

"The Park has many hundreds of Grevilleas and also a wide range of other natives. Increasingly popular is the rainforest walk at the rear of the Park which loops over Slacky Creek and displays a wealth of indigenous rainforest species. Drinks on sale at the old Sherbrook chapel "

Also, an extract from the Illawarra Mercury of 21 April, 2001 :

The Blincko family moved to Bulli in 1914 from Sherbrook (now Cataract) before the Cataract dam was built. The family, which included five daughters and a number of sons, brought a church from Sherbrook to Bulli - its home now is in the Grevillea Park Gardens


NOTE : See attachment 1 Sherbrooke : The lost Village by W. A. Bayley

A well as the Church offering the religious aspect to the community, it also offered the social requirements for families and especially the young men and women of the area. There were many church meeting and outings where the two sexes could assemble to have the chance of getting to know their follow churchgoers better. The older Dumbrell lads and their Knight cousins certainly used these function to meet the opposite sex.

Around 1868, when William was in his early 50s, he received severe sunstroke.
The resulting headaches and other discomforts plagued him until his death.
He visited several doctors but nothing could be done to alleviate his problem.

Edmund was the first of the sons to marry (27.1.1874). His wife was Mary Ellen Burless daughter of William Burless and Emmeline Vidler. Mary was born in Gerringong in 1853.

The first grandchild to William and Harriet was Ellen Jane who was born in Wollongong to Edmund and Mary Ellen in 1875.They produced ten children over the next 22 years. For a while they settled on the family farm at Sherbrooke before he became a railway fettler. His family moved west to the Parkes district about 1880.


CHAPTER 6. BULLI : 1875 1900

Death of William senior. 1876 and a new arrival.

In early 1875 William Senior, Harriet and most of the family left Sherbrooke and moved to Bulli, leaving William junior (Bill) to carry on. William was nearly sixty years of age but his health was failing.
At this stage William received a legacy from a Mr Charles Cooke of Guildford, UK, amounting to 100 pounds, a significant sum in those days. On moving to Bulli or shortly before, William built a small house fronting the main road at Bulli. The 100 pounds probably paid for the land and materials and must have been a factor in their decision to move. The house is still intact with some modification.

On 19 July, 1876 William Dumbrell passed away. The sunstroke and possibly the exertion from the rapid construction of the weatherboard cottage may have weakened his heart. Heart trouble had been diagnosed for the previous nine months. Perhaps an additional reason for moving to Bulli was to be nearer a medical practitioner. As there was not yet a church or general cemetery at Bulli, William was buried in Wollongong general cemetery, in the old section. No headstone exists for William and probably never did as particulars for William were also inscribed on Harriet's headstone at Bulli. (see photo attached).


A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.



Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but alaso to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years.

Edmund and Mary Jane were blessed with a son, William Arthur in July 1876, again born in Wollongong. William senior had died on the 19th July but I am unsure of the date that William Arthur was born.

At the time of William's death, Harriet would have had three or four youngest of-springs living with her. Of the other sons, Bill was 28 and had previously moved to Bulli to work for the mining company. Henry was 26 and George, who took up school teaching was about 22. He was to rise to School principal at Manly High. He would have left home.
Harriett would have had three or four young offsprings living with her
Charles was 16 and possibly working. 13 years old, Arthur later became an engine driver for the NSW railways and drove the "Melbourne Express" from Central. He later lived at Erskineville near where he worked.
Thomas was 9, Alfred Sydney (Sid), the future butcher in Woonona was 6 years.


THE NEXT FEW YEARS.

Harriet was 52 when her husband died but her life was not over. In fact, the next few years would see a tremendous increase in the family numbers with her sons marrying and producing many more grandchildren.

Let's start with 1878.

Edmund and Mary Ann provided the impetus with the arrival of Edmund Charles
There were two marriages that year.
* Henry and William.

Henry married Martha Susannah Organ in Wollongong in 1879 and their first son, Herbert was born there in 1880. The small family moved to Sydney where Henry joined the Sydney Tramway in 1882 as a conductor and retired as a starter in 1914.
Martha's mother was Anne Grover who arrived in Sydney with her brother, Edward from Brighton in Sussex in 1853 aboard the "Meteor" with Edward's wife, Eleanor from Lewes. She married William Henry Organ in Wollongong in 1855.
(Contact Editor for Organ family history)

William Junior (Bill) married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879.. Like Henry, their first child, Arthur Stanley was born in Wollongong in 1880. William and Ann went on to bear 6 children, five of which were girls. William lived all his life in Wollongong / Bulli.
I learnt recently from Ken Brown that Bill was a very good athlete and excelled in running. He won many foot races that were popular in those days and was rewarded with good cash prizes. On one occasion when he had reached a final he found that the first prize wasnt to his liking and he preferred the second prize. As luck or good judgement had it, he finished safely in second place to secure his wanted reward.

Edmund's son, William Arthur died as an infant as a result of croup in Bulli in 1879.

George Knight passed away in 1881 and is buried with Rebecca in the old section at the southern end of Wollongong cemetery. Their headstone is still very legible.

George, our schoolteacher married Mary Ellen Ross in Woonona in 1881 and his first child, George Garnet soon followed when he was born in Maitland in 1882. Seven more children were born in Maitland up to 1894. In 1899 he taught at Ermington public school.

Charles married Mary Bell in Wollongong in 1887. Their first child, Oliver was born in Woonona in 1888. Clara arrived in 1892, Charles in Waterloo in 1897, Wilfred in Helensburgh in 1892 and finally Ivy in Woonona in 1890.

Arthur was to move around during his early life. Perhaps his occupation as a train driver was the reason for this. After wedding Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889, they bore 7 children around NSW including 4 in Sydney
.

Thomas was the last to marry, this being on Boxing day 1892 and he and his wife, Emma, continued on with Harriett and provided for her until her death. She spent some of her time with her sons in Sydney. She had been staying with Arthur at his home in Erskineville when she contracted bronchial pneumonia and pleurisy and died five days later on 24 October, 1900, aged 77. She was buried in St. Augustine's Churchyard, Bulli. (which is behind the church) This churchyard has been reclaimed and turned into a memorial lawn. Her sons erected a headstone for her and William (who was buried at the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli) and this headstone, in good condition, is placed on the southeastern wall of the lawn.
I believe that Harriet & William were removed to Wollongong when the St. Augustines Churchyard was updated. Their grave is yet to be found.

William Dumbrell senior's cottage at Bulli was auctioned exactly one month after Harriets death along with the furniture doubtless made by him years before.

In my research, I obtained a copy of the estate agent's newspaper advertisement stating :-


Notice of House and Furniture.

ESTATE OF LATE W. DUMBRELL,
BULLI.

By Public Action, on the Ground

Saturday, 24th November (1900)
at 2 p.m.

Strongly built and Comfortable W.B. Cottage
of ? Rooms and ??? ???? ???. the
allocation of Land with 54 ft Frontage to
Main South Coast Road (next J. Glass's
Store) and 4 chains 5 links depth, suit-
ably divided into garden, poultry yards
etc. Large Underground Tank, Grape
and other vines, out houses very shel-
tered and shaded position. Also, same
time, Household Furniture in Cedar
Drawers, Tables, Chiffonier, Cedar
Clothes Closets, Double and Single
Bedsteads, Chairs, Toilet Wares Etc.

H.F. Cofferell is instructed by the
Trustees to sell the above very
desirable Property, in order to close
the estate.

S. C. Times





A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.

Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but also to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years.



A Death Report

HARRIETT DUMBRELL.

The late Mrs. W. Dumbrell -- The announcement of whose death
is made in this issue was interred in the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli, on Thursday last in the presence of a large concourse of mourning relatives and friends. The deceased lady arrived in the colony in 1844 and has been a resident of the Illawarra district for the past 53 years. She has left eight sons, 42 grandchildren and three great grandchildren, in addition to an extensive circle of personal Friends to mourn her loss. Mrs. Dumbrell was on a short visit to one of her sons, who resides at Erskineville, when she caught a cold and after an illness of only five days succumbed to a severe attack of bronchial pneumonia and pleuraay notwith-standing the constant care and attention of Dr. Trindall of Newtown. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Coffil and Co. of Sydney -- The remains were brought to Bulli.

Harriett Dumbrell (nee) Dearling, died 24th October 1900 aged 77 years.



Sydney Morning Herald -- Obituary

DUMBRELL -- 24 October 1900, at her son's residence, Erskineville, of pneumonia and pleurisy, Harriett Dumbrell, relict of the late William Dumbrell of Bulli, aged 77 years.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

POSTSCRIPTS

Following the death of Harriet Dumbrell in 1900, the family was as follows :

William :
Married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879. He had 6 children of which 5 were daughters. Living at Main South Coast Road, Bulli. One of the first churchwardens at St. Augustine Church of England, Bulli. A farmer at Bulli.

Henry :
Married to Martha Susanah Organ since 1878 with 5 sons. Living in Forest Lodge, Sydney and working for the Sydney Tramways as a Starter. Aged 50 years.

Edmund :
Was 48 years old. Married Mary Burless at Wollongong in 1874 when he was 22 years old. They had 5 daughters and two sons, one son died in 1879. Living in Parkes and working as a fettler with the government railways.

George :
46 years old and a schoolteacher in Ermington. Married to Mary Ellen Ross since 1881 having eight children including 5 sons. Completed his career as Headmaster at Manly High School.

Charles Vincent:
Was 40 years, married to Mary J with three girls and two sons. Location is unsure but it was either Bulli or Helensburgh

Alfred Sydney :
Was 30 years old, living in Bulli and was working as a butcher and soon owned butchery business on Main Road, Woonona, later continued by his sons.. Married in 1891 to Elizabeth Rebecca Plunkett with six children. More to come.
Her father was Thomas Plunkett. (See Woodstock report)

Arthur Frederick :
Was 37 years of age, living in Erskineville and was a train driver. Drove the Melbourne Express
Married Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889 and had four children. More to come.

Thomas Richard
Was 33 years, living in Bulli with his wife, Emma Collison and four children.

The end of an Era

Harriets death marked almost 60 years since her arrival in NSW and the Illawarra on 12 February, 1844. Those years had seen a huge change throughout the colony and the Illawarra. William and Harriet had arrived at the end of the convict era and the family had seen the disappearance of the convicts and the chain gangs. They had experienced the pioneer days with the development of the Illawarra, the great migration due to the gold rush in the early 1850s, the birth of responsible government with the colonys self determination also in the 50s.

Harriet had arrived in NSW as a single immigrate but had left with 42 grandchildren and 3 great-grand children




HARRIET AND WILLIAM, BORN IN ENGLAND, WERE TRUE PIONEERS OF THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT



PART 4 CONTINUES.


NOTE 1:

1. I have been giving some thought to the naming of Harriet & Williams children.

William Jnr Very likely named after his father.
Henry . Williams first wife was Henrietta.
Williams uncle, born 1769
Edmund Williams elder brother, born 1813.
George Williams elder brother (b 1809) and Henriettas cousin
John Williams uncle, born 1770
Jane Williams mother & grandmother, Jane Miles
Ann Williams aunt, born 1784
Charles
Arthur
Thomas Williams uncle, born 1789
Alfred Sydney






CAPTAIN FERRIS REPORT.
(Captain of the Neptune)


The vessel was in every way admirably suited to the service. The single female partition did not interfere with the ventilation and answered its object most satisfactorily.
The food and water proved to have been of excellent quality, No complaint was made of the regularity of their issue. The medical duties of the surgeon were most efficiently performed. The appearance of the ship when first visited by the Health Officer & myself is highly creditable to him. We were informed that she was in equally good order when boarded by the pilot.
About a fortnight after the arrival of the ship, two letters of complaint against the Surgeon were addressed to the Governor. They originated from the same persons, the charges contained in them appeared unfounded & malicious his duties were, I have every reason to believe, very satisfactorily performed but perhaps a greater reserve in his ordinary xxxxx towards the Immigrants would have rendered them very impatient of any exercise of authority when accessary & have prevented even his complaint undeserved though it was. With the immigrants as a body I saw every reason to be satisfied
(See Report of the Board on this head).
A few days after leaving Cork a case of small pox appeared, but by the prompt & decisive measures
of the Surgeon the spread of this disease was prevented. The vessel was however placed under quarantine restrictions for three days after arrival here to afford due opportunity for a thorough cleaning of the Immigrants clothes etc. xxxx xxxxx amongst the children, catarrh & fever amongst the adults arising from severity of weather at the commencement of the voyage occurred but were successfully checked by the Surgeon's treatment. The Poop, not being required for Cabin Passengers, the use of it was afforded to the single females. For the welfare of the females & the order of ship it were much to be wished that this advantage could always be xxx to them This however could of course only be done by the exclusion of Cabin passengers from Immigration ships, which might not be practicable without possible at the increase of expenses.
Five married men being without engagements when discharged from the ship were to taken xxxx xxxx from any employment by the Government one of them however, was xxxxx xxx few days withdrawn into private service.


30 March, 1844

Signed

MASTER W. I. FERRIS






Dated ; 27 May, 2004
Robert Dumbrell


END OF REPORTS

Samuel Kerr : Soldier, Family Man, Business Man

SAMUEL KERR
( 1822 1903)
Author : Robert H. Dumbrell.
Original: November 13, 2008
Edit : April 9, 2011


1822 - 1843 INTRODUCTION

Samuel Kerr was born in County Fermanagh, Ulster in 1824 to Samuel & Annie Neeson. His father was a military sergeant. He was baptised in the Catholic Church. His birth place in the County and childhood is unknown at this stage but it is recorded that he enlisted in the British Army, very probably in Northern Ireland on 6 August, 1842 and after basic training was promoted to Private in the 58th (Rutlandshire) Regiment of Foot. His discharge papers dated 31 December 1849 at Auckland states that Samuel was a shoemaker by trade.

1843 - 1849 THE 58th (RUTLANDSHIRE) REGIMENT OF FOOT.

In 1843 it was decided that the 58th regiment (The Black Cuffs), who were stationed in Chatham Barracks at Gillingham, Kent, England, should take over garrison duties in New South Wales from the 80th (Stafford Volunteers) which was going to Madras. The 58th provided the guards for 19 convict ships that left London and Ireland for Tasmania or Norfolk Island in 1842-45. (for ships details, see History of the Regiment document).

The Regiment progressively arrived in NSW in 1844. Samuel sailed from London as a guard on the convict ship Maria Somes on 10 April, 1844 and arrived in Sydney 17 August that same year. As was the custom with the army, soldiers wife and children accompanied them on their duties. In fact, from the regiments records, 140 wives and 175 children accompanied their soldier husbands to NSW in 1844/45. Samuel was assigned to Upper Military Barracks in Parramatta which was a couple of days march from Sydney.

The site is now commonly referred to as the Lancer Barracks, and would appear to have been so named for most of the 20th Century. During its first phase of use from 1820, the site was known as the New Military Barracks, to distinguish it from earlier military barracks in Parramatta. In the 1830s it was referred to as the Upper Military Barracks, again to distinguish it from other barracks in particular the former Commissariat Store. From 1862 until 1897 the site was known as the Police Barracks.

In 1845 N.S.W. reluctantly agreed to send the 58th to N.Z. because of the unrest with the Maori in the Bay of Islands The regiment then had an officer compliment of approximately 40 and a total strength of about 1100. There were 932 privates and 18 buglers, pipers and drummers. The C.O.s were Lieutenant-Colonels E. B. and R. H. Wynyard, with Major C. Bridge as assistant.

The Regiment embarked for New Zealand on the barque the Slain's Castle on 10 April 1845 with a compliment of greater than 250 rank & file with Captain Cyprian Bridge the OIC. They arrived in Auckland on 22 April 1845, from whence they went straight up to the Bay of Islands to deal with the Maori tribes led by Hone Heke and his principal ally Kawiti who were in rebellion. They took part in the fighting at Okaihau, Ohaeawai, Ruapekapeka, Boulcott's Farm, Horokiri, and St. John's Wood.

Excepting for three companies who remained in the south of the North Island, the main body of the 58th regiment was withdrawn to NSW late in 1847. They sailed from Auckland on 6 December, arriving back in Sydney on 18th, where they again occupied the Upper Military Barracks at Parramatta quit some twenty months previously. As it turned out their sojourn back in NSW was only to last for six months. An escalation of trouble in the south of the North Island in the Wanganui area in May 1847 resulted in their return to New Zealand. They were to remain in New Zealand until 1857.


1849 DISCHARGE FROM THE BRITISH ARMY.

Samuel was discharged on Payment as a Private in Auckland on 31 December, 1849. He married Jane O'Connor in Auckland in 1851. Jane was 11 years younger than Samuel so that when Samuel was discharged she was 16. Her parents, Patrick and Hester were Scottish out of Glasgow where Jane was born in 1835. There is no record of their marriage in NSW so apparently they married in New Zealand most possiblely in Auckland.

Samuels army discharge certificate also states that he was a shoemaker by trade. I dont know if he learnt this trade in the army or brought it with him when he originally joined in 1842. However, he continued to make and sell shoe and boots for the next forty-odd years though unproven it is sure that Samuel was employed in his profession of shoe making during his N.Z. civilian stay.





LIFE IN SYDNEY. 1850 - 1859

Samuel and Jane arrived in Sydney by 1853 as their first child, Samuel Joseph was born here in 1853. The government birth record was difficult to uncover as the surname had been registrated as Cahill and an error was also shown on their second baby, Anne J who arrived in 1855, where the last name is recorded as "Carr".

I would not image that Samuel had enough finance to open a new business when he arrived from Auckland. He was surviving on a Army pension so, logically, he would have sort employment in his own profession. Within a few years he was able to fullfil his ambition to look for a place to live and operate his own bootmaking business.


Sydney was going through a very rapid change when they arrived. Sydney Cove had been developed with the Circular Quay area finished in the late 1840s with the area around Bridge to Alfred Streets cleaned & reclaimed. The larger ships were now able to berth and discharge their goods directly onto the Quay. The Cove was packed with shipping ranging from the whale & seal hunters to the barques bringing goods & gold-seeking passengers & migrants that were hoping to find their fortunes in this land of opportunity. Samuel & Jane were here to start a new life and they didnt take long to find their niche in Sydney.

Samuel had his trade and he had to find the right area to start his business. Why not in the busiest part of Sydney Town.

Let me insert an extract from Geoffrey Scotts book
Sydneys Highways of History and The Rocks Chapter:

It was a bustling, colourful area, with parrots & cockatoos in cages before the shop doors, the street crowded with sailors jingling Spanish dollars earned from months at sea on whaling & sealing voyages, the myriad creaking inn signs- the Crooked Billet, Rose of Australia, Three Jolly Sailors and World Turnd Upside Down- and the present hotel on the corner of George & Globe Streets, built in 1840 which is still there today in beautiful condition.

In the 1850s this part of George Street was the first Chinatown in Sydney Town.

"The Chinese were knowm as "celestials" and most were small shopkeepers and men of the Fukien Province who had come from the goldfields. There were also Chinese laundries, fan-tan and pack-a- poo was played and opium existed in dark corners. Chinatown in the Rocks existed between 1850 - 1860."

All these factors contributed to the deafening noise of the bawling, scuffling, knife-branding hubbub in the area. Jugglers, dancers & peddlers stopped the thoroughfare all shouting at the top of their voices & trying to carry off strangers by force into their hops and stalls. The smell of cook-shops and joss sticks filled the air, mysterious sun-dried edibles dangled in the windows.


This was the district with its unique atmosphere that Samuel & Jane decided to move their business and family from King Street.

The Sands Directory of 1857 and the City of Sydney Archives record of 1858 states that a Samuel Kerr operated a boot & shoe maker shop at 177 George Street between Essex Street & Brown Bear Lane (near present Alfred Street). The single storey building was designed as a shop / home and had 4 rooms and was constructed from wood with an iron roof. A major 5 star hotel now stands on the site.

These three thoroughfares are still part of the area but Brown Bear Lane is not easy to recognise. It is hard against the northern footings of the Cahill Expressway and looks like an alleyway going nowhere, Its name plate is in position.

The premises was only a 100 metres from Semi-Circular Quay with unrestricted clear views over the very busy waterfront. He would have lived on the premises. The City of Sydney Archives indicates that a William Long was the owner of the terrace of five Houses and Shops with Samuels being the most northerly one. A remarkable item was that when Samuel moved over the number of years, he often occupied premises owned by Mr Long.

They had little time to settle into when their third child, John, was born in 1857. He sadly died the same year. Hopefully, the arrival of Mary in 1859 was a much happier occasion.

So, at the end of the 1850s Samuel & Jane with Samuel Joseph, aged 6, Anne aged 3 and baby Mary ended in a busy fashion having three young children and their business flourishing at 177 George Street.


1860s.

The family remained at 177 George. The sixties progressed with the next recorded arrival being John Alexander who was born in 1864 in Sydney as were the rest. Frederick William followed two years later but he died in 1867. The family brought a family plot (no. 20785) in the Old Catholic Section, Mortuary 1, Rookwood Cemetery, where Frederick was interned and other family members where buried later.Some stability occurred in 1868 when Sophia arrived.

Research shows that, in the early 60s, this area of George Street was under constant change with both street and building re-construction. The buildings were mainly timber and were being replaced with stone materials.

Samuel was involved with the building upgrade when in 1868 the buildings owner, William Long decided to upgrade 177 to brick. They moved two blocks north and still looking east to 147 George Street, two shops south of Globe Street and north of Brown Bear Lane, Sydney. It is only a 100 metres from Semi-Circular Quay with unrestricted clear views over the very busy waterfront. He would have lived on the premises.

(A modern tourist shopping complex now stands on this site.)

The family only spent a year at 147 before returning to the new premises at 177. The family moved a few doors south to 187 George, near Alfred Street, in 1869 when Essex Street was extended to George Street. The site is now a 5 star Hotel.A much larger premisers of 2 floors and 5 rooms gave more space to t he growing family. Samuel Joseph was 17 and possibly a mature apprentice. He would be a great help to his father in their growing business.

Looking back at this past 10 years reveals a period of turbulence with constant city upgrading resulting in the family moving to new premises on a number of occasions. They now had 4 living children with 3 having died as well.

1870

Samuel's financial situation must have been very fortunate when it is revealled that he purchased three brick houses at 203, 205 and 207 Cumberland Street. He leased them out to tenants.

Another healthy girl whom they called Esther was born in that year with Robert Edward coming in 1872 and Catherine in 1875.

Recently it was found in the Sands Directory that Samuel operated a "bootmaker" business at 75 King Street in 1871. His business at 187 George was described as "P. R.". The King Street address appears to have been very temporary as it did not appear in the 1873 edition of Sands.

Another move occurred in 1875 when a bootmaking shop was opened in 728 George Street in the Haymarket area near Hay Street. Perhaps they found the Rocks too much for the young children and found that Haymarket was better for business. Catherine died and was buried in the family plot at Rookwood in 1875, the year she was born.
The eldest son, Samuel Joseph was married in 1878 to Anne Agnes McCarthy in Sydney. The next year saw the arrival of the first of their two children. Catherine Esther, probably named after two of Samuel Josephs sisters were remembered. It seems that the main branch of the family were keen to return to the Rocks. In 1882, Samuel branched out to a new enterprise of furniture making at 187, 189 and 191 Cumberland Street. The premises were listed as a furniture warehouse in 1885 to 1888. Number 187 was the shop, 189 housed Samuel & family whilst 191 was leased to a Richard Penfold. This group of properties was listed over the next few years with 1891 revelling that they were owned by Samuel but leased out. By 1911 the western side of Cumberland Street was resumed by the State Government for future use.

His bootmaking store at 187 George Street was still operating in 1889.


CHILDREN EDUCATION IN THE ROCKS

BEING PREPARED AT THIS TIME.


1880s

Samuel continued with his busy attitude in the 1880s. His boot warehouse at 728 George was still operating when his name appeared At 92 Miller Street, Victoria, now known as North Sydney, as a boot and shoe maker. And his name also was in the news in seveal domestic places on the lower North Shore. Samuel Joseph was listed at 728 George Street so Samuel was free to venture elsewhere.

The 187 to 191 Cumberland Street properties was still being leasted.

At the start of this decade in 1882, there was a small but significant change in Samuel's attitute. For thirty years, Samuel had operated his boot business in The Rocks and Haymarket. However, in 1882 he opened a shoe business at 92 Miller Street, Victoria, now named North Sydney and it was only a few metres north of the present Pacific Highway. I believe he placed Samuel Joseph to run his George Street business.

Samuel also moved into a number of dwelling on the lower North Shore inckluding Neutral Street, Neutral Bay and Falconer Street, St Leonards. It's unsure how long his Miller Street business ran but living local removed the busy drag across the Harbour each work day.

The Sands Directory recorded John Alexander as living in Underwood Street Paddington in 1885.


1890 THE PADDINGTON CONNECTION.

By this time, Samuel was in his late 60s. He had a very successful business going and two sons, Samuel Joseph and Robert Edward to help out. John Alexander, I believe, was an accountant but still a great asset to his father.. But he eventually retired and moved in Paddington. He tried a couple of homes in the area including a few years at 81 Point Piper Road, Paddington and then Windsor Street, also Paddington. He must have liked the area as he finally settled at 83 Paddington Street, adjacent to Elizabeth Street. The remaining family would have joined Samuel at no. 83.

Another marriage occurred with Sophia wedding Henry J Reynolds in Woollahra in 1893. Robert A.J was born to the couple in 1895 and Florence E.J. in 1899.

Samuel Joseph and Annie had been living in the Erskinville area. However, for some reason yet unfounded he moved to 55 Kent Street in 1893. Their elder Daughter, Catherine Esther married Henry Doohan in 1895 and had 4 children by Samuel's death - Annie, Henry Samuel, Eleanor and Hugh. Their younger daughter was unmarried but was to wed John Griffin in 1908.

I was told by my mother that Robert Edward, being the youngest son and not the heir to the business looked elsewhere about this time. Gold had been found in Halls Creek, Western Australia in 1885 and in Coolgardie in 1891. Robert, unmarried and in his 20 years, took off to find his own fortune. He sailed to the west with a gold sovereign that his mother had sewn in his coat. It came in handy during his hard times on the gold-fields around Kalgoorlie. He returned to Paddington unsuccessful where he met Anna Elizabeth Robson, the eldest daughter of the local police constable who lived around the corner in 53 Elizabeth Street, Paddington. Her mother, Margaret McAdam, came from Derrycorr, Tartaraghan Parish, County Amargh in Northern Ireland and is not far from Roberts fathers home county of Fermanagh. (Derrycorr is a small village about 10 miles north-west of Portadown). (The premises at 53 Elizabeth Street in Paddington is now being upgraded).

Unfortunately, Mother Jane died in Paddington in October, 1896 and she was buried with her two children, John Samuel and Catherine, at Rookwood cemetery. She was 61 years of age. There was still Samuel Senior, John Alexander, Robert Edward, Sophia and Esther living in the Underwood house.

Recently , Luke Alexander Quoyle, a Great Grandson of John Alexander has put a lot of light on John's marriage and the Kerr's association with his brides family. It is still early days but it appears the two families had some contact for a number of years pior to the wedding of their respective off-springs. The girl's parents were Carl Carlson and Catherine Gallagher. Carl was born in Borgholm on the Island of Oland near the coastal town of Pataholm, Sweden and Catherine from County Donegal, Ireland. They were successful business family and lived at "Carlson House" 270 Glebe Point Road, Glebe.

John Alexander had moved to 106 Broughton Street, Glebe in the last period of the century and had married Catherine Carlson at St. Patricks, Church Hill in 1899. A little time after their wedding they moved to 'Carlson House" to join Annie's parents.

Robert married his Anna Elizabeth on the 22 September, 1899 in Paddington but I am unsure if it was the Catholic or Church of England church. (Samuel was a Catholic and John Robson a Church of England). But Im betting it was the Catholic Church when you realise that all their future girls were baptised in the Catholic religion.


Robert and Anna moved to Newtown where they used their shopkeeping skills by opening a draper shop in 196 Enmore Road, Newtown.
Children soon followed with Robert & Anna opening the account with the first of their seven daughters, Florenda Doris on 13 March 1900. Florenda was probably named after one of Anna sisters who had died as a baby in 1874. Her Auntie Sophia was choosen as her Godmother.


Florenda and Carl were to remain firm friends throughout their lives.




A NEW CENTURY 1901. SAMUEL'S PASSING ana

The new decade started well with John Alexander and Anne producing a son, Carl Vincent. They had moved to live with Anne's parents at Glen Point Road. Mamie Roberta Kerr arrived on the 30 March, 1903 to Robert Edward and Anne Elizabeth with John and Anne completing the trio with Annie also in 1903. Florenda Doris and Carl Vincent were to remain firm friends throughout their lives.

The end of the era is apparent with the death of Samuel in Paddington on 6 July, 1903 at his home in 83 Paddington Street, Paddington. He joined his wife and two children in the family grave in the Old Catholic Mortuary Cemetery, Rookwood on the 6 September. His life of 81 years had seen many changes covering the hardships in Northern Ireland as a Catholic, the perils of the Maori Wars and the build-up of the successful business during those changing years in mid century Sydney.


He left Samuel Joseph, 49, Annie, 47, John Alexander, 38, Sophia, 32, Robert Edward, 29, with nine grandchildren. He has spent 8 years in NZ and 51 years in NSW.

Samuel left his remaining family with the properties at Paddington Street and 187, 189 and 191 Cumberland Street.


IN CONCLUSION: THE KERR'S HERITAGE

Ever since I could remember, I considered Robert Edward Kerr, my grandfather, to be a 100% Scot. His looks, manner with the soft approach pointed in that direction. What really made my mind up was his family Lounge Room which was fully of Scottish decorations including a number of large oil painting of the Scottish Hi-lands.

And his surname was KERR.

His wife, Anne Elizabeth heritage was Northern Ireland so she had no influenze with the room.

Then my research found that he was born in Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. That completely destroyed the image that I had carried since my youth.

Later, further research revelled that his father, Samuel, was a sergeant in a British regiment stationed in Fermanagh. Since then I have been trying to find some of Samuel Senior details with no result.

But, at least, I now have my faith restored knowing that my Kerr heritage does lead back to the Glens and Hi-lands of that wonderful country.

Robert Dumbrell






STATEMENT WRT SAMUELS DEATH CERTIFICATE.

Date of Death 6 July, 1903

Age at death 79

Time in Colony 51 years NSW, 8 years NZ.

Children of Marriage Living

Samuel Joseph 49,
Annie J 47
Mary 44
John Alexander 35
Sophia 34
Esther 31
Robert Edward 29

2 Males, 3 Females deceased.

A NEW BEGINNING. The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the...

A NEW BEGINNING.


The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the Illawarra.


Compiled and edited by Robert Dumbrell Email : robertd9@bigpond.net.au

Part 3 of 4 parts : 2 July, 2008


INTRODUCTION :
This draft document, number three in a series, is a record of my great grandfather, William Dumbrell who left Sussex in 1843 and arrived in Sydney in February, 1844. Ken Brown of Chatswood, NSW, contributed the original document with additions by the editor.
This document follows Dumbrell Origins by Ken Brown and Dumbrells in Lewes by the Editor.

EARLY DAYS IN SUSSEX.

William Dumbrell was born in Lewes, East Sussex on 24th May 1815 to Richard and Jane. He was a carpenter by trade. His siblings were Francis (b 1803), Jane (b 1805) George (b 1809), Sarah (b 1811), Edmund (b 1813) and Martha (b 1818). All except Francis and George were christened in All Saints Church, Lewes. Francis and George were christened at St. Michaels, Lewes.

William's father, Richard, a master cooper, was born in Lewes in 1782. William's mother, Jane Myles, was born about 1785, probably in Lewes. Richard was the 7th child of an older William Dumbrell, born about 1742 in Lewes whose wife, Catharina probably was a Huguenot like William. They were married in Lewes on May 2, 1803 at All Saints Church.

About 1830 Richard arranged for his son William to be apprenticed as a carpenter & joiner. This was a seven-year apprenticeship. It was customary for an apprentice to leave his master on completing his servitude. William left Lewes to work as a tradesman and reappeared in Brighton where he married Henrietta Grayling in St Nicolas Church on 17 March, 1839 This lady died shortly after the marriage believingly of child birth & this tragedy seems to have caused William to decide to emigrate to Australia.

Henrietta was born in Lewes on 20 July 1810 and was nearly 5 years older than William.
Her parents, William and Sarah, nee Ellis, had 6 children, four being daughters.

England was then in the grip of a depression and had a large unemployment problem. With resources under stress the government had to find a way to relieve the pressure of this situation. They saw depopulation as a means to this end and with the Australian colonys labour shortage, a solution was found. They encourage migration to the colonies. The Bounty migration Programme was instituted. (See later in this document).

1843 : THE VOYAGE TO SYDNEY

William migrated to Sydney in 1843 & sailed on the Barque "Neptune" a bounty migrant. The ship sailed from Deptford, on the Thames near London's docklands with the British passengers & called at Cork, Ireland to pick up the Irish passengers. It left Cork on 26th October, 1843 with 294 passengers including crew & a surgeon, John Birwhistle .
The voyage took 110 days out of Cork & appears to have been a good passage for those days. The passengers consisted of free paying, & single male / single female / family bounty passengers. In charge was Master W.I. Ferris. (Contact Editor for his Report )

On board was Harriett Dearling, aged 20, from Wotton near Dorking, Surrey. She was travelling with her sister, Rebecca Knight who was aged 24. Rebecca had her two children from a first marriage with her as well as her second husband, George Knight with his four children from his previous marriages. The eldest was Joseph, aged 16. The Knights also were giving official protection to an 18-year-old London girl named Elizabeth Ann Couch, whose parents were deceased. Harriet was to marry William in Sydney in 1847.

Rebecca had married, firstly, a William Gregory in 1837 at Mickleham in Surrey and two children were born. Rebecca then married George Knight, a carpenter, in 1842 at Peckham, Surrey. George's first wife, Mary Ann Bassett, had died after producing six children. Only four of George's children accompanied them to Sydney as two had died as infants in the U.K. Five of the children were aged between three and twelve years

Harriett's motivation to immigrate to Australia must have been due to the previous death of her parents in 1842, marriage of her sisters and brothers and the impending departure of Rebecca, her closest relation and friend.

At this time an Englishman and an Englishwoman who had made their home in Australia, influenced their lives. He was Captain Robert Towns (1794-1873), sea captain, ship-owner and merchant, entrepreneur and developer. He also was one of the first to import Kanakas (natives from the Solomon Islands) into Queensland to work in the canfields. He played an leading part in founding Townsville around 1864. She was Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877) whose humanity and guidance helped female pioneers to establish themselves in Australia society.

THE BOUNTY SYSTEM.

The bounty system was developed to encourage migration from UK to the NSW colony. Working conditions had been changing in England for over one hundred years.
The American War of Independence had ended in 1783 but the cost to the U.K. was enormous. Then came the French Revolution and the War with France 1793-1815 which continued the drain on resources. The government opposed emigration at those times, as men were needed for the Army and the Navy and to produce war supplies.

However, after these wars the government was broke and unemployment was high as those ex-servicemen needed jobs and the population began increasing.

Industrialisation increased so that prosperity passed the ordinary labourer by. Bad harvests led to an agricultural depression. The Corn Laws were passed so that food prices rose, wages fell, starvation set in.
Relief for the poor became urgent. In 1834 new Poor Laws led to the rise of Workhouses. The condition of village labourers continued to deteriorate until many reached such a state of despair that they were ready to revolt.

One factor contributing to the economic distress in the counties of southern England, was the decline in the demand for English Southdown wool. This was being ousted from the market by wool from German sheep crossed with Spanish merinos.

This period became so distressing for agricultural labourers and tradesmen that the Parish officials began encouraging them to emigrate to N.S.W.
In NSW there had developed a strong pastoral climate that created an effective economic organisation where the labour shortage was critical.

The Bounty Immigration Scheme was first suggested by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He suggested that:
The system of free land grants should cease and Colonial land should be sold.
The revenue from these sales should be used to boost emigration from the U.K.
Certain conditions should apply to the type of emigrant accepted.
This scheme was gradually adopted. The first set of Bounty Regulations was gazetted by Governor Bourke in October 1835:

The persons accepted should be mechanics tradesmen, or agricultural labourers.
They should have references as to their character from responsible persons, such as the local magistrate or clergyman.
To prove their age they should have Certificates of Baptism.
At first, before 1835, the passage money was advanced to emigrants by the Government, to be paid back out of their salary, but many refused to pay it back, so the Government converted this Loan into a Free Bounty.

Settlers in N.S.W. were allowed to recruit their own workers in the U.K. Most employed agents to do so. The Government also had an Agent-General in London after 1837 and Agents in other embarkation ports.

Under the Bounty Scheme the settler who wanted workers paid the Emigrants' passages. On arrival these workers were examined by a Board appointed by the Governor and, if the Board were satisfied, the settler would be issued with a Certificate entitling him to claim the Bounty money back from the Government.

Complaints from the settlers before 1841 were uncommon. The Bounty was refused on only about 1% of applications, mostly on grounds of age.

This system lasted until 1845.



CHAPTER 2. 1844 : ARRIVAL IN SYDNEY

The Neptune entered in Sydney Harbour on 11th February 1844. Sydney Coves development was nearing completion with only the general cleanup of the whole-reclaimed area between Bridge Street and the harbour yet to finished.

The following excerpt from George Scotts book Sydneys Highways of History details the huge improvement in the new Circular Quay wharf structure.


Before 1840 the shipping and commerce of Sydney had far outstripped the primitive wharfage facilities of the Cove and Tank Stream. Early in 1841 the "clerical Ulysses", the Rev. T. Atkins, counted no less than 120 ships in the harbour when he arrived to begin his missionary labours among the benighted colonists. There were sloops with wheat and maize from the Hawkesbury; there were schooners and brigs loading maize, oranges, flour, clothing, boots, muskets and ironware for Hobart Town and the infant settlement of Port Phillip. The Hunter River Steam Company's little
paddlewheelers, the Rose, Shamrock and Thistle, belched smoke over Darling Harbour. Out in the stream, the big, square-sailed ships rode at anchor after months-long voyages from London, Liverpool, Boston and New York.
Some of the goods were lightered to the anchored ships from wooden jetties built out into the Cove. Sometimes the ship were connected to the jetties by pontoons, over which rumbled the reeking barrels of tallow and whale oil and the wool that had been pressed into bales in cumbersome hand-worked presses on the wharf. Only the smallest boats could lie close to the shore of the Cove, and the mouth of the Tank Stream had become a stinking and useless quagmire. Governor Bourke had long been badgering the Home Government for a com-petent engineer to reorganise the harbour works and defences of Sydney, and eventually he was rewarded by the presence of Colonel George Barney, an army engineer who had served for nearly 20 years in the West Indies.
In February, 1839, 180 convicts shuffled down from the Hyde Park barracks to begin building the stone-walled crescent of Circular Quay. Barney's work transformed the Sydney waterfront. Now the big wool clippers could tie up alongside the wharf itself. Great brick and stone warehouses grew up round the Quay, giving the approach to Sydney from the sea the characteristic appearance that lasted until only a few years ago, when the massive concrete screen of railway and roadway was flung across the quayside, crushing the ferry wharves and Customs House.


Before the passengers and crew left the ship, they were interrogated by custom officers who recorded their details on official immigrant documents. The received their bounty money later.

Williams landing papers show that he was 28 years old, a native of Sussex, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, a carpenter by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds 14 shillings. Another document contained signatures confirming that he was baptised in Lewes, Sussex, certifying his healthy condition and character and finally certifying the correctness in the form by a clergyman.
Harriets papers show that she was 20 years old, a native of Surrey, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, Home Duties by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds and 14 shillings. She would had produced the second document with her Surrey details.
The Knight family was also recorded but had a total increased bounty payment for two adults and four children.

The ship was met by Captain Robert Towns and Caroline Chisholm who were creating a farming colony on land granted to the Wentworth family at Peterborough Estate, now Shellharbour about 80 kilometres south of Sydney. Caroline had previously travelled to England to find 47 families that were willing to join in this development and I believe that William and George Knight & family with Robert Carnall & family were part of this package. They were to be employed as tradesmen to work on his Shellharbour development so a memorandum of agreement was made for William and George, both carpenters and Robert as a stonemason to work for Captain Towns in the Wollongong area, which was founded eight years earlier. They would be paid 17 pounds per annum for approximately three years. Other families on the "Neptune" to go to the Illawarra were the Fishlocks, and George. In early 1843 a system of clearing leases was began by which about 30 acres was given by the large landholders to the immigrate settlers rent free for six years

The Sydney Morning Herald of 7 December, 1843, reported the departure of Chisholm and the 23 families by steamer:

twenty-three families, who are to be located on land near Wollongong on clearing leases, left Sydney by the steamer last night, accompanied by Mrs Chisholm, through whose exertions this arrangement has been made.

The land of 13,060 acres was originally owned by Darcy Wentworth, Towns father-in-law After his death in 1827, his lands were divided among his children, one being Sophia who had married Robert Towns in 1833. Towns had offered 4000 acres of land - part of Peterborough Estate. He also provided rations for the families for the first five months. Chisholm engaged a schoolmaster to open a school and employed three bushman to show the settlers how to clear and crop the land. As clearing lease tenants, the families were given the land rent-free for six years in exchange for clearing the land.

During the tenancy period, a family could also establish a small farm, grow basic crops and raise a few animals. At the end of the lease, tenants could pay rent or purchase the land as it became available. Chisholm later reported that the project was successful so it can be assumed that many of the 23 families remained and became self-supporting. Tenants later shipped their goods from Shellharbour, which soon became a prosperous port.

William with George, his family of four children with Joseph 18 years old and Robert Carnel had arrived after the original migrant families had settled in Shellharbour. They purpose may have been to construct what was known as the Lake House or Peterborough House which was to be occupied by Towns brother-in-law and sister-in-law Stephen Addison and Mary Ann nee Wentworth between 1845 and 1848. They sailed by steamer three months after the earlier tenants and ferried to the shore by oared boat. Even though the area had been populated for a number of years, conditions must have been very harsh for the new arrivals at first. Rebecca's landing papers reveal that she was a nurse so her profession would have been a great advantage to the pioneer settlers in the Shellharbour area. To make things harder for the Knights, Rebeccas next child, John was born there on March 17, 1844. No further children were born in on the estate.

At the same time, Harriet remained in Sydney and on 16 February 1844 found a live-in housekeeper position with Mr William Patten and his wife, Anne at 254 Pitt Street, between King and Market Streets, for fourteen pounds per annum. There is a good chance that Caroline Chisholm arranged this for Harriet. William was a marble mason and operated a store at this address. This appears to been a happy arrangement as the original agreement was for three months but Harriett remained there until her marriage with William in 1847.
Good domestic help from free settlers was in great need in those days as the female convicts that the gentry had used for many years was very unreliable.

William, George and Robert were not part of Captain Towns original tenant scheme so the benefits of that scheme did not apply to them. When their project drew to a conclusion, the three and their families would have considered moving on. Robert turned south to nearby Kiama where he employed in his stonemason activities. Georges young family had live in a very pioneer existence for the last three years and very different to rural Surrey. The family was growing with the eldest child, Joseph aged 18 and John only 3. I believe that they may have looked for an upgrade to the family life.

Not too far away was a progressive township where conditions were much improved and work was available. It was situated on the main road to Sydney and had extra comforts as Churches, better schools, a mill and, of course, a brewery with a hotel. The village was Woodstock that Jamberoo later overgrew. Woodstock was a tiny village a little more than a kilometre north-west of Jamberoo. It was established west of the current Jamberoo Albion Park road and north of the Minnamurra Falls road. On the estate of John Ritchie a flour and timber mill was erected in 1838. The water wheel was operated in the Minnamurra River. The mill had a cooperage, a piggery, a bacon factory and a two-storey barn. Soon the Man of Kent hotel with its own brewery appeared. A little settlement grew up around the mill and brewery with a school near-by. Some time before October 1846, the Knights moved to Jamberoo where Rebecca's next child, Thomas was born on 31st of that month.

Harriet was still in Sydney working and living in the Pattens in Pitt Street. William would have moved to Sydney to do his courting after completing his contract at Wollongong. It is unlikely that Harriet had visited her sister in Shellharbour in that period. The journey was very hazardous as the overland route was via Liverpool, Campbelltown, Appin and Bulli Mountain. The section east of Appin was only a rough track and the descent of Bulli Mountain extremely dangerous. Some years earlier, Governor Bourke had travelled overland to visit Wollongong and when there, had refused to return to Sydney by land instead going by ship.

William and Harriet were married at the St Andrews Church, Sydney on the 5th April, 1847 by Banns by Rev John McGarvie While they were both Episcopalians and would have attended the Church of England, they did not marry in an Anglican church as William had failed to bring his previous marriage certificate or his first wife's death certificate. The Anglicans declined from marrying him but the Presbyterians obliged.

On 21st November 1848, their first son, William was born in Camperdown where they were living and baptised on 31st January 1848. No doubt tiny Harriet, who was only about 4 foot 9 inches (1.46m) tall and William thought little about the number of descendants who would result. At the time of Harriet's death, fifty-two years later, she had forty-two grandchildren and three great grandchildren.

George and Rebecca had moved to Woodstock (Jamberoo) where their new arrivals, Alfred and Franklin were born on 8th February 1848 and 11th August, 1849 respectively.


CHAPTER 3. 1850s : WOODSTOCK, JAMBEROO & KIAMA

There was a very close link between the two families and William and Harriet decided to join the Knights in Woodstock, Harriet to be near her sister and William work association with George.
The big decision was how to travel to Woodstock. Their first born, William was one year old and Harriet was carrying their second, Henry, my grandfather. There were two modes of transport. The hard trek was overland which would take a number of days. The second was by sea to the new port of Kiama then 30 kilometres over Saddleback Mountain to Woodstock.
Lets look at the two options:

OPTION 1 : Overland

The initial journey was by Campbelltown, Appin then west to Bulli Mountain and down the mountain to the growing town of Wollongong and the Illawarra. A rough trip.

W.A.Bayley describes the journey from Wollongong in those days in his book Green Meadows:

T
ravellers in the forties going southward from Wollongong crossed the shallow waters at the mouth of Lake Illawarra, swimming their horses, passed by Shellharbour which was then only a name and reached the Locking Hill, where all drays descending had a wheel locked, and then followed the public road to Turpentine Creek and so to Jamberoo. The farms of settlers flanked the tracks. Occasionally the mouth of Lake Illa-warra was closed and traffic would become more frequent by that route. Settlers took advantage of the mouth of the lake to swim cattle across so that they would not return in those days when fences were few.
The route from Wollongong to Jamberoo through Terry's Meadows at that time was well described by the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, who as a boy was taken to live on a farm at Jamberoo. The journey from Sydney in 1843, he wrote, was made in a "rough cross-benched cart". Her Majesty's mail was thus carried to Wollongong. His father followed on horseback, whilst the furniture and luggage followed in other drays. At Wollongong a change was made to a bullock dray for the journey to Jamberoo. The family sat on sacks stuffed with maize husks whilst "slowly the patient beasts drew us along the seeming lengthening way'. "From Wollongong to Jamberoo the road was a mere dray track through a forest of tropical foliage; gum trees 200 feet or more in height, gigantic indiarubber trees with broad shiny dark green leaves, lofty cabbage palms and many another kind of tree
towered above us so that their tops made a twilight canopy impenetrable to the sunlight, save for an infrequent clearing in the forest made by the settler's axe. Huge lianas, some as thick as a man's arm, hung down snake-like from the trees. Magnificent ferns, clinging to the fork or trunk and branches were pointed out to me.

A very rough journey for most people but more so for Harriet in her condition.

OPTION 2

Port Jackson to Shellharbour or Kiama was about 100 kilometres by sea so the time factor depended on the weather. Then a days trip over Razorback Mountain into Jamberoo Valley and they were there.

WHAT DID THEY DO ? THE EXPECTED.

I expect that this change in life would have been very difficult for Harriet even though she had been raised in the country environment of Wotton, west of Dorking in Surrey. First, she had spent the last five years in the busy growing atmosphere of Sydney Town and then to travel for several days and settle in a small bush town with little comforts compared to Pitt Street. This would have been a great experience.

The area had been settled since the early 1820s and had many village facilities such as Churches, schools and a brewery. Opportunities seemed endless for the Dumbrells. The area was growing quickly with work available for building and cedar getting in the forests.
The sisters and their families were back together and this relationship would last for many years. William's second son, Henry, my grandfather, was born in Woodstock on June 18, 1850.

Note : For detailed information on Woodstock/Jamberoo read W. A. Bayleys book Blue Haven, chapter Tangling Vines.

Also, as my father, Garnet Dumbrell told me, William worked as a local carpenter and a red cedar timber getter in the Jamberoo forests where he spent long periods away from home leaving tiny Harriet to look after the children. The local aborigine tribe would enter their cottage at times to help themselves to household items. Harriet had no way of stopping this practice.

The advent of gold being discovered near Bathurst in 1851 did not appear to disrupt family life as three more sons were born to Harriet and William in Jamberoo in the next few years. Edmund arrived on 10 May, 1852 and the twins, John and George on 2 July, 1854.



CHAPTER 4. THE MOVE TO KIAMA.

1856 was an important year for William and Harriet. First, young John died in Jamberoo and second, the family moved to nearby, coastal Kiama. Perhaps they moved because the Knights had also moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff.

The family settled in "Porters Garden" at Kiama where their first daughter, Jane Myles was born. Their fellow carpenter, Robert Carnell went to live and work in Kiama. He is reputed to have built a few substantial buildings in the town. Perhaps his presence may have influenzas William to move there. Also, William's father, Richard passed away in Sussex, with his mother, Jane already deceased.

Nowra was a quickly growing town with the shipping traffic the main factor. Chains were firstly laid on the harbour bed to allow the securing of a ship for loading and unloading.
The growth of Kiama saw the need to construct a wharf to store and handle freight as trade increased. James & John Colley built a small wharf in 1849 for fifty pounds. In 1853, the farmers & business people formed the Kiama Steam Navigation Company Captain. Charles was sent to Scotland in 1855 to supervise the launching of the S.S. Kiama, a paddle wheel steam, with a keel of 121 feet, beam 20 feet and on the register at 104 tons (carrying capacity). The Kiama arrived in Sydney under sail on 3 April, 1855 having taken 144 days for the passage from Scotland.

William & Harriet would have found Kiama more attractive than the quieter Jamberoo and with the good prospects of on going work and better schooling for the growing family.
(The cedar had disappeared from the forest in this period).

1856 was also an important year for the colony as the first parliament Assembly sat in NSW. Captain Robert Towns was a member of that parliament.
[It is interesting to note that Tom Plunkett and Hugh Nichols, who were in the same district at that time, probably knew the Dumbrells and Knights]

The next few years were happy years for Harriet having her first daughter, Jane Myles and another, Anne Eliza, to arrive in 1858. At this time there were four sons ranging from William aged 10, Henry aged 8, Edmund aged 6 to George aged 4 and the two girls.
However tragedy was around the corner when young Jane died on November 3, 1859.

The 1860s:
The situation was helped with the arrival of Charles Vincent born in Kiama in 1860 but again fate intervened with the death of young Anne Eliza on March 13, 1862. Arthur Frederick was born in 1863 to put the count at 6 living sons, 1 deceased son and 2 deceased daughters.

The Knights had moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff (between 1855-1857) then further south to Milton in the late 1850s where he bought a property. A post office was opened there with the name The Settlement on January 1,1860. George was appointed the first postmaster and suggested that the name be changed to Milton, the name of his own property. The name was immediately changed.
In October of that year, the post office went to Frederick Hall. ( refer to William Bayleys book Shoalhaven, page 79)
George Knight then established a flourmill further south at Ulladulla in 1861. Shortly afterwards they moved north to Bulli with their family of 10 children with George serving as a Methodist local preacher in all parts of the Illawarra. It was here that Rebecca died on 27th June, 1863 and aged only 43. She was buried from the Bulli Temporary Wesleyan Chapel and now lies with George in the Old Wollongong cemetery. Their gravestone is still in very good condition in Cemetery Avenue.

During her 19 years in Australia, Rebecca gave birth to ten children, the youngest being only two years at the time of her death. The two children of her previous marriage (Gregorys) had both left home. All the older children at home were boys. George Knight was then fifty-six. We know the Dumbrells had moved to Sherbrooke by 1867, however, it is very likely that they moved there within a few months of Rebecca's death and before George's next matrimonial move. No doubt, Harriet wished to be near Rebecca's children as soon as possible. As seemed to be the custom in those days, George remarried in just over a year. He wed Anna Philips at Wollongong on 19 June, 1864. George made the seating for the Bulli Methodist church when it opened in 1865 and about 1867 moved to Bulli Mountain, later named Sherbrooke where he opened a sawmill.
As was the case with the two families, William, Harriet and their sons also moved to Bulli Mountains about the same time.



CHAPTER 5. SHERBROOKE : (BULLI MOUNTAIN) LATE 1860s - 1876

William and Harriet must have still detained their pioneer characteristics as the Mountain was only settled at that time and they are stated to be among the original settlers whose names appear on early Parish maps. Other families include the Reeves, Spinks, Loveday, Wales, Blinkco, King, Roberts, Allen, Browns and Campbell and, of course, the Knights. There were 16 families living in the area initially but the numbers grew as time passed on.

It was situated one and a half miles west of the top of Bulli Pass and extending south on both sides of Cataract Creek, it consisted mainly of 40 acres of land-blocks, some settlers buying as many as three 40-acre blocks. A dirt road heading west from the top of Bulli Pass, known as Sherbrooke Road followed a path up steep hills and down dales, through thick virgin forest until a second road branched off and travelled south along the east ridge.

The main three industries that developed in the area were (in this order)
(1) timbergetting and saw-milling.
(2) Fruit and vegetable growing
(3) Bee-keeping and honey production

William purchased two 40-acre blocks, numbered 115 and 118, which straddled the Cataract Creek. Block 115 was on the eastern side of the creek and on Sherbrooke Road just south of the first school that was built in 1869.

George Knight opened a sawmill at Sherbrooke in the late 1860s and a second in the 70s. Some of his sons carried on the work after his death in 1881. There grew to be five families of Knights at Sherbrooke where they actively supported the Union Church there and walked or rode down and up Bulli Pass to participate in the activities of the church at Bulli on Sundays.

Sherbrooke, has always has great natural beauty. Farmlets and orchards were carved out of the rain forest and dense bush. There was the school, later a hotel and soon used as a stop-over for travellers between Sydney and the South Coast. The Cataract River rises there.


The residents of Sherbrooke were genuine pioneers. If a home was needed the men would go into the bush and fell a suitable tree or trees. Then such a work of sawing, chopping, adzing and planing would be done. All the work of loading and transporting would be done with drays and the aid of faithful bullock, frequently a road had to be made to the site of operations. In those days the neighbours who were disengaged would be there bright and early to lend a helping hand. Later on Germans, Norwegians and other nationalities moved into the locality bringing with them new ideas concerning building and painting, so gradually more modern homesteads appeared.
The settlers cultivated acres of fruit trees and grapes. The ground was very fertile. plums grew in abundance. They also had more than a hundred hives of bees.

We had no shops at Sherbrooke. A butcher with his horse and cart appeared periodically, but mostly the established people killed their own meat, and of course, when there was a surplus shared it with their neighbours. Fuel stoves and open fires were used in every home. Kerosene lamps and candles were the only lighting we had.
The Dumbrells property was along the banks of the Cataract River and because of the abundant rainfall they were never short of water. There were no tanks, water for domestic use was collected in large woodencasks.
Sherbrooke was a very hilly place. The cabbage tree palms grew very tall there. Quite a number of the residents plaited the leaves of the palms and made very neat serviceable hats from the strands, which proved a useful shade during the hot summer days.

The road down Bulli pass was very picturesque, but had to be negotiated carefully for some of the bends were difficult to manipulate, but there was no accidents, perhaps because there were no hotels about. The Lookout on the top of the pass is really world renowned, and truly breathtaking. In the early stages of occupancy the residents made the roads to their properties and kept them in repair.


Birds of all kinds and wild animals were plentiful in Sherbrooke and on the Bull Mountain.
Wild animals did not often come near our home. One half starved looking dingo (native dog) once paused at our door fence, but quickly disappeared when shouted at. The people of Sherbrooke had to shut away young calves and goats from the dingoes. There are stories told of Sherbrooke people carrying supplies of meat up Bulli Mountain and being followed by dingoes. The villagers eventually shot, trapped and poisoned the dingoes until they became extinct.
It was here that the last two children were born to Harriet, more boys, Thomas 1867, who later , drove the Sydney-Melbourne Express train and Alfred Sydney on 28 March, 1870, who later developed a successful butchery business on the Pacific Highway, Woonona across from the present-day Woonona RSL Club.
The propertys rich, red volcanic soil could support intensive farming. Being near the edge of the coastal range there was usually good rainfall. To maintain his farm it is likely that William continued with some work as a joiner and builder at Sherbrooke and the Bulli area.

In 1870 Harriet turned 46 and William 55.
William (Junior) was 22 years, Henry 20, Edmund 18, George 16, Charles Vincent 10, Arthur Frederick 7, Thomas 3 and Alfred Sydney only a few months.

The six elder Dumbrell boys seem to be well provided for as they were mostly tall and well built despite their diminutive mother. William often rode down to Bulli probably to work and regularly visited the library. The boys were always anxious to accompany him, as the journey was still an adventure and the scenery spectacular. The four elder sons could be employed on farming on their two sites or helping out in the surrounding farms as the numbers increased.

A factor to be considered at this period of time would be the social life of the Sherbrooke community and the three elder boys, William, Henry and Edmund. In that era, most social activities was centred around the local church .

To tend the religious aspects of Sherbrooke :

Protestant ministers from Bulli, such as Reverend Hugh Walker Taylor, would make the journey up Bulli Pass on Sundays to preach in the sawn slab and shingled roof chapel.
The Rev Taylor would make the arduous trip to Sherbrooke to provide the spiritual needs of the parishioners such as William Dumbrell who was one of the first settlers of the valley and owned two 40 acres properties along Cataract Creek.
William was in his mid 60s when he came to Bulli Mountain in the late 1860s to grow vegetables and fruit, later introducing blackberries that would one day become a major industry in the region.

While at Sherbrooke, William senior heard that Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and a doctor from Sydney had imported blackberry vines. He remembered seeing blackberries in his native Sussex and decided to plant them in Sherbrooke. Of course, the blackberries flourished but an unexpected and far-reaching situation was to result. In a short time the Currawongs, who fly regularly from the coastal strip to the hills and return, found the berries to their liking and unwittingly caused them to spread. It was only a matter of time before the berries could be found through the whole Illawarra district. As children, we picked those blackberries little knowing who started it all. From that simple beginning, the blackberry vines soon developed into a major industry in north Illawarra, suppling the needs of Sydney jam factories and bringing many pickers to the area. A special train was employed to carry the berries to Sydney most nights. The vines were eventually eradicated in the 1940s.

I must include a section of an (2001) email from Andrew Jessups, a descendant of George Dumbrell.

"I've just returned from a holiday in Kiama. Visited the Family History Centre, there. Got the name of a researcher into the history of Sherbrooke where the Dumbrells lived for a while. Sherbrooke doesn't exist anymore but its church, which the early Dumbrells helped build, was moved to a place called Slakey Creek - in a "Grevillea Park".

On inquiring further, I found that Grevillea Park is a new garden development situated behind the Showground at Bulli and opened in late April 2002. The chapel is used as a refreshment centre.

As quoted from its Website:

"The Park has many hundreds of Grevilleas and also a wide range of other natives. Increasingly popular is the rainforest walk at the rear of the Park which loops over Slacky Creek and displays a wealth of indigenous rainforest species. Drinks on sale at the old Sherbrook chapel

"Also, an extract from the Illawarra Mercury of 21 April, 2001 :

The Blincko family moved to Bulli in 1914 from Sherbrook (now Cataract) before the Cataract dam was built. The family, which included five daughters and a number of sons, brought a church from Sherbrook to Bulli - its home now is in the Grevillea Park Gardens"


NOTE : See attachment 1 Sherbrooke : The lost Village by W. A. Bayley

A well as the Church offering the religious aspect to the community, it also offered the social requirements for families and especially the young men and women of the area. There were many church meeting and outings where the two sexes could assemble to have the chance of getting to know their follow churchgoers better. The older Dumbrell lads and their Knight cousins certainly used these function to meet the opposite sex.

Around 1868, when William was in his early 50s, he received severe sunstroke.
The resulting headaches and other discomforts plagued him until his death.
He visited several doctors but nothing could be done to alleviate his problem.

Edmund was the first of the sons to marry (27.1.1874). His wife was Mary Ellen Burless daughter of William Burless and Emmeline Vidler. Mary was born in Gerringong in 1853.

The first grandchild to William and Harriet was Ellen Jane who was born in Wollongong to Edmund and Mary Ellen in 1875.They produced ten children over the next 22 years. For a while they settled on the family farm at Sherbrooke before he became a railway fettler. His family moved west to the Parkes district about 1880.


CHAPTER 6. BULLI : 1875 1900

Death of William senior. 1876 and a new arrival.

In early 1875 William Senior, Harriet and most of the family left Sherbrooke and moved to Bulli, leaving William junior (Bill) to carry on. William was nearly sixty years of age but his health was failing.
At this stage William received a legacy from a Mr Charles Cooke of Guildford, UK, amounting to 100 pounds, a significant sum in those days. On moving to Bulli or shortly before, William built a small house fronting the main road at Bulli. The 100 pounds probably paid for the land and materials and must have been a factor in their decision to move. The house is still intact with some modification.

On 19 July, 1876 William Dumbrell passed away. The sunstroke and possibly the exertion from the rapid construction of the weatherboard cottage may have weakened his heart. Heart trouble had been diagnosed for the previous nine months. Perhaps an additional reason for moving to Bulli was to be nearer a medical practitioner. As there was not yet a church or general cemetery at Bulli, William was buried in Wollongong general cemetery, in the old section. No headstone exists for William and probably never did as particulars for William were also inscribed on Harriet's headstone at Bulli. (see photo attached).


A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.

"Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but alaso to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years."

Edmund and Mary Jane were blessed with a son, William Arthur in July 1876, again born in Wollongong. William senior had died on the 19th July but I am unsure of the date that William Arthur was born.

At the time of William's death, Harriet would have had three or four youngest of-springs living with her. Of the other sons, Bill was 28 and had previously moved to Bulli to work for the mining company. Henry was 26 and George, who took up school teaching was about 22. He was to rise to School principal at Manly High. He would have left home.
Harriett would have had three or four young offsprings living with her
Charles was 16 and possibly working. 13 years old, Arthur later became an engine driver for the NSW railways and drove the "Melbourne Express" from Central. He later lived at Erskineville near where he worked.
Thomas was 9, Alfred Sydney (Sid), the future butcher in Woonona was 6 years.


THE NEXT FEW YEARS.

Harriet was 52 when her husband died but her life was not over. In fact, the next few years would see a tremendous increase in the family numbers with her sons marrying and producing many more grandchildren.

Let's start with 1878.

Edmund and Mary Ann provided the impetus with the arrival of Edmund Charles
There were two marriages that year.
* Henry and William.

Henry married Martha Susannah Organ in Wollongong in 1879 and their first son, Herbert was born there in 1880. The small family moved to Sydney where Henry joined the Sydney Tramway in 1882 as a conductor and retired as a starter in 1914.
Martha's mother was Anne Grover who arrived in Sydney with her brother, Edward from Brighton in Sussex in 1853 aboard the "Meteor" with Edward's wife, Eleanor from Lewes. She married William Henry Organ in Wollongong in 1855.
(Contact Editor for Organ family history)

William Junior (Bill) married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879.. Like Henry, their first child, Arthur Stanley was born in Wollongong in 1880. William and Ann went on to bear 6 children, five of which were girls. William lived all his life in Wollongong / Bulli.
I learnt recently from Ken Brown that Bill was a very good athlete and excelled in running. He won many foot races that were popular in those days and was rewarded with good cash prizes. On one occasion when he had reached a final he found that the first prize wasnt to his liking and he preferred the second prize. As luck or good judgement had it, he finished safely in second place to secure his wanted reward.

Edmund's son, William Arthur died as an infant as a result of croup in Bulli in 1879.

George Knight passed away in 1881 and is buried with Rebecca in the old section at the southern end of Wollongong cemetery. Their headstone is still very legible.

George, our schoolteacher married Mary Ellen Ross in Woonona in 1881 and his first child, George Garnet soon followed when he was born in Maitland in 1882. Seven more children were born in Maitland up to 1894. In 1899 he taught at Ermington public school.

Charles married Mary Bell in Wollongong in 1887. Their first child, Oliver was born in Woonona in 1888. Clara arrived in 1892, Charles in Waterloo in 1897, Wilfred in Helensburgh in 1892 and finally Ivy in Woonona in 1890.
Arthur was to move around during his early life. Perhaps his occupation as a train driver was the reason for this. After wedding Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889, they bore 7 children around NSW including 4 in Sydney
.
Thomas was the last to marry, this being on Boxing day 1892 and he and his wife, Emma, continued on with Harriett and provided for her until her death. She spent some of her time with her sons in Sydney. She had been staying with Arthur at his home in Erskineville when she contracted bronchial pneumonia and pleurisy and died five days later on 24 October, 1900, aged 77. She was buried in St. Augustine's Churchyard, Bulli. (which is behind the church) This churchyard has been reclaimed and turned into a memorial lawn. Her sons erected a headstone for her and William (who was buried at the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli) and this headstone, in good condition, is placed on the southeastern wall of the lawn.
I believe that Harriet & William were removed to Wollongong when the St. Augustines Churchyard was updated. Their grave is yet to be found.

William Dumbrell senior's cottage at Bulli was auctioned exactly one month after Harriets death along with the furniture doubtless made by him years before.

In my research, I obtained a copy of the estate agent's newspaper advertisement stating :-


Notice of House and Furniture.

ESTATE OF LATE W. DUMBRELL, BULLI.

By Public Action, on the Ground

Saturday, 24th November (1900)
at 2 p.m.

Strongly built and Comfortable W.B. Cottage
of ? Rooms and ??? ???? ???. the
allocation of Land with 54 ft Frontage to
Main South Coast Road (next J. Glass's
Store) and 4 chains 5 links depth, suit-
ably divided into garden, poultry yards
etc. Large Underground Tank, Grape
and other vines, out houses very shel-
tered and shaded position. Also, same
time, Household Furniture in Cedar
Drawers, Tables, Chiffonier, Cedar
Clothes Closets, Double and Single
Bedsteads, Chairs, Toilet Wares Etc.

H.F. Cofferell is instructed by the
Trustees to sell the above very
desirable Property, in order to close
the estate.

S. C. Times
*****************************************************************************************************************************



A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.


WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.


Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but also to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years.

*************************************************************************












A Death Report

HARRIETT DUMBRELL.

The pneumonia and pleuraay notwith-standing the constant care and attention of Dr. Trindall of Newtown. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Coffil and Co. of Sydney -- The remains were brought to Bulli.
Harriett Dumbrell (nee) Dearling, died 24th October 1900 aged 77 years.late Mrs. W. Dumbrell -- The announcement of whose death is made in this issue was interred in the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli, on Thursday last in the presence of a large concourse of mourning relatives and friends. The deceased lady arrived in the colony in 1844 and has been a resident of the Illawarra district for the past 53 years. She has left eight sons, 42 grandchildren and three great grandchildren, in addition to an extensive circle of personal Friends to mourn her loss. Mrs. Dumbrell was on a short visit to one of her sons, who resides at Erskineville, when she caught a cold and after an illness of only five days succumbed to a severe attack of bronchial



Sydney Morning Herald -- Obituary

DUMBRELL -- 24 October 1900, at her son's residence, Erskineville, of pneumonia and pleurisy, Harriett Dumbrell, relict of the late William Dumbrell of Bulli, aged 77 years.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------



POSTSCRIPTS

Following the death of Harriet Dumbrell in 1900, the family was as follows :

William :
Married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879. He had 6 children of which 5 were daughters. Living at Main South Coast Road, Bulli. One of the first churchwardens at St. Augustine Church of England, Bulli. A farmer at Bulli.

Henry :
Married to Martha Susanah Organ since 1878 with 5 sons. Living in Forest Lodge, Sydney and working for the Sydney Tramways as a Starter. Aged 50 years.

Edmund :
Was 48 years old. Married Mary Burless at Wollongong in 1874 when he was 22 years old. They had 5 daughters and two sons, one son died in 1879. Living in Parkes and working as a fettler with the government railways.

George :
46 years old and a schoolteacher in Ermington. Married to Mary Ellen Ross since 1881 having eight children including 5 sons. Completed his career as Headmaster at Manly High School.

Charles Vincent:
Was 40 years, married to Mary J with three girls and two sons. Location is unsure but it was either Bulli or Helensburgh

Alfred Sydney :
Was 30 years old, living in Bulli and was working as a butcher and soon owned butchery business on Main Road, Woonona, later continued by his sons.. Married in 1891 to Elizabeth Rebecca Plunkett with six children. More to come.
Her father was Thomas Plunkett. (See Woodstock report)

Arthur Frederick :
Was 37 years of age, living in Erskineville and was a train driver. Drove the Melbourne Express
Married Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889 and had four children. More to come.

Thomas Richard
Was 33 years, living in Bulli with his wife, Emma Collison and four children.










THE END OF AN ERA


Harriets death marked almost 60 years since her arrival in NSW and the Illawarra on 12 February, 1844. Those years had seen a huge change throughout the colony and the Illawarra. William and Harriet had arrived at the end of the convict era and the family had seen the disappearance of the convicts and the chain gangs. They had experienced the pioneer days with the development of the Illawarra, the great migration due to the gold rush in the early 1850s, the birth of responsible government with the colonys self determination also in the 50s.


Harriet had arrived in NSW as a single immigrate but had left

with 42 grandchildren and 3 great-grand children








HARRIET AND WILLIAM, BORN IN ENGLAND, WERE TRUE

PIONEERS OF THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT

William Dumbrell from Lewes, Sussex : A New Beginning

This edition is deleted.

Please open the other edition of "William Dumbrell's "A New Beginning"

A NEW BEGINNING. The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the...

A NEW BEGINNING.


The story of William Dumbrell and his family in the Illawarra.


Compiled and edited by Robert Dumbrell Email : robertd9@bigpond.net.au

Part 3 of 4 parts : 05 January, 2008


INTRODUCTION :
This draft document, number three in a series, is a record of my great grandfather, William Dumbrell who left Sussex in 1843 and arrived in Sydney in February, 1844. Ken Brown of Chatswood, NSW, contributed the original document with additions by the editor.
This document follows Dumbrell Origins by Ken Brown and Dumbrells in Lewes by the Editor.

EARLY DAYS IN SUSSEX.

William Dumbrell was born in Lewes, East Sussex on 24th May 1815 to Richard and Jane. He was a carpenter by trade. His siblings were Francis (b 1803), Jane (b 1805) George (b 1809), Sarah (b 1811), Edmund (b 1813) and Martha (b 1818). All except Francis and George were christened in All Saints Church, Lewes. Francis and George were christened at St. Michaels, Lewes.

William's father, Richard, a master cooper, was born in Lewes in 1782. William's mother, Jane Myles, was born about 1785, probably in Lewes. Richard was the 7th child of an older William Dumbrell, born about 1742 in Lewes whose wife, Catharina probably was a Huguenot like William. They were married in Lewes on May 2, 1803 at All Saints Church.

About 1830 Richard arranged for his son William to be apprenticed as a carpenter & joiner. This was a seven-year apprenticeship. It was customary for an apprentice to leave his master on completing his servitude. William left Lewes to work as a tradesman and reappeared in Brighton where he married Henrietta Grayling in St Nicolas Church on 17 March, 1839 This lady died shortly after the marriage believingly of child birth & this tragedy seems to have caused William to decide to emigrate to Australia.

Henrietta was born in Lewes on 20 July 1810 and was nearly 5 years older than William.
Her parents, William and Sarah, nee Ellis, had 6 children, four being daughters.

England was then in the grip of a depression and had a large unemployment problem. With resources under stress the government had to find a way to relieve the pressure of this situation. They saw depopulation as a means to this end and with the Australian colonys labour shortage, a solution was found. They encourage migration to the colonies. The Bounty migration Programme was instituted. (See later in this document).



1843 : THE VOYAGE TO SYDNEY

William migrated to Sydney in 1843 & sailed on the Barque "Neptune" a bounty migrant. The ship sailed from Deptford, on the Thames near London's docklands with the British passengers & called at Cork, Ireland to pick up the Irish passengers. It left Cork on 26th October, 1843 with 294 passengers including crew & a surgeon, John Birwhistle. The voyage took 110 days out of Cork & appears to have been a good passage for those days. The passengers consisted of free paying, & single male / single female / family bounty passengers. In charge was Master W.I. Ferris. (Contact Editor for his Report )

On board was Harriett Dearling, aged 20, from Wotton near Dorking, Surrey. She was travelling with her sister, Rebecca Knight who was aged 24. Rebecca had her two children from a first marriage with her as well as her second husband, George Knight with his four children from his previous marriages. The eldest was Joseph, aged 16. The Knights also were giving official protection to an 18-year-old London girl named Elizabeth Ann Couch, whose parents were deceased. Harriet was to marry William in Sydney in 1847.

Rebecca had married, firstly, a William Gregory in 1837 at Mickleham in Surrey and two children were born. Rebecca then married George Knight, a carpenter, in 1842 at Peckham, Surrey. George's first wife, Mary Ann Bassett, had died after producing six children. Only four of George's children accompanied them to Sydney as two had died as infants in the U.K. Five of the children were aged between three and twelve years

Harriett's motivation to immigrate to Australia must have been due to the previous death of her parents in 1842, marriage of her sisters and brothers and the impending departure of Rebecca, her closest relation and friend.

At this time an Englishman and an Englishwoman who had made their home in Australia, influenced their lives. He was Captain Robert Towns (1794-1873), sea captain, ship-owner and merchant, entrepreneur and developer. He also was one of the first to import Kanakas (natives from the Solomon Islands) into Queensland to work in the canefields. He played an leading part in founding Townsville around 1864. She was Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877) whose humanity and guidance helped female pioneers to establish themselves in Australia society.

THE BOUNTY SYSTEM.

The bounty system was developed to encourage migration from UK to the NSW colony. Working conditions had been changing in England for over one hundred years.
The American War of Independence had ended in 1783 but the cost to the U.K. was enormous. Then came the French Revolution and the War with France 1793-1815 which continued the drain on resources. The government opposed emigration at those times, as men were needed for the Army and the Navy and to produce war supplies.

However, after these wars the government was broke and unemployment was high as those ex-servicemen needed jobs and the population began increasing.

Industrialisation increased so that prosperity passed the ordinary labourer by. Bad harvests led to an agricultural depression. The Corn Laws were passed so that food prices rose, wages fell, starvation set in.
Relief for the poor became urgent. In 1834 new Poor Laws led to the rise of Workhouses. The condition of village labourers continued to deteriorate until many reached such a state of despair that they were ready to revolt.

One factor contributing to the economic distress in the counties of southern England, was the decline in the demand for English Southdown wool. This was being ousted from the market by wool from German sheep crossed with Spanish merinos.

This period became so distressing for agricultural labourers and tradesmen that the Parish officials began encouraging them to emigrate to N.S.W.
In NSW there had developed a strong pastoral climate that created an effective economic organisation where the labour shortage was critical.

The Bounty Immigration Scheme was first suggested by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. He suggested that:
The system of free land grants should cease and Colonial land should be sold.
The revenue from these sales should be used to boost emigration from the U.K.
Certain conditions should apply to the type of emigrant accepted.
This scheme was gradually adopted. The first set of Bounty Regulations was gazetted by Governor Bourke in October 1835:

The persons accepted should be mechanics tradesmen, or agricultural labourers.
They should have references as to their character from responsible persons, such as the local magistrate or clergyman.
To prove their age they should have Certificates of Baptism.
At first, before 1835, the passage money was advanced to emigrants by the Government, to be paid back out of their salary, but many refused to pay it back, so the Government converted this Loan into a Free Bounty.

Settlers in N.S.W. were allowed to recruit their own workers in the U.K. Most employed agents to do so. The Government also had an Agent-General in London after 1837 and Agents in other embarkation ports.

Under the Bounty Scheme the settler who wanted workers paid the Emigrants' passages. On arrival these workers were examined by a Board appointed by the Governor and, if the Board were satisfied, the settler would be issued with a Certificate entitling him to claim the Bounty money back from the Government.

Complaints from the settlers before 1841 were uncommon. The Bounty was refused on only about 1% of applications, mostly on grounds of age.

This system lasted until 1845.



CHAPTER 2. 1844 : ARRIVAL IN SYDNEY

The Neptune entered in Sydney Harbour on 11th February 1844. Sydney Coves development was nearing completion with only the general cleanup of the whole-reclaimed area between Bridge Street and the harbour yet to finished.

The following excerpt from George Scotts book Sydneys Highways of History details the huge improvement in the new Circular Quay wharf structure.

"Before 1840 the shipping and commerce of Sydney had far outstripped the primitive wharfage facilities of the Cove and Tank Stream. Early in 1841 the "clerical Ulysses", the Rev. T. Atkins, counted no less than 120 ships in the harbour when he arrived to begin his missionary labours among the benighted colonists. There were sloops with wheat and maize from the Hawkesbury; there were schooners and brigs loading maize, oranges, flour, clothing, boots, muskets and ironware for Hobart Town and the infant settlement of Port Phillip. The Hunter River Steam Company's little paddlewheelers, the Rose, Shamrock and Thistle, belched smoke over Darling Harbour. Out in the stream, the big, square-sailed ships rode at anchor after months-long voyages from London, Liverpool, Boston and New York.

Some of the goods were lightered to the anchored ships from wooden jetties built out into the Cove. Sometimes the ship were connected to the jetties by pontoons, over which rumbled the reeking barrels of tallow and whale oil and the wool that had been pressed into bales in cumbersome hand-worked presses on the wharf. Only the smallest boats could lie close to the shore of the Cove, and the mouth of the Tank Stream had become a stinking and useless quagmire. Governor Bourke had long been badgering the Home Government for a com-petent engineer to reorganise the harbour works and defences of Sydney, and eventually he was rewarded by the presence of Colonel George Barney, an army engineer who had served for nearly 20 years in the West Indies.

In February, 1839, 180 convicts shuffled down from the Hyde Park barracks to begin building the stone-walled crescent of Circular Quay. Barney's work transformed the Sydney waterfront. Now the big wool clippers could tie up alongside the wharf itself. Great brick and stone warehouses grew up round the Quay, giving the approach to Sydney from the sea the characteristic appearance that lasted until only a few years ago, when the massive concrete screen of railway and roadway was flung across the quayside, crushing the ferry wharves and Customs House."


Before the passengers and crew left the ship, they were interrogated by custom officers who recorded their details on official immigrant documents. The received their bounty money later.

Williams landing papers show that he was 28 years old, a native of Sussex, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, a carpenter by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds 14 shillings. Another document contained signatures confirming that he was baptised in Lewes, Sussex, certifying his healthy condition and character and finally certifying the correctness in the form by a clergyman.
Harriets papers show that she was 20 years old, a native of Surrey, unmarried, a Protestant, could read and write, Home Duties by calling and received a bounty of 18 pounds and 14 shillings. She would had produced the second document with her Surrey details.
The Knight family was also recorded and had a total increased bounty payment for two adults and four children.

The ship was met by Captain Robert Towns and Caroline Chisholm who were creating a farming colony on land granted to the Wentworth family at Peterborough Estate, now Shellharbour about 80 kilometres south of Sydney. Caroline had previously travelled to England to find 47 families that were willing to join in this development and I believe that William and George Knight & family with Robert Carnall & family were part of this package. They were to be employed as tradesmen to work on his Shellharbour development so a memorandum of agreement was made for William and George, both carpenters and Robert as a stonemason to work for Captain Towns in the Wollongong area, which was founded eight years earlier. They would be paid 17 pounds per annum for approximately three years. Other families on the "Neptune" to go to the Illawarra were the Fishlocks, and George. In early 1843 a system of clearing leases was began by which about 30 acres was given by the large landholders to the immigrate settlers rent free for six years

The Sydney Morning Herald of 7 December, 1843, reported the departure of Chisholm and the 23 families by steamer:

twenty-three families, who are to be located on land near Wollongong on clearing leases, left Sydney by the steamer last night,accompanied by Mrs Chisholm, through whose exertions this arrangement has been made.

The land of 13,060 acres was originally owned by Darcy Wentworth, Towns father-in-law After his death in 1827, his lands were divided among his children, one being Sophia who had married Robert Towns in 1833. Towns had offered 4000 acres of land - part of Peterborough Estate. He also provided rations for the families for the first five months. Chisholm engaged a schoolmaster to open a school and employed three bushman to show the settlers how to clear and crop the land. As clearing lease tenants, the families were given the land rent-free for six years in exchange for clearing the land.

During the tenancy period, a family could also establish a small farm, grow basic crops and raise a few animals. At the end of the lease, tenants could pay rent or purchase the land as it became available. Chisholm later reported that the project was successful so it can be assumed that many of the 23 families remained and became self-supporting. Tenants later shipped their goods from Shellharbour, which soon became a prosperous port.

William with George, his family of four children with Joseph 18 years old and Robert Carnel had arrived after the original migrant families had settled in Shellharbour. They purpose may have been to construct what was known as the Lake House or Peterborough House which was to be occupied by Towns brother-in-law and sister-in-law Stephen Addison and Mary Ann nee Wentworth between 1845 and 1848. They sailed by steamer three months after the earlier tenants and ferried to the shore by oared boat. Even though the area had been populated for a number of years, conditions must have been very harsh for the new arrivals at first. Rebecca's landing papers reveal that she was a nurse so her profession would have been a great advantage to the pioneer settlers in the Shellharbour area. To make things harder for the Knights, Rebeccas next child, John was born there on March 17, 1844. No further children were born to Rebecca & George in on the estate.

At the same time, Harriet remained in Sydney and on 16 February 1844 found a live-in housekeeper position with Mr William Patten and his wife, Anne at 254 - 256 Pitt Street, between King and Market Streets, for fourteen pounds per annum. There is a good chance that Caroline Chisholm arranged this for Harriet. William was a marble mason and operated Australian & Italian Marble Works store at this address. The drawing of this building can be found in Joseph Fowles (1848) publication in 1848 (Plate 30A) Also note the attachment on the opposite page His wife Ann, was also in business operating a Millinery and Dressmaking Establishment at Rochester House, 100 Pitt Street.

The original possibly trial agreement was for Harriet to work for three months. Good domestic help from free settlers was in great need in those days as the female convicts that the gentry had used for many years were very unreliable. Harriet remained with the Pattens through the ordeal of Anns illness and death on 24/5/1845 at the age of 41 years. She was buried in the Parish of Petersham. No records can be traced as to children of the marriage.
William married a second time, to Barbara Brown in 1846.

In the mean time, William, George and Robert were still in the Shellharbour area. They were not part of Captain Towns original tenant scheme so the benefits of that scheme did not apply to them. When their project drew to a conclusion, the three and their families would have considered moving on. Robert turned south to nearby Kiama where he employed in his stonemason activities. Georges young family had live in a very pioneer existence for the last three years and very different to rural Surrey. The family was growing with the eldest child, Joseph aged 18 and John only 3. I believe that they may have looked for an upgrade to the family life.

Not too far away was a progressive township where conditions were much improved and work was available. It was situated on the main road to Sydney and had extra comforts as Churches, better schools, a mill and, of course, a brewery with a hotel. The village was Woodstock that Jamberoo later overgrew. Woodstock was a tiny village a little more than a kilometre north-west of Jamberoo. It was established west of the current Jamberoo Albion Park road and north of the Minnamurra Falls road. On the estate of John Ritchie a flour and timber mill was erected in 1838. The water wheel was operated in the Minnamurra River. The mill had a cooperage, a piggery, a bacon factory and a two-storey barn. Soon the Man of Kent hotel with its own brewery appeared. A little settlement grew up around the mill and brewery with a school near-by. Some time before October 1846, the Knights moved to Jamberoo where Rebecca's next child, Thomas was born on 31st of that month.

Harriet was still in Sydney working and living in the Pattens in Pitt Street. William would have moved to Sydney to do his courting after completing his contract at Wollongong. It is unlikely that Harriet had visited her sister in Shellharbour in that period. The journey was very hazardous as the overland route was via Liverpool, Campbelltown, Appin and Bulli Mountain. The section east of Appin was only a rough track and the descent of Bulli Mountain extremely dangerous. Some years earlier, Governor Bourke had travelled overland to visit Wollongong and when there, had refused to return to Sydney by land instead going by ship.

William and Harriet were married at the St Andrews Church, Sydney on the 5th April, 1847 by Banns by Rev John McGarvie While they were both Episcopalians and would have attended the Church of England, they did not marry in an Anglican church as William had failed to bring his previous marriage certificate or his first wife's death certificate. The Anglicans declined from marrying him but the Presbyterians obliged.

On 21st November 1848, their first son, William was born in Camperdown where they were living and baptised on 31st January 1848. No doubt tiny Harriet, who was only about 4 foot 9 inches (1.46m) tall and William thought little about the number of descendants who would result. At the time of Harriet's death, fifty-two years later, she had forty-two grandchildren and three great grandchildren.

George and Rebecca had moved to Woodstock (Jamberoo) where their new arrivals, Alfred and Franklin were born on 8th February 1848 and 11th August, 1849 respectively.


CHAPTER 3. 1850s : WOODSTOCK, JAMBEROO & KIAMA

There was a very close link between the two families and William and Harriet decided to join the Knights in Woodstock, Harriet to be near her sister and William work association with George.

The big decision was how to travel to Woodstock. Their first born, William was one year old and Harriet was carrying their second, Henry, my grandfather. There were two modes of transport. The hard trek was overland which would take a number of days. The second was by sea to the new port of Kiama then 30 kilometres over Saddleback Mountain to Woodstock.
Lets look at the two options:

OPTION 1 : Overland

The initial journey was by Campbelltown, Appin then west to Bulli Mountain and down the mountain to the growing town of Wollongong and the Illawarra. A rough trip.

W.A.Bayley describes the journey from Wollongong in those days in his book Green Meadows:

"Travellers in the forties going southward from Wollongong crossed the shallow waters at the mouth of Lake Illawarra, swimming their horses, passed by Shellharbour which was then only a name and reached the Locking Hill, where all drays descending had a wheel locked, and then followed the public road to Turpentine Creek and so to Jamberoo. The farms of settlers flanked the tracks. Occasionally the mouth of Lake Illa-warra was closed and traffic would become more frequent by that route. Settlers took advantage of the mouth of the lake to swim cattle across so that they would not return in those days when fences were few.

The route from Wollongong to Jamberoo through Terry's Meadows at that time was well described by the eminent scientist, Professor Huxley, who as a boy was taken to live on a farm at Jamberoo. The journey from Sydney in 1843, he wrote, was made in a "rough cross-benched cart". Her Majesty's mail was thus carried to Wollongong. His father followed on horseback, whilst the furniture and luggage followed in other drays. At Wollongong a change was made to a bullock dray for the journey to Jamberoo. The family sat on sacks stuffed with maize husks whilst "slowly the patient beasts drew us along the seeming lengthening way'. "From Wollongong to Jamberoo the road was a mere dray track through a forest of tropical foliage; gum trees 200 feet or more in height, gigantic indiarubber trees with broad shiny dark green leaves, lofty cabbage palms and many another kind of tree
towered above us so that their tops made a twilight canopy impenetrable to the sunlight, save for an infrequent clearing in the forest made by the settler's axe. Huge lianas, some as thick as a man's arm, hung down snake-like from the trees. Magnificent ferns, clinging to the fork or trunk and branches were pointed out to me."

A very rough journey for most people but more so for Harriet in her condition.

OPTION 2

Port Jackson to Shellharbour or Kiama was about 100 kilometres by sea so the time factor depended on the weather. Then a days trip over Razorback Mountain into Jamberoo Valley and they were there.

WHAT DID THEY DO ? THE EXPECTED.

I expect that this change in life would have been very difficult for Harriet even though she had been raised in the country environment of Wotton, west of Dorking in Surrey. First, she had spent the last five years in the busy growing atmosphere of Sydney Town and then to travel for several days and settle in a small bush town with little comforts compared to Pitt Street. This would have been a great experience.

The area had been settled since the early 1820s and had many village facilities such as Churches, schools and a brewery. Opportunities seemed endless for the Dumbrells. The area was growing quickly with work available for building and cedar getting in the forests.
The sisters and their families were back together and this relationship would last for many years. William's second son, Henry, my grandfather, was born in Woodstock on June 18, 1850.

Note : For detailed information on Woodstock/Jamberoo read W. A. Bayleys book Blue Haven, chapter Tangling Vines.

Also, as my father, Garnet Dumbrell told me, William worked as a local carpenter and a red cedar timber getter in the Jamberoo forests where he spent long periods away from home leaving tiny Harriet to look after the children. The local aborigine tribe would enter their cottage at times to help themselves to household items. Harriet had no way of stopping this practice.

The advent of gold being discovered near Bathurst in 1851 did not appear to disrupt family life as three more sons were born to Harriet and William in Jamberoo in the next few years. Edmund arrived in 1852 and the twins, John and George in 1854.



CHAPTER 4. THE MOVE TO KIAMA.

1856 was an important year for William and Harriet. First, young John died in Jamberoo and second, the family moved to nearby, coastal Kiama. Perhaps they moved because the Knights had also moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff.

The family settled in "Porters Garden" at Kiama where their first daughter, Jane Myles was born. Their fellow carpenter, Robert Carnell went to live and work in Kiama. He is reputed to have built a few substantial buildings in the town. Perhaps his presence may have influenzas William to move there. Also, William's father, Richard passed away in Sussex, with his mother, Jane already deceased.

Nowra was a quickly growing town with the shipping traffic supplied by local Cedar, the main factor. Chains were firstly laid on the harbour bed to allow the securing of a ship for loading and unloading.
The growth of Kiama saw the need to construct a wharf to store and handle freight as trade increased. James & John Colley built a small wharf in 1849 for fifty pounds. In 1853, the farmers & business people formed the Kiama Steam Navigation Company Captain. Charles was sent to Scotland in 1855 to supervise the launching of the S.S. Kiama, a paddle wheel steam, with a keel of 121 feet, beam 20 feet and on the register at 104 tons (carrying capacity). The Kiama arrived in Sydney under sail on 3 April, 1855 having taken 144 days for the passage from Scotland.

William & Harriet would have found Kiama more attractive than the quieter Jamberoo and with the good prospects of on going work and better schooling for the growing family.
(The cedar had disappeared from the forest in this period).

1856 was also an important year for the colony as the first parliament Assembly sat in NSW. Captain Robert Towns was one of the first (quinquennial) appointments to the Legislative Council.

[It is interesting to note that Tom Plunkett and Hugh Nichols, who were in the same district at that time, probably knew the Dumbrells and Knights]

The next few years were happy years for Harriet having her first daughter, Jane Myles and another, Anne Eliza, to arrive in 1858. At this time there were four sons ranging from William aged 10, Henry aged 8, Edmund aged 6 to George aged 4 and the two girls.
However tragedy was around the corner when young Jane died on November 3, 1859.

The 1860s:
The situation was helped with the arrival of Charles Vincent born in Kiama in 1860 but again fate intervened with the death of young Anne Eliza on March 13, 1862. Arthur Frederick was born in 1863 to put the count at 6 living sons, 1 deceased son and 2 deceased daughters.

The Knights had moved from Jamberoo to Jerrawangala, south of the Sussex Inlet turnoff (between 1855-1857) then further south to Milton in the late 1850s where he bought a property. A post office was opened there with the name The Settlement on January 1,1860. George was appointed the first postmaster and suggested that the name be changed to Milton, the name of his own property. The name was immediately changed.
In October of that year, the post office went to Frederick Hall. ( refer to William Bayleys book Shoalhaven, page 79)
George Knight then established a flourmill further south at Ulladulla in 1861. Shortly afterwards they moved north to Bulli with their family of 10 children with George serving as a Methodist local preacher in all parts of the Illawarra. It was here that Rebecca died on 27th June, 1863 and aged only 43. She was buried from the Bulli Temporary Wesleyan Chapel and now lies with George in the Old Wollongong cemetery. Their gravestone is still in very good condition in Cemetery Avenue.

During her 19 years in Australia, Rebecca gave birth to ten children, the youngest being only two years at the time of her death. The two children of her previous marriage (Gregorys) had both left home. All the older children at home were boys. George Knight was then fifty-six. We know the Dumbrells had moved to Sherbrooke by 1867, however, it is very likely that they moved there within a few months of Rebecca's death and before George's next matrimonial move. No doubt, Harriet wished to be near Rebecca's children as soon as possible.As seemed to be the custom in those days, George remarried in just over a year. He wed Anna Philips at Wollongong on 19 June, 1864. George made the seating for the Bulli Methodist church when it opened in 1865 and about 1867 moved to Bulli Mountain, later named Sherbrooke where he opened a sawmill.
As was the case with the two families, William, Harriet and their sons also moved to Bulli Mountains about the same time.


CHAPTER 5. SHERBROOKE : (BULLI MOUNTAIN) LATE 1860s - 1876

William and Harriet must have still detained their pioneer characteristics as the Mountain was only settled at that time and they are stated to be among the original settlers whose names appear on early Parish maps. Other families include the Reeves, Spinks, Loveday, Wales, Blinkco, King, Roberts, Allen, Browns and Campbell and, of course, the Knights. There were 16 families living in the area initially but the numbers grew as time passed on.

It was situated one and a half miles west of the top of Bulli Pass and extending south on both sides of Cataract Creek, it consisted mainly of 40 acres of land-blocks, some settlers buying as many as three 40-acre blocks. A dirt road heading west from the top of Bulli Pass, known as Sherbrooke Road followed a path up steep hills and down dales, through thick virgin forest until a second road branched off and travelled south along the east ridge.

The main three industries that developed in the area were (in this order)
(1) timbergetting and saw-milling.
(2) Fruit and vegetable growing
(3) Bee-keeping and honey production

William purchased two 40-acre blocks, numbered 115 and 118, which straddled the Cataract Creek. Block 115 was on the eastern side of the creek and on Sherbrooke Road just south of the first school that was built in 1869.

George Knight opened a sawmill at Sherbrooke in the late 1860s and a second in the 70s. Some of his sons carried on the work after his death in 1881. There grew to be five families of Knights at Sherbrooke where they actively supported the Union Church there and walked or rode down and up Bulli Pass to participate in the activities of the church at Bulli on Sundays.

Sherbrooke, has always has great natural beauty. Farmlets and orchards were carved out of the rain forest and dense bush. There was the school, later a hotel and soon used as a stop-over for travellers between Sydney and the South Coast. The Cataract River rises there.


The residents of Sherbrooke were genuine pioneers. If a home was needed the men would go into the bush and fell a suitable tree or trees. Then such a work of sawing, chopping, adzing and planing would be done. All the work of loading and transporting would be done with drays and the aid of faithful bullock, frequently a road had to be made to the site of operations. In those days the neighbours who were disengaged would be there bright and early to lend a helping hand. Later on Germans, Norwegians and other nationalities moved into the locality bringing with them new ideas concerning building and painting, so gradually more modern homesteads appeared.
The settlers cultivated acres of fruit trees and grapes. The ground was very fertile. plums grew in abundance. They also had more than a hundred hives of bees.

We had no shops at Sherbrooke. A butcher with his horse and cart appeared periodically, but mostly the established people killed their own meat, and of course, when there was a surplus shared it with their neighbours. Fuel stoves and open fires were used in every home. Kerosene lamps and candles were the only lighting we had.
The Dumbrells property was along the banks of the Cataract River and because of the abundant rainfall they were never short of water. There were no tanks, water for domestic use was collected in large woodencasks.
Sherbrooke was a very hilly place. The cabbage tree palms grew very tall there. Quite a number of the residents plaited the leaves of the palms and made very neat serviceable hats from the strands, which proved a useful shade during the hot summer days.

The road down Bulli pass was very picturesque, but had to be negotiated carefully for some of the bends were difficult to manipulate, but there was no accidents, perhaps because there were no hotels about. The Lookout on the top of the pass is really world renowned, and truly breathtaking. In the early stages of occupancy the residents made the roads to their properties and kept them in repair.


Birds of all kinds and wild animals were plentiful in Sherbrooke and on the Bull Mountain.
Wild animals did not often come near our home. One half starved looking dingo (native dog) once paused at our door fence, but quickly disappeared when shouted at. The people of Sherbrooke had to shut away young calves and goats from the dingoes. There are stories told of Sherbrooke people carrying supplies of meat up Bulli Mountain and being followed by dingoes. The villagers eventually shot, trapped and poisoned the dingoes until they became extinct.
It was here that the last two children were born to Harriet, more boys, Thomas 1867, who later worked drove the Sydney-Melbourne Express train and Alfred Sydney on 28 March, 1870, who later developed a successful butchery business on the Pacific Highway, Woonona across from the present-day Woonona RSL Club.
The propertys rich, red volcanic soil could support intensive farming. Being near the edge of the coastal range there was usually good rainfall. To maintain his farm it is likely that William continued with some work as a joiner and builder at Sherbrooke and the Bulli area.

In 1870 Harriet turned 46 and William 55.
William (Junior) was 22 years, Henry 20, Edmund 18, George 16, Charles Vincent 10, Arthur Frederick 7, Thomas 3 and Alfred Sydney only a few months.

The six elder Dumbrell boys seem to be well provided for as they were mostly tall and well built despite their diminutive mother. William often rode down to Bulli probably to work and regularly visited the library. The boys were always anxious to accompany him, as the journey was still an adventure and the scenery spectacular. The four elder sons could be employed on farming on their two sites or helping out in the surrounding farms as the numbers increased.

A factor to be considered at this period of time would be the social life of the Sherbrooke community and the three elder boys, William, Henry and Edmund. In that era, most social activities was centred around the local church .

To tend the religious aspects of Sherbrooke :

Protestant ministers from Bulli, such as Reverend Hugh Walker Taylor, would make the journey up Bulli Pass on Sundays to preach in the sawn slab and shingled roof chapel.
The Rev Taylor would make the arduous trip to Sherbrooke to provide the spiritual needs of the parishioners such as William Dumbrell who was one of the first settlers of the valley and owned two 40 acres properties along Cataract Creek.
William was in his mid 60s when he came to Bulli Mountain in the late 1860s to grow vegetables and fruit, later introducing blackberries that would one day become a major industry in the region.

While at Sherbrooke, William senior heard that Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and a doctor from Sydney had imported blackberry vines. He remembered seeing blackberries in his native Sussex and decided to plant them in Sherbrooke. Of course, the blackberries flourished but an unexpected and far-reaching situation was to result. In a short time the Currawongs, who fly regularly from the coastal strip to the hills and return, found the berries to their liking and unwittingly caused them to spread. It was only a matter of time before the berries could be found through the whole Illawarra district. As children, we picked those blackberries little knowing who started it all. From that simple beginning, the blackberry vines soon developed into a major industry in north Illawarra, suppling the needs of Sydney jam factories and bringing many pickers to the area. A special train was employed to carry the berries to Sydney most nights. The vines were eventually eradicated in the 1940s.

I must include a section of an (2001) email from Andrew Jessups, a descendant of George Dumbrell.

"I've just returned from a holiday in Kiama. Visited the Family History Centre, there. Got the name of a researcher into the history of Sherbrooke where the Dumbrells lived for a while. Sherbrooke doesn't exist anymore but its church, which the early Dumbrells helped build, was moved to a place called Slakey Creek - in a "Grevillea Park".

On inquiring further, I found that Grevillea Park is a new garden development situated behind the Showground at Bulli and opened in late April, 2002. The chapel is used as a refreshment centre.

As quoted from its Website:

"The Park has many hundreds of Grevilleas and also a wide range of other natives. Increasingly popular is the rainforest walk at the rear of the Park which loops over Slacky Creek and displays a wealth of indigenous rainforest species. Drinks on sale at the old Sherbrook chapel "

Also, an extract from the Illawarra Mercury of 21 April, 2001 :

The Blincko family moved to Bulli in 1914 from Sherbrook (now Cataract) before the Cataract dam was built.The family, which included five daughters and a number of sons, brought a church from Sherbrook to Bulli - its home now is in the Grevillea Park Gardens


NOTE :
See attachment 1 Sherbrooke : The lost Village by W. A. Bayley

A well as the Church offering the religious aspect to the community, it also offered the social requirements for families and especially the young men and women of the area. There were many church meeting and outings where the two sexes could assemble to have the chance of getting to know their follow churchgoers better. The older Dumbrell lads and their Knight cousins certainly used these function to meet the opposite sex.

Around 1868, when William was in his early 50s, he received severe sunstroke. The resulting headaches and other discomforts plagued him until his death.He visited several doctors but nothing could be done to alleviate his problem.

Edmund was the first of the sons to marry (27.1.1874). His wife was Mary Ellen Burless daughter of William Burless and Emmeline Vidler. Mary was born in Gerringong in 1853.

The first grandchild to William and Harriet was Ellen Jane who was born in Wollongong to Edmund and Mary Ellen in 1875.They produced ten children over the next 22 years. For a while they settled on the family farm at Sherbrooke before he became a railway fettler. His family moved west to the Parkes district about 1880.



CHAPTER 6. BULLI : 1875 1900

Death of William senior. 1876 and a new arrival.

In early 1875 William Senior, Harriet and most of the family left Sherbrooke and moved to Bulli, leaving William junior (Bill) to carry on. William was nearly sixty years of age but his health was failing.
At this stage William received a legacy from a Mr Charles Cooke of Guildford, UK, amounting to 100 pounds, a significant sum in those days. On moving to Bulli or shortly before, William built a small house fronting the main road at Bulli. The 100 pounds probably paid for the land and materials and must have been a factor in their decision to move. The house is still intact with some modification.

On 19 July, 1876 William Dumbrell passed away. The sunstroke and possibly the exertion from the rapid construction of the weatherboard cottage may have weakened his heart. Heart trouble had been diagnosed for the previous nine months. Perhaps an additional reason for moving to Bulli was to be nearer a medical practitioner. As there was not yet a church or general cemetery at Bulli, William was buried in Wollongong general cemetery, in the old section. No headstone exists for William and probably never did as particulars for William were also inscribed on Harriet's headstone at Bulli. (see photo attached).


A Death Report from the Illawarra Mercury.
WILLIAM DUMBRELL

The late Mr. William Dumbrell -- our Bulli correspondent supplies us with the following.

"Death has again visited us and taken away from our midst one who may be said to have been an old resident of Bulli. I allude to the late Mr. William Dumbrell who departed this life on Wednesday morning last the 19th instant at his residence here. About thirty-three years ago, the deceased gentleman arrived in this colony, a widower, having lost his first wife just before leaving England. Illawarra became the scene of his first labours in this colony, he being a carpenter and joiner. After residing in this district for some time he moved to Sydney where he married the lady who now survives him. He again returned to Illawarra where he carried on the building business until within eight years of his death when he suffered severely from the effects of a sunstroke.
Although he consulted several medical men respecting that ailment he received no relief from their treatment of his. The deceased was a man of activity and lively disposition and even while suffering the most acute pain he would frequently manifest such cheerfulness that many persons would hardly credit that he was so sorely afflicted as was really that fact. It was the opinion of his medical adviser, however, that within nine months of his death his heart became affected and considered it was that that carried him off at last. The deceased was a man of sterling principle and straight forward action in all respects and it might be said was looked up to as an authority on many questions among his acquaintances . Indeed, his manly straightforwardness not only secured to his many friends but alaso to his enemies. His remains were interned in the Church of England Cemetery at Bulli on Thursday afternoon, the Rev. Dean Ewing officiating on the occasion. Mr Dumbrell was a member of the Church of England and manifested great love for its doctrines through life. As before stated, he leaves a widow and family of eight respectable sons. His age was 61 years."

Edmund and Mary Jane were blessed with a son, William Arthur in July 1876, again born in Wollongong. William senior had died on the 19th July but I am unsure of the date that William Arthur was born.

At the time of William's death, Harriet would have had three or four youngest of-springs living with her. Of the other sons, Bill was 28 and had previously moved to Bulli to work for the mining company. Henry was 26 and George, who took up school teaching was about 22. He was to rise to School principal at Manly High. He would have left home.
Harriett would have had three or four young offsprings living with her. Charles was 16 and possibly working. 13 years old, Arthur later became an engine driver for the NSW railways and drove the "Melbourne Express" from Central. He later lived at Erskineville near where he worked.
Thomas was 9, Alfred Sydney (Sid), the future butcher in Woonona was 6 years.


THE NEXT FEW YEARS.

Harriet was 52 when her husband died but her life was not over. In fact, the next few years would see a tremendous increase in the family numbers with her sons marrying and producing many more grandchildren.

Let's start with 1878.

Edmund and Mary Ann provided the impetus with the arrival of Edmund Charles
There were two marriages that year.
* Henry and William.

Henry married Martha Susannah Organ in Wollongong in 1879 and their first son, Herbert was born there in 1880. The small family moved to Sydney where Henry joined the Sydney Tramway in 1882 as a conductor and retired as a starter in 1914.
Martha's mother was Anne Grover who arrived in Sydney with her brother, Edward from Brighton in Sussex in 1853 aboard the "Meteor" with Edward's wife, Eleanor from Lewes. She married William Henry Organ in Wollongong in 1855.
(Contact Editor for Organ family history)

William Junior (Bill) married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879.. Like Henry, their first child, Arthur Stanley was born in Wollongong in 1880. William and Ann went on to bear 6 children, five of which were girls. William lived all his life in Wollongong / Bulli.
I learnt recently from Ken Brown that Bill was a very good athlete and excelled in running. He won many foot races that were popular in those days and was rewarded with good cash prizes. On one occasion when he had reached a final he found that the first prize wasnt to his liking and he preferred the second prize. As luck or good judgement had it, he finished safely in second place to secure his wanted reward.

Edmund's son, William Arthur died as an infant as a result of croup in Bulli in 1879.

George Knight passed away in 1881 and is buried with Rebecca in the old section at the southern end of Wollongong cemetery. Their headstone is still very legible.

George, our schoolteacher married Mary Ellen Ross in Woonona in 1881 and his first child, George Garnet soon followed when he was born in Maitland in 1882. Seven more children were born in Maitland up to 1894. In 1899 he taught at Ermington public school.

Charles married Mary Bell in Wollongong in 1887. Their first child, Oliver was born in Woonona in 1888. Clara arrived in 1892, Charles in Waterloo in 1897, Wilfred in Helensburgh in 1892 and finally Ivy in Woonona in 1890.
Arthur was to move around during his early life. Perhaps his occupation as a train driver was the reason for this. After wedding Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889, they bore 7 children around NSW including 4 in Sydney
.
Thomas was the last to marry, this being on Boxing day 1892 and he and his wife, Emma, continued on with Harriett and provided for her until her death. She spent some of her time with her sons in Sydney. She had been staying with Arthur at his home in Erskineville when she contracted bronchial pneumonia and pleurisy and died five days later on 24 October, 1900, aged 77. She was buried in St. Augustine's Churchyard, Bulli. (which is behind the church) This churchyard has been reclaimed and turned into a memorial lawn. Her sons erected a headstone for her and William (who was buried at the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli) and this headstone, in good condition, is placed on the southeastern wall of the lawn.
I believe that Harriet & William were removed to Wollongong when the St. Augustines Churchyard was updated. Their grave is yet to be found.

William Dumbrell senior's cottage at Bulli was auctioned exactly one month after Harriets death along with the furniture doubtless made by him years before.

In my research, I obtained a copy of the estate agent's newspaper advertisement stating :-


Notice of House and Furniture.

ESTATE OF LATE W. DUMBRELL, BULLI.

By Public Action, on the Ground

Saturday, 24th November (1900)

at 2 p.m.


Strongly built and Comfortable W.B. Cottage
of ? Rooms and ??? ???? ???. the
allocation of Land with 54 ft Frontage to
Main South Coast Road (next J. Glass's
Store) and 4 chains 5 links depth, suit-
ably divided into garden, poultry yards
etc. Large Underground Tank, Grape
and other vines, out houses very shel-
tered and shaded position. Also, same
time, Household Furniture in Cedar
Drawers, Tables, Chiffonier, Cedar
Clothes Closets, Double and Single
Bedsteads, Chairs, Toilet Wares Etc.

H.F. Cofferell is instructed by the
Trustees to sell the above very
desirable Property, in order to close
the estate.

S. C. Times




A Death Report

HARRIETT DUMBRELL.

The pneumonia and pleuraay notwith-standing the constant care and attention of Dr. Trindall of Newtown. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Coffil and Co. of Sydney -- The remains were brought to Bulli.
Harriett Dumbrell (nee) Dearling, died 24th October 1900 aged 77 years.late Mrs. W. Dumbrell -- The announcement of whose death is made in this issue was interred in the Church of England Cemetery, Bulli, on Thursday last in the presence of a large concourse of mourning relatives and friends. The deceased lady arrived in the colony in 1844 and has been a resident of the Illawarra district for the past 53 years. She has left eight sons, 42 grandchildren and three great grandchildren, in addition to an extensive circle of personal Friends to mourn her loss. Mrs. Dumbrell was on a short visit to one of her sons, who resides at Erskineville, when she caught a cold and after an illness of only five days succumbed to a severe attack of bronchial



Sydney Morning Herald -- Obituary

DUMBRELL -- 24 October 1900, at her son's residence, Erskineville, of pneumonia and pleurisy, Harriett Dumbrell, relict of the late William Dumbrell of Bulli, aged 77 years.




POSTSCRIPTS

Following the death of Harriet Dumbrell in 1900, the family was as follows :

William :
Married Mary Ann Loveday in Kiama in 1879. He had 6 children of which 5 were daughters. Living at Main South Coast Road, Bulli. One of the first churchwardens at St. Augustine Church of England, Bulli. A farmer at Bulli.

Henry :
Married to Martha Susanah Organ since 1878 with 5 sons. Living in Forest Lodge, Sydney and working for the Sydney Tramways as a Starter. Aged 50 years.

Edmund :
Was 48 years old. Married Mary Burless at Wollongong in 1874 when he was 22 years old. They had 5 daughters and two sons, one son died in 1879. Living in Parkes and working as a fettler with the government railways.

George :
46 years old and a schoolteacher in Ermington. Married to Mary Ellen Ross since 1881 having eight children including 5 sons. Completed his career as Headmaster at Manly High School.

Charles Vincent:
Was 40 years, married to Mary J with three girls and two sons. Location is unsure but it was either Bulli or Helensburgh

Alfred Sydney :
Was 30 years old, living in Bulli and was working as a butcher and soon owned butchery business on Main Road, Woonona, later continued by his sons.. Married in 1891 to Elizabeth Rebecca Plunkett with six children. More to come.
Her father was Thomas Plunkett. (See Woodstock report)

Arthur Frederick :
Was 37 years of age, living in Erskineville and was a train driver. Drove the Melbourne Express
Married Margaret Thurston in Wellington in 1889 and had four children. More to come.

Thomas Richard
Was 33 years, living in Bulli with his wife, Emma Collison and four children.


THE END OF AN ERA


Harriets death marked almost 60 years since her arrival in NSW and the Illawarra on 12 February, 1844. Those years had seen a huge change throughout the colony and the Illawarra. William and Harriet had arrived at the end of the convict era and the family had seen the disappearance of the convicts and the chain gangs. They had experienced the pioneer days with the development of the Illawarra, the great migration due to the gold rush in the early 1850s, the birth of responsible government with the colonys self determination also in the 50s.


Harriet had arrived in NSW as a single immigrate but had left with 42 grandchildren and 3 great-grand children



HARRIET AND WILLIAM, BORN IN ENGLAND, WERE TRUE

PIONEERS OF THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT

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